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knighthood

knighthood

knighthood Sentence Examples

  • The order of the Legion of Honor is treated under KNIGHTHOOD AND CHIVALRY.

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  • 1 In several of the writs for distraint of knighthood from Henry III.

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  • It is familiar in the titles, showing the colour of their wands of office, of the gentlemen ushers of the three principal British orders of knighthood, the ushers of the Garter and St Patrick being "Ushers of the Black Rod," and of the Thistle "Green Rod."

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  • Niall Og O'Neill, one of the four kings of Ireland, accepted knighthood from Richard II.

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  • For the modern order of the Golden Fleece, see Knighthood And Chivalry, section Orders of Knighthood.

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  • " The growth of knighthood " (writes Stubbs) " is a subject on which the greatest obscurity prevails ": and, though J.

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  • (now Peterborough), was accepted from Selden to Hallam as an historical fact, and knighthood was supposed, not only to have been known among the Anglo-Saxons, but to have had a distinctively religious character which was contemned by the Norman invaders.

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  • The knights then dressed him in distinctive garments, and they then mounted their horses and rode to the hall where the candidate was to receive knighthood; his future squire was to ride before him bareheaded bearing his sword by the point in its scabbard with his spurs hanging from its hilt.

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  • It is difficult to describe the true spirit and moral influence of knighthood, if only because the ages in which it flourished differed so widely from our own.

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  • Two modes of conferring knighthood appear to have prevailed from a very early period in all countries where chivalry was known.

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  • To distinguished soldiers of the cross the honours and benefits of knighthood could hardly be refused on the ground that they did not possess a sufficient property qualification - of which perhaps they had denuded themselves in order to their equipment for the Holy War.

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  • It was then that the analogy was first detected between the order of knighthood and the order of priesthood, and that an actual union of monachism and chivalry was effected by the establishment of the religious orders of which the Knights Templars and the Knights Hospitallers were the most eminent examples.

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  • The Norwegian order of knighthood of St Olaf was founded in 1847 by Oscar I., king of Sweden and Norway, in memory of this king.

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  • granted them the honour of being the first to receive knighthood at the coronation; this part of the ceremonies being opened by the herald asking in a loud voice "Is no Dalberg present?"

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  • But in 1840 the Order was resuscitated in Austria, where it now exists as a semi-religious knighthood, closely connected with the Habsburgs.

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  • Soon afterwards Brown refused the lieutenant-governorship of Ontario, and on two subsequent occasions the offer of knighthood, devoting himself to the Globe and to a model farm at Bow Park near Brantford.

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  • KNIGHTHOOD and Chivalry.

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  • But in the ordinary course of a chivalrous education the successive conditions of page and squire were passed through in boyhood and youth, and the condition of knighthood was reached in early manhood.

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  • This prince continued the traditions and work of his father in a manner that won the approbation of the local government, and earned for him the distinction of a knighthood of the Order of the Indian Empire and a seat in the legislative council of Bombay.

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  • The grand duke Cosmo I., a genuine statesman, not only restored the university, but instituted the "uffizio dei fossi," or drainage office for the reclamation of marsh lands, and founded the knighthood of St Stephen.

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  • In the same year in which the British Association held its first meeting, Brewster received the honour of knighthood and the decoration of the Guelphic order of Hanover.

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  • He received the supreme honour of the knighthood of the Annunziata from King Humbert in 1898.

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  • This incident suggests two reflections - first that raids or attacks in rear of the " centre of operations " are valueless, however daring, and second that had Zasulich, in his determination to be worthy of his knighthood, concentrated for battle, the presence of the Madritov detachment on the field would have prevented the lamentable and costly misunderstandings of the retreat on Hamatan.

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  • In July 1861 he accepted from Lord Palmerston the office of solicitor-general, a knighthood, and a safe seat for the borough of Richmond in Yorkshire, secured for him through the friendly action of Lord Zetland, and thus began the second spell of Palmer's membership of the House of Commons, which continued till his elevation to the woolsack and the peerage.

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  • For the more important religious as distinguished from the military orders of knighthood or chivalry the reader is referred to the headings ST John Of Jerusalem, Knights Of; Teutonic Knights; and Templars.

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  • 4 But at present the only subject to whom the right of conferring knighthood belongs is the lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and to him it belongs merely by long usage and established custom.

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  • It is not surprising therefore, to find that at least as early as the middle of the 13th century the commercial side of knighthood became very prominent.

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  • In spite of his doctrinal writings - which at the time made no little noise, so that his Compendium of Dogmatic (1760) was confiscated in Sweden, and the knighthood of the North Star was afterwards given him in reparation - it was the natural side of the Bible that really attracted him, and no man did more to introduce the modern method of studying Hebrew antiquity as an integral part of ancient Eastern life.

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  • The same monarch entered Dublin in 1394 with 30,000 bowmen and 4000 cavalry, bringing with him the crown jewels; but after holding a parliament and making much courtly display before the native chieftains, on several of whom he conferred knighthood, he returned to England.

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  • He was given the degree of Doctor of Letters in the university of Calcutta and accepted a knighthood in 1915, but addressed a letter to the Viceroy in 1919, resigning the title as a protest against the methods adopted for the repression of disturbances in the Punjab.

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  • But, by whomsoever conferred, knighthood at one time endowed the recipient with the same status and attributes in every country wherein chivalry was recognized.

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  • in his own case when he received knighthood from the duke of Somerset.

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  • Having obtained the leave of the British government to accept the prince's offer, he received the honour of knighthood from George III., and during eleven years he remained at Munich as minister of war, minister of police, and grand chamberlain to the elector.

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  • In fact, it has become the equivalent of an order of knighthood, the members of which form a brotherhood bound by oath to succour each other at need and to refrain from fighting among themselves.

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  • an ordinance of 1622, confirmed by a proclamation of 1623, for the registration of knights in the college of arms, is rendered applicable to all who should receive knighthood from either the king or any of his lieutenants.

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  • In modern times, however, by certain regulations, made in 1823, and repeated and enlarged in 1855, not only is it provided that the sovereign's permission by royal warrant shall be necessary for the reception by a British subject of any foreign order of knighthood, but further that such permission shall not authorize " the assumption of any style, appellation, rank, precedence, or privilege appertaining to a knight bachelor of the United Kingdom."

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  • Shortly afterwards he received the honour of knighthood and a reward of r000.

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  • The words knight and knighthood are merely the modern forms of the Anglo-Saxon or Old English cniht and cnihthdd.

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  • And it was long after knighthood had acquired its present meaning with us that chivalry was incorporated into our language.

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  • Yet the fact that Harold received knighthood from William of Normandy makes it clear either that Harold was not yet a knight, which in the case of so tried a warrior would imply that " dubbing to knighthood " was not yet known in England even under Edward the Confessor, or, as Freeman thinks, that in the middle of the iith century the custom had grown in Normandy into " something of a more special meaning " than it bore in England.

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  • And thus the conception of knighthood as of something distinct from feudalism both as a social condition and a personal dignity arose and rapidly gained ground.

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  • In like manner the squire and the page were both in training for knighthood, but the first had advanced further in the process than the second.

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  • Every feudal court and castle was in fact a school of chivalry, and although princes and great personages were rarely actually pages or squires, the moral and physical discipline through which they passed was not in any important particular different from that to which less exalted candidates for knighthood were subjected.'

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  • 5 " If we sum up the principal ensigns of knighthood, ancient and modern, we shall find they have been or are a horse, gold ring, shield and lance, a belt and sword, gilt spurs and a gold chain or collar."

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  • Everywhere else dubbing or the accolade seems to have become obsolete, and no other species of knighthood, if knighthood it can be called, is known except that which is dependent on admission to some particular order.

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  • Notwithstanding, however, that simple knighthood has gone out of use abroad, there are innumerable grand crosses, commanders and companions of a formidable assortment of orders in almost every part of the world."

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  • 2 At all periods the commanders of the royal armies had the power of conferring knighthood; as late as the reign of Elizabeth it was exercised among others by Sir Henry Sidney in 1583, and Robert, earl of Essex, in 1595, while under James I.

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  • 5 " If we sum up the principal ensigns of knighthood, ancient and modern, we shall find they have been or are a horse, gold ring, shield and lance, a belt and sword, gilt spurs and a gold chain or collar."

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  • 5 And, long after the military importance of knighthood had practically disappeared, what may be called its cosmopolitan character was maintained: a knight's title was recognized in all European countries, and not only in that country in which he had received it.

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  • 6 Since knighthood was accorded either by actual investiture or its equivalent, a counter process of degradation was regarded Degrada- as necessary for the purpose of depriving anybody tion.

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  • (2) An order of knighthood similar to the Knights of St John, established by Pius II.

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  • His name is not connected with the resistance to the levy of ship-money or to the action of the ecclesiastical courts, but in 1630 he was one of those fined for refusing to take up knighthood.

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  • In the prose Lancelot his education is complete, he knows his name and parentage, though for some unexplained reason he keeps both secret, and he goes with a fitting escort and equipment to Arthur's court to demand knighthood.

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  • Burgesses could buy and possess property in towns, which knights were forbidden to acquire; and though they could not intermarry with the feudal classes, it was easy and regular for a burgess to thrive to knighthood.

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  • In this year Paxton received the honour of knighthood.

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  • Being told that they are knights he determines that he too will be one, and returns to his mother announcing his intention of at once setting forth into the world to seek for knighthood.

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  • The guns constructed on this principle yielded such excellent results, both in range and accuracy, that they were adopted by the British government in 1859, Armstrong himself being appointed engineer of rifled ordnance and receiving the honour of knighthood.

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  • It is true that the squire was a combatant while the page was not, and that many squires voluntarily served as squires all their lives owing to the insufficiency of their fortunes to support the costs and charges of knighthood.

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  • conferring But while in the one the accolade constituted the Knighthood.

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  • But recourse was had to it so rarely that in England about the beginning of the 15th century it came to be exclusively appropriated to a special king of knighthood.

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  • Baronets are not knights unless they are knighted like anybody else; and, so far from being knights because they are baronets, one of the privileges granted to them shortly after the institution of their dignity was that they, not being knights, and their successors and their eldest sons and heirs-apparent should, when they attained their majority, be entitled if they desired to receive knighthood.

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  • It is true that as much might be inferred from Persons the testimony of the romance writers; historical empowered evidence, however, tends to limit the proposition, and to confer the sounder conclusion appears to be, as Sir Harris Knighthood.

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  • Moreover, the same business considerations which dictated those early marriages clashed equally with the strict theory of knighthood.

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  • Moreover, after the knight's liability to personal service in war had been modified in the 12th century by the scutage system, it became necessary in the first quarter of the r3th to compel landowners to take up the knighthood which in theory they should have coveted as an honour - a compulsion which was soon systematically enforced (Distraint of Knighthood, 1278), and became a recognized source of royal income.

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  • 3 This rule, however, had often been broken before; even the romances of chivalry speak not infrequently of the knighting of serfs or jongleurs; 4 and other causes besides distraint of knighthood tended to level the old distinctions.

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  • While knighthood was avoided by poor nobles, it was coveted by rich citizens.

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  • It is recorded in 1298 as " an immemorial custom " in Provence that rich burghers enjoyed the honour of knighthood; and less than a century later we find Sacchetti complaining that the dignity is open to any rich upstart, however disreputable his antecedents.

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  • But in England knighthood has always been conferred to a great extent independently of these considerations.

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  • Ashmole cites authorities for the contention that knighthood ennobles, insomuch that whosoever is a knight it necessarily follows that he is also a gentleman; " for, when a king gives the dignity to an ignoble person whose merit he would thereby recompense, he is understood to have conferred whatsoever is requisite for the completing of that which he bestows."

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  • (Order of the Garter, p. 43; Nicolas, British Orders of Knighthood, i.

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  • All the medieval orders of knighthood, however, insisted in their statutes on the noble birth of the candidate.

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  • Sir Robert Knolles and Sir Thomas Dagworth) were of obscure birth, while on the French side even Du Guesclin had to wait long for his knighthood because he belonged only to the lesser nobility.

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  • Co.) Orders Of Knighthood When orders ceased to be fraternities and became more and more marks of favour and a means of recognizing meritorious 1 Lecoy de la Marche (Chaire francaise au moyen age, 2nd ed., p. 387) gives many instances to prove that " al chevalerie, au xiii e siècle, est déjà sur son declin."

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  • But already about 1160 Peter of Blois had written, " The so-called order of knighthood is nowadays mere disorder " (ordo militum nunc est, ordinem non tenere.

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  • The sovereign's permission by royal warrant is necessary before a British subject can receive a foreign order of knighthood.

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  • Protests were made at various times by Philip V., but the question has never been finally decided by treaty; and the Austrian and Spanish branches have continued as independent orders ever since as the principal order of knighthood in the respective states.

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  • The Order of the Elephant, one of the chief European orders of knighthood, was, it is said, founded by Christian I.

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  • The Order of the Annunziata, the highest order of knighthood of the Italian kingdom, was instituted in 1362 by Amadeus VI., count of Savoy, as the Order of the Collare or Collar, from the silver collar made up of love-knots and roses, which was its badge, in honour of the fifteen joys of the Virgin; hence the number of the knights was restricted to fifteen, the fifteen chaplains recited fifteen masses each day, and the clauses of the original statute of the order were fifteen (Amadeus VIII.

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  • The knighthood of St Maurice and St Lazarus is now a dignity conferred by the king of Italy (the grand master) on persons distinguished in the public service, science, art and letters, trade, and above all in charitable works, to which its income is devoted.

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  • In 1177 they were confirmed as a religious order of knighthood under Benedictine rule by Pope Alexander III.

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  • Tradition attributes the foundation of this most illustrious order of knighthood to Magnus I.

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  • There are no orders for natives, and such distinctions as are conferred by the different coloured buttons of the mandarins, the grades indicated by the number of peacocks' feathers, the gift of the yellow jacket and the like, are rather insignia of rank or personal marks of honour than orders, whether of knighthood or merit, in the European sense.

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  • In 1887 he received the knighthood of the Annunziata, the highest Italian decoration, and on the 8th of August 1889 died while a guest of King Humbert in the royal palace of Capodimonte near Naples.

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  • The earliest books are Sir Gilbert Haye's Buke of the Law of Arms, Buke of the Order of Knighthood, and Government of Princes, preserved in a single MS. at Abbotsford.

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  • In 1891 he was elected President - a post which he held until 1902 - receiving also the honour of knighthood, and he was awarded a gold medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1900.

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  • The most important of these was the fraternity of the Hospitale hierosolymitanum, founded between 1065 and 1075; for hence arose the order of St John, the earliest of the orders of knighthood.

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  • Several orders of knighthood have been under his protection; among these may be mentioned the Bavarian, the Bohemian and that of the electorate of Cologne.

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  • His father was a humble farmer, but three of his sons attained the honour of knighthood.

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  • At the recommendation of Queen Elizabeth, who conferred on him the honour of knighthood, he was appointed secretary to Sir Christopher Hatton, and afterwards, having been promoted to a mastership in chancery, was sent as ambassador to the king of Poland.

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  • In the face of many difficulties and not a little disaffection, he organized the militia of the province, drove back the invaders, and on the 16th of August 1812, with about 7 3 o men and 600 Indians commanded by their chief Tecumseh, compelled the American force of 2500 men under General William Hull (1753-1825)1825) to surrender at Detroit, an achievement which gained him a knighthood of the Bath and the popular title of "the hero of Upper Canada."

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  • He procured, through his cousin Cecil, the dignity of knighthood, which, contrary to his inclination, he received along with about 300 others, on the 23rd of July 1603.

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  • "Companion" is particularly used of soldiers, as in the expression "companion in arms," and so is the title of the lowest rank in a military or other order of knighthood; the word is also used of a person who lives with another in a paid position for the sake of company, and is looked on rather as a friend than a servant; and of a pair or match, as of pictures and the like.

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  • Camden, who refused a knighthood, was a man of enormous industry, and possessed a modest and friendly disposition.

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  • On June 29 he was convicted and sentenced to death, and on the following day was degraded from his knighthood.

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  • The three eldest sons of King John and Queen Philippa - Edward, Pedro and Henry, afterwards celebrated as Prince Henry the Navigator - desired to win knighthood by service against the Moors, the historic enemies of their country and creed.

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  • In 1908 he published Memories of My Life, and in 1909 he received a knighthood.

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  • In 1875 Mackenzie paid a visit to Great Britain, and was received at Windsor by Queen Victoria; he was offered a knighthood, but declined it.

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  • They were a knightly family when we first hear of them about 1250, though towards the end of the 14th century they seem to have been but simple men without the honours of knighthood, and not always using their prefix "von."

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  • ascended the throne, Charles Bell received the honour of knighthood along with a few other men distinguished in science and literature.

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  • Afterwards the queen held a court at Trinity Lodge, where (16th of April 1705) she conferred the order of knighthood upon Sir Isaac Newton.

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  • In the Perlesvaus the Grail is the same, but the working out of the scheme is much more complex; a son of Joseph of Arimathea, Josephe, is introduced, and we find a spiritual knighthood similar to that used so effectively in the Parzival.

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  • and scattered adherents both among the burghers and the knighthood, the nucleus of the party that afterwards became famous as the Lollards.

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  • and Queen Margaret down through the peerage and the knighthood to the clerks and household retainers of the late king.

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  • The honour of knighthood was offered to Adams when Queen Victoria visited Cambridge in 1847; but then, as on a subsequent occasion, his modesty led him to decline it.

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  • He was now an old man of seventy-seven years, honoured with the friendship of princes, recognized as the most distinguished of Italian humanists, courted by pontiffs, and decorated with the laurel wreath and the order of knighthood by kings.

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  • The pecuniary rewards of Bessemer's great invention came to him with comparative quickness; but it was not till 1879 that the Royal Society admitted him as a fellow and the government honoured him with a knighthood.

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  • The sovereign is grand-master of the eight Spanish orders of knighthood, the principal of which is that of the Golden Fleece (Toison de Oro), founded in 1431 by Philip of Burgundy.

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  • In 1866, perhaps chiefly in acknowledgment of his services to transAtlantic telegraphy, Thomson received the honour of knighthood, and in 1892 he was raised to the peerage with the title of Baron Kelvin of Largs.

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  • disc jockeyid & Tony 26 Who was the first disk jockey to receive a knighthood?

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  • In other words, knighthood in the Order was always considered hereditary in a sense.

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  • ideals of chivalry and Knighthood would continue to live on and flourish.

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  • Jimmy Carter welcomed him as a ' freedom fighter ', the Queen conferred an honorary knighthood on him.

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  • Congratulations on a worthy task, you deserve a knighthood for replacing images in our heads.

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  • Bernard: Well I think there was somebody in the Treasury that refused a knighthood.

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  • He received a knighthood in the New Year's Honors List 2002.

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  • In 1998 he was awarded a knighthood in the Queen's birthday honors list.

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  • Despite his love of France, he remained essentially English and accepted an overdue knighthood in the 1990s.

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  • knighthood for services to the British film industry.

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  • In 1976 we was rewarded by the Queen with an honorary CBE, followed two years later by an honorary knighthood.

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  • At the same time, hereditary knighthood was conferred upon the sons of noblemen.

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  • She became the fourth woman to be given the Order of the Garter, the highest order of British knighthood.

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  • Furthermore, they were both members of a chivalric knighthood called the Order of the Golden Fleece.

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  • Later, he too received a well-deserved knighthood for his work.

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  • knighthood...

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  • knighthood training.

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  • knighthood in that year.

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  • rewarded with a knighthood and with election to the British Parliament.

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  • The order of the Legion of Honor is treated under KNIGHTHOOD AND CHIVALRY.

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  • The Norwegian order of knighthood of St Olaf was founded in 1847 by Oscar I., king of Sweden and Norway, in memory of this king.

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  • For the modern order of the Golden Fleece, see Knighthood And Chivalry, section Orders of Knighthood.

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  • His name is not connected with the resistance to the levy of ship-money or to the action of the ecclesiastical courts, but in 1630 he was one of those fined for refusing to take up knighthood.

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  • For the Italian orders of knighthood see KNIGHTHOOD AND CHIVALRY: Orders of Knighthood.

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  • It is familiar in the titles, showing the colour of their wands of office, of the gentlemen ushers of the three principal British orders of knighthood, the ushers of the Garter and St Patrick being "Ushers of the Black Rod," and of the Thistle "Green Rod."

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  • Niall Og O'Neill, one of the four kings of Ireland, accepted knighthood from Richard II.

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  • In the prose Lancelot his education is complete, he knows his name and parentage, though for some unexplained reason he keeps both secret, and he goes with a fitting escort and equipment to Arthur's court to demand knighthood.

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  • But in 1840 the Order was resuscitated in Austria, where it now exists as a semi-religious knighthood, closely connected with the Habsburgs.

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  • In the same year in which the British Association held its first meeting, Brewster received the honour of knighthood and the decoration of the Guelphic order of Hanover.

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  • Burgesses could buy and possess property in towns, which knights were forbidden to acquire; and though they could not intermarry with the feudal classes, it was easy and regular for a burgess to thrive to knighthood.

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  • In this year Paxton received the honour of knighthood.

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  • Having obtained the leave of the British government to accept the prince's offer, he received the honour of knighthood from George III., and during eleven years he remained at Munich as minister of war, minister of police, and grand chamberlain to the elector.

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  • (2) An order of knighthood similar to the Knights of St John, established by Pius II.

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  • In spite of his doctrinal writings - which at the time made no little noise, so that his Compendium of Dogmatic (1760) was confiscated in Sweden, and the knighthood of the North Star was afterwards given him in reparation - it was the natural side of the Bible that really attracted him, and no man did more to introduce the modern method of studying Hebrew antiquity as an integral part of ancient Eastern life.

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  • He received the supreme honour of the knighthood of the Annunziata from King Humbert in 1898.

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  • granted them the honour of being the first to receive knighthood at the coronation; this part of the ceremonies being opened by the herald asking in a loud voice "Is no Dalberg present?"

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  • The grand duke Cosmo I., a genuine statesman, not only restored the university, but instituted the "uffizio dei fossi," or drainage office for the reclamation of marsh lands, and founded the knighthood of St Stephen.

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  • Being told that they are knights he determines that he too will be one, and returns to his mother announcing his intention of at once setting forth into the world to seek for knighthood.

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  • This prince continued the traditions and work of his father in a manner that won the approbation of the local government, and earned for him the distinction of a knighthood of the Order of the Indian Empire and a seat in the legislative council of Bombay.

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  • Shortly afterwards he received the honour of knighthood and a reward of r000.

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  • The guns constructed on this principle yielded such excellent results, both in range and accuracy, that they were adopted by the British government in 1859, Armstrong himself being appointed engineer of rifled ordnance and receiving the honour of knighthood.

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  • This incident suggests two reflections - first that raids or attacks in rear of the " centre of operations " are valueless, however daring, and second that had Zasulich, in his determination to be worthy of his knighthood, concentrated for battle, the presence of the Madritov detachment on the field would have prevented the lamentable and costly misunderstandings of the retreat on Hamatan.

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  • In July 1861 he accepted from Lord Palmerston the office of solicitor-general, a knighthood, and a safe seat for the borough of Richmond in Yorkshire, secured for him through the friendly action of Lord Zetland, and thus began the second spell of Palmer's membership of the House of Commons, which continued till his elevation to the woolsack and the peerage.

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  • In fact, it has become the equivalent of an order of knighthood, the members of which form a brotherhood bound by oath to succour each other at need and to refrain from fighting among themselves.

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  • The same monarch entered Dublin in 1394 with 30,000 bowmen and 4000 cavalry, bringing with him the crown jewels; but after holding a parliament and making much courtly display before the native chieftains, on several of whom he conferred knighthood, he returned to England.

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  • He was given the degree of Doctor of Letters in the university of Calcutta and accepted a knighthood in 1915, but addressed a letter to the Viceroy in 1919, resigning the title as a protest against the methods adopted for the repression of disturbances in the Punjab.

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  • Soon afterwards Brown refused the lieutenant-governorship of Ontario, and on two subsequent occasions the offer of knighthood, devoting himself to the Globe and to a model farm at Bow Park near Brantford.

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  • caballerius), the knightly class of feudal times, possessing its own code of rules, moral and social (see Knighthood And Chivalry).

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  • KNIGHTHOOD and Chivalry.

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  • For the more important religious as distinguished from the military orders of knighthood or chivalry the reader is referred to the headings ST John Of Jerusalem, Knights Of; Teutonic Knights; and Templars.

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  • " The growth of knighthood " (writes Stubbs) " is a subject on which the greatest obscurity prevails ": and, though J.

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  • The words knight and knighthood are merely the modern forms of the Anglo-Saxon or Old English cniht and cnihthdd.

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  • And it was long after knighthood had acquired its present meaning with us that chivalry was incorporated into our language.

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  • Concerning the origin of knighthood or chivalry as it existed in the middle ages - implying as it did a formal assumption of and initiation into the profession of arms - nothing beyond more or less probable conjecture is possible.

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  • (now Peterborough), was accepted from Selden to Hallam as an historical fact, and knighthood was supposed, not only to have been known among the Anglo-Saxons, but to have had a distinctively religious character which was contemned by the Norman invaders.

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  • Yet the fact that Harold received knighthood from William of Normandy makes it clear either that Harold was not yet a knight, which in the case of so tried a warrior would imply that " dubbing to knighthood " was not yet known in England even under Edward the Confessor, or, as Freeman thinks, that in the middle of the iith century the custom had grown in Normandy into " something of a more special meaning " than it bore in England.

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  • To distinguished soldiers of the cross the honours and benefits of knighthood could hardly be refused on the ground that they did not possess a sufficient property qualification - of which perhaps they had denuded themselves in order to their equipment for the Holy War.

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  • And thus the conception of knighthood as of something distinct from feudalism both as a social condition and a personal dignity arose and rapidly gained ground.

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  • It was then that the analogy was first detected between the order of knighthood and the order of priesthood, and that an actual union of monachism and chivalry was effected by the establishment of the religious orders of which the Knights Templars and the Knights Hospitallers were the most eminent examples.

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  • In like manner the squire and the page were both in training for knighthood, but the first had advanced further in the process than the second.

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  • It is true that the squire was a combatant while the page was not, and that many squires voluntarily served as squires all their lives owing to the insufficiency of their fortunes to support the costs and charges of knighthood.

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  • But in the ordinary course of a chivalrous education the successive conditions of page and squire were passed through in boyhood and youth, and the condition of knighthood was reached in early manhood.

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  • Every feudal court and castle was in fact a school of chivalry, and although princes and great personages were rarely actually pages or squires, the moral and physical discipline through which they passed was not in any important particular different from that to which less exalted candidates for knighthood were subjected.'

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  • Two modes of conferring knighthood appear to have prevailed from a very early period in all countries where chivalry was known.

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  • conferring But while in the one the accolade constituted the Knighthood.

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  • But recourse was had to it so rarely that in England about the beginning of the 15th century it came to be exclusively appropriated to a special king of knighthood.

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  • The knights then dressed him in distinctive garments, and they then mounted their horses and rode to the hall where the candidate was to receive knighthood; his future squire was to ride before him bareheaded bearing his sword by the point in its scabbard with his spurs hanging from its hilt.

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  • and Nicolas, Orders of Knighthood, vol.

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  • 3 The full solemnities for conferring knighthood seem to have been so largely and so early superseded by the practice of dubbing or giving the accolade alone that in England it became at last restricted to such knights as were made at coronations and some other occasions of state.

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  • 257; and Nicolas, British Orders of Knighthood, vol.

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  • Everywhere else dubbing or the accolade seems to have become obsolete, and no other species of knighthood, if knighthood it can be called, is known except that which is dependent on admission to some particular order.

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  • Baronets are not knights unless they are knighted like anybody else; and, so far from being knights because they are baronets, one of the privileges granted to them shortly after the institution of their dignity was that they, not being knights, and their successors and their eldest sons and heirs-apparent should, when they attained their majority, be entitled if they desired to receive knighthood.

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  • Notwithstanding, however, that simple knighthood has gone out of use abroad, there are innumerable grand crosses, commanders and companions of a formidable assortment of orders in almost every part of the world."

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  • (See the section on " Orders of Knighthood " below.) The United Kingdom has eight orders of knighthood - the Garter, the Thistle, St Patrick, the Bath, the Star of India, St Michael and St George, the Indian Empire and the Royal Victorian Order; and, while the first is undoubtedly the oldest as well as the most illustrious anywhere existing, a fictitious antiquity has been claimed and is even still frequently conceded 8 State Papers, Domestic Series, James the First, lxvii.

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  • Sir Harris Nicolas remarks on these and the other cases (British Orders of Knighthood, vol.

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  • and Edward IV., have garters on their left arms. (See further under " Orders of Knighthood " below.) It has been the general opinion, as expressed by Sainte Palaye and Mills, that formerly all knights were qualified to confer knighthood.

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  • 5 But it may be questioned whether the privilege 4 Orders of Knighthood, vol.

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  • It is true that as much might be inferred from Persons the testimony of the romance writers; historical empowered evidence, however, tends to limit the proposition, and to confer the sounder conclusion appears to be, as Sir Harris Knighthood.

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  • 1 In several of the writs for distraint of knighthood from Henry III.

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  • 2 At all periods the commanders of the royal armies had the power of conferring knighthood; as late as the reign of Elizabeth it was exercised among others by Sir Henry Sidney in 1583, and Robert, earl of Essex, in 1595, while under James I.

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  • an ordinance of 1622, confirmed by a proclamation of 1623, for the registration of knights in the college of arms, is rendered applicable to all who should receive knighthood from either the king or any of his lieutenants.

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  • appointed Sir John Wallop to be captain of Guisnes, it was considered necessary that he should be authorized in express terms to confer knighthood, which was also done by Edward VI.

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  • in his own case when he received knighthood from the duke of Somerset.

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  • 4 But at present the only subject to whom the right of conferring knighthood belongs is the lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and to him it belongs merely by long usage and established custom.

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  • But, by whomsoever conferred, knighthood at one time endowed the recipient with the same status and attributes in every country wherein chivalry was recognized.

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  • 5 And, long after the military importance of knighthood had practically disappeared, what may be called its cosmopolitan character was maintained: a knight's title was recognized in all European countries, and not only in that country in which he had received it.

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  • In modern times, however, by certain regulations, made in 1823, and repeated and enlarged in 1855, not only is it provided that the sovereign's permission by royal warrant shall be necessary for the reception by a British subject of any foreign order of knighthood, but further that such permission shall not authorize " the assumption of any style, appellation, rank, precedence, or privilege appertaining to a knight bachelor of the United Kingdom."

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  • 6 Since knighthood was accorded either by actual investiture or its equivalent, a counter process of degradation was regarded Degrada- as necessary for the purpose of depriving anybody tion.

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  • The cases in which a knight has been formally degraded in England are exceedingly few, so few indeed that two only are mentioned by Segar, writing in 1602, and Dallaway 1 Orders of Knighthood, vol.

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  • It is difficult to describe the true spirit and moral influence of knighthood, if only because the ages in which it flourished differed so widely from our own.

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  • Moreover, many of the noblest precepts of the knightly code were a legacy from earlier ages, and have survived the decay of knighthood just as they will survive all transitory human institutions, forming part of the eternal heritage of the race.

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  • Moreover, the same business considerations which dictated those early marriages clashed equally with the strict theory of knighthood.

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  • It is not surprising therefore, to find that at least as early as the middle of the 13th century the commercial side of knighthood became very prominent.

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  • Moreover, after the knight's liability to personal service in war had been modified in the 12th century by the scutage system, it became necessary in the first quarter of the r3th to compel landowners to take up the knighthood which in theory they should have coveted as an honour - a compulsion which was soon systematically enforced (Distraint of Knighthood, 1278), and became a recognized source of royal income.

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  • 3 This rule, however, had often been broken before; even the romances of chivalry speak not infrequently of the knighting of serfs or jongleurs; 4 and other causes besides distraint of knighthood tended to level the old distinctions.

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  • While knighthood was avoided by poor nobles, it was coveted by rich citizens.

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  • It is recorded in 1298 as " an immemorial custom " in Provence that rich burghers enjoyed the honour of knighthood; and less than a century later we find Sacchetti complaining that the dignity is open to any rich upstart, however disreputable his antecedents.

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  • But in England knighthood has always been conferred to a great extent independently of these considerations.

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  • Ashmole cites authorities for the contention that knighthood ennobles, insomuch that whosoever is a knight it necessarily follows that he is also a gentleman; " for, when a king gives the dignity to an ignoble person whose merit he would thereby recompense, he is understood to have conferred whatsoever is requisite for the completing of that which he bestows."

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  • (Order of the Garter, p. 43; Nicolas, British Orders of Knighthood, i.

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  • All the medieval orders of knighthood, however, insisted in their statutes on the noble birth of the candidate.

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  • Sir Robert Knolles and Sir Thomas Dagworth) were of obscure birth, while on the French side even Du Guesclin had to wait long for his knighthood because he belonged only to the lesser nobility.

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  • Co.) Orders Of Knighthood When orders ceased to be fraternities and became more and more marks of favour and a means of recognizing meritorious 1 Lecoy de la Marche (Chaire francaise au moyen age, 2nd ed., p. 387) gives many instances to prove that " al chevalerie, au xiii e siècle, est déjà sur son declin."

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  • But already about 1160 Peter of Blois had written, " The so-called order of knighthood is nowadays mere disorder " (ordo militum nunc est, ordinem non tenere.

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  • The sovereign's permission by royal warrant is necessary before a British subject can receive a foreign order of knighthood.

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  • Protests were made at various times by Philip V., but the question has never been finally decided by treaty; and the Austrian and Spanish branches have continued as independent orders ever since as the principal order of knighthood in the respective states.

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  • The Order of the Elephant, one of the chief European orders of knighthood, was, it is said, founded by Christian I.

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  • The Order of the Annunziata, the highest order of knighthood of the Italian kingdom, was instituted in 1362 by Amadeus VI., count of Savoy, as the Order of the Collare or Collar, from the silver collar made up of love-knots and roses, which was its badge, in honour of the fifteen joys of the Virgin; hence the number of the knights was restricted to fifteen, the fifteen chaplains recited fifteen masses each day, and the clauses of the original statute of the order were fifteen (Amadeus VIII.

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  • The knighthood of St Maurice and St Lazarus is now a dignity conferred by the king of Italy (the grand master) on persons distinguished in the public service, science, art and letters, trade, and above all in charitable works, to which its income is devoted.

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  • In 1177 they were confirmed as a religious order of knighthood under Benedictine rule by Pope Alexander III.

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  • Tradition attributes the foundation of this most illustrious order of knighthood to Magnus I.

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  • There are no orders for natives, and such distinctions as are conferred by the different coloured buttons of the mandarins, the grades indicated by the number of peacocks' feathers, the gift of the yellow jacket and the like, are rather insignia of rank or personal marks of honour than orders, whether of knighthood or merit, in the European sense.

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  • In Savoy in 1572 it was merged by Gregory (at the instance of Emanuel Philibert, duke of Savoy) in the order of St Maurice (see Knighthood And Chivalry: Orders of Knighthood, Italy).

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  • In 1887 he received the knighthood of the Annunziata, the highest Italian decoration, and on the 8th of August 1889 died while a guest of King Humbert in the royal palace of Capodimonte near Naples.

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  • The earliest books are Sir Gilbert Haye's Buke of the Law of Arms, Buke of the Order of Knighthood, and Government of Princes, preserved in a single MS. at Abbotsford.

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  • In 1891 he was elected President - a post which he held until 1902 - receiving also the honour of knighthood, and he was awarded a gold medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1900.

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  • The most important of these was the fraternity of the Hospitale hierosolymitanum, founded between 1065 and 1075; for hence arose the order of St John, the earliest of the orders of knighthood.

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  • Several orders of knighthood have been under his protection; among these may be mentioned the Bavarian, the Bohemian and that of the electorate of Cologne.

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  • His father was a humble farmer, but three of his sons attained the honour of knighthood.

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  • At the recommendation of Queen Elizabeth, who conferred on him the honour of knighthood, he was appointed secretary to Sir Christopher Hatton, and afterwards, having been promoted to a mastership in chancery, was sent as ambassador to the king of Poland.

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  • In the face of many difficulties and not a little disaffection, he organized the militia of the province, drove back the invaders, and on the 16th of August 1812, with about 7 3 o men and 600 Indians commanded by their chief Tecumseh, compelled the American force of 2500 men under General William Hull (1753-1825)1825) to surrender at Detroit, an achievement which gained him a knighthood of the Bath and the popular title of "the hero of Upper Canada."

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  • He procured, through his cousin Cecil, the dignity of knighthood, which, contrary to his inclination, he received along with about 300 others, on the 23rd of July 1603.

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  • "Companion" is particularly used of soldiers, as in the expression "companion in arms," and so is the title of the lowest rank in a military or other order of knighthood; the word is also used of a person who lives with another in a paid position for the sake of company, and is looked on rather as a friend than a servant; and of a pair or match, as of pictures and the like.

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  • Camden, who refused a knighthood, was a man of enormous industry, and possessed a modest and friendly disposition.

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  • On June 29 he was convicted and sentenced to death, and on the following day was degraded from his knighthood.

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  • The three eldest sons of King John and Queen Philippa - Edward, Pedro and Henry, afterwards celebrated as Prince Henry the Navigator - desired to win knighthood by service against the Moors, the historic enemies of their country and creed.

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  • In 1908 he published Memories of My Life, and in 1909 he received a knighthood.

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  • In 1875 Mackenzie paid a visit to Great Britain, and was received at Windsor by Queen Victoria; he was offered a knighthood, but declined it.

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  • They were a knightly family when we first hear of them about 1250, though towards the end of the 14th century they seem to have been but simple men without the honours of knighthood, and not always using their prefix "von."

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  • ascended the throne, Charles Bell received the honour of knighthood along with a few other men distinguished in science and literature.

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  • Afterwards the queen held a court at Trinity Lodge, where (16th of April 1705) she conferred the order of knighthood upon Sir Isaac Newton.

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  • At the Restoration in 1660 Hale was very graciously received by Charles II., and in the same year was appointed chief baron of the exchequer, and accepted, with extreme reluctance, the honour of knighthood.

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  • In the Perlesvaus the Grail is the same, but the working out of the scheme is much more complex; a son of Joseph of Arimathea, Josephe, is introduced, and we find a spiritual knighthood similar to that used so effectively in the Parzival.

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  • and scattered adherents both among the burghers and the knighthood, the nucleus of the party that afterwards became famous as the Lollards.

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  • The pernicious practice of livery and maintenance was now at its zenith; all over England in times of stress the knighthood and gentry were wont to pledge themselves, by sealed bonds of indenture, to follow the magnate whom they thought best able to protect them.

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  • and Queen Margaret down through the peerage and the knighthood to the clerks and household retainers of the late king.

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  • The honour of knighthood was offered to Adams when Queen Victoria visited Cambridge in 1847; but then, as on a subsequent occasion, his modesty led him to decline it.

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  • He was now an old man of seventy-seven years, honoured with the friendship of princes, recognized as the most distinguished of Italian humanists, courted by pontiffs, and decorated with the laurel wreath and the order of knighthood by kings.

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  • The pecuniary rewards of Bessemer's great invention came to him with comparative quickness; but it was not till 1879 that the Royal Society admitted him as a fellow and the government honoured him with a knighthood.

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  • The sovereign is grand-master of the eight Spanish orders of knighthood, the principal of which is that of the Golden Fleece (Toison de Oro), founded in 1431 by Philip of Burgundy.

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  • In 1866, perhaps chiefly in acknowledgment of his services to transAtlantic telegraphy, Thomson received the honour of knighthood, and in 1892 he was raised to the peerage with the title of Baron Kelvin of Largs.

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  • Returning to England in 1805 he was rewarded with a knighthood and with election to the British Parliament.

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  • His long career of touring, dancing, and choreographing brought him movie roles, four honorary doctorates, and a Spanish knighthood.

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