There were two smaller kingdoms whose territories overlapped in between.
When she reached the border of their kingdoms, she broke east on a dirt road.
The most beautiful of the kingdoms, mine at last!
The most beautiful of the kingdoms, mine at last!
Gothic and Lombard Kingdoms. 27.3.2 II.
we know that at his time there were different petty kingdoms and usurpers in Persis; the principal dynasty is by Tabari called Bazrangi.
Not till 1881, however, were the Croatian-Slavonian march-lands completely merged in the kingdoms to which they naturally belonged.
Various groups of people formed and dissolved, the coming formation and dissolution of kingdoms and displacement of peoples was in course of preparation.
Originally it comprised two independent kingdoms, Bernicia and Deira.
gave his daughter a scanty dowry and quarrels on this head embittered the relations between the two kingdoms, which the marriage, although accompanied by a treaty of perpetual peace, did nothing to heal.
Originally it comprised two independent kingdoms, Bernicia and Deira.
By the constant westward pressure of the eastern Arabs, which (after the restraining force of the great Mesopotamian kingdoms was weakened) assumed irresistible strength, the ancient Edomites were forced across the Jordan-Araba depression, and with their name migrated to the south of western Palestine.
The peerage, as it exists in the three British kingdoms, is something which is altogether peculiar to the three British kingdoms, and which has nothing in the least degree like it elsewhere.
It is not unlikely that the Thames became the boundary of the two kingdoms about this time.
In the triple partition of the Carolingian empire at Verdun in 843, the central portion was assigned to the emperor Lothaire, separating the kingdoms of East Francia (the later The duchy Germany) from West Francia (the later France).
Had the two kingdoms been under a single head, these features might find an explanation, but it must be allowed that it is extremely difficult to fit the general situation into our present.
sqq.); the border-line between the rival kingdoms oscillated, and consequently the political position of the smaller and half-desert Judaean state depended upon the attitude of its neighbours.
In 727 died Tiglath-Pileser, to whom the small kingdoms of W.
Dotted lines separated the boundaries of each of the kingdoms.
host, she did not wish her people to suffer the afflictions of so many other kingdoms.
Bring peace to both of our kingdoms.
The next day would either be Tiyan's last or a new beginning for all the kingdoms.
20-23, Zerubbabel is assured of God's special love and protection in the impending catastrophe of kingdoms and nations to which the prophet had formerly pointed as preceding the glorification of God's house on Zion.
Buffon remarked that the same temperature might have been expected, all other circumstances being equal, to produce the same beings in different parts of the globe, both in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Yet lawns in the United States are destitute of the common English daisy, the wild hyacinth of the woods of the United Kingdom is absent from Germany, and the foxglove from Switzerland.
Amongst his contemporaries were Istakhri, who travelled through all the Mahommedan countries and wrote his Book of Climates in 950, and Ibn Haukal, whose Book of Roads and Kingdoms, based on the work of Istakhri, was written in 976.
or federated of distinct self-governing units like Germany (where the units include kingdoms, at least three minor types of monarchies, municipalities and a crown land under a nominated governor), or the United States, where the units are democratic republics.
Torquemada had always been strong in his advice that she should marry Ferdinand of Aragon and thus consolidate the kingdoms of Spain.
Finally a clause said that "no person born out of the kingdoms of England, Scotland or Ireland, or the dominions thereunto belonging (although he be naturalized or made a denizen) except such as are born of English parents, shall be capable to be of the Privy Council, or a member of either House of Parliament, or enjoy any office or place of trust, either civil or military, or to have any grant of lands, tenements or hereditaments from the Crown to himself, or to any other or others in trust for him."
In 407 a multitude of Franks, Vandals, &c., burst over Gaul: Roman rule practically ceased and the three kingdoms of the Visigoths, Burgundians and Franks began to form.
The coming of the Norman ruled that these lands should be neither Saracen nor Greek, nor yet Italian in the same sense as northern Italy, but that they should politically belong to the same group of states as the kingdoms and principalities of feudal Europe.
The element also occurs in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. It is present in hair and wool, and in albuminous bodies; and is also a constituent of certain vegetable oils, such as the oils of garlic and mustard.
In short, there is no real nobility in England; for the class which answers to foreign nobility has so long ceased to have any practical privileges that it has long ceased to be looked on as a nobility, and the word nobility has been transferred to another class which has nothing answering to it out of the three British kingdoms. 2 This last ' This statement is mainly interesting as expressing the late Professor Freeman's view; it is, however, open to serious criticism.
Offa, like most of his predecessors, probably held a kind of supremacy over all kingdoms south of the Humber.
He seems, however, not to have been contented with this position, and to have entertained the design of putting an end to the dependent kingdoms. At all events we hear of no kings of the Hwicce after about 780, and the kings of Sussex seem to have given up the royal title about the same time.
EAST ANGLIA, one of the kingdoms into which Anglo-Saxon Britain was divided.
determined to destroy the power of the Hohenstaufen in Italy, and offered the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily, in consideration of a yearly tribute, to Charles of Anjou, in opposition to Manfred, the bastard son of the late emperor Frederick II.
We shall rouse against you princes and prelates, who, alas, will arm nations and kingdoms against this land ...
(a) The first, that of the two rival kingdoms: Israel (Ephraim or Samaria) in the northern half of Palestine, and Judah in the south.
Although the rise of the Hebrew state, at an age when the great powers were quiescent and when such a people as the Philistines is known to have appeared upon the scene, is entirely intelligible, it is not improbable that legends of Saul and David, the heroic founders of the two kingdoms, have been put in a historical setting with the help of later historical tradition.
The Rival Kingdoms. - The Palestine of the Hebrews was but part of a great area breathing the same atmosphere, and there was little to distinguish Judah from Israel except when they were distinct political entities.
The history of the two kingdoms is contained in Kings and the later and relatively less trustworthy Chronicles, which deals with Judah alone.
The Judaean compiler, with his history of the two kingdoms, looks back upon the time when each laid the foundation of its subsequent fortunes.
Although both kingdoms suffered, common misfortune did not throw them together.
8, 6) has been carried back to the earliest ages; yet the present period, after the age of rival kingdoms, Judah and Israel, and before the foundation of Judaism, is that in which the historical background for the inclusion of Judah among the " sons " of Israel is equally suitable (§§ 5, 20, end).
8) describes the interval between Alexander and Antiochus thus: " The he-goat (the king of Greece) did very greatly: and when he was strong the great horn (Alexander) was broken; and instead of it came up four other ones - four kingdoms shall stand up out of his nation but not with his power.
Unlike the " National Covenant " of 1638, which applied to Scotland only, this document was common to the two kingdoms. Henderson, Baillie, Rutherford and others were sent up to London to represent Scotland in the Assembly at Westminster.
The " Solemn League and Covenant," which pledged both countries to the extirpation of prelacy, leaving further decision as to church government to be decided by the " example of the best reformed churches," after undergoing some slight alterations, passed the two Houses of Parliament and the Westminster Assembly, and thus became law for the two kingdoms. By means of it Henderson has had considerable influence on the history of Great Britain.
After the withdrawal of the Romans in the 5th century the northern Britons seem to have shown greater determination in maintaining their independence than any of the southern kingdoms and, according to Welsh tradition, Cunedda, the ancestor of the kings of Gwynedd, had himself come from the north.
These ancient states began to decline in the 7th century B.e., and on their ruins rose the Persian empire, which with various political metamorphoses continued to be an important power till the 7th century A.D., after which all western Asia was overwhelmed by the Moslem wave, and old landmarks and kingdoms were obliterated.
China proper, minus these external provinces, was again united under the Sung dynasty (960-1127), but split into the northern (Tatar) and southern (Chinese) kingdoms. In the 13th century arose the Mongol power, and Kublai Khan conquered China.
The immediate result was small, but the establishment of Perso-Greek kingdoms in central Asia had a powerful influence on Indian art and culture.
Even the great dynasties have left few traces, and it is with difficulty that the patient historian disinters the minor kingdoms from obscurity, but Indian religion, literature and art have influenced all Asia from Persia to Japan.
Alexander's conquests resulted in the foundation of a Perso-Greek kingdoms in Asia, which not only hellenized their own area but influenced the art and religion of India and to some extent of China.
This conjoint valley of the Rion-Kura was in remote antiquity the site of several Greek colonial settlements, later the seat of successive kingdoms of the Georgians, and for centuries it has formed a bulwark against hostile invasions from the south and east.
In Anglo-Saxon England in the 7th and 8th centuries it seems certain that each of the larger kingdoms, Kent, Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria, had its separate witan, or council, but there is a difference of opinion as to whether this was identical with, or distinct from, the folkmoot, in which, theoretically at least, all freemen had the right to appear.
He thinks that on the union of the kingdoms the witans were merged into one another, while the folkmoot became the shiremoot.
War did not materially change the outlines of the two kingdoms, though frontier cities like Damascus and the coast districts of Asia Minor might change hands.
But its greatness probably began with Menes, who united the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt, and is said to have secured the site for his capital near the border of the two lands by diverting the course of the river eastward.
Pyramids of the Old and Middle kingdoms form a chain 20 m.
Members of this family sat upon the thrones of two kingdoms. The counts and dukes of Anjou were kings of Naples from 1265 to 1442.
In 1284 Jeanne, daughter and heiress of Henry I., king of Navarre, married Philip IV., king of France, and the two kingdoms were united until Philip of Valois became king of France as Philip VI.
On the 1 The Crusades in their course established a number of new states or kingdoms. The First Crusade established the kingdom of Jerusalem (I too); the Third, the kingdom of Cyprus (1195); the Fourth, the Latin empire of Constantinople (1204); while the long Crusade of the Teutonic knights on the coast of the Baltic led to the rise of a new state east of the Vistula.
The history of the kingdom of Jerusalem is part of the history of the Crusades: the history of the other kingdoms or states touches the history of the Crusades less vitally.
The main object of the century-long dispute between the two kingdoms was the possession of the land to the east of the Jordan (IIauran, and especially Gilead).
of the history of the Berber tribes and of the kingdoms founded by that race in North Africa.
They first invented and named the alembic for the purposes of distillation, analyzed the substances of the three kingdoms of nature, tried the distinction and affinities of alkalis and acids, and converted the poisonous minerals into soft and salutary remedies.
BERNICIA, the northern of the two English kingdoms which were eventually united in the kingdom of Northumbria.
As a ruler he showed legislative capacity, and a very commendable wish to provide his kingdoms with a code of laws and a consistent judicial system.
The Mussulman invaders of the Deccan passed it by, not caring to enter its mountain fastnesses and impenetrable forests; though occasional inscriptions show that parts of it had fallen from time to time under the dominion of one or other of the great kingdoms of the north, e.g.
But the belief died hard; the synthesis of urea remained isolated for many years; and many explanations were attempted by the vitalists (as, for instance, that urea was halfway between the inorganic and organic kingdoms, or that the carbon, from which it was obtained, retained the essentials of this hypothetical vital force), but only to succumb at a later date to the indubitable fact that the same laws of chemical combination prevail in both the animate and inanimate kingdoms, and that the artificial or laboratory synthesis of any substance, either inorganic or organic, is but a question of time, once its constitution is determined.'.
Berzelius, in 1813 and 1814, by improved methods of analysis, established that the Daltonian laws of combination held in both the inorganic and organic kingdoms; and he adopted the view of Lavoisier that organic compounds were oxides of compound radicals, and therefore necessarily contained at least three elements - carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
After Egypt proper was overrun by the " dynastic Egyptian " people of " Armenoid " stock, who came from Asia and founded the kingdoms of Lower and Upper Egypt, the old barbarous Nilotic culture continued to exist in Nubia.
And the question whether the " Armenoid " conquerors of Egypt and founders of the kingdoms there, who came from Syria, were Semites still remains unanswered.
Hardly provinces proper, but rather client principalities, were the two native kingdoms to which Alexander had left the conquered land beyond the Indus - the kingdoms of Taxiles and Porus.
Three solid kingdoms had thus emerged from all the fighting since Alexander's death: the kingdom of the Antigonids in the original land of the race, the kingdom of the Ptolemies in Egypt, and that of the Seleucids, extending from the Aegean to India.
The practice by which the king associated a son with himself, as secondary king, dates from the very beginning of the kingdoms of the Successors; Antigonus on assuming the diadem in 306 caused Demetrius also to bear the title of king.
Of the financial organization of the Macedonian kingdoms we know practically nothing, except in the case of Egypt.
With the exception of Ptolemaic Egypt, the Macedonian kingdoms followed in their coinage that of Alexander.
The prominent part taken by the women of the royal house was a Macedonian characteristic. The history of these kingdoms furnishes a long list of queens and princesses who were ambitious ' Antiochus Epiphanes was an extreme case.
The offering of divine honours to the king, which we saw begin under Alexander, became stereotyped in the institutions of the succeeding Hellenistic kingdoms. Alexander himself was after his death the object of various local cults, like that which centred in the shrine near Erythrae (Strabo, xiv.
Thenceforward, in the Hellenistic kingdoms of the East the worship of the living sovereign became the rule, although it appears to have been regarded as given in anticipation of an apotheosis which did not become actual till death.
The Macedonian kingdoms, strained by continual wars, increasingly divided against themselves, falling often under the sway of prodigals and debauchees, were far 12 sign from realizing the Hellenic idea of sound govern- of ment as against the crude barbaric despotisms of the older East.
A masterly conspectus of the general character of the Hellenistic kingdoms in their political, economic and social character, their artistic and intellectual culture is given by Beloch, Griech.
The result was that in March 834 Louis was restored to power at St Denis; Judith once more returned to his side and the kingdoms of Louis and Pippin were increased.
Still hankering after Burgundy, Charles saw his French estates again seized; but after some desultory warfare, chiefly in Normandy, peace was made in March 1365, and he returned to his work of interference in the politics of the Spanish kingdoms. In turn he made treaties with the kings of Castile and Aragon, who were at war with each other; promising to assist Peter the Cruel to regain his throne, from which he had been driven in 1366 by his half-brother Henry of Trastamara, and then assuring Henry and his ally Peter of Aragon that he would aid, them to retain Castile.
The Christian population, who in common with their Mussul- Macedo ' 'Questio man fellow subjects suffered from the defective methods of government of their rulers, had at least before them the example of their brethren - Greeks, Bulgarians or Servians - dwelling in independent kingdoms under Christian governments on the other side of the frontier.
As regards Ulster our information is very scanty, though we find him establishing churches in the three kingdoms of the province (Ailech, Oriel and Ulidia).
It afterwards became a province (Margiana) of the Graeco-Syrian, Parthian and Persian kingdoms. On the Margus - the Epardus of Arrian and now the Murghab - stood the capital of the district, Antiochia Margiana, so called after Antiochus Soter, who rebuilt the city founded by Alexander the Great.
Plan of ' Main Entrance II Impluvium Bath IV Principal Hall 'V birth to the Christian kingdoms of the Peninsula, while the Monge de Cister, published in 1848, describes the time of King John I., when the middle class and the municipalities first asserted their power and elected a king in opposition to the nobility.
638, Beroea disappears, and as Moslem society settles down Halep emerges again as the great gathering-place of caravans passing from Asia Minor and Syria to Mesopotamia, Bagdad and the Persian and Indian kingdoms. Like Antioch it suffered from earthquakes, and late in the 12th century, after a terrible shock, had to be rebuilt by Nur ed-Din.
This plan was upset by the queendowager Elizabeth, who determined to rule both kingdoms during the minority of her children.
Albert left behind him two infant daughters only, but his consort was big with child, and, in the event of that child proving to be an heir male, his father's will bequeathed to him the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia, under the regency of his mother.
died on the r3th of March 1516, two years after the " Savage Diet," the ferocity of whose decrees he had feebly endeavoured to mitigate, leaving his two Subjection kingdoms to his son Louis, a child of ten, who was by the pronounced of age in order that his foreignguardians, Turks.
Modern research seems to show that living protoplasm, wherever it exists, is subject to certain laws and manifests itself by certain phenomena, and that there is no hard and fast line between what prevails in the two kingdoms. So it is with the diseased conditions to which it is a prey: there is a wonderful community of design, if the term may be used in such a sense, between the diseases of animals and plants, which becomes singularly striking and instructive the more they are inquired into.
free-trading town; neutral to a certain extent between the kingdoms around, although the most powerful of the kings conquered their feebler neighbours.
The walled city of London was a distinct political unit, although it owed a certain allegiance to that one of the kingdoms around it which was the most powerful for the time being.
There may be the folk-right of West and East Saxons, of East Angles, of Kentish men, Mercians, Northumbrians, Danes, Welshmen, and these main folk-right divisions remain even when tribal kingdoms disappear and the people is concentrated in one or two realms. The chief centres for the formulation and application of folkright were in the 10th and iith centuries the shire-moots, while the witan of the realm generally placed themselves on the higher ground of State expediency, although occasionally using folkright ideas.
But it was not until several years later, in the reign of the Assyrian king Tukulti-Assur, that a reconciliation was effected between the two rival kingdoms. The next Assyrian monarch, Bel-kudur-uzur, was the last of the old royal line.
For the promulgation of these views, which were confessedly at variance with the doctrines of the standards of the national church of Scotland, he was summoned (1726) before his presbytery, where in the course of the investigations which followed he affirmed still more explicitly his belief that "every national church established by the laws of earthly kingdoms is antichristian in its constitution and persecuting in its spirit," and further declared opinions upon the subject of church government which amounted to a repudiation of Presbyterianism and an acceptance of the puritan type of Independency.
Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Hengest and Horsa were at first given the island of Thanet as a home, but soon quarrelled with their British allies, and gradually possessed themselves of what became the kingdom of Kent.
sugar of lead, but it is now restricted to certain oxyaldehydes and oxy-ketones, which occur in the vegetable and animal kingdoms either free or in combination as glucosides (q.v.) and to artificial preparations of similar chemical structure.
All scholars, however, are agreed that the inscriptions reach as far back as the 9th century B.C. (some say to the 16th) and prove the existence of at least four civilized kingdoms during these centuries.
These are the kingdoms of Ma t in (Minaean), of Saba (Sabaean), of Hadramaut (Hadramut) and of Katabania (Katabanu).
During this period they were engaged in constant strife with the neighbouring kingdoms of Hadramut and Katabania.
It had come to depend largely upon the Germans for the importation of all its luxuries and of many of its necessities, as well as for the exportation of its products, but regular trade with the three kingdoms was confined for the most part to the Wendish towns, with Lubeck steadily asserting an exclusive ascendancy.
" The cedars of Lebanon, the oaks of Bashan, the forest of Jordan represent the national might of the heathen kingdoms " (Wellh., Die Kl.
10, II) must be taken to represent the Ptolemaic and Seleucid kingdoms, which together made up for the Jews the empire of the sons of Javan.3 The whole prophecy, however, is not a unity.
The empire certainly was wealthy and of enormous extent, for there were successively added to it the rich kingdoms of Bijapur and Golconda, but it was internally decaying and ready to crumble away before the first vigorous assault.
It is probable that no actual conflict took place, and in 959, on Edwy's death, Edgar acceded peaceably to the combined kingdoms of Wessex, Mercia and Northumbria.
gives an account of Daniel's nine kingdoms, in which account Vincent differs from his professed authority, Sigebert of Gembloux, by reckoning England as the fourth instead of the fifth.
It is true that he was sometimes forced by conviction or fate or political necessity to be a revolutionist on a large scale; to destroy an established Church; to add two millions of voters to the electorate; to attack the parliamentary union of the kingdoms. But these changes were, in their inception, distasteful to their author.
The tension which had prevailed between the two kingdoms during the last years of Gustavus Vasa reached breaking point on the accession of Gustavus's eldest son Eric XIV.
The national kingdoms founded by the Northern races, after the fall of the Roman Empire, under the influence of the classical tradition, are the beginnings of the modern European system; Philip of Macedon foreshadows Theodoric, Charlemagne and William the Conqueror.
The chronicle of Villehardouin is justly held to be the very best presentation we possess of the spirit of chivalry - not the designedly exalted and poetized chivalry of the romances, not the self-conscious and deliberate chivalry of the 14th century, but the unsophisticated mode of thinking and acting which brought about the crusades, stimulated the vast literary development of the 12th and 13th centuries, and sent knights-errant, principally though not wholly of French blood, to establish principalities and kingdoms throughout Europe and the nearer East.
Outside the Church the breakup of old civilizations, the confused beginnings of medieval kingdoms, with the attendant war and rapine, the inroads of the Saracens and the rise of Islam, were all effective silencers of the pulpit.
This V Olkerwanderung, as it is called by German historians, again transformed the face of Europe, resulting in the establishment of independent kingdoms and a great mixture of races and institutions.
Silesia, now split up into seventeen principalities, was the bone of contention between them; and when Casimir suddenly invaded that country, took Wschowa, and made Prince Charles of Bohemia a prisoner, war between the two kingdoms actually broke out and Casimir was besieged in Cracow by the Czechs.
He resumed the title and arms of king of France, but left most of the fighting and administration of his foreign kingdoms to his sons, Edward and John.
The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms amended, by Sir Isaac Newton, remarkable as an attempt to construct a system on new bases, independent of the Greek chronologers.
The Medici, as yet at' all events, could not employ Machiavelli, and had not in themselves the stuff to found Italian kingdoms.
Seventy-two kings, reigning over as many kingdoms, were his tributaries.
Little is known of the early history of the district except that it must have been the centre of the first of the four ancient Gond kingdoms of Kherla, Deogarh, Mandla and Chanda.
According to Ferishta, the Persian historian, these kingdoms engrossed in 1398 all the hills of Gondwana and adjacent countries, and were of great wealth and power.
c. 9), and, on the other hand, by means of the papal interdict, excluding whole countries and kingdoms at once from the means of grace.
In the same period of time the Zanzibar Arab traders were advancing from the south on the Bahima kingdoms of the western Victoria Nyanza and on Buganda.
the Bold, giving her Anjou and Maine for dowry, in exchange for the kingdoms of Aragon and Valentia and the countship of Barcelona given up by Charles.
in Rome, Scotland with Clement VII., his rival; Flanders followed England; Urban secured Germany, Hungary and the northern kingdoms; while Spain, after remaining neutral for a time, went over to Clement.
After the preliminary period of conquest the whole of the Spanish possessions were divided into the two "kingdoms" of New Spain, - consisting of Venezuela and the Spanish possessions north of the isthmus - and of New Castile, a title soon changed to Peru, which included the Central American isthmus and all of South America except Venezuela and Brazil.
KINGDOM OF ESSEX, one of the kingdoms into which Anglo-Saxon Britain was divided, properly the land of the East Saxons.
According to Bede, Ã†thelberht's supremacy in 597 stretched over all the English kingdoms as far as the Humber.
Charles was a warm advocate of "Scandinavianism" and the political solidarity of the three northern kingdoms, and his warm friendship for Frederick VII., it is said, led him to give half promises of help to Denmark on the eve of the war of 1864, which, in the circumstances, were perhaps misleading and unjustifiable.
If this Ilsharh is identical with the 'I%aavapos of Strabo, king of Mariaba at the time of the Roman invasion, the inscription preserves a trace of the influence of that event on the union of the two kingdoms.
The inscriptions have yielded the names of twenty-seven Minaean kings, who were quite independent, and, as it would seem, not always friends of the Sabaeans, for neither dynasty mentions the other on its inscriptions, while minor kings and kingdoms are freely mentioned by both, presumably when they stood under the protection of the one or the other respectively.
But while the canonical book of Kings refers to separate sources for the northern and southern kingdoms, the source of Chronicles was a history of the two kingdoms combined, and so, no doubt, was a more recent work which in great measure was doubtless based upon older annals.
of the river Leitha, was " the Kingdoms and Territories represented in the Reichsrat " (Die im Reichsrate vertretenen Konigsreiche and Lander).
3 The Deuteronomic writer finds in it the cause of the subsequent separation of the two kingdoms (xi.
Cities and kingdoms were allotted to their several patronage on a system fully expounded by Manilius: Hos erit in fines orbis pontusque notandus, Quem Deus in partes per singula dividit astra, Ac sua cuique dedit tutelae regna per orbem, Et proprias gentes atque urbes addidit altas, In quibus exercent praestantia sidera vires.s Syria was assigned to Aries, and Syrian coins frequently bear the effigy of a ram; Scythia and Arabia fell to Taurus, India to Gemini.
The more important places of northern Siam include Chieng Mai, the capital of the north, Chieng Rai, near the northern frontier; Lampun, also known as Labong (originally Haribunchai), the first Lao settlement in Siam; Lampang, Tern, Nan and Pre, each the seat of a Lao chief and of a Siamese commissioner; Utaradit, Pichai, Pichit, Pechabun and Raheng, the last of importance as a timber station, with Phitsnulok, Sukhotai, Swankalok, Kampeng Pet and Nakhon Sawan, former capitals of Khmer-Siamese kingdoms, and at present the headquarters of provincial governments.
In accordance with the custom formerly prevalent in all the kingdoms of Further India, the coinage of Siam furnishes the standard of weight.
There can be little doubt that, as in the case of all the other kingdoms of Further India, complete and detailed chronicles were compiled from reign to reign by order of her kings, but of the more ancient of these, the wars and disturbances which continued with such frequency down to quite recent times have left no trace.
Calcium carbonate, CaCO 3, is of exceptionally wide distribution in both the mineral and animal kingdoms. It constitutes the bulk of the chalk deposits and limestone rocks; it forms over one-half of the mineral dolomite and the rock magnesium limestone; it occurs also as the dimorphous minerals aragonite (q.v.) and calcite (q.v.).
In 1032, with the rest of the kingdom of Burgundy or Arles, it reverted to the emperor Conrad II.,who was crowned king at Payerne in 1033, and in 1034 was recognized as such at Geneva by a great assembly of nobles from Germany, Burgundy and Italy, this rather unwilling surrender signifying the union of those 3 kingdoms. It is said that Conrad granted the temporal sovereignty of the city to the bishop, who, in 1162, was raised to the rank of a prince of the Holy Roman Empire, being elected, from 1215, by the chapter, but, after 1418, named directly by the pope himself.
They were present when the believers in Mahomet held sway in the Asiatic and African provinces which Alexander had once brought under the intellectual influence of Hellenism; while the Lombards, the West Goths, the Franks and the AngloSaxons had established kingdoms in Italy, Spain, Gaul and Britain.
At the end of the 6th century all the provinces of the Empire had become independent kingdoms, in which conquerors of Germanic race formed the dominant nationality., The remnants of the Empire showed an uncommonly tough vitality.
Just as he considered himself entitled to appoint to all ecclesiastical offices, so also he invested the emperor with his empire and kings with their kingdoms. Not only did he despatch his decretals to the universities to form the basis of the teaching of the canon law and of the decisions founded upon it, but he considered himself empowered to annul civil laws.
In June 842 the three brothers met on an island in the Saone to negotiate a peace, and each appointed forty representatives to arrange the boundaries of their respective kingdoms. This developed into the treaty of Verdun concluded in August 843, by which Louis received the bulk of the lands of the Carolingian empire lying east of the Rhine, together with a district around Spires, Worms and Mainz, on the left bank of the river.
The comparative weakness of these kingdoms, together with the disorder caused by the matrimonial troubles of Lothair, afforded a suitable opening for the intrigues of Louis and Charles the Bald, whose interest was increased by the fact that both their nephews were without male issue.
His reign was one of uninterrupted peace, and the great material development of the two kingdoms during the first half of the 19th century was largely due to his energy and foresight.
A number of narratives, evidently written by prophets, and in many of which also (as those relating to Elijah, Elisha and Isaiah) prophets play a prominent part, and a series of short statistical notices, relating to political events, and derived probably from the official annals of the two kingdoms (which are usually cited at the end of a king's reign), have been arranged together, and sometimes expanded at the same time, in a framework supplied by the compiler.
With this purpose in view, he not only notes carefully the length of the reign of each king in both kingdoms, but also (as long as the northern kingdom existed) brings the history of the two kingdoms into relation with one another by equating the commencement of each reign in either kingdom with the year of the reign of the contemporary king in the other kingdom.
The existence of these errors can be demonstrated in two ways: (1) The chronology of the two kingdoms is not consistent with itself; (2) the dates of various events in the history, which are mentioned also in the Assyrian inscriptions, are in serious disagreement with the dates as fixed by the contemporary Assyrian chronology.
(I) That the chronology of the two kingdoms is inconsistent with itself is readily shown.
24, 27), the first year of Jehu in Israel coincides similarly with the first year of Athaliah in Judah: there are thus in the history of the two kingdoms two fixed and certain synchronisms. Now, 3 Namely, 40 years in the wilderness; Joshua and the elders (Judges ii.
But when we proceed to add up similarly the regnal years in the two kingdoms from the division after Solomon's death to the fall of Samaria in the sixth year of Hezekiah (2 Kings xviii.
It is in any case evident that the accession of Jehu and Athaliah must be brought down from 884 to 842 B.C.; and this will involve, naturally, a corresponding reduction of the dates of the previous kings of both kingdoms, and of course, at the same time, of those of Solomon, David and Saul.
The years assigned by tradition to the reigns in both kingdoms in the middle part of the 8th century B.C. have thus to be materially reduced.
It is generally believed to have arisen from the final union of the various kingdoms under Alfred in 886.
15) states that the people of the more northern kingdoms (East Anglia, Mercia, Northumbria, &c.) belonged to the Angli, while those of Essex, Sussex and Wessex were sprung from the Saxons, and those of Kent and southern Hampshire from the Jutes.
Other early writers, however, do not observe these distinctions, and neither in language nor in custom do we find evidence of any appreciable differences between the two former groups, though in custom Kent presents most remarkable contrasts with the other kingdoms. Still more curious is the fact that West Saxon writers regularly speak of their own nation as a part of the Angelcyn and of their language as Englisc, while the West Saxon royal family claimed to be of the same stock as that of Bernicia.
It was, however, a consequence of his work that in q 1786 the provinces and kingdoms were replaced by twelve intendencias (Guadalajara, Zacatecas, Durango, Sonora, Puebla, Vera Cruz, Merida, Oaxaca, Valladolid, Guanajato, San Luis Potosi, Mexico), whose governors and minor officials were directly dependent on the viceroy, the former alcaldes, mayores and corregidores, who were very corrupt, being abolished.
'of' - Already in 1783 the Conde de Aranda had suggested to the Spanish king the scheme of setting up three SpanishAmerican kingdoms bound to Spain by perpetual treaties of alliance and reciprocity and by frequent royal intermarriages, and with the king of Spain as overlord.
He seems, however, to have stood aside in favour of his brother lEthelberht, king of Kent, to whose joint kingdoms he succeeded in 866.
These two kingdoms stood opposed to each other from all eternity, touching each other on one side, but remaining unmingled.
In the 7th century Sla y s and Bulgarians entered the country and founded the modern kingdoms of Servia and Bulgaria.
had conceived the plan of a dynastic union of the three northern kingdoms, but such difficulties presented themselves that the scheme had to be abandoned.
1797), the hydrographer; Malcolm Laing (1762-1818), author of the History of Scotland from the Union of the Crowns to the Union of the Kingdoms; Mary Brunton (1778-1818), author of Self-Control, Discipline and other novels; Samuel Laing (1780-1868), author of A Residence in Norway, and translator of the Heimskringla, the Icelandic chronicle of the kings of Norway; Thomas Stewart Traill (1781-1862), professor of medical jurisprudence in Edinburgh University and editor of the 8th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Samuel Laing (1812-1897), chairman of the London, Brighton & South Coast railway, and introducer of the system of "parliamentary" trains with fares of one penny a mile; Dr John Rae (1813-1893), the Arctic explorer; and William Balfour Baikie (1825-1864), the African traveller.
From 1377 to 1396 Gorlitz was a separate duchy ruled by John, a son of the emperor Charles IV., and, like Lower Lusatia, Upper Lusatia owned the authority of Matthias Corvinus from 1469 to 1490, both districts passing a little later with the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia to the German king, Ferdinand I.
The town appears to have been frequently chosen as the meetingplace of the rulers and delegates of the three northern kingdoms; and under the union of Kalmar it was appointed to be the place for the election of a new Scandinavian monarch whenever necessary.
" the Directory for the Public Worship of God in the Three Kingdoms " being established in its place.
Charles's desire to unite the kingdoms of Hungary and Naples under the eldest son Louis was frustrated by Venice and the pope, from fear lest Hungary might become the dominant 1 This, at any rate, represents the general verdict of history.
At the time of Cook's visit the archipelago seems to have been divided into three distinct kingdoms: Hawaii; Oahu and Maui; and Lanai and Molokai.
Having encouraged a warlike spirit in his people and having introduced firearms, Kamehameha attacked and overcame the chiefs of the other kingdoms one after another, until (in 1795) he became undisputed master of the whole group. He made John Young (c. 1775-1835) and Isaac Davis, Americans from one of the ships of Captain Metcalf which visited the island in 1789, his advisers, encouraged trade with foreigners, 2 Their discovery in the 16th century (in 1542 or 1555 by Juan Gaetan, or in 1528 when two of the vessels of Alvaro de Saavedra were shipwrecked here and the captain of one, with his sister, survived and intermarried with the natives) seems probable, because there are traces of Spanish customs in the islands; and they are marked in their correct latitude on an English chart of 1687, which is apparently based on Spanish maps; a later Spanish chart (1743) gives a group of islands 10 0 E.
For the movements which led to the foundation of the more northern kingdoms we have no evidence worth consideration, nor do we know even approximately when they took place.
But the view that the invasion was effected throughout by small bodies of adventurers acting independently of one another, and that each of the various kingdoms owes its origin to a separate enterprise, has little probability in its favour.
Bede states that the invaders belonged to three different nations, Kent and southern Hampshire being occupied by Jutes, while Essex, Sussex and Wessex were founded by the Saxons, and the remaining kingdoms by the Angli.
The area thus conquered was occupied by a number of separate kingdoms, each with a royal family of its own.
The districts north of the Humber contained two kingdoms, Bernicia (q.v.) and Deira, which were eventually united in Northumbria.
But it must not be supposed that all these kingdoms were always, or even normally, independent.
Sometimes we find one supreme king together with a number of under-kings (subreguli); sometimes again, especially in the smaller kingdoms, Essex, Sussex and Hwicce, we meet with two or more kings, generally brothers, reigning together apparently on equal terms. During the greater part of the 8th century Kent seems to have been divided into two kingdoms; but as a rule such divisions did not last beyond the lifetime of the kings between whom the arrangement had been made.
For administrative purposes each of the various kingdoms was divided into a number of districts under the charge of royal reeves (cyninges gerefa, praefectus, praepositus).
To these we find nothing analogous in the other kingdoms, though the poorer classes of Welsh freemen had wergilds varying from r 20 to 60 shillings.
The hide itself, which was the regular unit in the other kingdoms, usually contained 120 acres in later times and was divided into four girda (virgatae) or yardlands.
In the Kentish laws marriage is represented as hardly more than a matter of purchase; but whether this was the case in the other kingdoms also the evidence at our disposal is insufficient to decide.
among the Alamanni and in the northern kingdoms. Their effect, of course, must have been to provide the kings with greater wealth and with larger permanent bodies of armed men.
Lastly, from the very beginning of the 9th century bodies of Scandinavian warriors began to found kingdoms and principalities in all parts of Europe.
Indeed, considering the greatly increased size of the kingdoms in later times, it is improbable that they were drawn from any except the immediately adjacent districts.
That they appear more prominently now than in earlier times is due to the fact that owing to the increased size of the kingdoms, they had become both more numerous and more wealthy.
the nobility among the Franks and the freedmen (as a distinct class) in the AngloSaxon kingdoms, except Kent.
Their four Andalusian kingdoms, Seville, Jaen, Cordova and Granada,.
The conflict of the priesthood with the kingdoms Alexander and nations that were tending to aggrandize them- III.
With joy and pride he welcomed the Byzantine East into the circle of vassal peoples and kingdoms of Rome bound politically to the see of St Peter, and with the same emotions beheld the patriarchate of Constantinople at last recognize Roman supremacy.
The growth of national kingdoms, the anti-clerical tendencies of the emancipated middle classes, the competition of lay imperialisms, and all the other elements of resistance which had been encountered by the papacy in its progress and had at first tended only to shackle it, now presented an insurmountable barrier.
Besides the government of the pope there were three kingdoms: Sardinia, Lombardo-Venetia and Naples; and three duchies: Parma, Modena, Tuscany.
It may be that some of the early north Babylonian kingdoms, such as Kish, extended control thither.
With the accession of Phocas (602) began the great war which shook the two kingdoms. The loss of Edessa, where Narses revolted, was temporary; but the Roman fortress of Dara fell after nine months' siege (c. 605); Harran, Ras al-`Ain and Edessa followed in 607, many of the Christian inhabitants being transported to the Far East, and Chosroes carried the victorious arms of Persia far into the Roman Empire.
As ban, Jellachich's policy was directed to preserving the Slav kingdoms for the Habsburg monarchy by identifying himself with the nationalist opposition to Magyar ascendancy, while at the same time discouraging the extreme "Illyrism" advocated by Lodovik Gaj (1809-1872).
But when kings and kingdoms were in conflict, and distant and prolonged expeditions became necessary, it was speedily discovered that the unassisted resources of feudalism were altogether inadequate.
The two kingdoms were to be perpetually allied, but each of them was to retain its own laws and customs. Sweden was also to enjoy her religion subject to such changes as a general council might make.
It holds supreme control over all the foreign missions in heathen countries, and also over large and important parts of the church in Christian countries whose governments are not Catholic - including the British empire, the United States, Holland, the Norse kingdoms, Greece, and some parts of Germany and Switzerland.
In the Chronicle the title is given to Ecgbert, king of the English, "the eighth king that was Bretwalda," and retrospectively to seven kings who ruled over one or other of the English kingdoms. The seven names are copied from Bede's Historia Ecclesiastica, and it is interesting to note that the last king named, Oswiu of Northumbria, lived 150 years before Ecgbert.
The Ashanti first came under the notice of Europeans early in the 18th century, through their successful wars with the kingdoms bordering the maritime territory.
They raised him on a shield and acclaimed him as a king; leader and followers both resolving (says Jordanes the Gothic historian) "rather to seek new kingdoms by their own labour, than to slumber in peaceful subjection to the rule of others."
replied that "the three crowns" signified not Sweden in especial, but the three Scandinavian kingdoms, and that their insertion in the Danish shield was only a reminiscence of the union of Kalmar.
But Gustavus was not satisfied, and this was the beginning of "the three crowns" dispute which did so much damage to both kingdoms.
WESSEX, one of the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon Britain.
The discovery of new lands in the West by the Norsemen came in the course of the great Scandinavian exodus of the 9th, 10th and firth centuries - the Viking Age - when Norsemen, Swedes and Danes swarmed over all Europe, conquering kingdoms and founding colonies.
It was subscribed by many in both kingdoms and also in Ireland, and was approved by the English parliament, and with some slight modifications by the Westminster Assembly of Divines.
He ruled these kingdoms for five years and died in 865.
The university, founded in 1389 by the sole efforts of the citizens, soon gained a great reputation; in the 15th century its students numbered much more than a thousand, and its influence extended to Scotland and the Scandinavian kingdoms. Its decline began, however, from the moment when the Catholic sentiment of the city closed it to the influence of the Reformers; the number of its students sank to vanishing point, and though, under the influence of the Jesuits, it subsequently revived, it never recovered its old importance.
"The Kingdoms of the Deccan."
Ever since Russia had become the dominant Baltic power, as well as the state to which the Gottorpers looked primarily for help, the necessity for a better understanding between the two Scandinavian kingdoms had clearly been recognized by the best statesmen of both, especially in Denmark from Christian VI.'s time; but unfortunately this sound and sensible policy was seriously impeded by the survival of the old national hatred on both sides of the Sound, still further complicated by Gottorp's hatred of Denmark.
Sixty years later, at the time of the dictator Caesar, we find two Mauretanian kingdoms, one to the west of the river Mulucha under Bogud, and the other to the east under a Bocchus; as to the date or cause of the division we are ignorant.
And the king claims that missions sent by him to certain Greek kingdoms that he names had resulted in the folk there conforming themselves to his religion.
CH 2 CO 2 H, and optically active methylethylacetic acid, (CH 3) (C 2 H 5)CH CO 2 H, which occur free or as esters in the vegetable and animal kingdoms, chiefly in the roots of Angelica archangelica and Valeriana officinalis.
Political Divisions.The empire is composed of the following twenty-six states and divisions: the kingdoms of Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony and Wtirttemberg; the grand-duchies of Baden, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Schwerin,, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Oldenburg and Saxe-Weimar; the duchies of Anhalt, Brunswick, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Saxe-Meiningen; the principalities of Lippe-Detmold, Reuss-Greiz, Reuss-Schleiz, Schaumburg-Lippe, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, SchwarzburgSondershausen and Waldeck-Pyrmont; the, free towns of Bremen, Hamburg and Lubeck, and the imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine.
duces beet (for sugar), and hops are largely grown in Bavaria, ____________________________ WUrttemberg, Alsace, Baden Kingdoms and the Prussian province of Prussia Posen Bavaria Speaking generally, northern Saxony .
They were disturbed by democratic movements in many of the cities and they were threatened by the changing politics of the three northern kingdoms, Norway, Sweden and Denmark, and by their union in 1397; their trading successes had raised up powerful enemies and had embroiled them with England and with Flanders, and the Teutonic Order and neighboring princes were not slow to take advantage of their other difficulties.
he soon gave up these provinces to his son Philip, the fact that they were in the possession of his family added to hi~ influence, and this was further increased when Philip marriec Joanna, theheiress of the Spanish kingdoms. From Maximilians accession the Empire exercised in the affairs of Europe at authority which had not belonged to it for centuries.
The representatives of the states favorable to this proposal, ic, Austria, Luxemburg, Denmark and the four kingdoms, came together in Frankfort on the 4th of September 1850, constituted themselves a Plenum of the old diet and refused to admit the other states except under the terms of the act of 1815.
the kingdoms of Bavaria and Wurttemberg, and the grand-duchy of Baden, as well as the southern provinces of the grand-duchy of Hesse, were added to the North German Confederation.
(including the qualified dualism of the two kingdoms - the present one of the devil, and the future one of the angelic Christ - which appears also in the Periodoi, cf.
brra seven, and apx, rule), a word which is frequently used to designate the period of English history between the coming of the Anglo-Saxons in 449 and the union of the kingdoms under Ecgbert in 828.
It was first used during the 16th century because of the belief held by Camden and other older historians, that during this period there were exactly seven kingdoms in England, these being Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex and Wessex.
This belief is erroneous, as the number of kingdoms varied considerably from time to time; nevertheless the word still serves a useful purpose to denote the period.
The monarchy consists of two independent states: the kingdoms and lands represented in the council of the empire (Reichsrat), unofficially called Austria or Cisleithania; and the "lands of St Stephen's Crown," unofficially called Hungary or Transleithania.
He died in 1439, and just after his death a son was born to him, who was called Ladislaus Minority Posthumus, and succeeded to the duchy of Austria and to the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia.
Like his emperor ancestor, Rudolph, he had to conquer the lands over Maxi- which his descendants were destined to rule, and by milian t arranging a treaty of succession to the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia, he pointed the way to power and empire in eastern Europe.
Officially the word " Austria " is not found, and though the sovereign is emperor of Austria, an Austrian empire appears not to exist; the territories are spoken of in official documents as " the kingdoms and lands represented in the Reichsrath."
territories, which were henceforward officially known as " the kingdoms and lands represented in the Reichsrath."
In later times Sicily was ruled by Spanish kings, both alone and in union with other kingdoms. The connexion with Africa has consisted simply in the settlement of conquerors from Africa at two periods, first Phoenician, then Saracen.
With him in truth begins that wider range of Greek warfare, policy and dominion which the Macedonian kingdoms carry on.
Pyrrhus is said to have dreamed of kingdoms of Sicily and of Italy for his two sons, the grandsons of Agathocles, and he himself reigned for two years in Sicily as a king who came to be no less hated than the tyrants.
Still, as long as Greek and Saracen were protected and favoured, so long was Sicily the most brilliant of European kingdoms. But its greatness had no groundwork of national life; for lack of it the most brilliant of kingdoms presently sank below the level of other lands.
Of all his kingdoms Sicily was the best-beloved.
Greek and Saracen were both becoming survivals in an island which was but one of the many kingdoms of its king.
There were thus two Sicilian kingdoms and two kings of Sicily.
From this tour Ray and Willughby returned laden with collections, on which they meant to base complete systematic descriptions of the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Willughby undertook the former part, but, dying in 1672, left only an ornithology and ichthyology, in themselves vast, for Ray to edit; while the latter used the botanical collections for the groundwork of his Methodus plantarum nova (1682), and his great Historia generalis plantarum (3 vols., 1686, 1688, _1704).
To fix their European soldiery upon the new soil was an obvious necessity for the Macedonian chiefs who had set up kingdoms among the barbarians, and the lots of the veterans (except in Egypt) were naturally attached to various urban centres.
In the middle of the 3rd century B.C. Bactria and Sogdiana broke away from the Seleucid empire; independent Greek kings reigned there till the country was conquered by nomads from Central Asia (Sacae and Yue-chi) a kingdoms. century later.
Under Rome the process of Hellenization, which the divisions and weakness of the Macedonian kingdoms had checked, went forward.
As to manners and customs, although we possess no systematic descriptions of them from a native source-, the native artists and scribes have presented us with exceptionally rich materials in the painted and sculptured scenes of the tombs from the Old and Middle Kingdoms and the New Empire.
Egypt normally included the whole of the Nile valley from the First Cataract to the sea; pure Egyptians, however, formed the population of Lower Nubia above the Cataract in prehistori.c times; at some periods also the land was divided into separate kingdoms, while at others Egypt stretched southward into Nubia, and it generally claimed the neighboring Libyan deserts and oases on the west and the Arabian deserts on the east to the shore of the Red Sea, with Sinai and the Mediterranean coast as far as Rhinocorura (El Arish).
DivisionsIn ancient times Egypt was divided into two regions, representing the kingdoms that existed before Menes.
If Upper and Lower Egypt represented ancient kingdoms, the nomes have been thought to carry on the traditions of tribal settlements.
Much of these texts is of extreme antiquity; one incantation at least has been proved to belong to an age anterior to the unification of the Northern and Southern kingdoms. Later copies also exist, but possess little independent critical value.
She gained an ascendancy as patroness of the south at the time when the two kingdoms were striving for the mastery.
Gesellschaft, 1892), and in I894 he was able to write a little manual of Egyptian for beginners (Agyplische Grammatik, 2nd ed., 1902), centring on the language of the standard inscriptions of the Middle and New Kingdoms, but accompanying the main sketch with references to earlier and later forms. Of the work of Ermans pupils we may mention G Steindorifs ~ttle Koptische Grammatik (1894, ed 1904), improving greatly on Sterns standard work in regard to phonology and the relationship of Coptic forms to Egyptian, and K.
Middle and Late Egyptian.These represent the vulgar speech of the Middle and New Kingdoms respectively.
A great advance was therefore made when several homophones were introduced into the alphabet in the Middle and New Kingdoms, partly as the result of the wearing away of old phonetic distinctions, ~iving the choice between ..-.
Menes, the founder of the 1st Dynasty, united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt.
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