In the time of the Sassanian kings, however, as at the present time, the Tigris occupied a more easterly course.
The Wittelsbachs gave three kings to Germany, Louis IV.,' Rupert and Charles VII.
He conquered many kings and burned many cities.
While kings claimed they ruled by a divine right, dictators claimed their right to rule through might.
We'd be kings at the races.
He was the advisor and friend of two of the kings who succeeded Cyrus.
Like kings, dictators have little regard for their subjects.
Before leaving, Napoleon showed favor to the emperor, kings, and princes who had deserved it, reprimanded the kings and princes with whom he was dissatisfied, presented pearls and diamonds of his own--that is, which he had taken from other kings--to the Empress of Austria, and having, as his historian tells us, tenderly embraced the Empress Marie Louise--who regarded him as her husband, though he had left another wife in Paris--left her grieved by the parting which she seemed hardly able to bear.
The armies of the rival kings met at Gdllheim near Worms, where Adolph was defeated and slain, and Albert submitted to a fresh election.
A more sympathetic attitude appears in two elegies (xix.), one on the kings Jehoahaz and Jehoiachin, the other on the nation.
The fact that the kings were often absent from England, and that the justiciarship was held by great nobles or churchmen, made this office of an importance which at times threatened to overshadow that of the Crown.
Like other kings, he lived in a beautiful palace and had many officers and servants to wait upon him.
When the kings of our people found them, they mated with them to bind them to them.
They possessed in Cyprus a kingdom, in which they had vindicated for themselves a stronger hold over their feudatories than the kings of Jerusalem had ever enjoyed, and in which trading centres like Famagusta flourished vigorously.
In the 9th century Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, in his work, De ordine palatii et regni, speaks of a summus cancellarius, evidently an official at the court of the Carolingian emperors and kings.
It was a bitter mortification to Alexander, before whose imagination new vistas had just opened out eastwards, where there beckoned the unknown world of the Ganges and its splendid kings.
I Kings vi., vii.), the sacrifices and festivals and the functions of priests and prince are prescribed, a stream issuing from under the temple is to vivify the Dead Sea and fertilize the land (this is meant literally), the land is divided into parallel strips and assigned to the tribes.
justiciarius or justitiarius, a judge), in English history, the title of the chief minister of the Norman and earlier Angevin kings.
In Scotland the title of justiciar was borne, under the earlier kings, by two high officials, one having his jurisdiction to the north, the other to the south of the Forth.
The tribal organization in northern Albania is an interesting survival of the earliest form of social combination; it may be compared in many respects with that which existed in the Scottish highlands in the time of the Stuart kings.
In addition to this Bedouin organization there was the curious institution of an elective monarchy, some of whose kings are catalogued in Gen.
43-54 These kings reigned at some date anterior to the time of Saul.
I) and maintaining a navy at Ezion-geber, at the head of the Gulf of Akaba (1 Kings ix.
Indeed, until the time of Jehoram, when the land revolted (2 Kings viii.
20, 22), Edom was a dependency of Judah, ruled by a viceroy (i Kings xxii..
An attempt at recovering their independence was temporarily quelled in a campaign by Amaziah (2 Kings xiv.
7), and Azariah his successor was able to renew the sea trade of the Gulf of Akaba (2 Kings xiv.
22) which had probably languished since the wreck of Jehoshaphat's ships (1 Kings xxii, 48); but the ancient kingdom had been re-established by the time of Ahaz,.
Mazaca, the residence of the kings of Cappadocia, later called Eusebea (perhaps after Ariarathes Eusebes), and named Caesarea probably by Claudius, stood on a low spur on the north side of Erjies Dagh (M.
In the neighbourhood are the ruins of Law Castle, Crosbie Castle and Portincross Castle, the last, dating from the 13th century, said to be a seat of the Stuart kings.
The two kings were twice defeated.
Robertson, Scotland under her Early Kings (Edinburgh, 1862); Lord Hailes, Annals of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1819); A.
Athens at once appealed to Sparta to punish this act of medism, and Cleomenes I., one of the Spartan kings, crossed over to the island, to arrest those who were responsible for it.
occupants of these seven tombs were kings might be inferred from the sculptures, and one of those at Nakshi Rustam is expressly declared in its inscription to be the tomb of Darius Hystaspis, concerning whom Ctesias relates that his grave was in the face of a rock, and could only be reached by means of an apparatus of ropes.
Ctesias mentions further, with regard to a number of Persians kings, either that their remains were brought " to the Persians," or that they died there.'
The Sassanian kings have covered the face of the rocks in this neighbourhood, and in part even the Achaemenian ruins, with their sculptures and inscriptions, and must themselves have built largely here, although never on the same scale of magnificence as their ancient predecessors.
27; I Kings xiv.
5-13), and when the author of 1 Kings xii.
6-8)2 The Deuteronomic history of the monarchy actually ascribes to the Judaean king Josiah (621 B.C.) the suppression of the high-places, and states that the local priests were brought to Jerusalem and received support, but did not minister at the altar (2 Kings xxiii.
i Kings ix.
1 For example, in 1 Kings viii.
To a Rechabite (the clan is allied to the Kenites) is definitely ascribed a hand in Jehu's sanguinary measures, and, though little is told of the obviously momentous events, one writer clearly alludes to a bloody period when reforms were to be effected by the sword (1 Kings xix.
The sequel to this phase is placed in the reign of Solomon, when David's old priest Abiathar, sole survivor of the priests of Shiloh, is expelled to Anathoth (near Jerusalem), and Zadok becomes the first chief priest contemporary with the foundation of the first temple (1 Kings ii.
The late specific tendency in favour of Jerusalem agrees with the Deuteronomic editor of Kings who condemns the sanctuaries of Dan and Bethel for -, calf-worship (1 Kings xii.
5), and were fitting occasions to visit a prophet (2 Kings iv.
Its refortification was due to a Bethelite named Hiel, who endeavoured to avert the curse of Joshua by offering his sons as sacrifices at certain stages of the work (1 Kings xvi.
After this event it grew again into importance and became the site of a college of prophets (2 Kings ii.
Here was fought the last fight between the Babylonians and Zedekiah, wherein the kingdom of Judah came to an end (2 Kings xxv.
and of his wife Eleanor of Albuquerque, born on the 29th of June 1 397, was one of the most stirring and most unscrupulous kings of the 15th century.
After some years' absence in England, fighting the Danes, he returned to Norway in 1015 and declared himself king, obtaining the support of the five petty kings of the Uplands.
He had annihilated the petty kings of the South, had crushed the aristocracy, enforced the acceptance of Christianity throughout the kingdom, asserted his suzerainty in the Orkney Islands, had humbled the king of Sweden and married his daughter in his despite, and had conducted a successful raid on Denmark.
The name was borne also by four Parthian kings.
was, perhaps, the greatest of all the kings of Sweden.
Lothaire had no heir, and in 870 by the treaty of Meerssen his territory was divided between the kings of East and West Francia.
The history of the Netherlands from this time forward - with the exception of Flanders, which continued to be a fief of the French kings - is the history of the various feudal states into which the duchy of Lower Lorraine was gradually broken up.
Its remoteness from the control of the authority of the German and French kings, together with its inaccessibility, gave special facilities in Lower Lorraine to the growth of a number of practically independent feudal states forming a group or system apart.
In the course of centuries, however, they were absorbed into the Babylonian population; the kings adopted Semitic names and married into the royal family of Assyria.
On the 26th of June 1657 he was once more installed as Protector, this time, however, with regal ceremony in contrast with the simple formalities observed on the first occasion, the heralds proclaiming his accession in the same manner as that of the kings.
By the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine with Henry Plantagenet, the countship passed under the suzerainty of the kings of England, but at the same time it was divided, William VII., called the Young (1145-1168), having been despoiled of a portion of his domain by his uncle William VIII.,called the Old,who was supported by Henry II.
According to r Kings xvi.
The city was occupied by Ahab, who here built a temple to "Baal" (i Kings xvi.
32) and a palace of ivory (1 Kings xxii.
had done in Samaria (r Kings xx.
in the time of Jehoahaz again besieged Samaria, and caused a famine in the city; but some panic led them to raise the siege (2 Kings vi., vii.).
Asia had been in vassalage; in the case of Israel at least since Menahem (2 Kings xv.
The city rights and usages were respected by kings and conquerors alike.
The kings uncle is duke of Aosta, his son is prince of Piedmont and his cousin is duke of Genoa.
The Italians acknowledged eight kings of the house of Charles the Great, ending in Charles the Fat, who was deposed in 888.
The pope followed with a counter excommunication, far more formidable, releasing the kings subjects from their oaths of allegiance.
By a treaty signed at Granada, the French and Spanish kings were to divide the spoil.
The affairs of Europe during the years when Habsburg and Bourbon fought their domestic battles with the blood of noble races may teach grave lessons to all thoughtful men of our days, but none bitterer, none fraught with more insulting recollections, than to the Italian people, who were haggled over like dumb driven cattle in the mart of chaffering kings.
Philip founded the Bourbon line of Spanish kings, renouncing in Italy all that his Habsburg predecessors had gained.
But Francis of Lorraine, elected emperor in that year, sent an army to the kings support, which in 1746 obtained a signal victory over the Bourbons at Piacenza.
Very many of them, distrusting both of these kings, sought to act independently in favor of an Italian republic. Lord William Bentinck with an AngloSicilian force landed at Leghorn on the 8th of March 1814, and issued a proclamation to the Italians bidding them rise against Napoleon in the interests of their own freedom.
Cavours stirring against articles in the Risorgimento hastened the kings decision, Austria.
But the king and Cavour were terribly upset by this move, which meant peace without Venetia; Cavour hurried to the kings headquarters at Monzambano Armistice and in excited, almost disrespectful, language implored ~0ranca~ him not to agree to peace and to continue the war alone, relying on the Piedmontese army and a general Italian revolution.
the ribaldi now resigned his authorit~ into the kings hands and, qw using the title and other honor~ offered to him, retired to his tha tnd home of Caprera.1, all ~aeta remained still to be taken.
Martinengo Cesarescos Liberation of Italy (London, 1895) is to be strongly recommended, and is indeed, for accuracy, fairness and synthesis, as well as for charm of style, one of the very best books on the subject in any language; Bolton Kings History of Italian Unity (2 vols., London, 1899) is bulkier and less satisfactory, but contains a useful bibliography.
The advent of Thiers, his attitude towards the petition of French bishops on behalf of the pope, the recall of Senard, the French minister at Florencewho had written to congratulate Victor Emmanuel on the capture of Romeand the instructions given to his successor, the comte de Choiseul, to absent himself from Italy at the moment of the kings official entry into the new capital (2nd July 1871), together with the haste displayed in appointing a French ambassador to the Holy See, rapidly cooled the cordiality of Franco-Italian relations, and reassured Bismarck on the score of any dangerous intimacy between the two governments.
A further derogation from the ideal of democratic austerity was committed by adding 80,000 per annum to the kings civil list (14th May 1877) and by burdening the state exchequer with royal household pensions amounting to 20,000 a year.
to rest with the Sardinian kings at Superga.
He also persuaded the new ruler to inaugurate, as King Humbert I., the new dynastical epoch of the kings of Italy, instead of continuing as Humbert IV.
the succession of the kings of Sardinia.
Cairolis premiership was, however, destined to be cut short by an atte~npt made upon the kings life in November 1878, during a royal visit to Naples, by a miscreant named Passanante.
The main point of the treaty, however, lay in clause 17: His Majesty the king of kings of Ethiopia consents to make use of the government of His Majesty the king of Italy for the treatment of all questions concerning other powers and governments.
For modern times, see Bolton Kings History of Italian Unity (1899) antI Bolton King and Thomas Okeys Italy To-day (1901).
In any case, in 1676, together with Lauderdale alone, he consented to a treaty between Charles and Louis according to which the foreign policy of both kings was to be conducted in union, and Charles received an annual subsidy of £10o,000.
His views on church polity were dominated by his implicit belief in the divine right of kings (not of course the divine hereditary right of kings) which the Anglicans felt it necessary to set up against the divine right of popes.
He set practically no limits to the ecclesiastical authority of kings; they were as fully the representatives of the church as the state, and Cranmer hardly distinguished between the two.
Although in later ages its importance was enormously magnified, it differs only in degree, not in kind, from other charters granted by the Norman and early Plantagenet kings.
This feeling was fostered by its many confirmations, and in subsequent ages, especially during the time of the struggle between the Stewart kings and the parliament, it was regarded as something sacrosanct, embodying the very ideal of English liberties, which to some extent had been lost, but which must be regained.
Sir Edward Coke finds in Magna Carta a full and proper legal answer to every exaction of the Stuart kings, and a remedy for every evil suffered at the time.
Having been converted into a palace for the Frankish kings and their deputies, it passed in 1197 to the archbishops, and was restored (1846 7 1856) and turned into a Protestant church.
Although some Frankish kings resided here, it gradually yielded place to Metz as a Frankish capital.
The German kings Otto IV.
Thus Westminster Abbey is sometimes styled the British "Pantheon," and the rotunda in the Escorial where the kings of Spain are buried also bears the name.
St Wilfrid was justified and was sent back to his see, with papal letters to the kings of Northumbria and Mercia.
In theory, Hooker's contentions have been conceded that " kings cannot in their own proper persons decide questions about matters of faith and Christian religion " and that " they have not ordinary spiritual power " (Ecc. Pol.
Kings began to insist upon trying ecclesiastics for treason or other political crimes in secular courts.
On the 26th of December 1076 Boleslaus encircled his own brows with the royal diadem, a striking proof that the Polish kings did not even yet consider their title quite secure.
According to Frazer, these traditions may be " distorted reminiscences " of the practice of human sacrifice, especially of divine kings, the object of which was to ensure fertility in the animal and vegetable worlds.
The kings of the Pasargadae, from the clan of the Achaemenidae, had become kings of the Elamitic district Anshan (probably in 596, cf.
So the Persian kings fixed their residence at Susa, which is always considered as the capital of the empire (therefore Aeschylus wrongly considers it as a Persian town and places the tomb of Darius here).
Persis never became a part of the empire of the Arsacids, although her kings recognized their supremacy when they were strong (Strabo xv.
Before the 14th century B.C. the warrior kings of Egypt had carried the power of their arms southward from the delta of the Nile wellnigh to its source, and eastward to the confines of Assyria.
by 61 ft.), in which thirty-five German kings and eleven queens have banqueted after the coronation ceremony in the cathedral.
in 1531 the sacring of the German kings took place at Aix, and as many as thirty-two emperors and kings were here crowned.
In the lexical tablets Anzan is given as the equivalent of Elamtu, and the native kings entitle themselves kings of "Anzan and Susa," as well as "princes of the Khapirti."
One of the kings of the dynasty of Ur built at Susa.
The whole country was reduced to a desert, Susa was plundered and razed to the ground, the royal sepulchres were desecrated, and the images of the gods and of 32 kings "in silver, gold, bronze and alabaster," were carried away.
19), prophets (2 Kings ii.
30 a Here was an important high place (1 Kings iii.
He was one of the first to see that for Biblical exegesis it was necessary to reconstruct the social environment of olden times, and he skilfully applied his practical knowledge of statecraft to the elucidation of the books of Samuel and Kings.
A few years later (about 600) the two Pentateuchal documents J and E were woven together, the books of Kings were compiled, the book of Habakkuk and parts of the Proverbs were written.
In the time of Aurangzeb the Ahom kings held sway over the entire Brahmaputra valley from Sadiya to near Goalpara, and from the skirts of the southern hills to the Bhutia frontier on the north.
Their religion was pagan, being quite distinct from Buddhism; but in Assam they gradually became Hinduized, and their kings finally adopted Hindu names and titles.
The kings claimed independent divine origin.
King Amaziah having fled hither, was here murdered by conspirators (2 Kings xiv.
Sennacherib here conducted a campaign (2 Kings xviii.
Samsat itself represents the ancient Samosata, the capital of the Seleucid kings of Commagene (Kuinukh of the Assyrian inscriptions), and here the Persian Royal Road from Sardis to Susa is supposed to have crossed the river.
Six miles below this the ruins of Kai' at Dibse mark the site of the ancient Thapsacus (Tiphsah of 1 Kings iv.
It stands in relation to Danish history somewhat as Westminster Abbey does to English, containing the tombs of most of the Danish kings from Harold I.
They gave Scotland nobles and even kings; Bruce and Balliol were both of the truest Norman descent; the true Norman descent of Comyn might be doubted, but he was of the stock of the Francigenae of the Conquest.
than the buildings of the Norman kings in England and the buildings of the Norman kings in Sicily.
of the Norman kings at Palermo and Monreale and Cefalu and Messina are in style simply Saracenic; they were most likely the work of Saracen builders; they were beyond doubt built after Saracenic models.
And, as modern changes have commonly attacked the power both of kings and of nobles, the common notion has come that kingship and nobility have some necessary connexion.
He seems, however, not to have been contented with this position, and to have entertained the design of putting an end to the dependent kingdoms. At all events we hear of no kings of the Hwicce after about 780, and the kings of Sussex seem to have given up the royal title about the same time.
Further, there is no evidence for any kings in Kent from 784 until after Offa's death.
Almoners, as distinct from chaplains, appear early as attached to the court of the kings of France; but the title of grand almoner of Franc* first appears in the reign of Charles VIII.
Towards the end of the reign of lEthelberht, who died about 616, Radwald of East Anglia, who had apparently spent some time at the court of Kent, began to win for himself the chief position among the Anglo-Saxon kings of his day.
East Anglia was subject to the supremacy of the Mercian kings until 825, when its people slew Beornwulf of Mercia, and with their king acknowledged Ecgberht (Egbert) of Wessex as their lord.
Gregory was on his way to Rome to crown Rudolph and send him out on a great crusade in company with the kings of England, France, Aragon and Sicily, when he died at Arezzo on the 10th of January 1276.
From the earliest times the term tsar - a contraction of the word Caesar - had been applied to the kings in Biblical history and the Byzantine emperors, and Ivan III.
Two Danish kings, Frederick II.
All his four sons, Valdemar, Eric, Abel and Christopher became kings of Denmark.
It evidently suffered in the bloody conflicts of Damascus with Israel (1 Kings xv.
(2 Kings xv.
Tiridates adopted the name of his brother Arsaces, and after him all the other Parthian kings (who by the historians are generally called by their proper names), amounting to the number of about thirty, officially wear only the name Arsaces.
With very few exceptions only the name AP/AKHI (with various epithets) occurs on the coins of the Parthian kings, and the obverse generally shows the seated figure of the founder of the dynasty, holding in his hand a strung bow.
The name Arsaces of Persia is also borne by some kings of Armenia, who were of Parthian origin.
It is not improbable that in 2 Kings iii.
5 to Ashtoreth; in 2 Kings i.
(2) It is merely a plural of dignity (pluralis majestatis) parallel to adonim (applied to a king in i Kings xviii.
I Kings iii.
Of this we have a vivid example in the episode 2 Kings xviii.
The wrath with which the Israelite armies believed themselves to be visited (probably an outbreak of pestilence) when the king of Moab was reduced to his last extremity, was obviously the wrath of Chemosh the god of Moab, which the king's sacrifice of his only son had awakened against the invading army (2 Kings iii.
7; 'see also 2 Kings ii.
1 Kings ii.
Probably there was little externally to distinguish the prophet of Yahweh in the days of Samuel from the CanaanitePhoenician prophets of Baal and Asherah (1 Kings xviii.
With reference to Elijah and Elisha, see 2 Kings ii.
It was the advice of Elisha that rescued the armies of Jehoram and Jehoshaphat in their war against Moab when they were involved in the waterless wastes that surrounded them (2 Kings iii.
We again find Elisha intervening with effect on behalf of Israel in the wars against Syria, so that his fame spread to Syria itself (2 Kings v.-viii.
Lastly it was the fiery counsels of the dying prophet, accompanied by the acted magic of the arrow shot through the open window, and also of the thrice smitten floor, that gave nerve and courage to Joash, king of Israel, when the armies of Syria pressed heavily on the northern kingdom (2 Kings xiii.
The ordinary Hebrew nabhi' still remained not the reflective visionary, stirred at times by music into strange raptures (2 Kings iii.
15), but the ecstatic and orgiastic dervish who was meshuggah or " frenzied," a term which was constantly applied to him from the days of Elisha to those of Jeremiah (2 Kings ix.
Of this we have an interesting example in the vivid episode that preceded the battle of Ramoth-Gilead described in 1 Kings xxii., when Micaiah appears as the true prophet of Yahweh, who in his rare independence stands in sharp contrast with the conventional court prophets, who prophesied then, as their descendants prophesied more than two centuries later, smooth things.
Yahweh would be powerless in the presence of Ashur (2 Kings xviii.
The strange contrast between the succession of dynasties and kings cut off by assassination in the northern kingdom, ending in the tragic overthrow of 721 B.C., and the persistent succession through three centuries of the seed of David on the throne of Jerusalem, as well as the marvellous escape of Jerusalem in 701 B.C. from the fate of Samaria, must have invested the seed of David in the eyes of all thoughtful observers with a mysterious and divine significance.
The untimely death of that monarch upon the battlefield of Megiddo (608 B.C.), followed by the inglorious reigns of the kings who succeeded him, who became puppets in turn of Egypt or of Babylonia, silenced for a while the Messianic hopes for a future king or line of kings of Davidic lineage who would rule a renovated kingdom in righteousness and peace.
In all probability the reformation instituted in the reign of Hezekiah, to which 2 Kings xviii.
19 foil.), whereas the old universal practice is the barbarous custom Elisha commended (2 Kings iii.
But this term (literally the chief priest) was already in use during the regal period to designate the head priest of an important sanctuary such as Jerusalem (2 Kings xii.
The berosh, or beroth, of the Hebrew Scriptures, translated "fir" in the authorized version, in I Kings v.
He successfully resisted encroachments on ecclesiastical jurisdiction by the kings of England, Castile and Aragon.
Freeman, on account of the Romanesque character of the architecture, thought it probable that it really belongs to the time of the Lombard kings, and his opinion is shared by Ricci and Rivoira, who consider it to be a guardhouse erected by the exarchs, recent explorations having made it clear that it was an addition to the palace, while mosaic pavements and an atrium once surrounded by arcades really belonging to the latter were found in 1870 behind S.
The building activity of the Gothic kings was continued by Justinian, to whose time we owe the completion of S.
At the request of Mir `Alishirr, himself a distinguished statesman and writer, Mirkhond began about 1474, in the quiet convent of Khilasiyah, which his patron had founded in Herat as a house of retreat for literary men of merit, his great work on universal history, Rauzat-ussafa fi sirat-ulanbia walmuluk walkhulafa or Garden of Purity on the Biography of Prophets, Kings and Caliphs.
Besides the lithographed editions of the whole work in folio (Bombay, 1853, and Teheran, 1852-1856) and a Turkish version (Constantinople, 1842), the following portions of Mirkhond's history have been published by European Orientalists: Early Kings of Persia, by D.
Bermondsey was in favour with the Norman kings as a place of residence, and there was a palace here, perhaps from pre-Norman times.
Suarez refutes the patriarchal theory of government and the divine right of kings founded upon it---doctrines popular at that time in England and to some extent on the Continent.
that he should harbour in his dominions a declared enemy of the throne and majesty of kings.
533) 1 A list of these kings will be found in P. W.
Niall of the black knee), one of the most famous of the early Irish kings, from whom the family surname of the O'Neills was derived.
His son Murkertagh, who gained a great victory over the Norse in 926, is celebrated for his triumphant march round Ireland, the Moirthimchell Eiream, in which, starting from Portglenone on the Bann, he completed a circuit of the island at the head of his armed clan, returning with many captive kings and chieftains.
Niall Og O'Neill, one of the four kings of Ireland, accepted knighthood from Richard II.
chief of the clan) on the death of his kinsman Domhnall Boy O'Neill; a dignity from which he was deposed in 1455 by his son Henry, who in 1463 was acknowledged as chief of the Irish kings by Henry VII.
For the history of the ancient Irish kings of the Hy Neill see: The Book of Leinster, edited with introduction by R.
It contains in fact the history itself in two forms: (a) from the creation of man to the fall of Judah (Genesis-2 Kings), which is supplemented and continued further - (b) to the foundation of Judaism in the 5th century B.C. (Chronicles - Ezra-Nehemiah).
Like many Oriental works it is a compilation, as may be illustrated from a comparison of Chronicles with Samuel - Kings, and the representation of the past in the light of the present (as exemplified in Chronicles) is a frequently recurring phenomenon.
This involves the view that the historical traditions are mainly due to two characteristic though very complicated recensions, one under the influence of the teaching of Deuteronomy (Joshua to Kings, see § 20), the other, of a more priestly character (akin to Leviticus), of somewhat later date (Genesis to Joshua, with traces in Judges to Kings, see § 23).
The story of the settlement of the national and tribal ancestors in Palestine is interrupted by an account of the southward movement of Jacob (or Israel) and his sons into a district under the immediate influence of the kings of Egypt.
The former, however, is based upon the account of victories by the Ephraimite Joshua over confederations of petty kings to the south and north of central Palestine, apparently the specific traditions of the people of Ephraim describing from their standpoint the entire conquest of Palestine.
At all events the first of a series of annalistic notices of the kings of Israel ascribes to Saul conquests over the surrounding peoples to an extent which implies that the district of Judah formed part of his kingdom (I Sam.
Both Israel and Judah had their own annals, brief excerpts from which appear in the books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles, and they are supplemented by fuller narratives of distinct and more popular origin.
History saw in David the head of a lengthy line of kings, the founder of the Judaean monarchy, the psalmist and the priest-king who inaugurated religious institutions now recognized to be of a distinctly later character.
The history of the two kingdoms is contained in Kings and the later and relatively less trustworthy Chronicles, which deals with Judah alone.
The 480 years from the foundation of the temple of Jerusalem back to the date of the exodus (I Kings vi.
Next, the Judaean compiler regularly finds in Israel's troubles the punishment for its schismatic idolatry; nor does he spare Judah, but judges its kings by a standard which agrees with the standpoint of Deuteronomy and is scarcely earlier than the end of the 7th century B.C. (§§ 16, 20).
Similarly the thread of the Judaean annals in Kings is also found in 2 Samuel, although the supplementary narratives in Kings are not so rich or varied as the more popular records in the preceding books.
A defensive coalition was formed in which the kings of Cilicia, Hamath, the Phoenician coast, Damascus and Ammon, the Arabs of the Syrian desert, and " Ahabbu Sinai " were concerned.
for the number i Kings x.
Hazael of Damascus, Jehu of Israel and Elisha the prophet are the three men of the new age linked together in the words of one writer as though commissioned for like ends (1 Kings xix.
This brief notice heralds the commencement of Hazael's attack upon Israelite territory east of the Jordan (2 Kings x.
The alliance between Jehoshaphat and Ahab doubtless continued when the latter was succeeded by his son Ahaziah, and some disaster befell their trading fleet in the Gulf of Akaba (I Kings xxii.
Next came the revolt of Moab (2 Kings i.
Moreover, of the various accounts of the massacre of the princes of Judah, the Judaean ascribes it not to Jehu and the reforming party (2 Kings x.
OLD] as trustworthy as those in Kings.'
3, 13), and in the account of the interview between Elisha and Hazael (2 Kings viii.
The enemy under Hazael's son Ben-hadad (properly Bar-hadad) was driven out and Joash regained the territory which his father had lost (2 Kings xiii.
1 Kings xx.
Syria had not been crushed, and the failure to utilize the opportunity was an act of impolitic leniency for which Israel was bound to suffer (2 Kings xiii.
Those in Israel who remembered the previous war between 1 Careful examination shows that no a priori distinction can be drawn between " trustworthy " books of Kings and " untrustworthy books " of Chronicles.
(See also Palestine: History.) For the former (2 Kings xii.
Asa and Baasha 11 Kings xv.
Both Jehoash (of Judah) and his son Amaziah left behind them a great name; and the latter was comparable only to David (2 Kings xiv.
The result was the route of Judah, the capture of Amaziah, the destruction of the northern wall of Jerusalem, the sacking of the temple and palace, and the removal of hostages to Samaria (2 Kings xiv.
He saved Israel from being blotted out, and through his successes " the children of Israel dwelt in their tents as of old " (2 Kings xiii.
In particular, the overthrow of Israel as foreshadowed in I Kings xxii.
8; I Kings xx., xxii.; 2 Kings vi.
5 Special mention is made of Jonah, a prophet of Zebulun in (north) Israel (2 Kings xiv.
Among those who paid tribute were Rasun (the biblical Rezin) of Damascus, Menahem of Samaria, the kings of Tyre, Byblos and Hamath and the queen of Aribi (Arabia, the Syrian desert).
2 Kings xx.
The small kings who had remained faithful were rewarded by an extension of their territories, and Ashdod, Ekron and Gaza were enriched at Judah's expense.
That the writer (2 Kings xxii.
From the standpoint of the popular religion, the removal of the local altars, like Hezekiah's destruction of the brazen serpent, would be an act of desecration, an iconoclasm which can be partly appreciated from the sentiments of 2 Kings xviii.
It is part of the scheme which runs through the book of Kings, and its apparent object is to show that the Temple planned by David and founded by Solomon ultimately gained its true position as the only sanctuary of Yahweh to which his worshippers should repair.
The book of Kings gives the standpoint of a later Judaean writer, but Josiah's authority over a much larger area than Judah alone is suggested by xxiii.
(a) That there was some fluctuation of tradition is evident in the case of Jehoiakim, with whose quiet end (2 Kings xxiv.
5 that Zedekiah would die in peace is not borne out by the history, nor does Josiah's fate agree with the promise in 2 Kings xxii.
28-30 gives a total of 4600 persons, in contrast to 2 Kings xxiv.
A period of fifty years is allowed by the chronological scheme (I Kings vi.
2 Kings xxiv.
It would certainly be unwise to draw a sharp boundary line between the two districts; kings of Judah could be tempted to restore the kingdom of their traditional founder, or Assyria might be complaisant towards a faithful Judaean vassal.
Thenceforth they continued the worship of the Israelite Yahweh along with their own native cults (2 Kings xvii.
2 Kings xvii.
The earlier Persian kings acknowledged the various religions of the petty peoples; they were also patrons of their temples and would take care to preserve an ancient right of asylum or the privileges of long-established cults.'
But the later recension of Judaean history - our sole source - entirely ignores the elevation of Jehoiachin (2 Kings xxv.
2 seq., conflicts with 2 Kings xxiv.
A work which inculcates the dependence of the state upon the purity of its ruler is the unfinished book of Kings with its history of the Davidic dynasty and the Temple.
Its treatment of the monarchy is only part of a great and now highly complicated literary undertaking (traceable in the books Joshua to Kings), inspired with the thought and coloured by language characteristic of Deuteronomy (especially the secondary portions), which forms the necessary introduction.
2-9) rely upon the historical trustworthiness of 2 Kings xxii.
22), Bagohi (Bagoas), governor of Judah, and Delaiah and Shelemiah sons of Sanballat (408-407 B.C.) They ignore any strained relations between Samaria and Judah, and Delaiah and Bagohi unite in granting permission to the Jewish colony to rebuild their place of worship. If this fixes the date of Sanballat and Nehemiah in the time of the first Artaxerxes, the probability of confusion in the later written sources is enhanced by the recurrence of identical names of kings, priests, &c., in the history.
1 Fortified with remarkable powers, some of which far exceed the known tolerance of Persian kings, he began wide-sweeping marriage reforms; but the record ceases abruptly (vii.-x.).
The Chaldeans alone destroyed Jerusalem (2 Kings xxv.); Edom was friendly or at least neutral (Jer.
The proposal to read " Edomites " for " Syrians " in the list of bands which troubled Jehoiakim (2 Kings xxiv.
The history in Kings was not finally settled until a very late date, as is evident from the important variations in the Septuagint, and it is especially in the description of the time of Solomon and the disruption that there continued to be considerable fluctuations.'
Instead of sacerdotal kings, there were royal priests, anointed with oil, arrayed with kingly insignia, claiming the usual royal dues in addition to the customary rights of the priests.
Io seq.) bears the same name as the one who advised Rehoboam to acquiesce in the disruption (1 Kings xii.
The post-exilic priestly spirit represents a tendency which is absent from the Judaean Deuteronomic book of Kings but is fully mature in the later, and to some extent parallel, book of Chronicles (q.v.).
Kings and Chronicles).
- But in 138 B.C. Antiochus Sidetes entered Seleucia and required the submission of all the petty states, which had taken advantage of the weakness of preceding kings.
When he went on his last disastrous campaign, Hyrcanus led a Jewish contingent to join his army, partly perhaps a troop of mercenaries (for Hyrcanus was the first of the Jewish kings to hire mercenaries, with the treasure found in David's tomb).
So Herod and Phasael continued to be virtually kings of the Jews: Antony's court required large remittances and Palestine was not exempt.
Joined by Titus, Vespasian advanced into Galilee with three legions and the auxiliary troops supplied by Agrippa and other petty kings.
While the court Jews were the favourites of kings, the protected Jews were the protégés of town councils.
It became a borough in 1319 by a charter of Edward II., which was confirmed in 1342 and 1378, and by each of the Lancastrian kings.
The supreme governing authority was vested in magistrates called Cosmi, answering in some measure to the Spartan Ephori, but there was nothing corresponding to the two kings at Sparta.
The powers of a dictator were a temporary revival of those of the kings; but there were some limitations to his authority.
The rights of these kings were doubtful, not only because of their illegitimate birth, but because it was claimed in Rome that Alexander II.
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