Kings Sentence Examples
It was a bitter mortification to Alexander, before whose imagination new vistas had just opened out eastwards, where there beckoned the unknown world of the Ganges and its splendid kings.
The tribal organization in northern Albania is an interesting survival of the earliest form of social combination; it may be compared in many respects with that which existed in the Scottish highlands in the time of the Stuart kings.
In addition to this Bedouin organization there was the curious institution of an elective monarchy, some of whose kings are catalogued in Gen.
In the neighbourhood are the ruins of Law Castle, Crosbie Castle and Portincross Castle, the last, dating from the 13th century, said to be a seat of the Stuart kings.
The two kings were twice defeated.Advertisement
In the course of centuries, however, they were absorbed into the Babylonian population; the kings adopted Semitic names and married into the royal family of Assyria.
He was the advisor and friend of two of the kings who succeeded Cyrus.
Athens at once appealed to Sparta to punish this act of medism, and Cleomenes I., one of the Spartan kings, crossed over to the island, to arrest those who were responsible for it.
Ctesias mentions further, with regard to a number of Persians kings, either that their remains were brought " to the Persians," or that they died there.'
After some years' absence in England, fighting the Danes, he returned to Norway in 1015 and declared himself king, obtaining the support of the five petty kings of the Uplands.Advertisement
He had annihilated the petty kings of the South, had crushed the aristocracy, enforced the acceptance of Christianity throughout the kingdom, asserted his suzerainty in the Orkney Islands, had humbled the king of Sweden and married his daughter in his despite, and had conducted a successful raid on Denmark.
The name was borne also by four Parthian kings.
Lothaire had no heir, and in 870 by the treaty of Meerssen his territory was divided between the kings of East and West Francia.
The history of the Netherlands from this time forward - with the exception of Flanders, which continued to be a fief of the French kings - is the history of the various feudal states into which the duchy of Lower Lorraine was gradually broken up.
Its remoteness from the control of the authority of the German and French kings, together with its inaccessibility, gave special facilities in Lower Lorraine to the growth of a number of practically independent feudal states forming a group or system apart.Advertisement
On the 26th of June 1657 he was once more installed as Protector, this time, however, with regal ceremony in contrast with the simple formalities observed on the first occasion, the heralds proclaiming his accession in the same manner as that of the kings.
By the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine with Henry Plantagenet, the countship passed under the suzerainty of the kings of England, but at the same time it was divided, William VII., called the Young (1145-1168), having been despoiled of a portion of his domain by his uncle William VIII.,called the Old,who was supported by Henry II.
According to r Kings xvi.
The city rights and usages were respected by kings and conquerors alike.
The kings uncle is duke of Aosta, his son is prince of Piedmont and his cousin is duke of Genoa.Advertisement
The Italians acknowledged eight kings of the house of Charles the Great, ending in Charles the Fat, who was deposed in 888.
The pope followed with a counter excommunication, far more formidable, releasing the kings subjects from their oaths of allegiance.
By a treaty signed at Granada, the French and Spanish kings were to divide the spoil.
The affairs of Europe during the years when Habsburg and Bourbon fought their domestic battles with the blood of noble races may teach grave lessons to all thoughtful men of our days, but none bitterer, none fraught with more insulting recollections, than to the Italian people, who were haggled over like dumb driven cattle in the mart of chaffering kings.
Philip founded the Bourbon line of Spanish kings, renouncing in Italy all that his Habsburg predecessors had gained.Advertisement
But Francis of Lorraine, elected emperor in that year, sent an army to the kings support, which in 1746 obtained a signal victory over the Bourbons at Piacenza.
Very many of them, distrusting both of these kings, sought to act independently in favor of an Italian republic. Lord William Bentinck with an AngloSicilian force landed at Leghorn on the 8th of March 1814, and issued a proclamation to the Italians bidding them rise against Napoleon in the interests of their own freedom.
Cavours stirring against articles in the Risorgimento hastened the kings decision, Austria.
Martinengo Cesarescos Liberation of Italy (London, 1895) is to be strongly recommended, and is indeed, for accuracy, fairness and synthesis, as well as for charm of style, one of the very best books on the subject in any language; Bolton Kings History of Italian Unity (2 vols., London, 1899) is bulkier and less satisfactory, but contains a useful bibliography.
The advent of Thiers, his attitude towards the petition of French bishops on behalf of the pope, the recall of Senard, the French minister at Florencewho had written to congratulate Victor Emmanuel on the capture of Romeand the instructions given to his successor, the comte de Choiseul, to absent himself from Italy at the moment of the kings official entry into the new capital (2nd July 1871), together with the haste displayed in appointing a French ambassador to the Holy See, rapidly cooled the cordiality of Franco-Italian relations, and reassured Bismarck on the score of any dangerous intimacy between the two governments.
A further derogation from the ideal of democratic austerity was committed by adding 80,000 per annum to the kings civil list (14th May 1877) and by burdening the state exchequer with royal household pensions amounting to 20,000 a year.
He also persuaded the new ruler to inaugurate, as King Humbert I., the new dynastical epoch of the kings of Italy, instead of continuing as Humbert IV.
For modern times, see Bolton Kings History of Italian Unity (1899) antI Bolton King and Thomas Okeys Italy To-day (1901).
In any case, in 1676, together with Lauderdale alone, he consented to a treaty between Charles and Louis according to which the foreign policy of both kings was to be conducted in union, and Charles received an annual subsidy of £10o,000.
His views on church polity were dominated by his implicit belief in the divine right of kings (not of course the divine hereditary right of kings) which the Anglicans felt it necessary to set up against the divine right of popes.
He set practically no limits to the ecclesiastical authority of kings; they were as fully the representatives of the church as the state, and Cranmer hardly distinguished between the two.
Although in later ages its importance was enormously magnified, it differs only in degree, not in kind, from other charters granted by the Norman and early Plantagenet kings.
This feeling was fostered by its many confirmations, and in subsequent ages, especially during the time of the struggle between the Stewart kings and the parliament, it was regarded as something sacrosanct, embodying the very ideal of English liberties, which to some extent had been lost, but which must be regained.
Sir Edward Coke finds in Magna Carta a full and proper legal answer to every exaction of the Stuart kings, and a remedy for every evil suffered at the time.
Having been converted into a palace for the Frankish kings and their deputies, it passed in 1197 to the archbishops, and was restored (1846 7 1856) and turned into a Protestant church.
Although some Frankish kings resided here, it gradually yielded place to Metz as a Frankish capital.
Thus Westminster Abbey is sometimes styled the British "Pantheon," and the rotunda in the Escorial where the kings of Spain are buried also bears the name.
St Wilfrid was justified and was sent back to his see, with papal letters to the kings of Northumbria and Mercia.
Kings began to insist upon trying ecclesiastics for treason or other political crimes in secular courts.
On the 26th of December 1076 Boleslaus encircled his own brows with the royal diadem, a striking proof that the Polish kings did not even yet consider their title quite secure.
According to Frazer, these traditions may be " distorted reminiscences " of the practice of human sacrifice, especially of divine kings, the object of which was to ensure fertility in the animal and vegetable worlds.
So the Persian kings fixed their residence at Susa, which is always considered as the capital of the empire (therefore Aeschylus wrongly considers it as a Persian town and places the tomb of Darius here).
Before the 14th century B.C. the warrior kings of Egypt had carried the power of their arms southward from the delta of the Nile wellnigh to its source, and eastward to the confines of Assyria.
In the lexical tablets Anzan is given as the equivalent of Elamtu, and the native kings entitle themselves kings of "Anzan and Susa," as well as "princes of the Khapirti."
One of the kings of the dynasty of Ur built at Susa.
The whole country was reduced to a desert, Susa was plundered and razed to the ground, the royal sepulchres were desecrated, and the images of the gods and of 32 kings "in silver, gold, bronze and alabaster," were carried away.
He was one of the first to see that for Biblical exegesis it was necessary to reconstruct the social environment of olden times, and he skilfully applied his practical knowledge of statecraft to the elucidation of the books of Samuel and Kings.
A few years later (about 600) the two Pentateuchal documents J and E were woven together, the books of Kings were compiled, the book of Habakkuk and parts of the Proverbs were written.
In the time of Aurangzeb the Ahom kings held sway over the entire Brahmaputra valley from Sadiya to near Goalpara, and from the skirts of the southern hills to the Bhutia frontier on the north.
Their religion was pagan, being quite distinct from Buddhism; but in Assam they gradually became Hinduized, and their kings finally adopted Hindu names and titles.
The kings claimed independent divine origin.
Samsat itself represents the ancient Samosata, the capital of the Seleucid kings of Commagene (Kuinukh of the Assyrian inscriptions), and here the Persian Royal Road from Sardis to Susa is supposed to have crossed the river.
It stands in relation to Danish history somewhat as Westminster Abbey does to English, containing the tombs of most of the Danish kings from Harold I.
They gave Scotland nobles and even kings; Bruce and Balliol were both of the truest Norman descent; the true Norman descent of Comyn might be doubted, but he was of the stock of the Francigenae of the Conquest.
And, as modern changes have commonly attacked the power both of kings and of nobles, the common notion has come that kingship and nobility have some necessary connexion.
He seems, however, not to have been contented with this position, and to have entertained the design of putting an end to the dependent kingdoms. At all events we hear of no kings of the Hwicce after about 780, and the kings of Sussex seem to have given up the royal title about the same time.
Further, there is no evidence for any kings in Kent from 784 until after Offa's death.
Almoners, as distinct from chaplains, appear early as attached to the court of the kings of France; but the title of grand almoner of Franc* first appears in the reign of Charles VIII.
Towards the end of the reign of lEthelberht, who died about 616, Radwald of East Anglia, who had apparently spent some time at the court of Kent, began to win for himself the chief position among the Anglo-Saxon kings of his day.
East Anglia was subject to the supremacy of the Mercian kings until 825, when its people slew Beornwulf of Mercia, and with their king acknowledged Ecgberht (Egbert) of Wessex as their lord.
Gregory was on his way to Rome to crown Rudolph and send him out on a great crusade in company with the kings of England, France, Aragon and Sicily, when he died at Arezzo on the 10th of January 1276.
From the earliest times the term tsar - a contraction of the word Caesar - had been applied to the kings in Biblical history and the Byzantine emperors, and Ivan III.
All his four sons, Valdemar, Eric, Abel and Christopher became kings of Denmark.
Tiridates adopted the name of his brother Arsaces, and after him all the other Parthian kings (who by the historians are generally called by their proper names), amounting to the number of about thirty, officially wear only the name Arsaces.
With very few exceptions only the name AP/AKHI (with various epithets) occurs on the coins of the Parthian kings, and the obverse generally shows the seated figure of the founder of the dynasty, holding in his hand a strung bow.
The name Arsaces of Persia is also borne by some kings of Armenia, who were of Parthian origin.
It is not improbable that in 2 Kings iii.
Of this we have a vivid example in the episode 2 Kings xviii.
With reference to Elijah and Elisha, see 2 Kings ii.
Of this we have an interesting example in the vivid episode that preceded the battle of Ramoth-Gilead described in 1 Kings xxii., when Micaiah appears as the true prophet of Yahweh, who in his rare independence stands in sharp contrast with the conventional court prophets, who prophesied then, as their descendants prophesied more than two centuries later, smooth things.
The strange contrast between the succession of dynasties and kings cut off by assassination in the northern kingdom, ending in the tragic overthrow of 721 B.C., and the persistent succession through three centuries of the seed of David on the throne of Jerusalem, as well as the marvellous escape of Jerusalem in 701 B.C. from the fate of Samaria, must have invested the seed of David in the eyes of all thoughtful observers with a mysterious and divine significance.
The untimely death of that monarch upon the battlefield of Megiddo (608 B.C.), followed by the inglorious reigns of the kings who succeeded him, who became puppets in turn of Egypt or of Babylonia, silenced for a while the Messianic hopes for a future king or line of kings of Davidic lineage who would rule a renovated kingdom in righteousness and peace.
In all probability the reformation instituted in the reign of Hezekiah, to which 2 Kings xviii.
The berosh, or beroth, of the Hebrew Scriptures, translated "fir" in the authorized version, in I Kings v.
He successfully resisted encroachments on ecclesiastical jurisdiction by the kings of England, Castile and Aragon.
At the request of Mir `Alishirr, himself a distinguished statesman and writer, Mirkhond began about 1474, in the quiet convent of Khilasiyah, which his patron had founded in Herat as a house of retreat for literary men of merit, his great work on universal history, Rauzat-ussafa fi sirat-ulanbia walmuluk walkhulafa or Garden of Purity on the Biography of Prophets, Kings and Caliphs.
Bermondsey was in favour with the Norman kings as a place of residence, and there was a palace here, perhaps from pre-Norman times.
Suarez refutes the patriarchal theory of government and the divine right of kings founded upon it---doctrines popular at that time in England and to some extent on the Continent.
His son Murkertagh, who gained a great victory over the Norse in 926, is celebrated for his triumphant march round Ireland, the Moirthimchell Eiream, in which, starting from Portglenone on the Bann, he completed a circuit of the island at the head of his armed clan, returning with many captive kings and chieftains.
Niall Og O'Neill, one of the four kings of Ireland, accepted knighthood from Richard II.
Like many Oriental works it is a compilation, as may be illustrated from a comparison of Chronicles with Samuel - Kings, and the representation of the past in the light of the present (as exemplified in Chronicles) is a frequently recurring phenomenon.
This involves the view that the historical traditions are mainly due to two characteristic though very complicated recensions, one under the influence of the teaching of Deuteronomy (Joshua to Kings, see § 20), the other, of a more priestly character (akin to Leviticus), of somewhat later date (Genesis to Joshua, with traces in Judges to Kings, see § 23).
The story of the settlement of the national and tribal ancestors in Palestine is interrupted by an account of the southward movement of Jacob (or Israel) and his sons into a district under the immediate influence of the kings of Egypt.
The former, however, is based upon the account of victories by the Ephraimite Joshua over confederations of petty kings to the south and north of central Palestine, apparently the specific traditions of the people of Ephraim describing from their standpoint the entire conquest of Palestine.
Both Israel and Judah had their own annals, brief excerpts from which appear in the books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles, and they are supplemented by fuller narratives of distinct and more popular origin.
History saw in David the head of a lengthy line of kings, the founder of the Judaean monarchy, the psalmist and the priest-king who inaugurated religious institutions now recognized to be of a distinctly later character.
The history of the two kingdoms is contained in Kings and the later and relatively less trustworthy Chronicles, which deals with Judah alone.
Next, the Judaean compiler regularly finds in Israel's troubles the punishment for its schismatic idolatry; nor does he spare Judah, but judges its kings by a standard which agrees with the standpoint of Deuteronomy and is scarcely earlier than the end of the 7th century B.C. (§§ 16, 20).
Similarly the thread of the Judaean annals in Kings is also found in 2 Samuel, although the supplementary narratives in Kings are not so rich or varied as the more popular records in the preceding books.
A defensive coalition was formed in which the kings of Cilicia, Hamath, the Phoenician coast, Damascus and Ammon, the Arabs of the Syrian desert, and " Ahabbu Sinai " were concerned.
Those in Israel who remembered the previous war between 1 Careful examination shows that no a priori distinction can be drawn between " trustworthy " books of Kings and " untrustworthy books " of Chronicles.
In particular, the overthrow of Israel as foreshadowed in I Kings xxii.
Among those who paid tribute were Rasun (the biblical Rezin) of Damascus, Menahem of Samaria, the kings of Tyre, Byblos and Hamath and the queen of Aribi (Arabia, the Syrian desert).
The small kings who had remained faithful were rewarded by an extension of their territories, and Ashdod, Ekron and Gaza were enriched at Judah's expense.
From the standpoint of the popular religion, the removal of the local altars, like Hezekiah's destruction of the brazen serpent, would be an act of desecration, an iconoclasm which can be partly appreciated from the sentiments of 2 Kings xviii.
It is part of the scheme which runs through the book of Kings, and its apparent object is to show that the Temple planned by David and founded by Solomon ultimately gained its true position as the only sanctuary of Yahweh to which his worshippers should repair.
The book of Kings gives the standpoint of a later Judaean writer, but Josiah's authority over a much larger area than Judah alone is suggested by xxiii.
It would certainly be unwise to draw a sharp boundary line between the two districts; kings of Judah could be tempted to restore the kingdom of their traditional founder, or Assyria might be complaisant towards a faithful Judaean vassal.
Its treatment of the monarchy is only part of a great and now highly complicated literary undertaking (traceable in the books Joshua to Kings), inspired with the thought and coloured by language characteristic of Deuteronomy (especially the secondary portions), which forms the necessary introduction.
The history in Kings was not finally settled until a very late date, as is evident from the important variations in the Septuagint, and it is especially in the description of the time of Solomon and the disruption that there continued to be considerable fluctuations.'
Instead of sacerdotal kings, there were royal priests, anointed with oil, arrayed with kingly insignia, claiming the usual royal dues in addition to the customary rights of the priests.
Io seq.) bears the same name as the one who advised Rehoboam to acquiesce in the disruption (1 Kings xii.
The post-exilic priestly spirit represents a tendency which is absent from the Judaean Deuteronomic book of Kings but is fully mature in the later, and to some extent parallel, book of Chronicles (q.v.).
When he went on his last disastrous campaign, Hyrcanus led a Jewish contingent to join his army, partly perhaps a troop of mercenaries (for Hyrcanus was the first of the Jewish kings to hire mercenaries, with the treasure found in David's tomb).
Joined by Titus, Vespasian advanced into Galilee with three legions and the auxiliary troops supplied by Agrippa and other petty kings.
While the court Jews were the favourites of kings, the protected Jews were the protégés of town councils.
It became a borough in 1319 by a charter of Edward II., which was confirmed in 1342 and 1378, and by each of the Lancastrian kings.
The supreme governing authority was vested in magistrates called Cosmi, answering in some measure to the Spartan Ephori, but there was nothing corresponding to the two kings at Sparta.
The powers of a dictator were a temporary revival of those of the kings; but there were some limitations to his authority.
The rights of these kings were doubtful, not only because of their illegitimate birth, but because it was claimed in Rome that Alexander II.
After the withdrawal of the Romans in the 5th century the northern Britons seem to have shown greater determination in maintaining their independence than any of the southern kingdoms and, according to Welsh tradition, Cunedda, the ancestor of the kings of Gwynedd, had himself come from the north.
A late authority states that he was succeeded by his son Constantine, but the subsequent kings were descended from another branch of the same family.
In 756 the North Britons are said to have been forced into submission and from this time onwards we hear very little of their history, though occasional references to the deaths of their kings show that the kingdom still continued to exist.
It is believed that the native dynasty came to an end early in the 10th century and that the subsequent kings belonged to a branch of the Scottish royal family.
In the 11th century Strathclyde appears to have been finally incorporated in the Scottish kingdom, and the last time we hear of one of its kings is at the battle of Carham in 1018 when the British king Owen fought in alliance with Malcolm II.
Berthaire was killed by his brother Hermannfried, who took Radegunda and educated her, but was himself slain by the Frankish kings Theuderich and Clotaire (529), and Radegunda fell to Clotaire, who later married her.
Kings held a secondary position, and were generally regarded as adventitious tyrants, rather than as the heads and representatives of the nation.
They appear to have had few states or kings, but rather tribes and chiefs.
The history of his life i s i mmediately continued in I Kings i., where his old age and weakness are for the first time vividly empha sized.
The Saracens devastated it in the 8th century, but were driven out, and the island returned to the rule of kings, until they fell in the 10th century, their place being taken by four "judges" of the four provinces, Cagliari, Torres, Arborea and Gallura.
It was not until 1403 that the kings of Aragon were able to conquer the district of Arborea, which, under the celebrated Eleonora (whose code of laws - the so-called Carta de Logu- was famous), offered a heroic resistance.
The Pasargadian kings of Anshan were vassals of the Median empire.
Written annals carry the record of its kings back to about A.D.
They submitted to several Mahommedan kings under the changing circumstances of those times.
When Frederic the Great gained West Prussia by the first partition of Poland (1772), he was uniting together once more the dominions of the Order, sundered since 1466; and it is the kings of Prussia who have inherited the Order's task of maintaining German influence on the banks of the Vistula.
In 1270 it joined the Hanse towns, Stralsund, Rostock, Wismar and Lubeck, and took part in the wars which they carried on against the kings of Denmark and Norway.
In the 9th century the district suffered frequently from the ravages of the Danes, who in 874 wintered at Repton and destroyed its famous monastery, the burial-place of the kings of Mercia.
As the number of kings decreased the number of witans decreased, until early in the 9th century there was one king and one witan in all England.
Abu '1 Kasim Mansur (or Hasan), who took the nom de plume of Firdousi, author of the epic poem the Shahnama, or "Book of Kings," a complete history of Persia in nearly 60,000 verses, was born at Shadab, a suburb of Tus, about the year 329 of the Hegira (941 A.D.), or earlier.
His work was entitled the Khoda'inama, which in the old dialect also meant the "Book of Kings."
His "Book of Kings" was completed in the year 260 of the Hegira, and was freely circulated in Khorasan and Irak.
She was reconciled with Archbishop Hamilton, and took up arms against the Protestants of Perth, who, incited by Knox, had destroyed the Charterhouse, where many of the Scottish kings were buried.
Few among the ancient Danish nobility occupy so prominent a place in Danish history as Johan Friis, who exercised a decisive influence in the government of the realm during the reign of three kings.
The Electors of Bavaria and Wurttemberg were recognized as kings.
I am making a family of kings attached to my federative system."
That compact was not, as has often been assumed, merely the means of assuring to Napoleon the mastery of the continent and the control of a cohort of kings.
The following is a list of the kings, as far as it is possible to establish their succession.
The fact that shrines have so far been found within palaces and not certainly anywhere else indicates that the kings kept religious power in their own hands; perhaps they were themselves high-priests.
They are divided into a number of classes (kings, hypostases, forms, &c.); the proper names by which they are invoked are many, and for the most part obscure, borrowed doubtless, to some extent, from the Parsee angelology.
The service opened with a procession of Old Testament characters, prophets, patriarchs and kings, together with heathen prophets, including Virgil, the chief figure being Balaam on his ass.
He is generally characterized by the sceptre and diadem, the usual attributes of kings.
Under the old forest laws of England it was one of the "beasts of the forest," and, as such, under the Norman kings the unprivileged killing of it was punishable by death or the loss of a member.
Here six or seven kings are said to have been crowned.
The best account of Philip's character and reign is still that given by Coxe in his Memoirs of the Kings of Spain of the House of Bourbon (London, 1815).
The city developed with great rapidity, and at the outbreak of the Hussite troubles, early in the 14th century, was next to Prague the most important in Bohemia, having become the favourite residence of several of the Bohemian kings.
Now the ruins of the city, the great temple of Ptah, the dwelling of Apis, and the palaces of the kings, are traceable only by a few stones among the palm trees and fields and heaps of rubbish.
A similar step was taken, in 922, in the case of Robert II., this too marking the increasing irritation felt at the weakness of the Carolingian kings.
Philip VI., the first of the Valois kings, was a son of Charles I., count of Valois and grandson of King Philip III.
Members of this family sat upon the thrones of two kingdoms. The counts and dukes of Anjou were kings of Naples from 1265 to 1442.
The connexion lasted during the 9th century; kings like Alfred of England and Louis of Germany sent contributions to Jerusalem, while the Church of Jerusalem acquired estates in the West.
At a later date, in the reign of Baldwin II., Venice also gave her aid to the kings of Jerusalem.
But the real menace to the Latin kingdom lay in northern Syria; and here a power was eventually destined to rise, which outstripped the kings of Jerusalem in the race for Cairo, and then - with the northern and southern boundaries of Jerusalem in its control - was able to crush the kingdom as it were between the two arms of a vice.
The alliance of the emperors of Constantinople was of far more dubious value to the kings of Jerusalem.
On the death of one of the princes without heirs of full age, the kings of Jerusalem were entitled to act as regents, as Baldwin II.
There was, in a word, co-ordination rather than subordination; nor did the kings ever attempt to embark on a policy of centralization.
He had not those rights of sovereign which the Norman kings of England inherited from their AngloSaxon predecessors, or the Capetian kings of France from the Carolings; nor was he able therefore to come into direct touch with each of his subjects, which William I., in virtue of his sovereign rights, was able to attain by the Salisbury oath of 1086.
The assizes may speak of patriarch and king as conjoint seigneurs in Jerusalem; but as a matter of fact the king could secure the nomination of his own patriarch, and after Dagobert the patriarchs are, with the temporary exception of Stephen in 1128, the confidants and supporters of the kings.
They built up great estates, especially in the principality of Tripoli; they quarrelled with one another, until their dissensions prevented any vigorous action; they struggled against the claims of the clergy to tithes and to rights of jurisdiction; they negotiated with the Mahommedans as separate powers; they conducted themselves towards the kings as independent sovereigns.
The hardships of war and the excesses of peace shortened the lives of the men; the kingdom of Jerusalem had eleven kings within a century.
Thus was begun the Second Crusade, 1 under auspices still more favourable than those which attended the beginning of the First, seeing that kings now took the place of knights, while the new crusaders would no longer be penetrating into the wilds, but would find a friendly basis of operations ready to their hands in Frankish Syria.
Crusades appear to have been dignified by numbers when they followed some crushing disaster - the loss of Edessa in 1144, or the fall of Jerusalem in 1187 - and were led by kings and emperors; or when, like the Fourth and Fifth Crusades, they achieved some conspicuous success or failure.
The position of the Franks in the Holy Land was not improved by the attack on Damascus; while the ignominious failure of a Crusade led by two kings brought the whole crusading movement into discredit in western Europe, and it was utterly in vain that Suger and St Bernard attempted to gather a fresh Crusade in 1150.
In Germany it was the solemn national diet of Mainz (Easter 1188) which "swore the expedition" to the Holy Land; in France and England the agreement of the two kings decided upon a joint Crusade.
The lay basis of the Third Crusade made it, in one sense, the greatest of all Crusades, in which all the three great monarchs of western Europe participated; but it also made it a failure, for the kings of France and England, changing caelum, non animum, carried their political rivalries into the movement, in which it had been agreed that they should be sunk.
As emperor, Henry was eager to resume the imperial Crusade which had been stopped by his father's death; while both as Frederick's successor and as heir to the Norman kings of Sicily, who had again and again waged war against the Eastern empire, he had an account to settle with the rulers of Constantinople.
In 1195 Henry took the cross; some time before, he had already sent to Isaac Angelus to demand compensation for the injuries done to Frederick I., along with the cession of all territories ever conquered by the Norman kings of Sicily, and a fleet to co-operate with the new Crusade.
The heirs of the Norman kings were the Hohenstaufen; and we have already seen Henry VI.
The French kings are all crusaders - in name - until the beginning of the Hundred Years' War; but the only crusader who ever carried war in Palestine and sought to shake the hold of the Mamelukes on the Holy Land was Peter I., king of Cyprus from 1359 to 1369.
From these lands the Egyptian kings often derived rich booty, so that in those days Syria must have been civilized and prosperous.
In the spring of 12 9 he visited Asia Minor and Syria, where he invited the kings and princes of the East to a meeting (probably at Samosata).
Numerous less distinguished adepts also practised the art, and sometimes were so successful in their deceptions that they gained the ear of kings, whose desire to profit by the achievements of science was in several instances rewarded by an abundant crop of counterfeit coins.
A few scenes and inscriptions were added by later kings, but the above is practically the history of the temple until Alexander the Great rebuilt the sanctuary itself.
The Sicilian kings ruled Athens by viceroys till 1385, when the Florentine Nerio Acciajuoli, lord of Corinth, defeated the Catalonians and seized the city.
The later text, known as the Lex Alamannorum, dates from a period when Alamannia was independent under national dukes, but recognized the theoretical suzerainty of the Frankish kings.
It dates unquestionably from a period when the Frankish authority was very strong in Bavaria, when the dukes were vassals of the Frankish kings.
Bernicia was again separate from Deira under Eanfrith, son of lEthelfrith (633-634), after which date the kings of Bernicia were supreme in Northumbria, though for a short time under Oswio Deira had a king of its own.
The following year, the question of the intervention of kings in the election of bishops having been raised in a pamphlet by Charles Hersent (Optatus Gallus de cavendo schismate, 1640), Marca defended what were then called the liberties of the Gallican Church, in his celebrated treatise De concordia sacerdotii et imperii, seu de libertatibus ecclesiae gallicanae (1641).
Gibeon was the seat of an old Canaanitish sanctuary afterwards used by the Israelites; it was here that Solomon, immediately after his coronation, went to consult the oracles and had the dream in which he chose the gift of wisdom (1 Kings iii.).
In later days, in the time of the Sargonid kings of Akkad or the monarchs of Ur, stones such is granite, basalt, diorite and dolerite were probably brought from the Sinaitic peninsula, if not from the western desert of Egypt, if the Red Sea coast is to be identified, as seems very probable, with Magan, " the place to which ships went," the land whence the Babylonians got some of their first stones for sculpture and architecture.
We now know something of the early history of Assyria and of the succession of Mer kings from monuments found at Sherqat.
It is not, however, proposed to give here a list of the newly discovered names 37 of the Babylonian kings on tablets from Nippur, published by Poebel 38 and others, as results of this kind belong to the realm of history rather than to that of archaeology.
This was achieved by the kings of Macedonia.
The Egyptians had, of course, ascribed deity by old custom to their kings, and were ready enough to add Alexander to the list.
The compromise, by which both the candidates should be kings together, was, of course, succeeded by a struggle for power among those who wished to rule in their name.
The resettlement of dignities made in Babylon in 32 3, while it left the eastern commands practically undisturbed as well as that of Antipater in Europe, placed Perdiccas (whether as regent or as chiliarch) in possession of the kings' persons, and this was a position which the other Macedonian lords could not suffer.
Of the four kings who now divided the Macedonian Empire amongst them, two were not destined to found durable dynasties, while the house of Antigonus, represented by Demetrius, was after all to do so.
In Bithynia a native dynasty assumed the style of kings in 297.
In Asia Minor, the "enslavement " and liberation of cities alternated with the circumstances of the hour, while the kings all through professed themselves the champions of Hellenic freedom, and were ready on occasion to display munificence toward the city temples or in public works, such as might reconcile republicans to a position of dependence.
How anxious the Pergamene kings, with their ardent Hellenism, were to avoid offence is shown by the elaborate forms by which, in their own capital, they sought to give their real control the appearance of popular freedom (Cardinali, Regno di Pergamo, p. 281 seq.).
This was the route controlled and developed by the Ptolemaic kings.
From Berenice on the Red Sea a land-route struck across to the Nile at Coptos; this route the kings furnished with watering stations.
There does not seem any clear proof that the surnames which the Hellenistic kings in Asia and Egypt bore were necessarily connected with the cult, even if they were used to describe g.Surnames.
To the troops drawn from their own dominions the mercenaries which the kings procured from abroad were an important supplement.
To their native subjects the Seleucid and Ptolemaic kings were always foreigners.
Native cults the Hellenistic kings thought it good policy to patronize.
Later kings added other suburbs; Chosroes I.
Still hankering after Burgundy, Charles saw his French estates again seized; but after some desultory warfare, chiefly in Normandy, peace was made in March 1365, and he returned to his work of interference in the politics of the Spanish kingdoms. In turn he made treaties with the kings of Castile and Aragon, who were at war with each other; promising to assist Peter the Cruel to regain his throne, from which he had been driven in 1366 by his half-brother Henry of Trastamara, and then assuring Henry and his ally Peter of Aragon that he would aid, them to retain Castile.
The members of the commission were to be invested with powers so extensive that Cicero spoke of them as ten "kings."
This second writer singles out three of the Maccabean priest kings for attack, the first of whom he charges with every abomination; the people itself, he declares, is apostate, and chastisement will follow speedily - the temple will be laid waste, the nation carried afresh into captivity, whence, on their repentance, God will restore them again to their own land, where they shall enjoy the blessedness of God's presence and be ruled by a Messiah sprung from Judah.
He turned first against the Byzantines, who were defeated several times; he took Cordova and chastised the Suevi; and then by stern measures he destroyed the power of those unruly and rebellious chieftains who had reduced former kings to the position of ciphers.
Leovigild himself was an Arian, being the last of the Visigothic kings to hold that creed; but he was not a bitter foe of the orthodox Christians, although he was obliged to punish them when they conspired against him with his external enemies.
The numbering of these kings is not certain.
In these inscriptions Mitra, Varuna, Indra and Nasatya are mentioned as deities of the Iranian kings of Mitani at the beginning of the 14th century - all of them names with which we are familiar from the Indian pantheon.
Yet the Aeracides and the Indo-Scythian kings as well as the Achaemenides were believers in Mazda.
York was frequently visited by the kings of England on the way to Scotland, and several important parliaments were held there, the first being that of 1175, when Malcolm, king of Scotland, did homage to Henry II.
These charters were confirmed by most of the early kings.
The kingdom of Ossory was founded in the 2nd century A.D., and its kings maintained their position until 11 zo.
It seems probable that the bans were originally viceroys of the Croatian kings, who resumed their sovereignty over Bosnia from 958 to ioio.
The princes and kings who had consented to pay tribute were by this success encouraged to rebel, and the Servian troops who had taken part in the battle of Konia became insubordinate.
It was in vain that Sigismund journeyed to Perpignan, and that the kings of Aragon, Castile and Navarre ceased to obey the aged pontiff.
But it is unsafe to assume, from 2 Kings xxiii.
Directly under the altar is situated the pantheon or royal mausoleum, a richly decorated octagonal chamber with upwards of twenty niches, occupied by black marble urnas or sarcophagi, kept sacred for the dust of kings or mothers of kings.
Among the many early English kings who visited or passed through Cardiff was Henry II., on whom in 1171, outside St Piran's chapel (which has long since disappeared), was urged the duty of Sunday observance.
The conquest of the rival kingdom of Champa, which embraced modern Cochin-China and southern Annam, and in the later 15th century was absorbed by Annam, may probably be placed at the end of the 12th century, in the reign of Jayavarman VIII., the last of the great kings.
These aggressions were continued in the 15th century, in the course of which the capital was finally abandoned by the Khmer kings, the ruin of the country being hastened by internal revolts and by feuds between members of the royal family.
The substantial features of the ancient Dionysiac rites, including a ritual play by "goat-men" carrying a wooden phallus, may still be seen at Bizye, the old residence of the Thracian kings.
The scene of his revolt was Tirzah, the old seat of the kings of Israel between Jeroboam I.
The other great work of Hamdani is the Iklil (Crown) concerning the genealogies of the Himyarites and the wars of their kings in ten volumes.
The most ancient of these kings, reigning over the principal tribe, who is known to us is Chlodio.'
Clovis made his authority recognized over the other Salian tribes (whose kings dwelt at Cambrai and other cities), and put an end to the domination of the Ripuarian Franks.
During the 14th century it was in the hands of the Servian kings.
Under the kings of the third dynasty, the division of the kingdom among the sons of the dead monarch which had characterized the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties, ceased.
His long reign (1229-1290) was a perpetual struggle with the kings of France and England, each anxious to assert his suzerainty over Beam.
It is not likely, as many scholars have thought, that Akkad was ever used geographically as a distinctive appellation for northern Babylonia, or that the name Sumer denoted the southern part of the land, because kings who ruled only over Southern Babylonia used the double title "king of Sumer and Akkad," which was also employed by northern rulers who never established their sway farther south than Nippur, notably the great Assyrian conqueror Tiglath pileser III.
The rest of Africa had passed into the hands of the kings of Numidia, who were allies of the Romans.
Tumuli, too, are found throughout northern Africa, the"most celebrated being that near Cherchel, the Kubr-er-Rumia (" tomb of the Christian lady "), which was regarded by Pomponius Mela as the royal burying-place of the kings of Numidia.
Sculpture throughout the district is very provincial and of minor importance; the only exceptions are certain statues found at Carthage and Cherchel, the capital of the Mauretanian kings.
They have even tried to interpret the long struggle between Fredegond and Brunhilda as a rivalry between the two kings of Neustria and Austrasia.
After the death of Dagobert, Austrasia and Neustria almost always had separate kings, with their own mayors of the palace, and then there arose a real rivalry between these two provinces, which ended in the triumph of Austrasia.
The equites were originally chosen by the curiae, then in succession by the kings, the consuls, and (after 443 B.C.) by the censors, by whom they were reviewed every five years in the Forum.
Four kings named Battus, alternating with four named Arcesilaus, ruled in Cyrene till the fall of the dynasty about 450 B.C.
Kenneth is alleged to have brought the Stone of Destiny, on which the Celtic kings were crowned, from Dunstaffnage Castle on Loch Etive, and to have deposited it in Scone, whence it was conveyed to Westminster Abbey (where it lies beneath the Coronation Chair) by Edward I.
Most of the Scottish kings were crowned at Scone, the last function being held on the 1st of January 1651, when Charles II.
Probably the ancient House of Scone, which stood near the abbey, provided the kings with temporary accommodation.
The Frankish kings of the Merovingian dynasty retained the Roman system of administration, and under them the word comes preserved its original meaning; the comes was a companion of the king, a royal servant of high rank.
Under the early Frankish kings some comites did not exercise any definite functions; they were merely attached to the king's person and executed his orders.
In the 10th century the counts were permitted by the kings to divide their benefices and rights among their sons, the rule being established that countships (Grafschaften) were hereditary, that they might be held by boys, that they were heritable by females and might even be administered by females.
In historical times it numbered twenty-eight members, to whom were added ex officio the two kings and, later, the five ephors.
Together with the kings and ephors it formed the supreme executive committee of the state, and it exercised also a considerable criminal and political jurisdiction, including the trial of kings; its competence extended to the infliction of a sentence of exile or even of death.
Ancient Amasia has left little trace of itself except on the castle rock, on the left of the river, where the acropolis walls and a number of splendid rock-cut tombs, described by Strabo as those of the kings of Pontus, can be seen.
For nearly thirty years the kings of Portugal paid no further attention to their newly-acquired territory than what consisted in combating the attempts of the Spaniards to occupy it, and dispersing the private adventurers from France who sought its shores for the purposes of commerce.
In the vicinity are the castles of Murthly, one a modern mansion in the Elizabethan style, erected about 1838 from designs by James Gillespie Graham (1777-1855), and the other the old castle, still occupied, which was occasionally used as a hunting-lodge by the Scottish kings.
When they withdrew, the British tribes reasserted their sway, and some authorities go so far as to suggest that Arthur was one of their kings.
By Matilda, who died in Normandy on the 3rd of November 1083, William had four sons, Robert, duke of Normandy, Richard, who was killed whilst hunting, and the future kings, William II.
Of the six kings who reigned in Hungary during that period three died violent deaths, and the other three were fighting incessantly against foreign and domestic foes.
It was the general opinion abroad that the Magyars would either relapse into heathendom, or become the vassals of the Holy Roman Empire, and this opinion was reflected in the increasingly hostile attitude of the popes towards the Arpad kings.
The kings were fighting for their lives, the great nobles were indistinguishable from brigands and the whole nation seemed to be relapsing into savagery.
Externally Hungary, under the Angevin kings, occupied a commanding position.
The Arpad kings had succeeded in encircling their whole southern frontier with half a dozen military colonies or banates, comprising, roughly speaking, Little Walachia, 2 and the northern parts of Bulgaria, Servia and Bosnia.
It argued no ordinary foresight thus to recognize that Hungary's strategy in her contest with the Turks must be strictly defensive, and the wisdom of Sigismund was justified by the disasters which almost invariably overcame the later Magyar kings whenever they ventured upon aggressive warfare with the sultans.
Sigismund, more fortunate than the Polish kings, seems to have had little trouble with his diets.
Thus the Magyars were saddled with two rival kings with equally valid titles, which proved an even worse disaster than the Mohacs catastrophe; for in most of the counties of the unhappy kingdom desperadoes of every description plundered the estates of the gentry, and oppressed the common people, under the pretext that they were fighting the battles of the contending monarchs.
The Habsburg kings were as jealous of the political as of the religious liberties of their Hungarian subjects.
Throughout the latter part of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century, the Hungarian gentry underwent a cruel discipline at the hands of their Habsburg kings.
On the one hand it was declared that the kingdom of Hungary was an integral part of the Habsburg dominions and inseparable from these so long as a male or female heir of the kings Charles, Joseph and Leopold should be found to succeed to them.
Under the kings of the house of Anjou, the Magyar became the language of the court.
During this and the following centuries the country was governed by kings who claimed to be descendants of Alexander the Great.
The last of these kings was Shah Mahommed, who died in the middle of the 15th century, leaving only his married daughters to represent the royal line.
Colossal granite obelisks were erected by only a few kings, Senwosri I.
But the funerals of the kings were much more elaborate.
The tombs of the kings were in the land of Gerrhus near the great bend of the Dnieper where the chief tumuli have been excavated.
Such was the power of Adalbero and Gerbert in those days that it was said their influence alone sufficed to make and unmake kings.
The same heading already referred to gives us our only traditional information as to the period during which Isaiah prophesied; it refers to Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah as the contemporary kings.
But he would be a bold man who would profess to give trustworthy dates either for the kings of Israel or for the prophetic writers.
The above dates for the kings' reigns are taken from von Gutschmid.
A Nestorian contemporary of Isaac, Dadhisho`, who was catholicus of Seleucia from 421 to 456, composed commentaries on Daniel, Kings and Ecclesiasticus.
It is frequently found upon deities, kings and magnates, and appears to have been composed of some thick furrowed or fluted material, sometimes of bright and variegated design.
Narrower at the top and surmounted by a spike it distinguishes the Assyrian kings.
It is probable that 2 Kings xxiii.
Throughout Egyptian history the official costume was conventionalized, and the latest kings and even the Roman emperors are arrayed like their predecessors of the IVth Dynasty.
A purple toga with embroidery (toga pieta) was worn together with a gold-embroidered tunic (tunica palmata) by generals while celebrating a triumph and by magistrates presiding at games; it represented the traditional dress of the kings and was adopted by Julius Caesar as a permanent costume.
It has therefore been assumed that Herodotus confused two Pheidons, both kings of Argos.
In early works it is sometimes termed Cidade dos Reis (City of the Kings).
The Syrian kings of Damascus seem to have habitually assumed the title of Benhadad, or son of Hadad (three of this name are mentioned in Scripture), just as a series of Egyptian monarchs are known to have been accustomed to call themselves sons of Amon-Ra.
It was no doubt owing to his position as the second figure of the triad that enabled him to survive the political eclipse of Nippur and made his sanctuary a place of pilgrimage to which Assyrian kings down to the days of Assur-bani-pal paid their homage equally with Babylonian rulers.
The kings of Assyria united in themselves the royal and priestly offices, and on the monuments they erected they are generally represented as offering incense and pouring out wine to the Tree of Life.
From the laws of the Kentish kings Lhothhere and Eadric (673-685) we learn that the Wic-reeve was an officer of the king of Kent, who exercised a jurisdiction over the Kentish men trading with or at London, or was appointed to watch over their interests.
The Ingwavu'ma magistracy, like Tongaland, formed no part of the dominions of the Zulu kings, but was ruled by independent chiefs until its annexation by Great Britain in 1895.
The marquis de Ruvigny has compiled The Jacobite Peerage (Edinburgh, 1904), a work which purports to give a list of all the titles and honours conferred by the kings of the exiled House of Stuart.
Here was a residence of the Mercian kings, and, after being bestowed on the Marmions by William the Conqueror, the castle remained for many years an important fortress.
The Pamphylians are first mentioned among the nations subdued by the Mermnad kings of Lydia, and afterwards passed in succession under the dominion of the Persian and Macedonian monarchs.
The royal history traces the lineage of the kings to the ancient Buddhist monarchs of India.
Aeschylus in his list of Persian kings (Persae, 775 ff.),which is quite unhistorical, mentions two kings with the name Artaphrenes, who may have been developed out of these two Persian commanders.
The chronicle of the Sinhalese kings, the Mahavamsa, however, asserts that mirrors of glittering glass were carried in procession in 306 B.C., and beads like gems, and windows with ornaments like jewels, are also mentioned at about the same date.
The dukes were members of the illustrious Piast family, which gave many kings to Poland.
Under the Persian empire Cilicia was apparently governed by tributary native kings, who bore a name or title graecized as Syennesis; but it was officially included in the fourth satrapy by Darius.
After Alexander's death it was long a battle ground of rival marshals and kings, and for a time fell under Ptolemaic dominion, but finally under that of the Seleucids, who, however, never held effectually more than the eastern half.
At first the western district was left independent under native kings or priest-dynasts, and a small kingdom, under Tarkondimotus, was left in the east; but these were finally united to the province by Vespasian, A.D.
About 625 Dagobert, son of Lothair II., founded in honour of St Denis, at some distance from the basilica, the monastery where the greater number of the kings of France have been buried.
He now received, at Dacre in Cumberland, the submission of all the kings of the island, viz.
This was not merely an idle flourish, for some of his charters are signed by Welsh and Scottish kings as subreguli.
The English dialect in which the Anglo-Saxon laws have been handed down to us is in most cases a common speech derived from West Saxon - naturally enough as Wessex became the predominant English state, and the court of its kings the principal literary centre from which most of the compilers and scribes derived their dialect and spelling.
The authenticity of his list of 10 antediluvian kings who reigned for 120 sari or 432,000 years, has been partially confirmed by the inscriptions; but his 8 postdiluvian dynasties are difficult to reconcile with the monuments, and the numbers attached to them are probably corrupt.
One of these is the so-called " Synchronous History of Assyria and Babylonia," consisting of brief notices, written by an Assyrian, of the occasions on which the kings of the two countries had entered into relation, hostile or otherwise, with one another; a second is the Babylonian Chronicle discovered by Dr Th.
According to Scheil, Gis-ukh is represented by Jokha, south of Fara and west of the Shatt el-Hai, and since two of its rulers are called kings of Te on a seal-cylinder, this may have been the pronunciation of the name.'
At a later date the high-priests of Lagash made themselves kings, and a dynasty was founded there by Ur-Nina.
Vast numbers of contract tablets, dated in the reigns of Khammurabi and other kings of the dynasty, have NaramSin.
He was followed by a dynasty of 11 Sumerian kings, who are said to have reigned for 368 years, a number which must be much exaggerated.
Under this foreign dominion, which offers a striking analogy to the contemporary rule of the Hyksos in Egypt, Babylonia lost its empire over western Asia, Syria and Palestine became independent, and the high-priests of Assur made themselves kings of Assyria.
The divine attributes with which the Semitic kings of Babylonia had been invested disappeared at the same time; the title of " god " is never given to a Kassite sovereign.
In 1107 B.C., however, he sustained a temporary defeat at the hands of Merodach-nadin-akhi (Marduknadin-akhe) of Babylonia, where the Kassite dynasty had finally succumbed to Elamite attacks and a new line of kings was on the throne.
Cyrus now claimed to be the legitimate successor of the ancient Babylonian kings and the avenger of Bel-Merodach, who was wrathful at the impiety of Nabonidus in removing the images of the local gods from their ancestral shrines to his capital Babylon.
Tukulti-In-aristi of Assyria (1272 B.C.) for 7 years, native vassal kings being Bel-sum-iddin, II years.
Babylonia was a land of merchants and agriculturists; Assyria was an organized camp. The Assyrian dynasties were founded Dynasty of Isin of I i kings for 1324 years.
Successive improvements were introduced into it by the kings of the second Assyrian empire; chariots were superseded by cavalry; Tiglath-pileser III.
Up to certain points no difference of opinion exists upon the dates to be assigned to the later kings who ruled in Babylon and in Assyria.
Since its publication in 1884 the Babylonian List of Kings has furnished the framework for every chronological system that has been proposed.
In its original form this document gave a list, arranged in dynasties, of the Babylonian kings, from the First Dynasty of Babylon down to the Neo-Babylonian period.
This omission is much to be regretted, since Nabonassar was the last king but two of this dynasty, and, had we known its duration, we could have combined the information on the earlier periods furnished by the Kings' List with the evidence of the Ptolemaic Canon.
In addition to the Kings' List, other important chronological data consist of references in the classical authorities to the chronological system of Berossus; chronological references to earlier kings occurring in the later native inscriptions, such as Nabonidus's estimate of the period of Khammurabi (or Hammuribi); synchronisms, also furnished by the inscriptions, between kings of Babylon and of Assyria; and the early Babylonian date-lists.
He accepted the figures of the Kings' List and claimed that he reconciled them with the figures of Berossus, though he ignored the later chronological notices.
Having first fixed the date of the close of Dynasty III., they employed the figures of the Kings' List unemended for defining the earlier periods, and did not attempt to reconcile their results with other conflicting data.
In 1891, with the object of getting the total duration of the dynasties to agree with the chronological system of Berossus and with the statement of Nabonidus concerning Khammurabi's date, Peiser proposed to emend the figure given by the Kings' List for the length of Dynasty III.
He continued to accept the figure of the Kings' List for Dynasty III., but he reduced the length of Dynasty II.
In his first system, published in 1886,' Hommel, mainly with the object of reducing Khammurabi's date, reversed the order of the first two dynasties of the Kings' List, placing Dynasty II.
The balance of opinion was in favour of those of the first group of writers, who avoided emendations of the figures and were content to follow the Kings' List and to ignore its apparent discrepancies with other chronological data; but it is now admitted that the general principle underlying the third group of theories was actually nearer the truth.
Babylonia on the shores of the Persian Gulf; that its kings were contemporaneous with the later kings of Dynasty I.
From this text we learn that the Dynasty of Ur consisted of five kings and lasted for 117 years, and was.
In his valiant attempt to fill these gaps Rad„ u was obliged to invent kings and even dynasties, 13 the existence f which is now definitely disproved.
But, though we may refuse to accept the accuracy of this figure of Nabonidus, it is not possible at present to fix a definite date for the early kings of Agade.
All that can be said is that both archaeological and epigraphic evidence indicates that no very long interval separated the empire of the Semitic kings of Agade from that of the kings of Sumer and Akkad, whose rule was inaugurated by the founding of the Dynasty of Ur.1 To use caution in accepting the chronological notices of the later kings is very far removed from suggesting emendations of their figures.
Finally, we find capitularies of the kings immediately following Clovis being gradually incorporated in the text of the lawe.g.'the Pactum pro tenore pacis of Childebert I.
A similar series of excellent teachings on practical wisdom and the blessings of a virtuous life, only of a severer and more uncompromising character, is contained in the Sa`adatnama; and, judging from the extreme bitterness of tone manifested in the "reproaches of kings and emirs," we should be inclined to consider it a protest against the vile aspersions poured out upon Nasir's moral and religious attitude during those persecutions which drove him at last to Yumgan.
It is also suggested that the capella was simply the tent or canopy which the French kings erected over the altar in the field for the worship of the soldiers.
Hittites were made tributary bondsmen by Solomon, 1 Kings ix.