Upon the military insurrection of September 1881, Sherif was summoned by the khedive Tewfik to form a new ministry.
(1874-), khedive of Egypt.
A great-great-grandson of Mehemet Ali, born on the 14th of July 1874, succeeded his father, Tewfik Pasha, as khedive of Egypt on the 8th of January 1892.
While in the interests of his canal Lesseps had resisted the opposition of British diplomacy to an enterprise which threatened to give to France control of the shortest route to India, he acted loyally towards Great Britain after Lord Beaconsfield had acquired the Suez shares belonging to the Khedive, by frankly admitting to the board of directors of the company three representatives of the British government.
On the 20th of September 1881 Beheran formally accepted Italian protection, and in the following February an Anglo-Italian convention established the Italian title to Assab on condition that Italy should formally recognise the suzerainty of the Porte and of the khedive over the Red Sea coast, and should prevent the transport of arms and munitions of war through the territory of Assab.
In1874-1875the ambition of Ismail Pasha, khedive of Egypt, who claimed jurisdiction over the whole coast as far as Cape Guardafui, led him to occupy the ports of Tajura, Berbera and Bulhar as well as Harrar in the hinterland.
The khedive Ismail in 1869 appointed Sir Samuel Baker to the command of a large force with which he was " to strike a direct blow at the slave trade in its distant nest."
In May 1879 the misgovernment of Ismail Pasha and the resulting financial crisis rendered the deposition of the khedive inevitable; in order to anticipate the action of England and France, who would otherwise have expelled the erring viceroy, the sultan deposed him himself; the succession devolved upon his son Mahommed Tewfik Pasha.
In 1869 he declined the offer made by the khedive of the chief command of the Egyptian army.
KHEDIVE, a Persian word meaning prince or sovereign, granted as a title by the sultan of Turkey in 1867 to his viceroy in Egypt, Ismail, in place of that of "vali."
He had been made a pasha by the khedive in 1881.
In 1870 it was claimed by the khedive Ismail, but was not permanently occupied by Egypt until 1875.
In 1858 he accepted the position of conservator of Egyptian monuments to the ex-khedive, Ismail Pasha, and removed with his family to Cairo.
The khedive of Egypt has authority, delegated by the sultan, to grant this order.
Another source of revenue was afforded by Ismail Pasha, the khedive of Egypt, who paid heavily in bakshish for the firman of 1866, by which the succession to the khedivate was made hereditary from father to son in direct line and in order of primogeniture, as well as for the subsequent firmans of 1867, 1869 and 1872 extending the khedive's prerogatives.
On the ist of February 1881 Arabi and two other Egyptian colonels, summoned before a court-martial for acts of disobedience, were rescued by their soldiers, and the khedive was forced to dismiss his then minister of war in favour of Mahmud Sami.
A military demonstration on the 8th of September 1881, led by Arabi, forced the khedive to increase the numbers and pay of the army, to substitute Sherif Pasha for Riaz Pasha as prime minister, and to convene an assembly of notables.
After Arabi's exile had lasted for nearly twenty years, however, the khedive Abbas II.
The first exception in Upper Egypt to the basin system of irrigation was due to the Khedive Ismail.
The khedive, having acquired vast estates in the provinces of Assiut, Miniah, BeniSuef and the Fayum, resolved to grow sugar-cane on a very large scale, and with this object constructed a very important perennial canal, named the Ibrahimia, taking out of the left bank of the Nile at the town of Assiut, and flowing parallel to the river for about 200 m., with an important branch which irrigates the Fayum.
In Bulak are several factories founded by Mehemet Ali for spinning, weaving and printing cotton, and a paper-mill established by the khedive Ismail in 1870.
Under Mehemet and his successors all the western part of the city has grown up. The khedive Ismail, in making the straight road from the citadel to the Ezbekia gardens, destroyed many of the finest houses of the old town.
Westward from Alexandria a railway, begun in 1904 by the khedive, Abbas II., runs parallel with the coast, and is intended to be continued to Tripoli.
Constitution and AdministrationEgypt is a tributary state of the Turkish empire, and is ruled by an hereditary prince with the style of khedive, a Persian title regarded as the equivalent of king.
The central administration is carried on by a council of ministers, appointed by the khedive, one of whom acts as prime minister.
The ministries are those of the interior, finance, public works, justice, war, foreign affairs and public instruction,1 and in each of these are prepared the drafts of decrees, which are then submitted to the council of ministers for approval, and on being signed by the khedive become law.
While the council of ministers with the khedive forms the legislative authority, there are various representative bodies with strictly limited powers.
Among the Moslems the Sheikh-elIslam, appointed by the khedive from among the Ulema (learned class), exercises the highest religious and, in certain subjects, judicial authority.
The chief ceremonies take place in some large open spot round which are erected the tents of the khedive, of great state officials, and of the dervishes.
The right to raise loans had been granted to the khedive Ismail in 1873, but was taken away in 1879 by the firman appointing Tewfik khedive.
The earlier merciless practice had been in theory abolished by a decree based on the German system, published in 1880; but owing to defective organization, and internal disturbances induced by Khedive Ismails follies, the law had not been applied, and the 6000 recruits collected at Cairo in January 1883 represented the biggest and strongest peasants who could not purchase exemption by bribing the officials concerned.
When the Egyptian Army of the Delta ~was dispersed at Tell el-Kebir, the khedive had 40,000 troops in the Sudan, scattered from Massawa on the Red Sea to 1200 m.
1805) obtained from the Porte in 1841 the right to bequeath the sovereignty to his descendants, one of whom, Ismail Pasha, received the title Khedive, which is still held by Mehemet Alis descendants.
Amina (married the Khedive Tewfik).
,) Ismail (Khedive), Mustap~ia Fazil, b.
In the following year ai~ther firman bestowed upon him the title of khedive in lieu of that of vali, borne by Mehemet Ali and his immediate successors.
In 1873 a further firman placed the khedive in many respects in the position of an independent sovereign.
In 1875 the 1ea~jflgto impoverishment of the fellah had reached such a ~he depoint that the ordinary resources of the country no Pofo~.kmo:I, longer sufficed for the most urgent necessities of administration; and the khedive Ismail, having repeatedly broken faith with his creditors, could not raise any more loans on the European market.
On the 26th of June 1879 Ismail suddenly received from the sultan a curt telegram, addressed to him as ex-khedive of Egypt, informing him that his son Tewfik was appointed his successor.
The khedive, who had taken refuge in Alexandria, returned to Cairo, and a ministry was formed under Sherif Pasha, with Riaz Pasha as one of its leading members.
Had the khedive and Riaz been allowed a free hand, Arabi and his colleagues would have found little mercy.
Arabi pleaded guilty, was sentenced to death, the sentence being commuted by the khedive to banishment; and Riaz resigned in disgust.
One of his first acts, after preventing the application of capital punishment to the ringleaders of the revolt, was to veto the project of protecting the khedive and his government by means of a Praetorian guard recruited from Asia Minor, Epirus, Austria and Switzerland, and to insist on the principle that Egypt must be governed in a truly liberal spirit.
At first the intention of the British government was simply to restore the power of the khedive, to keep his highness for some time in the right path by friendly advice, and to withdraw the British troops as soon as possible.
In vain the khedive and his prime minister, Sherif Pasha, threatened to resign, and the latter actually carried out his threat.
On the 24th of October of that year he concluded a preliminary convention by which an Ottoman and a British high commissioner, acting in concert with the khedive, should reorganize the Egyptian army, tranquillize the Sudan by pacific means, and consider what changes might be necessary in the civil administration.
In January 1892 the khedive Tewfik, who had always maintained cordial relations with Sir Evelyn Baring, died suddenly, and was succeeded by his son, Abbas Hilmi, a young b man without political experience, who failed at first to understand the peculiar situation in which a khedive ruling under British protection is necessarily placed.
The young khedive was made therefore to understand that he must not make such changes in the administration without a previous agreement with the representative of the protecting power; and a compromise was effected by which Fakhri Pasha retired, and the post of premier was confided once more to Riaz.
With this compromise the friction between the khedive and Sir Evelyn Baring, who had now become Lord Cromer, did not end.
He was succeeded by Mustafa Febmi, who had always shown a conciliatory spirit, and who had been on that account, as above stated, summarily dismissed by the khedive in January 1893.
According to that agreement the British and Egyptian flags are used together, and the supreme military and civil command is vested in a governor-general, who is appointed by the khedive on the recom The mendation of the British government, and who cannot Anglo- be removed without the British governments con Egyptian sent.
In January 1906 the sultan complained to the British ambassador at Constantinople of Egyptian encroachments on Turkish territory, whereupon the khedive asked that the frontier should be delimited, a request which Turkey rejected.
The British government intervened on behalf of the khedive and consistently maintained that the Rafa-Akaba line must be the frontier.
In April a conference was held between the khedive and Mukhtar Pasha, the Ottoman commissioner.
The khedive, moreover, markedly abstained from any association with the agitation of the Nationalists, who viewed with disfavour his highnesss personal friendship with Sir Eldon Gorst.
It soon became clear that ~the khedive was powerless, and that the military party, headed by Arabi, threatened to dominate the country.
The dual note, communicated to the khedive on the 6th of January 1881, contained an intimation that Great Britain and France were prepared to afford material support if necessary; but the fall of Gambettas ministry produced a reaction, and both governments proceeded to minimize the meaning of their language.
The khedive was practically compelled to form a government in which Arabi was minister of war and Mahmud Sami premier, and Arabi took steps to extend his influence throughout his army.
The situz~tion now became critically serious: for the third time ships were sent to Alexandria, and on the 25th of May 1882 the consulsgeneral of the two powers made a strong representation to Mahmud Sami which produced the resignation of the Egyptian ministry, and a demand, to which the khedive yielded, by the military party for the reinstatement of Arabi.
On the 25th the khedive entered Cairo, where a review of the British troops was held on the 3oth.
The authority of the khedive and the maintenance of law and order now depended absolutely on the British forces left in occupation.
In March 1883 Colonel William Hicks, late of the Bombay army, Ds~er~o who in January had been appointed by the khedive Pasha.
The khedive appears to have been aware of the risks to be incurred, and in a private letter he informed the general that I rely upon your prudence and ability not to engage the enemy except under the most favorable circumstances.