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kirchhoff

Kirchhoff and H.

00Kirchhoff's mathematical teaching that he took up the study of mathematical physics at Konigsberg under F.

00Kirchhoff and R.

00Kirchhoff (Wied.

00Taylor Jones showed in 1897 that only a small proportion of the contraction exhibited by a nickel wire when magnetized could be accounted for on Kirchhoff's theory from the observed effects of pulling stress upon magnetization; and in a more extended series of observations Nagaoka and Honda found wide quantitative divergences between the results of experiment and calculation, though in nearly all cases there was agreement as to quality.

00They consider, however, that Kirchhoff's theory, which assumes change of magnetization to be simply proportional to strain, is still in its infancy, the present stage of its evolution being perhaps comparable with that reached by the theory of magnetization at the time when the ratio I/H was supposed to be constant.

00Nagaoka and Honda have succeeded in showing that the observed relations between twist and magnetization are in qualitative agreement with an extension of Kirchhoff's theory of magnetostriction.

00Kirchhoff, and Maxwell.

00Kirchhoff's solution is obtained of a barrier placed obliquely in an infinite stream.

00Kirchhoff's expressions for X, Y, Z, the coordinates of the centre of the body, FX=y 1 cos xY--y 2 cos yY-{-y 3 cos zY, (18) FY = -y l cos xX -Hy2 cos yX+y 3 cos zX, (Ig) G=y 1 cos xZ+y 2 cos yZ+y 3 cos zZ, (20) (21) F(X+Yi) = Fy3-Gx3+i /) X 3epi.

00Kirchhoff (Gesammelte effect.

00Kirchhoff's expression is as follow d+47 r rd l dlog e 167x 2 + t), +t log,: t t I (4) In the above formula e is the base of the Napierian logarithms. The first term on the right-hand side of the equation is the expression for the capacity, neglecting the curved edge distribution of electric force, and the other terms take into account, not only the uniform field between the plates, but also the non-uniform field round the edges and beyond the plates.

00Kirchhoff, R.

00Kirchhoff, Uber die Entstehungszeit des Herodotischen Geschichtswerkes (Berlin, 1878); Adolf Bauer, Herodots Biographie (Vienna, 1878); H.

00At first he occupied himself with ordinary routine work, but being far from satisfied with the scope which this afforded, he seized eagerly upon the opportunity for novel research, offered by Kirchhoff's discoveries in spectrum analysis.

00tube by Kirchhoff's formula, Violle and Vautier found for the velocity in open air at o° C.

00§ 347), and Kirchhoff investigated it, taking into account both the viscosity and the heat communication between the air and the walls of the pipe (loc. cit.

00C is a constant, equal to the coefficient of viscosity in Helmholtz's theory, but less simple in Kirchhoff's theory.

00Kirchhoff, W.

00Though the experimental and theoretical developments were not necessarily dependent on each other, and by far the larger proportion of the subject which we now term " Spectroscopy " could stand irrespective of Gustav Kirchhoff's thermodynamical investigations, there is no doubt that the latter was, historically speaking, the immediate cause of the feeling of confidence with which the new branch of science was received, for nothing impresses the scientific world more strongly than just that little touch of mystery which attaches to a mathematical investigation which can only be understood by the few, and is taken on trust by the many, provided that the author is a man who commands general confidence.

00While Balfour Stewart's work on the theory of exchanges was too easily understood and therefore too easily ignored, the weak points in Kirchhoff's developments are only now beginning to be perceived.

00The investigations both of Balfour Stewart and of Kirchhoff are based on the idea of an enclosure at uniform temperature and the general results of the reasoning centre in the conclusion that the introduction of any body at the same temperature as the enclosure can make no difference to the streams of radiant energy which we imagine to traverse the enclosure.

00This result, which, accepting the possibility of having an absolutely opaque enclosure of uniform temperature, was clearly proved by Balfour Stewart for the total radiation, was further extended by Kirchhoff, who applied it (though not with mathematical rigidity as is sometimes supposed) to the separate wave-lengths.

00All Kirchhoff's further conclusions are based on the assumption that the radiation transmitted through a partially transparent body can be expressed in term,s.

00This is consistent with Kirchhoff's law and shows that the sodium in a flame possesses the same relative radiation and absorption as sodium vapour heated thermally to the temperature of the flames.

00We might probably with advantage find some definition of what may be called " radiation temperature " based on the relation between radiation and absorption in Kirchhoff's sense, but further information based on experimental investigation is required.

00The interpretation of spectroscopic observation seemed very simple when Kirchhoff and 1 Phil.

00The same author proved that a sufficient thickness of layer raised the radiation to that of a black body in agreement with Kirchhoff's law.

00It is important to understand that Mach had developed this economical view of thought in 1872, more than ten years before the appearance of his work on the history of mechanics as he tells us in the preface, where he adds that at a later date similar views were expressed by Kirchhoff in his V orlesungen fiber mathematische Physik (1874).

00Kirchhoff asserted that the whole object of mechanics is " to describe the motions occurring in Nature completely in the simplest manner."

00It is evident that Kirchhoff's descriptive is the same as Mach's economical view.

00In a word, Mach and Kirchhoff agree that force is not a cause, convert Newtonian reciprocal action into mere interdependency, and, in old terminology, reduce mechanics from a natural philosophy of causes to a natural history of mere facts.

00Mach had begun to put them forward in 1872, and Kirchhoff in 1874.

00James Ward, in Naturalism and Agnosticism (1899), starts from the same phenomenalistic views of Mach and Kirchhoff about mechanics; he proceeds to the hypothesis of duality within experience, which we have traced in James Ward.

00The relation follows immediately from Kirchhoff's expression (below, section 14) for the difference of vapour-pressure of the liquid and solid below the freezing-point.

00Kirchhoff, who rediscovered Rankine's formula (Pogg.

00They are not sufficient alone, but give good results when modified, as in the simple and accurate formulae of Rankine, Kirchhoff, L.

00A formula of this type was first obtained by Kirchhoff (Pogg.

00The formula evidently applies to the vapour-pressure of the pure solvent as a special case, but Kirchhoff himself does not appear to have made this particular application of the formula.

00Bunsen and Kirchhoff (Ann., 1860, 113, p. 337), in the spectroscopic examination of the residues obtained on evaporation of water from a mineral spring at Diirkheim, being characterized by two distinctive red lines.

002 See, for example, the tables at the end of Roberts's Introduction to Greek Epigraphy (1887); or Kirchhoff's Studien zur Geschichte des griechischen Alphabets (4th ed.

00Kirchhoff's Studien zur Geschichte des griechischen Alphabets (4th ed., 1887): his theories were adopted and worked out on a much larger scale in E.

00Kirchhoff (I875).

00Kirchhoff, Vorlesungen liber Mechanik (Leipzig, 1896); H.

00Kirchhoff of Berlin.2 According to Kirchhoff, the Odyssey as we have it is the result of additions made to an original nucleus.

00The proof that the scenes in Ithaca are by a later hand than the ancient " Return " is found chiefly in a contradiction discussed by Kirchhoff in his sixth dissertation (pp. 135 sqq., ed.

00The first of these representations is evidently natural, considering the twenty eventful years that have passed; but the second, Kirchhoff holds, is the Ulysses of Calypso's 1 On this point see a paper by Professor Packard in the Trans.

00Ingenious as this is, there is really very slender ground for Kirchhoff's thesis.

00The arguments by which Kirchhoff seeks to prove that the stories of books x.-xii.

00Kirchhoff argues that the Artacia of the Argonautic story must have been taken from the real Artacia, and the Artacia of the Odyssey again from that of the Argonautic story.

00Finally, when Kirchhoff finds traces in books x.-xii.

00Inquiries conducted with the refinement which characterizes those of Kirchhoff are always instructive, and his book contains very many just observations; but it is impossible to admit his main conclusions.

00Kirchhoff, Die Composition der Odyssee (Berlin, 1869); Volkmann, Geschichte and Kritik der Wolf'schen Prolegomena (Leipzig, 1874); K.

00Kirchhoff determined experimentally in a certain case the absolute value of the current induced by one circuit in another, and in the same year Erik Edland (1819-1888) made a series of careful experiments on the induction of electric currents which further established received theories.

00As is shown by his verses and sometimes by his prose, his mind was highly imaginative; the poet Coleridge declared that if he "had not been the first chemist, he would have been the first poet 1 Davy's will directed that this service, after Lady Davy's death, should pass to his brother, Dr John Davy, on whose decease, if he had no heirs who could make use of it, it was to be melted and sold, the proceeds going to the Royal Society" to found a medal to be given annually for the most important discovery in chemistry anywhere made in Europe or Anglo-America."The silver produced £736, and the interest on that sum is expended on the Davy medal, which was awarded for the first time in 1877, to Bunsen and Kirchhoff for their discovery of spectrum analysis.

00GUSTAV ROBERT KIRCHHOFF (1824-1887), German physicist, was born at Konigsberg (Prussia) on the 12th of March 1824, and was educated at the university of his native town, where he graduated Ph.D.

00Kirchhoff's contributions to mathematical physics were numerous and important, his strength lying in his powers of stating a new physical problem in terms of mathematics, not merely in working out the solution after it had been so formulated.

00Johann Wilhelm Adolf Kirchhoff >>

00Kirchhoff, L.

00Kirchhoff in announcing that the lines of the spectrum were characteristic of the chemical substance which emitted them, and in indicating the value of this discovery in chemical analysis.

00Kirchhoff (1856), H.

00The " black body " is an ideal body with surface so constituted as to reflect no part of any radiations that fall upon it; in the case of such a body Kirchhoff and Balfour Stewart showed that unless energy were to be lost the rate of emission and absorption must be in fixed ratio for each specific wave-length.

00Kirchhoff's principle, accordingly, not only afforded a simple explanation of the Fraunhofer lines, but availed to found a far-reaching science of celestial chemistry.

00But it was the K synthetic genius of Gustav Kirchhoff which first gave unity to the scattered phenomena, and finally reconciled what was appendages to the sun disclosed by it were such as eclipses.

00He observed, in 1823, dark lines in stellar spectra which Kirchhoff's discovery supplied the means of interpreting.

00Kirchhoff's second law A low-density gas will radiate an emission-line spectrum with an underlying emission continuum.

00Kirchhoff and H.

00The first edition, with a full commentary based on scientific principles, was that of Aufrecht and Kirchhoff in 1849-1851, and on this all subsequent interpretations are based (Breal, Paris, 1875; Bucheler, Umbrica, Bonn, 1883, a reprint and enlargement of articles in Fleckeisen's Jahrbuch, 18 75, pp. 127 and 313).

00Kirchhoff's mathematical teaching that he took up the study of mathematical physics at Konigsberg under F.

00Kirchhoff and R.

00Kirchhoff (Wied.

00Taylor Jones showed in 1897 that only a small proportion of the contraction exhibited by a nickel wire when magnetized could be accounted for on Kirchhoff's theory from the observed effects of pulling stress upon magnetization; and in a more extended series of observations Nagaoka and Honda found wide quantitative divergences between the results of experiment and calculation, though in nearly all cases there was agreement as to quality.

00They consider, however, that Kirchhoff's theory, which assumes change of magnetization to be simply proportional to strain, is still in its infancy, the present stage of its evolution being perhaps comparable with that reached by the theory of magnetization at the time when the ratio I/H was supposed to be constant.

00Nagaoka and Honda have succeeded in showing that the observed relations between twist and magnetization are in qualitative agreement with an extension of Kirchhoff's theory of magnetostriction.

00Kirchhoff, and Maxwell.

00Supan, " Osterreich-Ungarn " (Vienna, 1889, in Kirchhoff's Landerkunde von Europa, vol.

00Kirchhoff's solution is obtained of a barrier placed obliquely in an infinite stream.

00Kirchhoff's expressions for X, Y, Z, the coordinates of the centre of the body, FX=y 1 cos xY--y 2 cos yY-{-y 3 cos zY, (18) FY = -y l cos xX -Hy2 cos yX+y 3 cos zX, (Ig) G=y 1 cos xZ+y 2 cos yZ+y 3 cos zZ, (20) (21) F(X+Yi) = Fy3-Gx3+i /) X 3epi.

00Kirchhoff (Gesammelte effect.

00Kirchhoff's expression is as follow d+47 r rd l dlog e 167x 2 + t), +t log,: t t I (4) In the above formula e is the base of the Napierian logarithms. The first term on the right-hand side of the equation is the expression for the capacity, neglecting the curved edge distribution of electric force, and the other terms take into account, not only the uniform field between the plates, but also the non-uniform field round the edges and beyond the plates.

00Kirchhoff, R.

00Kirchhoff, Uber die Entstehungszeit des Herodotischen Geschichtswerkes (Berlin, 1878); Adolf Bauer, Herodots Biographie (Vienna, 1878); H.

00At first he occupied himself with ordinary routine work, but being far from satisfied with the scope which this afforded, he seized eagerly upon the opportunity for novel research, offered by Kirchhoff's discoveries in spectrum analysis.

00According to von Helmholtz and Kirchhoff the velocity in a tube should be less than that in free air by a quantity depending on the diameter of the tube, the frequency of the note used, and the viscosity of the gas (Rayleigh, Sound, vol.

00tube by Kirchhoff's formula, Violle and Vautier found for the velocity in open air at oÃ‚° C.

00§ 347), and Kirchhoff investigated it, taking into account both the viscosity and the heat communication between the air and the walls of the pipe (loc. cit.

00C is a constant, equal to the coefficient of viscosity in Helmholtz's theory, but less simple in Kirchhoff's theory.

00Kirchhoff, W.

00Though the experimental and theoretical developments were not necessarily dependent on each other, and by far the larger proportion of the subject which we now term " Spectroscopy " could stand irrespective of Gustav Kirchhoff's thermodynamical investigations, there is no doubt that the latter was, historically speaking, the immediate cause of the feeling of confidence with which the new branch of science was received, for nothing impresses the scientific world more strongly than just that little touch of mystery which attaches to a mathematical investigation which can only be understood by the few, and is taken on trust by the many, provided that the author is a man who commands general confidence.

00While Balfour Stewart's work on the theory of exchanges was too easily understood and therefore too easily ignored, the weak points in Kirchhoff's developments are only now beginning to be perceived.

00The investigations both of Balfour Stewart and of Kirchhoff are based on the idea of an enclosure at uniform temperature and the general results of the reasoning centre in the conclusion that the introduction of any body at the same temperature as the enclosure can make no difference to the streams of radiant energy which we imagine to traverse the enclosure.

00This result, which, accepting the possibility of having an absolutely opaque enclosure of uniform temperature, was clearly proved by Balfour Stewart for the total radiation, was further extended by Kirchhoff, who applied it (though not with mathematical rigidity as is sometimes supposed) to the separate wave-lengths.

00All Kirchhoff's further conclusions are based on the assumption that the radiation transmitted through a partially transparent body can be expressed in term,s.

00This is consistent with Kirchhoff's law and shows that the sodium in a flame possesses the same relative radiation and absorption as sodium vapour heated thermally to the temperature of the flames.

00We might probably with advantage find some definition of what may be called " radiation temperature " based on the relation between radiation and absorption in Kirchhoff's sense, but further information based on experimental investigation is required.

00The interpretation of spectroscopic observation seemed very simple when Kirchhoff and 1 Phil.

00The same author proved that a sufficient thickness of layer raised the radiation to that of a black body in agreement with Kirchhoff's law.

00It is important to understand that Mach had developed this economical view of thought in 1872, more than ten years before the appearance of his work on the history of mechanics as he tells us in the preface, where he adds that at a later date similar views were expressed by Kirchhoff in his V orlesungen fiber mathematische Physik (1874).

00Kirchhoff asserted that the whole object of mechanics is " to describe the motions occurring in Nature completely in the simplest manner."

00It is evident that Kirchhoff's descriptive is the same as Mach's economical view.

00In a word, Mach and Kirchhoff agree that force is not a cause, convert Newtonian reciprocal action into mere interdependency, and, in old terminology, reduce mechanics from a natural philosophy of causes to a natural history of mere facts.

00In the case of this one force we know far more than the interdependence supposed by Mach and Kirchhoff; we know bodies with impenetrable force causing one another to keep apart.

00Mach had begun to put them forward in 1872, and Kirchhoff in 1874.

00James Ward, in Naturalism and Agnosticism (1899), starts from the same phenomenalistic views of Mach and Kirchhoff about mechanics; he proceeds to the hypothesis of duality within experience, which we have traced in James Ward.

00The relation follows immediately from Kirchhoff's expression (below, section 14) for the difference of vapour-pressure of the liquid and solid below the freezing-point.

00Kirchhoff, who rediscovered Rankine's formula (Pogg.

00They are not sufficient alone, but give good results when modified, as in the simple and accurate formulae of Rankine, Kirchhoff, L.

00A formula of this type was first obtained by Kirchhoff (Pogg.

00The formula evidently applies to the vapour-pressure of the pure solvent as a special case, but Kirchhoff himself does not appear to have made this particular application of the formula.

00Bunsen and Kirchhoff (Ann., 1860, 113, p. 337), in the spectroscopic examination of the residues obtained on evaporation of water from a mineral spring at Diirkheim, being characterized by two distinctive red lines.

002 See, for example, the tables at the end of Roberts's Introduction to Greek Epigraphy (1887); or Kirchhoff's Studien zur Geschichte des griechischen Alphabets (4th ed.

00Kirchhoff's Studien zur Geschichte des griechischen Alphabets (4th ed., 1887): his theories were adopted and worked out on a much larger scale in E.

00Kirchhoff (I875).

00Kirchhoff, Vorlesungen liber Mechanik (Leipzig, 1896); H.

00Kirchhoff of Berlin.2 According to Kirchhoff, the Odyssey as we have it is the result of additions made to an original nucleus.

00The proof that the scenes in Ithaca are by a later hand than the ancient " Return " is found chiefly in a contradiction discussed by Kirchhoff in his sixth dissertation (pp. 135 sqq., ed.

00The first of these representations is evidently natural, considering the twenty eventful years that have passed; but the second, Kirchhoff holds, is the Ulysses of Calypso's 1 On this point see a paper by Professor Packard in the Trans.

00Ingenious as this is, there is really very slender ground for Kirchhoff's thesis.

00The arguments by which Kirchhoff seeks to prove that the stories of books x.-xii.

00Kirchhoff argues that the Artacia of the Argonautic story must have been taken from the real Artacia, and the Artacia of the Odyssey again from that of the Argonautic story.

00Finally, when Kirchhoff finds traces in books x.-xii.

00Inquiries conducted with the refinement which characterizes those of Kirchhoff are always instructive, and his book contains very many just observations; but it is impossible to admit his main conclusions.

00Kirchhoff, Die Composition der Odyssee (Berlin, 1869); Volkmann, Geschichte and Kritik der Wolf'schen Prolegomena (Leipzig, 1874); K.

00Kirchhoff determined experimentally in a certain case the absolute value of the current induced by one circuit in another, and in the same year Erik Edland (1819-1888) made a series of careful experiments on the induction of electric currents which further established received theories.

00As is shown by his verses and sometimes by his prose, his mind was highly imaginative; the poet Coleridge declared that if he "had not been the first chemist, he would have been the first poet 1 Davy's will directed that this service, after Lady Davy's death, should pass to his brother, Dr John Davy, on whose decease, if he had no heirs who could make use of it, it was to be melted and sold, the proceeds going to the Royal Society" to found a medal to be given annually for the most important discovery in chemistry anywhere made in Europe or Anglo-America."The silver produced £736, and the interest on that sum is expended on the Davy medal, which was awarded for the first time in 1877, to Bunsen and Kirchhoff for their discovery of spectrum analysis.

00GUSTAV ROBERT KIRCHHOFF (1824-1887), German physicist, was born at Konigsberg (Prussia) on the 12th of March 1824, and was educated at the university of his native town, where he graduated Ph.D.

00Kirchhoff's contributions to mathematical physics were numerous and important, his strength lying in his powers of stating a new physical problem in terms of mathematics, not merely in working out the solution after it had been so formulated.

00Johann Wilhelm Adolf Kirchhoff >>

00Kirchhoff, L.

00Kirchhoff in announcing that the lines of the spectrum were characteristic of the chemical substance which emitted them, and in indicating the value of this discovery in chemical analysis.

00Kirchhoff (1856), H.

00The " black body " is an ideal body with surface so constituted as to reflect no part of any radiations that fall upon it; in the case of such a body Kirchhoff and Balfour Stewart showed that unless energy were to be lost the rate of emission and absorption must be in fixed ratio for each specific wave-length.

00Kirchhoff's laws (see Electrokinetics) we have the current equations, (P+G+R) (x+y) - Gy - Rz =O (Q+G+S)y - G(x+y) - Sz=O (R +S+B) z - R (x + y) - Sy=E Rearranging the terms and solving for x (the current through the galvanometer), we obtain x= (PS - RQ)E(o, where 0 is a complex expression, involving the resistances P, Q, R, S, G, and B, which does not concern us.

00Kirchhoff's principle, accordingly, not only afforded a simple explanation of the Fraunhofer lines, but availed to found a far-reaching science of celestial chemistry.

00But it was the K synthetic genius of Gustav Kirchhoff which first gave unity to the scattered phenomena, and finally reconciled what was appendages to the sun disclosed by it were such as eclipses.

00He observed, in 1823, dark lines in stellar spectra which Kirchhoff's discovery supplied the means of interpreting.

00

The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.