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khedive

khedive

khedive Sentence Examples

  • Upon the military insurrection of September 1881, Sherif was summoned by the khedive Tewfik to form a new ministry.

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  • (1874-), khedive of Egypt.

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  • a great-great-grandson of Mehemet Ali, born on the 14th of July 1874, succeeded his father, Tewfik Pasha, as khedive of Egypt on the 8th of January 1892.

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  • While in the interests of his canal Lesseps had resisted the opposition of British diplomacy to an enterprise which threatened to give to France control of the shortest route to India, he acted loyally towards Great Britain after Lord Beaconsfield had acquired the Suez shares belonging to the Khedive, by frankly admitting to the board of directors of the company three representatives of the British government.

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  • On the 20th of September 1881 Beheran formally accepted Italian protection, and in the following February an Anglo-Italian convention established the Italian title to Assab on condition that Italy should formally recognise the suzerainty of the Porte and of the khedive over the Red Sea coast, and should prevent the transport of arms and munitions of war through the territory of Assab.

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  • In1874-1875the ambition of Ismail Pasha, khedive of Egypt, who claimed jurisdiction over the whole coast as far as Cape Guardafui, led him to occupy the ports of Tajura, Berbera and Bulhar as well as Harrar in the hinterland.

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  • The khedive Ismail in 1869 appointed Sir Samuel Baker to the command of a large force with which he was " to strike a direct blow at the slave trade in its distant nest."

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  • After the close of the Egyptian war of 1882, he entered the khedive's service and was made a pasha.

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  • The viceroy of Egypt, Ismail Pasha, followed his suzerain's example in this respect, and was lavish in his bribes to his imperial overlord to obtain the extension of his own privileges and the establishment in Egypt of succession from father to son; these concessions were granted to him by the firmans of the 27th of May 1866 and the 8th of June 1867, in the latter of which the viceroy is addressed for the first time as " khedive."

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  • In May 1879 the misgovernment of Ismail Pasha and the resulting financial crisis rendered the deposition of the khedive inevitable; in order to anticipate the action of England and France, who would otherwise have expelled the erring viceroy, the sultan deposed him himself; the succession devolved upon his son Mahommed Tewfik Pasha.

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  • Khedive >>

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  • In 1869 he declined the offer made by the khedive of the chief command of the Egyptian army.

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  • He visited Spain in 1866, Egypt in 1868, when he went up the Nile with Ferdinand de Lesseps in a steamer lent by the Khedive.

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  • KHEDIVE, a Persian word meaning prince or sovereign, granted as a title by the sultan of Turkey in 1867 to his viceroy in Egypt, Ismail, in place of that of "vali."

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  • to Mehemet Ali of Egypt, and still remains the property of the khedive.

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  • baig), the administrator of a district, now generally an honorific title throughout the Turkish empire; the granting of this in Egypt is made by the sultan of Turkey through the khedive.

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  • In 1864 he was consul at Cairo, in 1868 professor at Göttingen, and in 1870 director of the school of Egyptology, founded at Cairo by the khedive.

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  • He had been made a pasha by the khedive in 1881.

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  • In 1870 it was claimed by the khedive Ismail, but was not permanently occupied by Egypt until 1875.

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  • The khedive of Egypt has authority, delegated by the sultan, to grant this order.

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  • Another source of revenue was afforded by Ismail Pasha, the khedive of Egypt, who paid heavily in bakshish for the firman of 1866, by which the succession to the khedivate was made hereditary from father to son in direct line and in order of primogeniture, as well as for the subsequent firmans of 1867, 1869 and 1872 extending the khedive's prerogatives.

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  • On the ist of February 1881 Arabi and two other Egyptian colonels, summoned before a court-martial for acts of disobedience, were rescued by their soldiers, and the khedive was forced to dismiss his then minister of war in favour of Mahmud Sami.

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  • A military demonstration on the 8th of September 1881, led by Arabi, forced the khedive to increase the numbers and pay of the army, to substitute Sherif Pasha for Riaz Pasha as prime minister, and to convene an assembly of notables.

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  • After Arabi's exile had lasted for nearly twenty years, however, the khedive Abbas II.

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  • The first exception in Upper Egypt to the basin system of irrigation was due to the Khedive Ismail.

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  • The khedive, having acquired vast estates in the provinces of Assiut, Miniah, BeniSuef and the Fayum, resolved to grow sugar-cane on a very large scale, and with this object constructed a very important perennial canal, named the Ibrahimia, taking out of the left bank of the Nile at the town of Assiut, and flowing parallel to the river for about 200 m., with an important branch which irrigates the Fayum.

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  • South of the bridge are the Ismailia palace (a khedivial residence), the British consulate general, the palace of the khedive's mother, the medical school and the government hospital.

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  • In Bulak are several factories founded by Mehemet Ali for spinning, weaving and printing cotton, and a paper-mill established by the khedive Ismail in 1870.

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  • Under Mehemet and his successors all the western part of the city has grown up. The khedive Ismail, in making the straight road from the citadel to the Ezbekia gardens, destroyed many of the finest houses of the old town.

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  • Westward from Alexandria a railway, begun in 1904 by the khedive, Abbas II., runs parallel with the coast, and is intended to be continued to Tripoli.

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  • Constitution and AdministrationEgypt is a tributary state of the Turkish empire, and is ruled by an hereditary prince with the style of khedive, a Persian title regarded as the equivalent of king.

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  • The central administration is carried on by a council of ministers, appointed by the khedive, one of whom acts as prime minister.

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  • The ministries are those of the interior, finance, public works, justice, war, foreign affairs and public instruction,1 and in each of these are prepared the drafts of decrees, which are then submitted to the council of ministers for approval, and on being signed by the khedive become law.

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  • While the council of ministers with the khedive forms the legislative authority, there are various representative bodies with strictly limited powers.

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  • Among the Moslems the Sheikh-elIslam, appointed by the khedive from among the Ulema (learned class), exercises the highest religious and, in certain subjects, judicial authority.

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  • The chief ceremonies take place in some large open spot round which are erected the tents of the khedive, of great state officials, and of the dervishes.

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  • The right to raise loans had been granted to the khedive Ismail in 1873, but was taken away in 1879 by the firman appointing Tewfik khedive.

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  • The earlier merciless practice had been in theory abolished by a decree based on the German system, published in 1880; but owing to defective organization, and internal disturbances induced by Khedive Ismails follies, the law had not been applied, and the 6000 recruits collected at Cairo in January 1883 represented the biggest and strongest peasants who could not purchase exemption by bribing the officials concerned.

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  • When the Egyptian Army of the Delta ~was dispersed at Tell el-Kebir, the khedive had 40,000 troops in the Sudan, scattered from Massawa on the Red Sea to 1200 m.

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  • 1805) obtained from the Porte in 1841 the right to bequeath the sovereignty to his descendants, one of whom, Ismail Pasha, received the title Khedive, which is still held by Mehemet Alis descendants.

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  • Amina (married the Khedive Tewfik).

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  • ,) Ismail (Khedive), Mustap~ia Fazil, b.

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  • In the following year ai~ther firman bestowed upon him the title of khedive in lieu of that of vali, borne by Mehemet Ali and his immediate successors.

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  • In 1873 a further firman placed the khedive in many respects in the position of an independent sovereign.

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  • In 1875 the 1ea~jflgto impoverishment of the fellah had reached such a ~he depoint that the ordinary resources of the country no Pofo~.kmo:I, longer sufficed for the most urgent necessities of administration; and the khedive Ismail, having repeatedly broken faith with his creditors, could not raise any more loans on the European market.

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  • One result of that inquiry was the extension of international control to the enormous landed property of the khedive.

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  • Taken unawares, he made no attempt at resistance, and Tewfik was at once proclaimed khedive.

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  • The khedive, who had taken refuge in Alexandria, returned to Cairo, and a ministry was formed under Sherif Pasha, with Riaz Pasha as one of its leading members.

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  • Had the khedive and Riaz been allowed a free hand, Arabi and his colleagues would have found little mercy.

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  • Arabi pleaded guilty, was sentenced to death, the sentence being commuted by the khedive to banishment; and Riaz resigned in disgust.

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  • One of his first acts, after preventing the application of capital punishment to the ringleaders of the revolt, was to veto the project of protecting the khedive and his government by means of a Praetorian guard recruited from Asia Minor, Epirus, Austria and Switzerland, and to insist on the principle that Egypt must be governed in a truly liberal spirit.

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  • At first the intention of the British government was simply to restore the power of the khedive, to keep his highness for some time in the right path by friendly advice, and to withdraw the British troops as soon as possible.

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  • In vain the khedive and his prime minister, Sherif Pasha, threatened to resign, and the latter actually carried out his threat.

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  • On the 24th of October of that year he concluded a preliminary convention by which an Ottoman and a British high commissioner, acting in concert with the khedive, should reorganize the Egyptian army, tranquillize the Sudan by pacific means, and consider what changes might be necessary in the civil administration.

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  • The new Egyptian army was so far improved that it gained successes over the forces of the Mahdi; the burden of the national debt was lightened by a successful conversion; the corve was abolished; 1 the land tax was reduced 30% in the poorest provinces, and in spite of this and other measures for lightening the public burdens, the budgetary surplus constantly increased; the quasi-judicial special commissions for brigandage, which were at once barbarous and inefficient, were abolished; the native tribunals were improved, and Mr (afterwards Sir John) Scott, an Indian judge of great experience and sound judgment, was appointed judicial adviser to the khedive.

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  • In January 1892 the khedive Tewfik, who had always maintained cordial relations with Sir Evelyn Baring, died suddenly, and was succeeded by his son, Abbas Hilmi, a young b man without political experience, who failed at first to understand the peculiar situation in which a khedive ruling under British protection is necessarily placed.

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  • The young khedive was made therefore to understand that he must not make such changes in the administration without a previous agreement with the representative of the protecting power; and a compromise was effected by which Fakhri Pasha retired, and the post of premier was confided once more to Riaz.

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  • With this compromise the friction between the khedive and Sir Evelyn Baring, who had now become Lord Cromer, did not end.

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  • He was succeeded by Mustafa Febmi, who had always shown a conciliatory spirit, and who had been on that account, as above stated, summarily dismissed by the khedive in January 1893.

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  • According to that agreement the British and Egyptian flags are used together, and the supreme military and civil command is vested in a governor-general, who is appointed by the khedive on the recom The mendation of the British government, and who cannot Anglo- be removed without the British governments con Egyptian sent.

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  • The origin of Th ~ b the dispute dated back, however, to 1892, when Abbas, n~f,de~,ta Hilmi became khedive.

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  • In January 1906 the sultan complained to the British ambassador at Constantinople of Egyptian encroachments on Turkish territory, whereupon the khedive asked that the frontier should be delimited, a request which Turkey rejected.

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  • The British government intervened on behalf of the khedive and consistently maintained that the Rafa-Akaba line must be the frontier.

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  • In April a conference was held between the khedive and Mukhtar Pasha, the Ottoman commissioner.

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  • The khedive, moreover, markedly abstained from any association with the agitation of the Nationalists, who viewed with disfavour his highnesss personal friendship with Sir Eldon Gorst.

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  • It soon became clear that ~the khedive was powerless, and that the military party, headed by Arabi, threatened to dominate the country.

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  • The dual note, communicated to the khedive on the 6th of January 1881, contained an intimation that Great Britain and France were prepared to afford material support if necessary; but the fall of Gambettas ministry produced a reaction, and both governments proceeded to minimize the meaning of their language.

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  • The khedive was practically compelled to form a government in which Arabi was minister of war and Mahmud Sami premier, and Arabi took steps to extend his influence throughout his army.

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  • The situz~tion now became critically serious: for the third time ships were sent to Alexandria, and on the 25th of May 1882 the consulsgeneral of the two powers made a strong representation to Mahmud Sami which produced the resignation of the Egyptian ministry, and a demand, to which the khedive yielded, by the military party for the reinstatement of Arabi.

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  • On the 25th the khedive entered Cairo, where a review of the British troops was held on the 3oth.

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  • Alison, to maintain the authority of the khedive.

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  • The authority of the khedive and the maintenance of law and order now depended absolutely on the British forces left in occupation.

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  • In March 1883 Colonel William Hicks, late of the Bombay army, Ds~er~o who in January had been appointed by the khedive Pasha.

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  • The khedive appears to have been aware of the risks to be incurred, and in a private letter he informed the general that I rely upon your prudence and ability not to engage the enemy except under the most favorable circumstances.

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  • It was laid out in 1863, in connexion with the construction of the canal, and is named after the khedive Ismail.

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  • It is divided into two quarters by the road leading from the landing-place to the railway station, and has numerous public offices, warehouses and other buildings, including a palace of the khedive, used as a hospital during the British military operations in 1882, but subsequently allowed to fall into a dilapidated condition.

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  • In 1865 Massawa and the neighbouring coast was acquired by Egypt, the khedive Ismail entertaining projects for connecting the port by railway with the Nile.

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  • There are a large railway station, a very fine mosque (restored), and a palace of the khedive.

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  • Parallel with it is Khedive Avenue, of equal length.

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  • In front of the southern facade, which looks on to Khedive Avenue, is a bronze statue of General Gordon seated on a camel, a copy of the statue by Onslow Ford at Chatham, England.

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  • Running south from Khedive Avenue at the spot where the Gordon statue stands, is Victoria Avenue, leading to Abbas Square, in the centre of which is the great mosque with two minarets.

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  • The Anglican church, dedicated to All Saints, the principal banks and business houses, are in Khedive Avenue.

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  • In 1892, on the accession of the khedive Abbas II., Turkey resumed possession of Akaba, the Egyptian pilgrims having deserted the land route to Mecca in favour of a sea passage.

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  • In 1871 Baker, then governor-general of the equatorial provinces of Egypt, established a military post at Gondokoro which he named Ismailia, after the then khedive.

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  • The khedive, however, felt compelled, when as a sop to his European creditors he assumed the position of a constitutional monarch, to nominate Riaz as a member of the first Egyptian cabinet.

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  • Upon the deposition of Ismail, June 1879, Riaz was sent for by the British and French controllers, and he formed the first ministry under the khedive Tewfik.

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  • This he succeeded in doing to a large extent, witnessing if not initiating the practical abolition of the corvee and many other reforms. The appointment of an Anglo-Indian official as judicial adviser to the khedive was, however, opposed by Riaz, who resigned in May 1891.

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  • It is in the gift of the sultan of Turkey and, by delegation, of the khedive of Egypt.

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  • For eight years from 1871 he acted as general engineering adviser in Egypt to the Khedive Ismail.

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  • 1875 the country was suddenly startled at hearing that it had acquired a new position and assumed new responsibilities in Egypt by the purchase of the shares which the khedive of Egypt held in the Suez Canal.

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  • The necessities of the khedive of Egypt B had been only temporarily relieved by the sale to gyp. Lord Beaconsfields government of the Suez Canal shares.

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  • It was obvious that the French could not be allowed to remain at a spot which the khedive of Egypt claimed as Egyptian territory; and after some negotiation, and some irritation, the French were withdrawn.

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  • The news that the khedive's Suez Canal shares had been bought by the government was received with boundless applause.

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  • informed him that the khedive's shares were passing into the hands of a French syndicate, and urged arrest of the transaction by purchase for England.

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  • Lord Derby had either to make direct inquiry of the khedive or to let the matter go.

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  • If he inquired, and there was no such negotiation, his question might be interpreted in a very troublesome way; moreover, we should put the idea of selling the shares into the khedive's head, which would be unfortunate.

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  • It instructed Colonel Stanton to go immediately to the khedive and put the question point blank.

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  • The khedive had also seized Bogos, in the hinterland of Massawa, a province claimed by Abyssinia.

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  • Nominally subjects of the khedive, they acted as free agents, reducing the country over which they terrorized to a state of abject misery.

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  • The khedive, fearing the power of Zobeir, also sent an expedition to Darfur, and that country, after a stout resistance, was conquered.

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  • The khedive Ismail revived Said's project of a railway, and a survey for a line from Wadi Halfa to Khartum was made (1871), while a branch line to Massawa was also contemplated.

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  • During 1872 Gordon was sent to inspect the British military cemeteries in the Crimea, and when passing through Constantinople on his return to Galatz he made the acquaintance of Nubar Pasha, prime minister of Egypt, who sounded him as to whether he would take service under the khedive.

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  • Nothing further was settled at the time, but the following year he received a definite offer from the khedive, which he accepted with the consent of the British government, and proceeded to Egypt early in 1874.

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  • Public opinion was considerably moved, and in 1869 the khedive Ismail decided to send an expedition up the White Nile, with the double object of limiting the evils of the slave trade and opening up the district to commerce.

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  • It was to succeed Baker as governor of the equatorial regions that the khedive asked for Gordon's services, having come to the conclusion that the latter was the most likely person to bring the affair to a satisfactory conclusion.

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  • On arriving in Cairo Gordon informed the khedive of his reasons for not wishing to return to the Sudan, but did not definitely resign the appointment of governor of the equatorial provinces.

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  • But on reaching London he telegraphed to the British consulgeneral in Cairo, asking him to let the khedive know that he would not go back to Egypt.

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  • After some discussion the khedive agreed, and made him governor-general of the Sudan, inclusive of Darfur and the equatorial provinces.

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  • The dispute centred round the district of Bogos, lying not far inland from Massawa, which both the khedive and King John of Abyssinia claimed as belonging to their respective dominions.

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  • A second and larger expedition, under Prince Hassan, the son of the khedive, was sent the following year from Massawa.

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  • But he received no reply at that time, as John, feeling pretty secure on the Egyptian frontier after his two successful actions against the khedive's troops, had gone southwards to fight with Menelek, king of Shoa.

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  • There he had scarcely a week's rest when the khedive summoned him to Cairo to assist in settling the financial affairs of Egypt.

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  • Gordon accepted the post on these terms, but the consuls-general of the different powers refused to agree to the constitution of the commission, and it fell to the ground, as the khedive was not strong enough to carry his point.

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  • Shortly afterwards he went down to Cairo, and when there was requested by the new khedive to pay a visit to King John and make a definite treaty of peace with Abyssinia.

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  • Gordon had an interesting interview with the king, but was not able to do much, as the king wanted great concessions from Egypt, and the khedive's instructions were that nothing material was to be conceded.

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  • At Cairo he received further instructions from Sir Evelyn Baring, and was appointed by the khedive as governor-general, with executive powers.

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  • Upon the military insurrection of September 1881, Sherif was summoned by the khedive Tewfik to form a new ministry.

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  • (1874-), khedive of Egypt.

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  • a great-great-grandson of Mehemet Ali, born on the 14th of July 1874, succeeded his father, Tewfik Pasha, as khedive of Egypt on the 8th of January 1892.

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  • On the 25th of April 1859 the first blow of the pickaxe was given by Lesseps at Port Said, and on the 17th of November 1869 the canal was officially opened by the Khedive, Ismail Pacha (see Suez Canal).

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  • While in the interests of his canal Lesseps had resisted the opposition of British diplomacy to an enterprise which threatened to give to France control of the shortest route to India, he acted loyally towards Great Britain after Lord Beaconsfield had acquired the Suez shares belonging to the Khedive, by frankly admitting to the board of directors of the company three representatives of the British government.

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  • Trouble in Egypt, where a discredited khedive had to be deposed, trouble on the Greek frontier and in Montenegro, where the Powers were determined that the decisions of the Berlin Congress should be carried into effect, were more or less satisfactorily got over.

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  • On the 20th of September 1881 Beheran formally accepted Italian protection, and in the following February an Anglo-Italian convention established the Italian title to Assab on condition that Italy should formally recognise the suzerainty of the Porte and of the khedive over the Red Sea coast, and should prevent the transport of arms and munitions of war through the territory of Assab.

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  • In1874-1875the ambition of Ismail Pasha, khedive of Egypt, who claimed jurisdiction over the whole coast as far as Cape Guardafui, led him to occupy the ports of Tajura, Berbera and Bulhar as well as Harrar in the hinterland.

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  • The khedive Ismail in 1869 appointed Sir Samuel Baker to the command of a large force with which he was " to strike a direct blow at the slave trade in its distant nest."

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  • After the close of the Egyptian war of 1882, he entered the khedive's service and was made a pasha.

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  • The viceroy of Egypt, Ismail Pasha, followed his suzerain's example in this respect, and was lavish in his bribes to his imperial overlord to obtain the extension of his own privileges and the establishment in Egypt of succession from father to son; these concessions were granted to him by the firmans of the 27th of May 1866 and the 8th of June 1867, in the latter of which the viceroy is addressed for the first time as " khedive."

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  • In May 1879 the misgovernment of Ismail Pasha and the resulting financial crisis rendered the deposition of the khedive inevitable; in order to anticipate the action of England and France, who would otherwise have expelled the erring viceroy, the sultan deposed him himself; the succession devolved upon his son Mahommed Tewfik Pasha.

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  • In 1869 he declined the offer made by the khedive of the chief command of the Egyptian army.

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  • He visited Spain in 1866, Egypt in 1868, when he went up the Nile with Ferdinand de Lesseps in a steamer lent by the Khedive.

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  • KHEDIVE, a Persian word meaning prince or sovereign, granted as a title by the sultan of Turkey in 1867 to his viceroy in Egypt, Ismail, in place of that of "vali."

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  • to Mehemet Ali of Egypt, and still remains the property of the khedive.

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  • baig), the administrator of a district, now generally an honorific title throughout the Turkish empire; the granting of this in Egypt is made by the sultan of Turkey through the khedive.

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  • In 1864 he was consul at Cairo, in 1868 professor at Göttingen, and in 1870 director of the school of Egyptology, founded at Cairo by the khedive.

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  • He had been made a pasha by the khedive in 1881.

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  • In 1870 it was claimed by the khedive Ismail, but was not permanently occupied by Egypt until 1875.

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  • The khedive of Egypt has authority, delegated by the sultan, to grant this order.

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  • Another source of revenue was afforded by Ismail Pasha, the khedive of Egypt, who paid heavily in bakshish for the firman of 1866, by which the succession to the khedivate was made hereditary from father to son in direct line and in order of primogeniture, as well as for the subsequent firmans of 1867, 1869 and 1872 extending the khedive's prerogatives.

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  • On the ist of February 1881 Arabi and two other Egyptian colonels, summoned before a court-martial for acts of disobedience, were rescued by their soldiers, and the khedive was forced to dismiss his then minister of war in favour of Mahmud Sami.

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  • A military demonstration on the 8th of September 1881, led by Arabi, forced the khedive to increase the numbers and pay of the army, to substitute Sherif Pasha for Riaz Pasha as prime minister, and to convene an assembly of notables.

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  • After Arabi's exile had lasted for nearly twenty years, however, the khedive Abbas II.

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  • The first exception in Upper Egypt to the basin system of irrigation was due to the Khedive Ismail.

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  • The khedive, having acquired vast estates in the provinces of Assiut, Miniah, BeniSuef and the Fayum, resolved to grow sugar-cane on a very large scale, and with this object constructed a very important perennial canal, named the Ibrahimia, taking out of the left bank of the Nile at the town of Assiut, and flowing parallel to the river for about 200 m., with an important branch which irrigates the Fayum.

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  • South of the bridge are the Ismailia palace (a khedivial residence), the British consulate general, the palace of the khedive's mother, the medical school and the government hospital.

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  • In Bulak are several factories founded by Mehemet Ali for spinning, weaving and printing cotton, and a paper-mill established by the khedive Ismail in 1870.

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  • Under Mehemet and his successors all the western part of the city has grown up. The khedive Ismail, in making the straight road from the citadel to the Ezbekia gardens, destroyed many of the finest houses of the old town.

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  • Westward from Alexandria a railway, begun in 1904 by the khedive, Abbas II., runs parallel with the coast, and is intended to be continued to Tripoli.

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  • Constitution and AdministrationEgypt is a tributary state of the Turkish empire, and is ruled by an hereditary prince with the style of khedive, a Persian title regarded as the equivalent of king.

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  • The central administration is carried on by a council of ministers, appointed by the khedive, one of whom acts as prime minister.

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  • The ministries are those of the interior, finance, public works, justice, war, foreign affairs and public instruction,1 and in each of these are prepared the drafts of decrees, which are then submitted to the council of ministers for approval, and on being signed by the khedive become law.

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  • While the council of ministers with the khedive forms the legislative authority, there are various representative bodies with strictly limited powers.

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  • Among the Moslems the Sheikh-elIslam, appointed by the khedive from among the Ulema (learned class), exercises the highest religious and, in certain subjects, judicial authority.

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  • The chief ceremonies take place in some large open spot round which are erected the tents of the khedive, of great state officials, and of the dervishes.

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  • The right to raise loans had been granted to the khedive Ismail in 1873, but was taken away in 1879 by the firman appointing Tewfik khedive.

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  • The earlier merciless practice had been in theory abolished by a decree based on the German system, published in 1880; but owing to defective organization, and internal disturbances induced by Khedive Ismails follies, the law had not been applied, and the 6000 recruits collected at Cairo in January 1883 represented the biggest and strongest peasants who could not purchase exemption by bribing the officials concerned.

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  • When the Egyptian Army of the Delta ~was dispersed at Tell el-Kebir, the khedive had 40,000 troops in the Sudan, scattered from Massawa on the Red Sea to 1200 m.

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  • 1805) obtained from the Porte in 1841 the right to bequeath the sovereignty to his descendants, one of whom, Ismail Pasha, received the title Khedive, which is still held by Mehemet Alis descendants.

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  • Amina (married the Khedive Tewfik).

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  • ,) Ismail (Khedive), Mustap~ia Fazil, b.

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  • In the following year ai~ther firman bestowed upon him the title of khedive in lieu of that of vali, borne by Mehemet Ali and his immediate successors.

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  • In 1873 a further firman placed the khedive in many respects in the position of an independent sovereign.

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  • In 1875 the 1ea~jflgto impoverishment of the fellah had reached such a ~he depoint that the ordinary resources of the country no Pofo~.kmo:I, longer sufficed for the most urgent necessities of administration; and the khedive Ismail, having repeatedly broken faith with his creditors, could not raise any more loans on the European market.

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  • One result of that inquiry was the extension of international control to the enormous landed property of the khedive.

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  • Taken unawares, he made no attempt at resistance, and Tewfik was at once proclaimed khedive.

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  • The khedive, who had taken refuge in Alexandria, returned to Cairo, and a ministry was formed under Sherif Pasha, with Riaz Pasha as one of its leading members.

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  • Had the khedive and Riaz been allowed a free hand, Arabi and his colleagues would have found little mercy.

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  • Arabi pleaded guilty, was sentenced to death, the sentence being commuted by the khedive to banishment; and Riaz resigned in disgust.

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  • One of his first acts, after preventing the application of capital punishment to the ringleaders of the revolt, was to veto the project of protecting the khedive and his government by means of a Praetorian guard recruited from Asia Minor, Epirus, Austria and Switzerland, and to insist on the principle that Egypt must be governed in a truly liberal spirit.

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  • At first the intention of the British government was simply to restore the power of the khedive, to keep his highness for some time in the right path by friendly advice, and to withdraw the British troops as soon as possible.

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  • In vain the khedive and his prime minister, Sherif Pasha, threatened to resign, and the latter actually carried out his threat.

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  • On the 24th of October of that year he concluded a preliminary convention by which an Ottoman and a British high commissioner, acting in concert with the khedive, should reorganize the Egyptian army, tranquillize the Sudan by pacific means, and consider what changes might be necessary in the civil administration.

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  • The new Egyptian army was so far improved that it gained successes over the forces of the Mahdi; the burden of the national debt was lightened by a successful conversion; the corve was abolished; 1 the land tax was reduced 30% in the poorest provinces, and in spite of this and other measures for lightening the public burdens, the budgetary surplus constantly increased; the quasi-judicial special commissions for brigandage, which were at once barbarous and inefficient, were abolished; the native tribunals were improved, and Mr (afterwards Sir John) Scott, an Indian judge of great experience and sound judgment, was appointed judicial adviser to the khedive.

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  • In January 1892 the khedive Tewfik, who had always maintained cordial relations with Sir Evelyn Baring, died suddenly, and was succeeded by his son, Abbas Hilmi, a young b man without political experience, who failed at first to understand the peculiar situation in which a khedive ruling under British protection is necessarily placed.

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  • The young khedive was made therefore to understand that he must not make such changes in the administration without a previous agreement with the representative of the protecting power; and a compromise was effected by which Fakhri Pasha retired, and the post of premier was confided once more to Riaz.

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  • With this compromise the friction between the khedive and Sir Evelyn Baring, who had now become Lord Cromer, did not end.

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  • He was succeeded by Mustafa Febmi, who had always shown a conciliatory spirit, and who had been on that account, as above stated, summarily dismissed by the khedive in January 1893.

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  • According to that agreement the British and Egyptian flags are used together, and the supreme military and civil command is vested in a governor-general, who is appointed by the khedive on the recom The mendation of the British government, and who cannot Anglo- be removed without the British governments con Egyptian sent.

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  • The origin of Th ~ b the dispute dated back, however, to 1892, when Abbas, n~f,de~,ta Hilmi became khedive.

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  • In January 1906 the sultan complained to the British ambassador at Constantinople of Egyptian encroachments on Turkish territory, whereupon the khedive asked that the frontier should be delimited, a request which Turkey rejected.

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  • The British government intervened on behalf of the khedive and consistently maintained that the Rafa-Akaba line must be the frontier.

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  • In April a conference was held between the khedive and Mukhtar Pasha, the Ottoman commissioner.

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  • The khedive, moreover, markedly abstained from any association with the agitation of the Nationalists, who viewed with disfavour his highnesss personal friendship with Sir Eldon Gorst.

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  • The prisoners were released by force, and proceeded to dictate terms to the khedive.

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  • It soon became clear that ~the khedive was powerless, and that the military party, headed by Arabi, threatened to dominate the country.

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  • The dual note, communicated to the khedive on the 6th of January 1881, contained an intimation that Great Britain and France were prepared to afford material support if necessary; but the fall of Gambettas ministry produced a reaction, and both governments proceeded to minimize the meaning of their language.

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  • The khedive was practically compelled to form a government in which Arabi was minister of war and Mahmud Sami premier, and Arabi took steps to extend his influence throughout his army.

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  • The situz~tion now became critically serious: for the third time ships were sent to Alexandria, and on the 25th of May 1882 the consulsgeneral of the two powers made a strong representation to Mahmud Sami which produced the resignation of the Egyptian ministry, and a demand, to which the khedive yielded, by the military party for the reinstatement of Arabi.

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  • On the 25th the khedive entered Cairo, where a review of the British troops was held on the 3oth.

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  • Alison, to maintain the authority of the khedive.

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  • The authority of the khedive and the maintenance of law and order now depended absolutely on the British forces left in occupation.

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  • In March 1883 Colonel William Hicks, late of the Bombay army, Ds~er~o who in January had been appointed by the khedive Pasha.

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  • Baring forcibly argued against British intervention in the affairs of the Sudan, and on the 13th of December Lord Granville telegraphed that Her Majestys government recommend the ministers of khedive to come to an early decision to abandon all territory south of Assuan, or, at least, of Wadi Haifa.

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  • The khedive appears to have been aware of the risks to be incurred, and in a private letter he informed the general that I rely upon your prudence and ability not to engage the enemy except under the most favorable circumstances.

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  • It was laid out in 1863, in connexion with the construction of the canal, and is named after the khedive Ismail.

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  • It is divided into two quarters by the road leading from the landing-place to the railway station, and has numerous public offices, warehouses and other buildings, including a palace of the khedive, used as a hospital during the British military operations in 1882, but subsequently allowed to fall into a dilapidated condition.

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  • In 1865 Massawa and the neighbouring coast was acquired by Egypt, the khedive Ismail entertaining projects for connecting the port by railway with the Nile.

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  • There are a large railway station, a very fine mosque (restored), and a palace of the khedive.

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  • Parallel with it is Khedive Avenue, of equal length.

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  • In front of the southern facade, which looks on to Khedive Avenue, is a bronze statue of General Gordon seated on a camel, a copy of the statue by Onslow Ford at Chatham, England.

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  • Running south from Khedive Avenue at the spot where the Gordon statue stands, is Victoria Avenue, leading to Abbas Square, in the centre of which is the great mosque with two minarets.

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  • The Anglican church, dedicated to All Saints, the principal banks and business houses, are in Khedive Avenue.

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  • In 1892, on the accession of the khedive Abbas II., Turkey resumed possession of Akaba, the Egyptian pilgrims having deserted the land route to Mecca in favour of a sea passage.

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  • In 1871 Baker, then governor-general of the equatorial provinces of Egypt, established a military post at Gondokoro which he named Ismailia, after the then khedive.

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  • The khedive, however, felt compelled, when as a sop to his European creditors he assumed the position of a constitutional monarch, to nominate Riaz as a member of the first Egyptian cabinet.

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  • Upon the deposition of Ismail, June 1879, Riaz was sent for by the British and French controllers, and he formed the first ministry under the khedive Tewfik.

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  • This he succeeded in doing to a large extent, witnessing if not initiating the practical abolition of the corvee and many other reforms. The appointment of an Anglo-Indian official as judicial adviser to the khedive was, however, opposed by Riaz, who resigned in May 1891.

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  • It is in the gift of the sultan of Turkey and, by delegation, of the khedive of Egypt.

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  • For eight years from 1871 he acted as general engineering adviser in Egypt to the Khedive Ismail.

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  • 1875 the country was suddenly startled at hearing that it had acquired a new position and assumed new responsibilities in Egypt by the purchase of the shares which the khedive of Egypt held in the Suez Canal.

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  • The necessities of the khedive of Egypt B had been only temporarily relieved by the sale to gyp. Lord Beaconsfields government of the Suez Canal shares.

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  • It was obvious that the French could not be allowed to remain at a spot which the khedive of Egypt claimed as Egyptian territory; and after some negotiation, and some irritation, the French were withdrawn.

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  • The news that the khedive's Suez Canal shares had been bought by the government was received with boundless applause.

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  • informed him that the khedive's shares were passing into the hands of a French syndicate, and urged arrest of the transaction by purchase for England.

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  • Lord Derby had either to make direct inquiry of the khedive or to let the matter go.

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  • If he inquired, and there was no such negotiation, his question might be interpreted in a very troublesome way; moreover, we should put the idea of selling the shares into the khedive's head, which would be unfortunate.

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  • It instructed Colonel Stanton to go immediately to the khedive and put the question point blank.

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  • The khedive had also seized Bogos, in the hinterland of Massawa, a province claimed by Abyssinia.

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  • Nominally subjects of the khedive, they acted as free agents, reducing the country over which they terrorized to a state of abject misery.

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  • The khedive, fearing the power of Zobeir, also sent an expedition to Darfur, and that country, after a stout resistance, was conquered.

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  • The khedive Ismail revived Said's project of a railway, and a survey for a line from Wadi Halfa to Khartum was made (1871), while a branch line to Massawa was also contemplated.

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  • During 1872 Gordon was sent to inspect the British military cemeteries in the Crimea, and when passing through Constantinople on his return to Galatz he made the acquaintance of Nubar Pasha, prime minister of Egypt, who sounded him as to whether he would take service under the khedive.

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  • Nothing further was settled at the time, but the following year he received a definite offer from the khedive, which he accepted with the consent of the British government, and proceeded to Egypt early in 1874.

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  • Public opinion was considerably moved, and in 1869 the khedive Ismail decided to send an expedition up the White Nile, with the double object of limiting the evils of the slave trade and opening up the district to commerce.

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  • It was to succeed Baker as governor of the equatorial regions that the khedive asked for Gordon's services, having come to the conclusion that the latter was the most likely person to bring the affair to a satisfactory conclusion.

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  • On arriving in Cairo Gordon informed the khedive of his reasons for not wishing to return to the Sudan, but did not definitely resign the appointment of governor of the equatorial provinces.

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  • But on reaching London he telegraphed to the British consulgeneral in Cairo, asking him to let the khedive know that he would not go back to Egypt.

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  • After some discussion the khedive agreed, and made him governor-general of the Sudan, inclusive of Darfur and the equatorial provinces.

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  • The dispute centred round the district of Bogos, lying not far inland from Massawa, which both the khedive and King John of Abyssinia claimed as belonging to their respective dominions.

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  • A second and larger expedition, under Prince Hassan, the son of the khedive, was sent the following year from Massawa.

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  • But he received no reply at that time, as John, feeling pretty secure on the Egyptian frontier after his two successful actions against the khedive's troops, had gone southwards to fight with Menelek, king of Shoa.

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  • There he had scarcely a week's rest when the khedive summoned him to Cairo to assist in settling the financial affairs of Egypt.

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  • Gordon accepted the post on these terms, but the consuls-general of the different powers refused to agree to the constitution of the commission, and it fell to the ground, as the khedive was not strong enough to carry his point.

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  • Shortly afterwards he went down to Cairo, and when there was requested by the new khedive to pay a visit to King John and make a definite treaty of peace with Abyssinia.

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  • Gordon had an interesting interview with the king, but was not able to do much, as the king wanted great concessions from Egypt, and the khedive's instructions were that nothing material was to be conceded.

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  • At Cairo he received further instructions from Sir Evelyn Baring, and was appointed by the khedive as governor-general, with executive powers.

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