The idea of kingship from the first was that of a ruler representing God.
Sometimes the subordinate or joint kingship implies real functions.
xviii., Saul's jealousy leaped at once to the conclusion that David's ambition would not stop short of the kingship. Such a suspicion would be intelligible if we could suppose that the king had heard something of the significant act of Samuel, which now stands at the head of the history of David in witness of that divine election and unction with the spirit of Yahweh on which his whole career hung (xvi.
It was only after a bitter experience that the kingship was no longer regarded as a divine gift, and traditions have been revised in order to illustrate the opposition to secular authority.
never realized in the imperfect kingship of the past.
The local worships, which subsisted unchanged during the greater part of the Hebrew kingship, gave no expression to this.
He soon returned to Sparta to mature plans for overthrowing the hereditary kingship and substituting an elective monarchy open to all Heraclids, or even, according to another version, to all Spartiates.
Under the kings of Athens it must have closely resembled the Boule of elders described by Homer; and there can be no doubt that it was the chief factor in the work of transforming the kingship into an aristocracy, in which it was to be supreme.
And as far as regards the social side of kingship this is true.
The seer, in the sense in which all antiquity believed in seers, is simply a man who sees what others cannot see, no matter whether the thing seen be of public or of mere private interest; but the prophet is an organ of Yahweh's kingship over His people - he sees and tells so much of the secret purpose of Yahweh as is needful for His people to know.
The older history repeatedly indicates that David's kingship was predicted by a divine oracle, but would hardly lead us to place the prediction so early (I Sam.
The Mexican chronicles, however, show instances of the king's son succeeding or of powerful chiefs being elected to the kingship. The term republic is sometimes used to describe the little state of Tlascala, but this was in fact a federation of four chiefs, with an assembly of nobles.
15) in conjunction with the functions of kingship and priesthood.
3 In the Psalms the ideal aspect of the kingship, its religious importance as the expression and organ of Yahweh's sovereignty, is prominent.
The religious view of the kingship is still essentially the same as in 2 Sam.
431) might suggest, the primitive kingship was retained or renewed at Syracuse, as it certainly was in some other Greek colonies.
of the revived Empire with the German kingship brought the latter into uninterrupted contact with the papacy.
This was followed by a study on the growth of German kingship (Die Entstehung des deutschen Konigtums, Frankfort, 1844, and again 1881), after which he was appointed professor.
When the Psalter became a liturgical book the historical kingship had gone by, and the idea alone remained, no longer as the interpretation of a present political fact but as part of Israel's religious inheritance.
Such was the theory of the kingship in Ephraim as well as in Judah (Deut.
With the growing weakness and corruption of the Hasmonaean princes, and the alienation of a large part of the nation from their cause, the hope of a better kingship begins to appear in Judaea also; at first darkly shadowed forth in the Book of Enoch (chap. xc.), where the white steer, the future leader of God's herd after the deliverance from the heathen, stands in a certain contrast to the actual dynasty (the horned lambs); and then much more clearly, and for the first time with use of the name Messiah, in the Psalter of Solomon, the chief document of the protest of Pharisaism against its enemies the later Hasmonaeans.
On K nearer examination, however, it appears that kingship was intermittent in some tribes, while in others, which had no kings, we find mention of royal families.
Frazer, Early History of the Kingship (1905); E.
The judgment of posterity has not repeated the flattering verdict of his contemporaries; but he remains the model of a great king in all that concerns the externals of kingship.
The kingship was continued for a long time.
(belonging to the later stratum) - in which the very existence of a human kingship is represented as a departure from the theocratic ideal, and after the exile, when the monarchy had come to an end, we find pictures of the latter days in which its restoration has no place.
And, while Yahweh's kingship was a living and present fact, it refused to be formulated in fixed invariable shape.
For six months in 1470-1471 he emerged to hold a shadowy kingship as Warwick's puppet.
The kingship formed the nucleus of new governments as the feudal system passed away.
4) expressly associated a similar prediction with the condemnation of the kingship of Ephraim as illegitimate.
According to Frazer (Early History of the Kingship, 1905; see also Golden Bough, i., 1 9 00, p. 82), the early Greek kings, who were expected to produce rain for the benefit of the crops, were in the habit of imitating thunder and lightning in the character of Zeus.
In spite of his instincts for dominion and the ardour of his temperament, he made no attempt to shake off the French yoke, and did not decide on hostilities with France until Philip the Fair and his legists attempted to change the character of the kingship, emphasized its lay tendencies, and exerted themselves to gratify the desire for political and financial independence which was shared by the French nation and many other European peoples.
In consequence of these raids the German element of population in Upper Silesia permanently lost ground; and a complete restitution of the Slavonic nationality seemed imminent on the appointment of the Hussite, George Podiebrad, to the Bohemian kingship in 1457.
An uneventful period followed under the rule of the house of Habsburg, which united the kingship of Bohemia with the archduchy of Austria and the imperial crown.
The Armenian doctors also taught that John by laying hands on Jesus and ordaining him at his baptism sacramentally transferred to him the three graces or charismata of kingship, prophecy and priesthood which had belonged to ancient Israel.
All Canaanite analogy speaks for kingship as the oldest form of Phoenician government.
xxiii.) blend together his desire that his family should retain the kingship, and his aspiration for a kingdom of righteousness on earth.
7); it views the stormy period before the institution of the kingship through the softening atmosphere of time, which imparts to the scene a gentle sweetness very different from the harsher colours of the old narratives of the book of Judges.
passion for equality he was content to veil his kingship for a while under a middle-class disguise.
While they were thus employed the friends of the house of Hohenstaufen, convinced that Fredericks kingship was not possible, chose the late emperors brother, Philip, duke of Swabia, to fill the vacant throne; soon afterwards the enemies of the house found a candidate in the person of.
Their political constitutions were aristocratic; that is, the franchise was confined to the descendants of the original settlers, round whom an excluded body (Ffflos or plebs) was often growing up. The ancient kingship was perhaps kept on or renewed in some of the Siceliot and Italiot towns; but it is more certain that civil dissensions led very early to the rise of tyrants.
Frazer, Lectures on the Early History of the Kingship, p. 247; Macbain's edition, 1902, of Skene's Highlanders of Scotland).
In accordance with what is now known to be a very widespread belief, the kingship was a semi-divine function, and the Pharaoh was the incarnation of Amon-Re.
The ruling classes are related partly to the southern groups already mentioned and partly to Samaria; but the kingship of old is replaced by a high-priest, and, under the influence of Babylonian Jews of the strictest principles, a breach was made between Judah and Samaria which has never been healed (JEws: § 21 seq.).
It is in keeping with the old conceptions of the divine kingship, which, though they survive only in isolated biblical references, live on in the ideals of the Messianic king and his kingdom and in the post-exilic high priest. ?
If, as has been claimed, Louis owed to them any of his tendency to prefer the society of the poor, or rather of the bourgeois, to that of the nobility, their example was his best lesson in the craft of kingship. In June 1436, when scarcely thirteen, he was married to Margaret (c. 1425-1445), daughter of James I.
The development of feudal society, of centralizing kingship and ultimately of a system of common law, brought about great changes which all hinge on the fundamental fact that the kings, while increasing the power of the state in other respects, surrendered it completely as regards the relations between the peasants and their lords.
45; Lectures on the Early History of the Kingship (1905), 283 seq., 192.
14 See further Frazer, Kingship, 184-192; Schwartz, 73 seq.; Hooker, Deutscher Volksglaube (GÃ¶ttingen, 18 53), p. 231.
11 7 1), Irish king of Leinster, succeeded his father in the principality of the Hui Cinsellaigh (1115) and eventually in the kingship of Leinster.
The French Revolution had supposed itself to be fighting for the " rights of man "; really it was trying to replace an autocratic kingship by an equally autocratic " general will " of the multitude.
The latter author's Lectures on the Early History of the Kingship (Lond.
Sweyn retained Inge and the kingship only for three years.
After that the kingship of Babel was definitely abolished.
Thus the divine kingship of Alexander derives in,direct line, not from the Oriental polities which (Egypt apart) know nothing of royal apotheosisbut from these Hellenic theories of the state.
Iranian divinities, however, predominate on his currency: Mithras (Mihro or Hel-ios); the Moon Mah (also Selene); Athro, the Fire; Orthragno (Verethragna); Pliarro =Farna (hvarna), the majesty of kingship; Teiro =Tir (Tistrya the archer); Nana (Nanaia); and others.
His time was much better employed in fitting his old pupil, Burgundy, for a kingship that never came.
An ardent republican, it was he who in the first session of the National Convention (September 21, 1792) proposed the motion for the abolition of the kingship, in a speech in which occurred the memorable phrase that "kings are in the moral order what monsters are in the natural."
This school has also endeavoured to prove that the author of Daniel did not mean to imply Belshazzar's kingship of Babylon at all by his use of the word "king," but they suggest that the writer of Daniel believed Belshazzar to have been co-regent.
Such attempts are at best subterfuges to support an impossible theory regarding the origin of the Book of Daniel, whose author clearly believed in the kingship of Belshazzar and in that prince's descent from Nebuchadrezzar.
17), of the sanctity of Zion, of the kingship of Yahweh, are the common property of the post-exilic writers.
The double kingship led to quarrels between the two brothers in which fresh appeals were continually made to Rome.
It is hard to trace any meaning in the civil warit was not a contest between the principle of hereditary succession and the principle of elective kingship, as might be supposed.
Early in the next spring Dermot iied, and Earl Richard, in virtue of his marriage, claimed the kingship of Leinster.
A curious feature of Hy Neill rule about this time was joint kingship. From 563 to 656 there were no less than five such pairs.
the same set of ideas in more detail, are Adonis, Attis, Osiris (1906) and Lectures on the Early History of the Kingship (1905).
This dual kingship, a phenomenon unique in Greek history, was explained in Sparta by the tradition Kingship. that on Aristodemus's death he had been succeeded by his twin sons, and that this joint rule had been perpetuated.
Aristotle describes the kingship at Sparta as "a kind of unlimited and perpetual generalship" (Pol.
1285a), while Isocrates refers to the Spartans as "subject to an oligarchy at home, to a kingship on campaign" (iii.
The reason for this change lay partly in the fact that the ephors, chosen by popular election from the whole body of citizens, represented a democratic element in the constitution without violating those oligarchical methods which seemed necessary for its satisfactory administration; partly in the weakness of the kingship, the dual character of which inevitably gave rise to jealousy and discord between the two holders of the office, often resulting in a practical deadlock; partly in the loss of prestige suffered by the kingship, especially during the 5th century, owing to these quarrels, to the frequency with which kings ascended the throne as minors and a regency was necessary, and to the many cases in which a king was, rightly or wrongly, suspected of having accepted bribes from the enemies of the state and was condemned and banished.
It was not long afterwards that the dual kingship ceased and Sparta fell under the sway of a series of cruel and rapacious tyrants - Lycurgus, Machanidas, who was killed by Philopoemen, and Nabis, who, if we may trust the accounts given by Polybius and Livy, was little better than a bandit chieftain, holding Sparta by means of extreme cruelty and oppression, and using mercenary troops to a large extent in his wars.
The Hova, during the 19th century, embraced Christianity, but retain, nevertheless, many of their old animistic beliefs; their original social organization in three classes, andriana or nobles, Nova or freemen, and andevo or slaves, has been modified by the French, who have abolished kingship and slavery.
Still, certain disturbances made him see that aristocratic approval of his kingship might be strengthened if it could claim a divine sanction which no Merovingian had ever received.
to take his kingship in earnest, thinking to cure him by war of his effeminate passions; and, in the spring of 1744, the kings grave illness at Metz gave a momentary hope of reconciliation between him and the deserted queen.
In a country noted for its fanatical loyalty to the Crown and the Church, the kingship was to be deprived of all power and influence, and the clergy to be excluded as such from Spanish all share in legislation.
In Babylonia and Assyria the cult centred largely and indeed almost exclusively in the public welfare and the person of the king, because upon his well-being and favour with the gods the fortunes of the country were dependent in accordance with the ancient conception of kingship (see J.
Frazer, The Early History of Kingship).
Some, like Staff of Kingship are inspired by symbols of African royalty, others like New Fine Trail and Shell by Indonesian batiks.
begetbe the " beloved " or " only begotten " of god is a kingship formula.
She has carried out intensive fieldwork among the social and political elites of Rajasthan and has published on ritual and kingship.
As a result of his actions Niall was granted the union of kingship and Sovereignty being declared the rightful heir.
Medallions of the king ever after showed him crowned with the ram's horns of kingship and divinity.
They were particularly warned to beware of Erik Bloodaxe who claimed kingship over the Untamed Lands.
His inscription talk of him being given the kingship of the nation by Enlil, the supreme Sumerian god.
Despite his wounds he boasts to the Storm-god that he will take the kingship of heaven.
The Sangha brought about settlements between political leaders, selected kings and conferred the kingship.
Nineteen godly ministers of London write to Cromwell urging him to reject the kingship.
Now while Nabonidus maintained the title of king in Arabia, Belshazzar exercised kingship in Babylon.
sacral kingship is something in which we all share.
We find the theme of " divine kingship " wherever his sons go.
But Macbeth does stand out by then holding on to the Scottish kingship for 17 years.
In some areas, they were related to the institution of sacred kingship, often expressed through rituals of sacred marriage.
We are far better equipped to understand James in his three kingdoms after 1603 when we understand his evolving imperial kingship in Scotland.
ram's horns of kingship and divinity.
Edward overcame the tyranny of his guardians at the age of seventeen and then set about developing a new form of awe-inspiring chivalric kingship.
p. 45 6, and Early History of the Kingship (1905), pp. 24, 281; A.
His subsequent advance to the kingship over Judah and Israel at Jerusalem is represented as due to the weak condition of Israel, facilitated by the compliance of Abner; partly, also, to the long-expressed wish of the Israelites that their old hero should reign over them.
The explanation of the dual kingship is probably this - the Tui Tonga were regarded as the direct descendants of the original head of the family from which the people sprang; regarded with reverence, and possessing unlimited power, they came to misuse this and discontent resulted, whereupon, to protect themselves, they appointed an executive deputy.
Treatises " Concerning Kingship " were produced as a regular thing by philosophers, and kings who claimed the fine flower of Hellenism, could not but peruse them.
The typical example of such a state is that of the Jews till the establishment of the kingship under Saul (see JEws).
The kingship had not deprived them of their functions as fountains of divine judgment (cf.
Its use would seem to have been borrowed, not from the robes of the Eastern emperors, but from the church, and to symbolize with the other robes the quasisacerdotal character of the kingship (see Coronation).
Encouraged by safety and adulation in England; grasping at the Tudor ideal of kingship, determined to reduce to order the kirk from which XXIV.
comes unexpectedly, and the refusal of the offer of the kingship reflects later ideas (cf.
14 See further Frazer, Kingship, 184-192; Schwartz, 73 seq.; Hooker, Deutscher Volksglaube (GÃƒ¶ttingen, 18 53), p. 231.
The long scenes with Pilate culminate in the great sayings concerning His kingdom not being of this world and the object of this His coming being to bear witness to the truth, thus explaining how, though affirming kingship (Mark xv.
The close inter-relation which existed in primitive society between magic, priesthood and kingship has been indicated by Frazer in his Early History of the Kingship. His remarks throw some light on the early character of priesthood as well as kingship. " When once a special class of sorcerers has been segregated from the community and entrusted by it with the discharge of duties on which the public safety and welfare are believed to depend, these men gradually rise to wealth and power till their leaders blossom out into sacred kings."
2 The stem of David is superseded by the house of Zadok, the kingship has yielded to the priesthood, and the extinction of national hopes gives new importance to that strict organization of the hierarchy for which Ezekiel had prepared the way by his sentence of disfranchisement against the nonZadokite priests.
The narration of Herodotus is only a popular tradition which derives the origin of kingship from its judicial functions, considered as its principal and most beneficent aspect.
And, as modern changes have commonly attacked the power both of kings and of nobles, the common notion has come that kingship and nobility have some necessary connexion.
And from one point of view, that from which the kingly house is but the noblest of the noble, kingship and nobility are closely allied.
But in 1887 and 1888 civil war prevailed on the question of the succession to the native kingship, the Germans supporting Tamasese, and the British and American residents supporting Malietoa.
In endeavouring, with the aid of the church, to establish his kingship on the Western model Stephen had the immense advantage of building on unencumbered ground, the greater part of the soil of the country being at his The absolute disposal.
The remarkable instance of this after the Conquest was the election of Stephen, but William the Conqueror did not feel secure until he had the sanction of the Londoners to his kingship, and his attitude towards London when he hovered about the neighbourhood of the city for a time shows that he was anxious to obtain this sanction freely rather than by compulsion.
and the revolution of 1688 were national crimes; it exists to study the history of the Stuarts, to oppose all democratic tendencies, and in general to maintain the theory that kingship is independent of all parliamentary authority and popular approval.
In the rejuvenescence of the nation the old stays of that oppressive kingship which began with Solomon, the strongholds, the fortified cities, the chariots and horses so foreign to the life of ancient Israel, are no more known; they disappear together with the divinations, the soothsayers, the idols, the mazzebah and asherah of the high places.
But James at once declared himself king, had Alopo killed and Sforza imprisoned, and kept his wife in a state of semi-confinement; this led to a counteragitation on the part of the barons, who forced James to liberate Sforza, renounce his kingship, and eventually to quit the country.
It was they who proposed the suspension of the king and the summoning of the National Convention; but they had only consented to overthrow the kingship when they found that Louis XVI.
Yahweh's ever-present kingship in Israel, which was the chief religious idea brought into prominence by the national revival, demanded a more continuous manifestation of His revealing spirit than was given either by the priestly lot or by the rise of occasional seers; and where could this be sought except among the prophets?
Rev. xvi., 1902, p. 365, where the whole evidence is very fully collected; and Frazer's Studies in the Early History of Kingship (1907), where he accepts Cook's criticism of his own earlier theory.
On the intimate relation which in primitive times subsisted between the sorcerer and the king see the citation from Frazer's Early History of Kingship, p. 127, in the article Priest, and cf.
But all agree in giving the central place to the realization of a real effective kingship of Yahweh; in fact the conception of the religious subject as the nation of Israel, with a national organization under Yahweh as king, is common to the whole Old Testament, and connects prophecy proper with the so-called Messianic psalms and similar passages which speak of the religious relations of the Hebrew commonwealth, the religious meaning of national institutions, and so necessarily contain ideal elements reaching beyond the empirical present.
So the great Judaean prophets of the 8th century connect the salvation of Israel with the rise of a Davidic king, full of Yahweh's Spirit, in whom all the energies of Yahweh's transcendental kingship are as it were incarnate (Isa.ix.
So too there is no allusion to a human kingship in Joel or in Malachi; the old forms of the Hebrew state were broken, and religious hopes expressed themselves in other shapes.
To the prophets the kingship of Yahweh was not a mere ideal, but an actual reality.
But when the prophets were succeeded by the scribes, the interpreters of the written word, and the yoke of foreign oppressors rested on the land, Yahweh's kingship, which presupposed a living nation, found not even the most inadequate expression in daily political life.
The nation threw itself on the side of the Pharisees; not in the spirit, of punctilious legalism, but with the ardour of a national enthusiasm deceived in its dearest hopes, and turning for help from the delusive kingship of the Hasmonaeans to the true kingship of Yahweh, and to His vicegerent the king of David's house.
The eternal kingship of the House of David, so long forgotten, is seized on as the proof that the Hasmonaeans have no divine right.
Thou didst choose David as king over Israel, and swarest unto him concerning his seed for ever that his kingship should never fail before Thee.
This national feeling, claiming a leader against the Romans as well as deliverance from the Sadducee aristocracy, again sets the idea of the kingship rather than that of resurrection and individual retribution in the central place.
preceptor; Warwick took up his charge in 1428; he trained his pupil to be a good man and refined gentleman, but he could not teach him kingship. As early as 1423 the baby king was made to appear at public functions and take his place in parliament.
As the west was the side most open to foreign influence during the Roman period, it is likely that the form of government which prevailed here was less primitive than the other, especially as we know that kingship had by this time died out among the Gauls.
The kingless state may therefore have arisen out of kingship through divisions of the royal power or through failure on the part of the leading men to agree on a head acceptable to all.
On the other hand the conditions of the migration period were doubtless favourable to monarchical government, and from this time onwards kingship appears to have been universal, except among the Old Saxons and in Iceland.
He died in 1504 and his direct descendants held the sultanate of Berar until 1561, when Burhan Imad Shah was deposed by his minister Tufal Khan, who assumed the kingship. This gave a pretext for the intervention of Murtaza Nizam Shah of Ahmednagar, who in 1572 invaded Berar, imprisoned and put to death Tufal Khan, his son Shams-ul-Mulk, and the ex-king Burhan, and annexed Berar to his own dominions.
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