The kitchen was open all the time, but Alex didn't drink - or never had to her knowledge.
You must want more from us; at least knowledge of whom we are and what exactly we do and how we do it.
My point is, lacking knowledge is sometimes safer than possessing it.
Public knowledge noted the arrest resulted from yet another unidentified tip.
His brother was brought in and finally confessed, professing he had no knowledge of Jude's criminal activities.
And he's using that knowledge to his advantage... better disguises, changing his MO, carefully executing his abductions.
There's less time between his killings and he seems to have used his new found knowledge down the road in Arkansas.
We've denied, honestly, we have no information or knowledge whatsoever and frankly, we weren't sure such a person existed.
He never questioned if Julie knowledge presented any kind of threat.
Now that Molly had confessed more knowledge than any of us suspected, I felt obligated to tell Martha the full story before she learned it from overheard conversation or from Molly directly.
I knew she remained frightened and I sensed his knowledge of the apparent closeness of the Delabama killer gave at least a modicum of comfort.
If it is not she I suspect she possesses knowledge of the one I seek, the one who is my target.
However, his knowledge of us, and especially me, was either limited or incorrect.
My stomach knotted with the knowledge this might be our last chance.
She hesitated at the head of the stairs, tormented by the knowledge her father was incapable of mercy towards his daughter, let alone a stranger.
"Common knowledge the war spilled over," the Watcher snapped.
Darkyn gave her the power to seduce without the knowledge on how to turn off its effects, if it was even possible.
The knowledge made her want to scream, knowing she'd spent years blindly letting him talk to her like this and encourage her with pretty words, while he ensured the tumor in her head killed her.
Twice, though the first time is not common knowledge.
Cynthia expressed concern that Fred's newly acquired knowledge that the bone fragment was human might jeopardize his court-imposed decree.
Even if he wasn't directly involved, it's a small high school and booze parties are probably common knowledge.
If Patsy had a destination in mind more specific than Chicago, she didn't share this knowledge with her hitchhiking passenger.
It's not common knowledge yet, Wynn whispered.
There was something else in her gaze, the knowledge that she'd figured out this Deidre wasn't the same one she was yesterday.
And yet, he couldn't deny that Deidre was back or at least, a woman who had the knowledge of the goddess and the body and heart of a human.
Instead, she concentrated on figuring out what knowledge she could about the souls in the lake.
Perhaps it was the knowledge they were safe because of her.
"How?" he asked, hoping this wasn't secret knowledge she hadn't shared with him.
She didn't just have the body of a human and the knowledge of the goddess; she wanted to help him enough that she was willing to overcome her fear.
Desire spiked through him at the knowledge that his mate was in his arms.
The knowledge left him calmer than when he arrived.
To his knowledge, Gabriel never had, and the assassin was not one who would ever allow emotion to cloud his decisions.
Talal says you have no knowledge of our war.
It was his favorite memory, that which preceded his abrupt knowledge of war and the world at large.
And loving him all the more with the increased knowledge.
While she denied any knowledge of her phone number being in Shipton's room, Dean questioned if she was telling the truth.
When you die and go to heaven, you have universal knowledge and understanding.
But Ryland's personal knowledge of her was limited to a couple rolls in the hay a dozen years ago.
The only thing that has changed is your knowledge.
She ached to respond but had to be satisfied with the knowledge he was alive.
He was interested but perplexed about the March date when Byrne was excused from work—without his wife's knowledge.
The Wassermans dragged him along for the ride without the knowledge of their employer.
And how would Nota and associates come by this knowledge in the first place?
It was general knowledge that Lori had been promiscuous in her youth.
She'd figure out his weakness and hold onto that knowledge for when she needed it.
She suspected part of it was the knowledge that Xander—and Sofi—believed her to be Darian's mate.
Darian was left out of whatever secret knowledge they shared.
He would do anything to protect her until that time, for only armed with that knowledge could he hope to rule.
I do not how you do it, but ensure this reaches them without Sirian's knowledge, she whispered.
I know this ally and arranged for her travel without Sirian's knowledge.
I realized too late I should have prepared her more for this day, when she would need the knowledge Sirian has denied her all these years.
Sirian's knowledge of what happened when two demons possessed one host was not one he would dare share.
Stronger than his curiosity was the knowledge that he wanted nothing to do with whatever Jonny was planning, no doubt against the White God, his sworn enemy.
Second obstacle: surviving her first full day in an unfamiliar job working for someone with the uncanny knowledge that she was there for nefarious reasons.
The tiny victory felt good, almost as good as the knowledge that the sexy beast every woman on the planet drooled over wanted her.
To the former he owes his appreciation of exact investigation and a complete knowledge of the aims of science, to the latter an equal admiration for the great circle of ideas which had been diffused by the teaching of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel.
The atomic theory has been of priceless value to chemists, but it has more than once happened in the history of science that a hypothesis, after having been useful in the discovery Present and the co-ordination of knowledge, has been aban- position doned and replaced by one more in harmony with later of the discoveries.
Park himself added much to the knowledge of the upper basin of the Senegal.
Verres may not have been quite so black as he is painted by Cicero, on whose speeches we depend entirely for our knowledge of him, but there can hardly be a doubt that he stood pre-eminent among the worst specimens of Roman provincial governors.
He greatly increased his political information, and also acquired, from the study of the Bible and Shakespeare, a wonderful knowledge of English.
He made great contributions to the knowledge of Saadia, and planned a complete edition of Saadia's works in Arabic and French.
Francis, who had been the early friend of Burke, supplied him with the personal animus against Hastings, and with the knowledge of detail, which he might otherwise have lacked.
In any case the Phoenician settlements are the earliest of which we have any accurate knowledge.
She almost equalled her husband in knowledge, and infinitely excelled him in talent and in tact.
The treaty contained a clause by which Charles was bound to declare himself a Catholic, and with the knowledge of this Ashley, as a stanch Protestant, could not be trusted: In order to blind him and the other Protestant members of the Cabal a sham treaty was arranged in which this clause did not appear, and it was not until a considerable while afterwards that he found out that he had been duped.
This treaty, however, was kept from public knowledge, and Ashley helped Charles to hoodwink parliament by signing a similar treaty on the 2nd of February 1672, which was laid before them as the only one in existence.
He notably enriched our knowledge of curves and surfaces.
In respect cf hospitals and the treatment of the sick his energy and knowledge were of enormous advantage to his country, both in times of peace and of war, and the unrivalled accommodation for medical treatment possessed by Berlin is a standing tribute to his name, which will be perpetuated in one of the largest hospitals of the city.
Even his wit and knowledge of the world were spoiled, and his affected gaiety was touched with sadness, by the odour of falsehood which escaped through every pore of his body."
For during the year that elapsed before he left Swabia (and whilst he sojourned at Neuburg and Ulm), and amidst his geometrical studies, he would fain have gathered some knowledge of the mystical wisdom attributed to the Rosicrucians; but the Invisibles, as they called themselves, kept their secret.
It gives no evidence of science, he remarks, to possess a tolerable knowledge of the Roman tongue, such as once was possessed by the populace of Rome.'
the three applications of our knowledge to the outward world, to the human body, and to the conduct of life.'
" I can say with truth," he writes to the princess Elizabeth, 9 " that the principle which I have always observed in my studies, and which I believe has helped me most to gain what, knowledge I have, has been never to spend beyond a very few hours daily in thoughts which occupy the imagination, and a very few hours yearly in those which occupy the understanding, and to give all the rest of my time to the relaxation of the senses and the repose of the mind."
The mind is not for the sake of knowledge, but knowledge for the sake of the mind.
This is the reassertion of a principle which the middle ages had lost sight of - that knowledge, if it is to have any value, must be intelligence, and not erudition.
In this way we, as it were, bring the causal or primal term and its remotest dependent immediately together, and raise a derivative knowledge into one which is primary and intuitive.
Such are the four points of Cartesian method: (1) Truth requires a clear and distinct conception of its object, excluding all doubt; (2) the objects of knowledge naturally fall into series or groups; (3) in these groups investigation must begin with a simple and indecomposable element, and pass from it to the more complex and relative elements; (4) an exhaustive and immediate grasp of the relations and interconnexion of these elements is necessary for knowledge in the fullest sense of that word.4 " There is no question," he says in anticipation of Locke and Kant, " more important to solve than that of knowing what human knowledge is and how far it extends."
The inquirer will find that the first thing to know is intellect, because on it depends the knowledge of all other things.
Examining next what immediately follows the knowledge of pure intellect, he will pass in review all the other means of knowledge, and will find that they are two (or three), the imagination and the senses (and the memory).
He will therefore devote all his care to examine and distinguish these three means of knowledge; and seeing that truth and error can, properly speaking, be only in the intellect, and that the two other modes of knowledge are only occasions, he will carefully avoid whatever can lead him astray."
It seems impossible to deny that the tendency of his principles and his arguments is mainly in the line of a metaphysical absolute, as the necessary completion and foundation of all being and knowledge.
This theory, he believed, would afford an explanation of every phenomenon whatever, and in nearly every department of knowledge he has given specimens of its power.
The office of reason is to give a true and distinct appreciation of the values of goods and evils; or firm and determinate judgments touching the knowledge of good and evil are our proper arms against the influence of the passions.3 We are free, therefore, through knowledge: ex magna lute in intellectu sequitur magna propensio in voluntate, and omnis peccans est ignorans.
Of the church in Ostia there is no authentic record before the 4th century A.D., though there are several Christian inscriptions of an earlier date; but the first bishop of Ostia of whom we have any certain knowledge dates from A.D.
He held that there were two sources of knowledge - the mysteries of Christian faith and the truths of human reason.
The distinction between these two was made emphatic by Aquinas, who is at pains, especially in his treatise Contra Gentiles, to make it plain that each is a distinct fountain of knowledge, but that revelation is the more important of the two.
Revelation is a source of knowledge, rather than the manifestation in the world of a divine life, and its chief characteristic is that it presents men with mysteries, which are to be believed even when they cannot be understood.
Revelation is a divine source of knowledge, of which Scripture and church tradition are the channels; and he who would rightly v.
understand theology must familiarize himself with Scripture, the teachings of the fathers, and the decisions of councils, in such a way as to be able to make part of himself, as it were, those channels along which this divine knowledge flowed.
Reason and revelation are separate sources of knowledge; and man can put himself in possession of each, because he can bring himself into relation to the church on the one hand, and the system of philosophy, or more strictly Aristotle, on the other.
The conception will be made clearer when it is remembered that Aquinas, taught by the mysterious author of the writings of the pseudo-Dionysius, who so marvellously influenced medieval writers, sometimes spoke of a natural revelation, or of reason as a source of truths in themselves mysterious, and was always accustomed to say that reason as well as revelation contained two kinds of knowledge.
In reason, as in revelation, man can only attain to the lower kind of knowledge; there is a higher kind which we may not hope to reach.
He carefully establishes the necessity of revelation as a source of knowledge, not merely because it aids us in comprehending in a somewhat better way the truths already furnished by reason, as some of the Arabian philosophers and Maimonides had acknowledged, but because it is the absolute source of our knowledge of the mysteries of the Christian faith; and then he lays down the relations to be observed between reason and revelation, between philosophy and theology.
His chief philosophical importance consists in the fact that he was a leader in the attempt to revivify French philosophy by the new thought of Germany, to which he had been introduced by Cousin, but of which he never had more than a second-hand knowledge.
The "immediate object of theological knowledge is the faith of the community," and from this positive religious datum theology constructs a "total view of the world and human life."
This sort of knowledge stands quite apart from that produced by "theoretic" and "disinterested" judgments.
If Ritschl had clearly shown that judgments of value enfold and transform other types of knowledge, just as the "spiritual man" includes and transfigures but does not annihilate the "natural man," then within the compass of this spiritually conditioned knowledge all other knowledge would be seen to have a function and a home.
He had some knowledge of authentic history, and rejected the more marvellous elements of the story.
Of natural history and botany he pretends to no special knowledge.
Albania is perhaps the least-known region in Europe; and though more than a hundred years have passed since Gibbon described it as "a country within sight of Italy, which is less known than the interior of America," but little progress has yet been made towards a scientific knowledge of this interesting land and its inhabitants.
"there is nothing in his remains to show that he possessed any real superiority either of intellect or knowledge, or even any remarkable brilliancy of expression."
For the earlier part he used Widukind's Res gestae Saxonicae, the Annales Quedlinburgenses and other sources; the latter part is the result of personal knowledge.
His knowledge of foreign affairs was, however, peculiarly useful at a juncture when boundary ques tions were the subjects that chiefly attracted public attention.
His knowledge of Roman and foreign law, and the general width of his education, freed him from the danger of relying too exclusively upon narrow precedents, and afforded him a storehouse of principles and illustrations, while the grasp and acuteness of his intellect enabled him to put his judgments in a form which almost always commanded assent.
The limited knowledge which we possess of the original features of the ground within the area of the city makes a reconstruction of the topographical history of the latter a difficult task; and, as a natural result, many irreconcilable theories have been suggested.
Nehemiah mentions a number of places on the eastern hill, including the tomb of David, the positions of which cannot with our present knowledge be fixed with any certainty.
The writings of Josephus give a good idea of the fortifications and buildings of Jerusalem at the time of the siege, and his accurate personal knowledge makes his account worthy of the most careful perusal.
Possessing an immense range of knowledge, he has filled up lacunae in nearly every part of physics, by experiment, by calculation, and by clear accurate thought.
This view ignores that man has ideals of absolute value, truth, beauty, goodness, that he consciously communes with the God who is in all, and through all, and over all, that it is his mind which recognizes the vastness of the universe and thinks its universal law, and that the mind which perceives and conceives cannot be less, but must be greater than the object of its knowledge and thought.
how very small is our actual knowledge of the works of Pheidias.
It is impossible to say who were the first discoverers of Australia, although there is evidence that the Chinese had some knowledge of the continent so far back as the 13th century.
A valuable extension of geographical knowledge had been gained by this circuitous journey of more than Boo m.
The error was discovered, after eighteen years, by the explorations of Mr Babbage and Major Warburton in 1858, while Mr Stuart, about the same time, gained a more complete knowledge of the same district.
By these means, the unknown region of Mid Australia was simultaneously entered from the north, south, east and west, and important additions were made to geographical knowledge.
Giles's journeys added greatly to our knowledge of the characteristics of Western and South Australia, and he was able to bear out the common opinion that the interior of Australia west of 132° E.
The last of which we have any knowledge occurred in 1301, but the island was visited by earthquakes in 1881 and 1883, 1700 lives being lost in the latter year, when the town of Casamicciola on the nort of the island was almost entirely destroyed.
The sources of our knowledge of the country down to the 8th century are Caesar's De Bello Gallico, iv., the history of Velleius Paterculus, ii.
Passing now to typical examples, the beginning must be made with Babylonia, which is also the richest source of our knowledge of the details of the rite.
It is to the collections formed by these baru-priests as a guidance for themselves and as a basis of instruction for those in training for the priesthood that we owe our knowledge of the parts of the liver to which particular attention was directed, of the signs noted, and of the principles guiding the interpretation of the signs.
It but remains to call attention to the fact that the earlier view of the liver as the seat of the soul gave way among many ancient nations to the theory which, reflecting the growth of anatomical knowledge, assigned that function to the heart, while, with the further change which led to placing the seat of soul-life in the brain, an attempt was made to partition the various functions of manifestations of personality among the three organs, brain, heart and liver, the intellectual activity being assigned to the first-named; the higher emotions, as love and courage, to the second; while the liver, once the master of the entire domain of soul-life as understood in antiquity, was degraded to serve as the seat of the lower emotions, such as jealousy, anger and the like.
By the time the third stage, which placed the seat of soul-life in the brain, was reached through the further advance of anatomical knowledge, the religious rites of Greece and Rome were too deeply incrusted to admit of further radical changes, and faith in the gods had already declined too far to bring new elements into the religion.
They are skilful hunters, however, catch fish by in geniously constructed traps, and live almost entirely on jungle-roots of these people is found in Upper Perak, and the members of this clan have acquired some knowledge of the art of planting, &c. They they have been raided by the latter, and many Negritos are to be found in captivity in some of the Malayan villages on the eastern side of the peninsula.
He declared, when answering a complaint that a certain captain in his regiment was a better preacher than fighter, that he who prayed best would fight best, and that he knew nothing could" give the like courage and confidence as the knowledge of God in Christ will."The superiority of these men - more intelligent than the common soldiers, better disciplined, better trained, better armed, excellent horsemen and fighting for a great cause - not only over the other parliamentary troops but over the royalists, was soon observed in battle.
He appointed visitors for the universities and great public schools, and defended the universities from the attacks of the extreme sectaries who clamoured for their abolition, even Clarendon allowing that Oxford "yielded a harvest of extraordinary good and sound knowledge in all parts of learning."
In particular that conception which regarded "ambition" as the guiding motive in his career has been dispelled by a more intimate and accurate knowledge of his life; this shows him to have been very little the creator of his own career, which was largely the result of circumstances outside his control, the influence of past events and of the actions of others, the pressure of the national will, the natural superiority of his own genius.
Before the Antarctic expeditions of 1903-1904 our knowledge of the form of the sea bottom south of 40° S.
The foundations of our knowledge of the relief of the Atlantic basin may be said to have been laid by the work of H.M.S.
Our knowledge of the salinity of waters below the surface is as yet very defective, large areas being still unrepresented by a single observation.
The narrative of this journey, which contained the first accurate knowledge (from scientific observation) regarding the topography and geography of the region, was published by his widow under the title, Narrative of a Residence in Koordistan and on the site of Ancient Nineveh, F&'c. (London, 1836).
At a time when many encyclopedias have capsulated and condensed important knowledge, the 11th edition is generally much more in-depth and thorough on its topics.
As such, it was considered to represent the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th Century.
Others again, like Michaelis and Rosenmiiller, have supposed that the name Cush was applied to tracts of country both in Arabia and in Africa, but the defective condition of the ancient knowledge of countries and peoples, as also the probability of early migrations of "Cushite" tribes (carrying with them their name), will account for the main facts.
Plautus must therefore be regarded as primarily a translator or adapter, so far as our present knowledge goes.
He regarded the world as formed by inferior spirits who are out of harmony with the supreme unity, knowledge of which is the true Gnosis.
Meantime, without his knowledge, his friends procured for him the post of provost of the chapter of Geneva, an honour which reconciled M.
Among recent advances having medical import in our knowledge of the Nematodes, the chief are those dealing with the parasites of the blood.
In matters beyond the knowledge of men, as the guilt or innocence of an alleged wizard or a suspected wife, the ordeal by water was used.
The accused could clear himself by oath where his own knowledge was alone available.
All our knowledge of him is derived from a passionately hostile polemic of Jerome (Adv.
There was no branch of knowledge in which he did not take an absorbing interest, no polite art which he did not cultivate and encourage.
With the development of agricultural knowledge, notable improvements have been effected in the manufacture of oil.
On the 11th a constitution drawn up by a commission of cardinals, without the knowledge of the ministry, was promulgated, a constitution which attempted the impossible task of reconciling the popes temporal power with free institutions.
He terminated the war with Holland in 1674, and from that time maintained a friendly correspondence with William; while in 1677, after two years of tedious negotiations, he overcame all obstacles, and in spite of James's opposition, and without the knowledge of Louis XIV., effected the marriage between William and Mary that was the germ of the Revolution and the Act of Settlement.
He was charged with having encroached to himself royal powers by treating matters of peace and war without the knowledge of the council, with having promoted the raising of a standing army on pretence of a war with France, with having obstructed the assembling of parlia ' Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland, by Sir J.
In Queen Anne's reign, in his old age, he is described as "a gentleman of admirable natural parts, great knowledge and experience in the affairs of his own country, but of no reputation with any party.
It is interesting, in view of his later efforts to spread the knowledge of the Bible among the people, to know that in the capacity of examiner he insisted on a thorough acquaintance with the Holy Scriptures, and rejected several candidates who were deficient in this qualification.
If all knowledge is drawn from experience, statements universal in form are but generalizations, holding within the limits of actual experience, or advanced beyond them at our peril.
The universe exists - or, as otherwise stated, the universe is " contingent " - therefore, even without detailed knowledge of different universes, we can affirm that it must be caused, and in its " Great First Cause " we recognize God.'
So - for this among other reasons - we infer that knowledge has narrow limits, beyond which doubt, or faith, presently begins.
True, Kant refers often to the ideal of a " perceptive " or " intuitive understanding," whose thought would produce the whole of knowledge out of its native contents.
But speculative knowledge breaks down or breaks off at an earlier point.
The only thing which the " Ideas " of " Reason " can do for theoretic knowledge is to exert a " regulative " function.
But we possess knowledge of the physical world and of it alone.
" Things in themselves " - whether defined by Kant, illogically enough, as causes of sensations, or again defined by him as the ultimate realities towards which thought vaguely points - in either case, " things in themselves " are unattainable by any definite knowledge.
So far as a remedy for scepticism is found at all, Kant places it, not within theoretic knowledge, but in moral or " practical " experience.
Pure knowledge, for man, moves among a world of shadows; duty is certain.
Just as our knowledge never can finish its task of reducing world-experience to an intelligible system, so our will is never once able perfectly to obey the law of reason.
But this strong assertion is greatly qualified when Kant recurs to what he considers the least discredited portion of our theoretical knowledge.
It must be carefully distinguished from Kant's " regulative," which refers to knowledge - regulative in contrast to constitutive of knowledge - not to practice.
It has inferior guarantees, as compared with our knowledge of the mechanism of nature.
And, after all, not even our knowledge of the mechanism of nature is a knowledge of reality.
Reason - under conditions of sensation - created the world of (valid) knowledge; Reason created the practical world of duty.
If perfect knowledge be possible for us, it must take, the form of such a system as Hegel offers.
If the world exists purely to be known, and if every other working of reason comes into consideration qua incomplete knowledge, Hegel is right with his sweeping intellectualism.
Used by Kant sceptically of the limitations of reason, dialectic in Hegel becomes constructive; and scepticism itself becomes a stage in knowledge.
The valid or scientific but metaphysically untrustworthy knowledge, to which Kant shut us up, was knowledge of a mechanical universe.
But fuller conceptions of evolution raise further difficulties for intuitionalism in its wonted forms. Knowledge cannot be divided into the two components - immediate certainties, precarious inferences.
Knowledge grows, not by mechanical addition, but by organic transformation.
He admits two sources of knowledge - sensation and refiexion; and God is to him the Great First Cause, especially of our own existence (or of the existence of finite minds).
Or is it simply a reiteration of his sceptical contrast between phenomena and noumena, and of his confinement of (valid) knowledge to the former?
Cicero) of an intuitive or - innate knowledge of God.
There was a new scepticism - at the very least a doctrine of limitation in human knowledge; but in its extremer forms an absolute agnosticism.
Mill complained, 4 " bringing back under the name of belief what they banished as knowledge."
" We have but faith we cannot know, For knowledge is of things we see; " but the moral element which Mansel despised is dominant in Tennyson.
Spencer goes much further in rejection of human knowledge: " The man of science more than any other truly knows that in its ultimate essence nothing can be known.
Granted that, ideally, scientific knowledge ought to be able to demonstrate all truth, is it safe, or humane, for a being who is imperfectly started in the process of knowledge to fling away with scorn those unanalysed promptings and misgivings " Which, be they what they may, Are yet the fountain light of all our day, Are yet a master light of all our seeing.
Gwatkin (Edinburgh: The Knowledge of God) pours out his historical knowledge, and W.
Vergniaud certainly was far superior to him in oratory, but Brissot was quick, eager, impetuous, and a man of wide knowledge.
If our knowledge of the life-histories of these organisms were perfect, their polymorphism would present no difficulties to classification; but unfortunately this is far from being the case.
At present, therefore, classifications of the Hydromedusae have a more or less tentative character, and are liable to revision with increased knowledge of the life-histories of these organisms. Many groups bear at present two names, the one representing the group as defined by polyp-characters, the other as defined by medusa-characters.
In all the abovementioned genera, with the exception of Hydra, the life-cycle is so imperfectly known that their true position cannot be determined in the present state of our knowledge.
As in the Gymnoblastea, the difficulty of uniting the hydroid and medusan systems into one scheme of classification is very great in the present state of our knowledge.
It required for its formation an amount of scientific knowledge which could only be very gradually acquired.
Thus he suggests that man has not eyes of a microscopic delicacy, because he would receive no great advantage from such acute organs, since though adding indefinitely to his speculative knowledge of the physical world they would 1 Yet he leaves open the question whether the Deity has annexed thought to matter as a faculty, or whether it rests on a distinct spiritual principle.
Erasmus Darwin (Zoonomia, 17 94), though a zealous evolutionist, can hardly be said to have made any real advance on his predecessors; and, notwithstanding the fact that Goethe had the advantage of a wide knowledge of morphological facts, and a true insight into their signification, while he threw all the power of a great poet into the expression of his conceptions, it may be questioned whether he supplied the doctrine of evolution with a firmer scientific basis than it already possessed.
Moreover, whatever the value of Goethe's labours in that field, they were not published before 1820, long after evolutionism had taken a new departure from the works of Treviranus and Lamarck - the first of its advocates who were equipped for their task with the needful large and accurate knowledge of the phenomena of life as a whole.
writings of Spencer embody the spirit of Descartes in the knowledge of our own day, and may be regarded as the Principes de la philosophic of the 19th century; while, whatever hesitation may not unfrequently be felt by less daring minds in following Haeckel in many of his speculations, his attempt to systematize the doctrine of evolution and to exhibit its influence as the central thought of modern biology, cannot fail to have a far-reaching influence on the progress of science.
In the then state of knowledge, it appeared that all the species of animals and plants could be arranged in one series, in such a manner that, by insensible gradations, the mineral passed into the plant, the plant into the polype, the polype into the worm, and so, through gradually higher forms of life, to man, at the summit of the animated world.
But, as knowledge advanced, this conception ceased to be tenable in the crude form in which it was first put forward.
Those who were unwilling to accept evolution, without better grounds than such as are offered by Lamarck, and who therefore preferred to suspend their judgment on the question, found in the principle of selective breeding, pursued in all its applications with marvellous knowledge and skill by Darwin, a valid explanation of the occurrence of varieties and races; and they saw clearly that, if the explanation would apply to species, it would not only solve the problem of their evolution, but that it would account for the facts of teleology, as well as for those of morphology; and for the persistence of some forms of life unchanged through long epochs of time, while others undergo comparatively rapid metamorphosis.
In later years the attention of the best palaeontologists has been withdrawn from the hodman's work of making " new species " of fossils, to the scientific task of completing our knowledge of individual species, and tracing out the succession of the forms presented by any given type in time.
The evidence as set out by Darwin has been added to enormously; new knowledge has in many cases altered our conceptions of the mode of the actual process of evolution, and from time to time a varying stress has been laid on what are known as the purely Darwinian factors in the theory.
Authors refer, in the prefaces to their books, to the Great Minster as the source of their knowledge.
This condition of mind can be obtained only by "living conformably to nature," that is to say, one's whole nature, and as a means to that man must cultivate the four chief virtues, each of which has its distinct sphere - wisdom, or the knowledge of good and evil; justice, or the giving to every man his due; fortitude, or the enduring of labour and pain; and temperance, or moderation in all things.
Our first definite knowledge of the Colossian Church dates from the presence of Epaphras in Rome in A.D.
8), according to elemental spirits and not according to Christ, and a higher knowledge due to a mind controlled by the flesh (ii.
It is with a full message that Paul has been entrusted, the message of Christ, who alone can lead to all the riches of fulness of knowledge.
35 is described under another Hebrew word, and refers to ladanum, a fragrant resin produced in Cyprus, and the use of this drug, as well as that of cinnamon and cassia, indicates even at that early period a knowledge of the products of Somaliland, Arabia and the East Indies and the existence of trade between the farther East and Egypt.
In 1694 the apothecaries had increased from 114 to nearly 1000, and many of them, having acquired a knowledge of the uses of medicine, began to prescribe medicines for their customers and to assume the functions of the physician, who retorted in 1697 by establishing dispensaries, where medicines could be procured at their intrinsic value, or at cost price.
They therefore resolved upon the foundation of a voluntary society, under the title of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, " for advancing the knowledge of chemistry and pharmacy, and promoting a uniform system of education for those who should practise the same, also for protecting the collective and individual interests and privileges of all its members, in the event of any hostile attack in parliament or elsewhere."
Chemists in business before the granting of the charter were entitled to join the society as members, but those who wished to join it subsequently could do so only on condition of passing an examination for the purpose of testing their knowledge of pharmacy.
While geographical knowledge of the west was still scanty and the secrets of the tin-trade were still successfully guarded by the seamen of Gades and others who dealt in the metal, the Greeks knew only that tin came to them by sea from the far west, and the idea of tin-producing islands easily arose.
This was not only in itself an important contribution to plant anatomy, but served as the starting-point of a series of researches by Van Tieghem and his pupils, which has considerably advanced our knowledge of the details of histology, and also culminated in the foundation of the doctrine of the stele (Van Tieghem and Douliot, Sur la polystlie, Ann.
First, the knowledge of the details Modero of histology has of course advanced greatly in the Progress 01 direction.
recent years, of Zeiller in France, and Scott, Seward and others in England, has advanced our knowledge of the anatomy of ~fossil plants in an important degree.
As a result of this activity Van Tieghems so-called Stelar theory has been revised and modified in the light of more extended and detailed anatomical and developmental knowledge.
A very considerable body of knowledge relating to this subject already exists, but further work on experimental lines is urgently required to enable us to understand the actual economy of plants growing under different conditions of life and the true relation of the hereditary anatomical characters which form the subject matter of systematic anatomy to those which vary according to the conditions in which the individual plant is placed.
Since about 1880 our knowledge of the species which can enter into such relationships has been materially extended, and the fungal constituents of the Lichens are known to include Basidiomycetes as well as Ascomycetes.
41UT6V, plant), comprises our knowledge of the symptoms, course, causes and remedies of the maladies which threaten the life of plants, or which result in abnormalities of structure that are regarded, whether directly injurious or not to life, as unsightly or undesirable.
Hales (1727I 733) discussed the rotting of wounds, cankers, &c., but much had to be done with the microscope before any real progress was possible, and it is easily intelligible that until the theory of nutrition of the higher plants had been founded by the work of Ingenhouss, Priestley and De Saussure, the way was not even prepared for accurate knowledge of cryptogamic parasites and the diseases they induce.
Still further insight is afforded by our increasing knowledge of the enzymes, and it is to be remarked that both poisons and enzymes are very common in just such parasitic Fungi as induce discolorations, hypertrophies and the death of cellse.g.
When the nature and effect of ecological factors have become more fully understood, it will be possible to dispense with the above artificial classification of factors, and to frame one depending on the action of the various factors; but such a classification is not possible in the present state of knowledge.
This is due to a lack of precise knowledge of the various habitat factors and also of the responses made by plants to these factors.
In the present state of knowledge, however, this can only be done in a very meagre fashion; as the effect of habitat factors on plants is but little understood as yet either by physiologists or ecologists.
Upon our knowledge of its minute structure or cytology, combined with a study of its physiological activities, depends the ultimate solution of all the important problems of nutrition.
Our knowledge of these structures is due mainly to Haberlandt.
In this, as in all morphological inquiries, two lines of investigation have to be followed, the phylogenetic and the ontogenetic. Beginning with its phylogeny, it appears, so far as present knowledge goes, that the differentiation of the shoot of the sporophyte into stem and leaf first occurred in the Pteridophyta; and, in accordance with the views of Bower (Origin of a Land..
Investigations of every kind which have been based on original sources of knowledge may be styled "research," and it may be said that without "research" no authoritative works have been written, no scientific discoveries or inventions made, no theories of any value propounded; but the word also has a somewhat restricted meaning attached to it in current usage.
yA, earth, and yp64&v, to write), the exact and organized knowledge of the distribution of phenomena on the surface of the earth.
The middle ages saw geographical knowledge die out in Christendom, although it retained, through the Arabic translations of Ptolemy, a certain vitality in Islam.
The framework was capable of accommodating itself to new facts, and was indeed far in advance of the knowledge of the period.
Geography appealed to him as a valuable educational discipline, the joint foundation with anthropology of that " knowledge of the world " which was the result of reason and experience.
Political geography has been too often looked on from both sides as a mere summary of guide-book knowledge, useful in the schoolroom, a poor relation of physical geography that it was rarely necessary to recognize.
At the least there should be some consideration of four separate systems of discovery - the Eastern, in which Chinese and Japanese explorers acquired knowledge of the geography of Asia, and felt their way towards Europe and America; the Western, in which the dominant races of the Mexican and South American plateaus extended their knowledge of the American continent before Columbus; the Polynesian, in which the conquering races of the Pacific Islands found their way from group to group; and the Mediterranean.
For some of these we have no certain information, and regarding others the tales narrated in the early records are so hard to reconcile with present knowledge that they are better fitted to be the battle-ground of scholars championing rival theories than the basis of definite history.
From all centres the leading motives of exploration were probably the same - commercial intercourse, warlike operations, whether resulting in conquest or in flight, religious zeal expressed in pilgrimages or missionary journeys, or, from the other side, the avoidance of persecution, and, more particularly in later years, the advancement of knowledge for its own sake.
The Greco-Persian wars had made the remoter parts of Asia Minor more than a name to the Greek geographers before the time of Alexander the Great, but the campaigns of that conqueror from 329 to 325 B.C. opened up the greater Asia to the knowledge of Europe.
The Ptolemies in Egypt showed equal anxiety to extend the bounds of geographical knowledge.
Ptolemy Euergetes (247-222 B.C.) rendered the greatest service to geography by the protection and encouragement of Eratosthenes, whose labours gave the first ap proximate knowledge of the true size of the spherical The .
Roman intercourse with India especially led to the extension of geographical knowledge.
The works of the ancient Greek geographers were translated into Arabic, and starting with a sound basis of theoretical knowledge, exploration once more made progress.
He returned to Europe possessed of a vast store of knowledge respecting the eastern parts of the world, and, being afterwards made a prisoner by the Genoese, he dictated the narrative of his travels during his captivity.
It is from these works that our knowledge of the gallant deeds of the English and other explorers of the Elizabethan age is mainly derived.
The Portuguese, in the early part of the 17th century (1578-1640), were under the dominion of Spain, and their enterprise was to some extent damped; but their missionaries extended geographical knowledge in Africa.
From that time a fleet was despatched every year, and the company's operations greatly increased geographical knowledge of India and the Eastern Archipelago.
There were several early indications of the existence of the great Australian continent, and the Dutch endeavoured to obtain further knowledge concerning the country and its extent; but only its northern and western coasts had been visited before the time of Governor van Diemen.
West Indies from 1599 to 1602, established his historic connexion with Canada, to the geographical knowledge of which he made a very large addition.
The premature death of this illustrious traveller is the more to be lamented because his vast knowledge died with him.
The increasing number of measurements of the height of land in all continents and islands, and the very detailed levellings in those countries which have been thoroughly surveyed, enable the average elevation of the land above sea-level to be fairly estimated, although many vast gaps in accurate knowledge remain, and the estimate is not an exact one.
So far only is it possible to speak with certainty, but it is permissible to take a few steps into the twilight of dawning knowledge and indicate the chief subdivisions which are likely to be established in the great crust-hollow and the great crust-heap. The boundary between these should obviously be the mean surface of the sphere.
While steam has been said to make a ship independent of wind and tide, it is still true that a long voyage even by steam must be planned so as to encounter the least resistance possible from prevailing winds and permanent currents, and this involves the application of oceanographical and meteorological knowledge.
The older navigation by utilizing the power of the wind demands a very intimate knowledge of these conditions, and it is probable that a revival of sailing ships may in the present century vastly increase the importance of the study of maritime meteorology.
The discovery and production of commodities require a knowledge of the distribution of geological formations for mineral products, of the natural distribution, life-conditions and cultivation or breeding of plants and animals and of the labour market.
1715), daughter of John Digby, 3rd earl of Bristol; she was both a beauty and an heiress, and is also famous for her knowledge and love of intrigue.
But in 1496, when the sovereigns again complained that the inquisitors were, without royal knowledge or consent, disposing of the property of the condemned and thus depriving the public revenues of considerable sums, Alexander VI.
That Garrod has so very much advanced the classification of birds is ultimately due to his comprehensive anatomical knowledge and general insight.
Attempts to derive the anacromyodian and the katacromyodian from the diacromyodian condition are easy on paper, but quite hopeless when hampered by the knowledge of anatomical facts and how to use them.
He was one of the first to see that for Biblical exegesis it was necessary to reconstruct the social environment of olden times, and he skilfully applied his practical knowledge of statecraft to the elucidation of the books of Samuel and Kings.
998) was the author of the famous "Letter" (in the form of a Responsum to a question addressed to him by residents in Kairawan), an historical document of the highest value and the foundation of our knowledge of the history of tradition.
As vizier to the Moorish king at Granada, he was not only a patron of learning, but himself a man of wide knowledge and a considerable author.
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