He strode through the crowded Egyptian street market, the Khan al-Khalili, one of the oldest markets in the world.
That province was under the able government of Ali Vardi Khan, who peremptorily forbade the foreign settlers at Calcutta and Chandernagore to introduce feuds from Europe.
CAMBALUC, the name by which, under sundry modifications, the royal city of the great khan in China became known to Europe during the middle ages, that city being in fact the same that we now know as Peking.
The word itself represents the Mongol Khan-Balik, "the city of the khan," or emperor, the title by which Peking continues, more or less, to be known to the Mongols and other northern Asiatics.
Under the names of Yenking, which it received from the Khitan, and of Chung-tu, which it had from the Kin, it holds a conspicuous place in the wars of Jenghiz Khan against the latter dynasty.
The palace of the khan, with its gardens and lake, itself formed an inner enclosure fronting the south.
Laristan remained an independent state under a Turkish ruler until 1602, when Shah Ibrahim Khan was deposed and put to death by Shah `Abbas the Great.
In 1873 he attacked Khiva, took the capital, and forced the khan to become a vassal of Russia.
Then followed in 1875 the campaign against Khokand, in which Kaufmann defeated the khan, Nasr-ed-din.
In 1261 the Tatars under Nogai Khan invaded Hungary for the second time, but were defeated by Bela and lost 50,000 men.
The Pindaris were put down, Amir Khan submitting and signing a treaty which constituted him the first ruler of the existing state of Tonk.
1246; and, after some stay, went on to the camp of the y great khan near Karakorum in central Asia, and returned safely in the autumn of 1247.
The recital of their travels fired the youthful imagination of young Marco Polo, son of Nicolo, and he set out for the court of Kublai Khan, with his father and uncle, in 1265.
Marco remained for seventeen years in the service of the Great Khan, and was employed on many important missions.
sovereign the grand khan who lived with the Great Horde in the valley of the Amur.
The nucleus of the invading horde was a small pastoral tribe in Mongolia, the chief of which, known subsequently to Europe as Jenghiz Khan, became a mighty conqueror and created a vast empire stretching from China, across northern and central Asia, to the shores of the Baltic and the valley of the Danube - a heterogeneous state containing many nationalities held together by purely administrative ties and by an enormous military force.
When they first appeared in Europe they were idolaters or Shamanists, and as such they had naturally no religious fanaticism; but even when they adopted Islam they remained as tolerant as before, and the khan of the Golden Horde (Berkai) who first became a Mussulman allowed the Russians to found a Christian bishopric in his capital.
In order to reply to accusations brought against them, or in order to be confirmed in their functions, they had to travel to the Golden Horde on the Volga or even to the camp of the grand khan in some distant part of Siberia, and the journey was considered so perilous that many of them, before setting out, made their last will and testament and wrote a parental admonition for the guidance of their children.
The grand khan was the lord paramount or suzerain of the Russian princes, and he had the force required for making his authority respected.
For this purpose Dimitri Donskoi formed in 1380 a coalition of Russian princes, and gained a great victory over Khan Mamai of the Golden Horde on the famous battlefield of Kulikovo, the memory of which still lives in the popular legends.
Now the tsar of Muscovy and of all Russia adopted the airs and methods of a Tatar khan and surrounded himself with the pomp and splendours of a Byzantine emperor.
For this decision there were good reasons, for those turbulent sons of the steppe paid no taxes and were much given to brigandage, and their raiding propensities occasionally created international difficulties with the khan of the Crimea and the sultan of Turkey.
The greater part of the territory was formally incorporated into the empire, and the petty potentates, such as the khan of Khiva and the amir of Bokhara, who were allowed to retain a semblance of their former sovereignty, became obsequious vassals of the White Tsar.
The present chiefs are descended from Momin Khan II., the last of the governors of Gujarat, who in 1742 murdered his brother-in-law, Nizam Khan, governor of Cambay, and established himself there.
Less than a century later it became the prize of Jenghiz Khan, who, having his main interests centred on the Mongolian steppes, declined to move his court southwards.
His great successor, Kublai Khan (1280-1294), rebuilt the town, which he called Yenking, and which became known in Chinese as Ta-tu, or "great court," and in Mongolian as Khanbalik (Cambaluc), or "city of the khan."
Under the Kin dynasty the walls extended to the south-west of the Tatar portion of the present city, and the foundations of the northern ramparts of the Khan-balik of Kublai Khan are still to be traced at a distance of about 2 m.
In the south-eastern portion of the Tatar city used to stand the observatory, which was built by order of Kublai Khan in 1296.
of Notices et extraits, Paris, 1 799, p. 192 seq.), and by Hammer in Sur les origines russes, St Petersburg, 1825, p. 52 seq.); "Timur's Expedition against Tuktamish Khan," Persian and French, by Charmoy, in Memoires de l'acad.
Bhopal state was founded in 1723 by Dost Mahommed Khan, an Afghan adventurer.
In 1879 he followed up the Urangi river to the Altai Mountains, and demonstrated to the world the extraordinary physical changes which have passed over the heart of the Asiatic continent since Jenghiz Khan massed his vast armies in those provinces.
Jenghiz Khan and Timur covered more ground than Napoleon, and no European has had such an effect on the world as Mahomet.
China proper, minus these external provinces, was again united under the Sung dynasty (960-1127), but split into the northern (Tatar) and southern (Chinese) kingdoms. In the 13th century arose the Mongol power, and Kublai Khan conquered China.
Japan has never been invaded in historical times, but an attempt made by Kublai Khan to conquer it was successfully repulsed.
In reply to this the French sovereign despatched Andrew as his ambassador to the great Khan Kuyuk; with Longjumeau went his brother (a monk) and several others - John Goderiche, John of Carcassonne, Herbert "le sommelier," Gerbert of Sens, Robert a clerk, a certain William, and an unnamed clerk of Poissy.
From Cyprus they went to the port of Antioch in Syria, and thence travelled for a year to the khan's court, going ten leagues a day.
On arrival at the supreme Mongol court - either that on the Imyl river (near Lake Ala-kul and the present Russo-Chinese frontier in the Altai), or more probably at or near Karakorum itself, south-west of Lake Baikal - Andrew found Kuyuk Khan dead, poisoned, as the envoy supposed, by Batu's agents.
But it is certain that before the friar had quitted "Tartary," Mangu Khan, Kuyuk's successor, had been elected.
Mounds of bones marked his road, witnesses of devastations which other historians record in detail; Christian prisoners, from Germany, he found in the heart of "Tartary" (at Talas); the ceremony of passing between two fires he was compelled to observe, as a bringer of gifts to a dead khan, gifts which were of course treated by the Mongols as evidence of submission.
The last prince of the house of Saman, Montasir, a bold warrior and a poet of no mean talent, carried on for some years a kind of guerilla warfare against both Mahmud and the Ilek Khan, who had occupied Transoxiana, till he was assassinated in 1005 (395 A.H.).
(Kobad), being driven out of Persia, took refuge with the Ephthalites, and recovered his throne with the assistance of their khan, whose daughter he had married, but subsequently he engaged in prolonged hostilities with them.
Of the old fort erected by Islam Khan, who in 1608 was appointed nawab of Bengal, and removed his capital from Rajmahal to Dacca, no vestige remains; but the jail is built on a portion of its site.
In a little more than a century, however, the Kins were driven out of China by the Mongols under Jenghiz Khan.
Nurhachu played with skill and daring the role which had been played by Jenghiz Khan more than three centuries before in Mongolia.
Being thus the sovereign of an empire, he, again like Jenghiz Khan, adopted for himself the title of Ying-ming, " Brave and Illustrious," and took for his reign the title of Tien-ming.
That empire had been founded by Jenghiz Khan in the first quarter of the century; it stretched from Peking on the east to the Euphrates and the Dnieper on the west.
This last fact in particular caused western Europe to dream of an alliance with the great khan "Prester John," who should aid in the reconquest of Jerusalem and the final conversion to Christianity of the whole continent of Asia.
Nothing came of either of these missions; but through them Europe first began to know the interior of Asia, for Carpini was conducted by the Mongols as far as Karakorum, the capital of the great khan, on the borders of China.
Again in 1252 St Louis (who had already begun to negotiate with the Mongols in the winter of 1248-1249) sent the friar William of Rubruquis to the court of the great khan; but again nothing came of the mission save an increase of geographical knowledge.
In that year Hulagu, the khan of Persia, invaded Syria and captured Damascus.
In 1274, at the council of Lyons, Gregory X., who had been the companion of Edward in the Holy Land, preached the Crusade to an assembly which contained envoys from the Mongol khan and Michael Palaeologus as well as from many western princes.
It has a magnificent palace, which is visible from far across the Bikanir desert; it was built in 1882 by Nawab Sadik Mahommed Khan.
C. *) History Legend assigns to Oghuz, son of Kara Khan, the honour of being the father of the Ottoman Turks.
In 1381 Murad's son Yilderim Bayezid married Devlet Shah Khatun, hausted by the onslaughts of Ghazan Mahmud Khan, 1288-1326.
Bayezid now consolidated his Asiatic dominions by the capture of Kaisarieh, Sivas and Tokat from Tatar invaders, the relics of Jenghiz Khan's hordes.
The Crimea was next conquered and bestowed as a tributary province on the Tatar khan Mengli Girai.
exchanging in 1492 friendly messages with Bayezid through the Tatar khan Mengli Girai; the first Russian ambassador appeared at Constantinople three years later.
But Nadir Kuli Khan came forward as the champion of Shah Tahmasp II., the rightful ruler, and drove the Turks from these provinces, capturing Tabriz.
The Tatars Treaty of from the frontier of Poland to the shores of the Kuchuk Caspian, including those of the Crimea and Kuban, were declared independent under their own khan 1774' of the race of Jenghiz, saving only the religious rights of the sultan as caliph of Islam.
Azov and its district were annexed to Russia, and the two Kabardias were transferred subject to the consent of the khan of the Crimea.
The Porte, unable to resist, was obliged to consent to the convention of Ainali Ka y ak (March 10, 1779) whereby the Russian partisan, Shahin Girai, was recognized as khan of the Crimea, the admission of Russian vessels to navigate Turkish waters was reaffirmed and Russia's right of intervention in the affairs of the Danubian principalities was formally recognized.
There are said to be about thirty khans or caravanserais in Bagdad for the reception of pilgrims and merchants and their goods, none of which is of any importance as a building, with the single exception of the khan el-Aurtmeh adjoining the Marjanieh mosque, to which it formerly belonged.
With the capture of the city by the Mongols, under Hulagu (Hulaku), the grandson of Jenghiz Khan, in 1258, and the extinction of the Abbasid caliphate of Bagdad, its importance as the religious centre of Islam passed away, and it ceased to be a city of the first rank, although the glamour of its former grandeur still clung to it, so that even to-day in Turkish official documents it is called the "glorious city."
Near the upper Orkhon was the permanent camp of Karakorum, from the 8th century down to the end of the 13th the centre of the Mongol power, especially under the sway of Jenghiz Khan and his son Ogotai or Ogdai in the 12th and 13th centuries.
In this neighbourhood is concentrated most of the Afghan army north of the Hindu Kush mountains, the fortified cantonment of Dehdadi having been completed by Sirdar Ghulam Ali Khan and incorporated with Mazar.
who implied that the pope was superior even to the Great Khan, and offered no presents, refused the customary reverences before Baiju, declined to go on to the imperial court, and made unseasonable attempts to convert their hosts.
Sibir) in the 16th century indicated the chief settlement of the Tatar khan Kuchum - Isker on the Irtysh.
This Turkish empire of the Khagases must have lasted until the 13th century, when the Mongols, under Jenghiz Khan, subdued them and destroyed their civilization.
These were united by Khan Ediger, and conflicts with the Russians who were then colonizing the Urals brought him into collision with Moscow; his envoys came to Moscow in 1555 and consented to a yearly tribute of a thousand sables.
Next year they were on the Tobol, and 500 men successfully laid siege to Isker, the residence of Khan Kuchum, in the neighbourhood of what is now Tobolsk.
In 1221 Mer y opened its gates to Tule, son of Jenghiz Khan, chief of the Mongols, on which occasion most of the inhabitants are said to have been butchered.
On the death of the grandson of Jenghiz Khan Mer y was included (1380) in the possessions of Timur-iLeng (Tamerlane), Mongol prince of Samarkand.
In 1505 the city was occupied by the Uzbegs, who five years later were expelled by Ismail Khan, the founder of the Safawid dynasty of Persia.
They consist of a square citadel (Bairam Ali Khan kalah), s z m.
in circuit, built by a son of Tamerlane and destroyed by the Bokharians, and another kalah or walled inclosure known as Abdullah Khan.
From Chieng Khan the river again turns eastwards along the 18th parallel, forcing its way through its most serious rapid-barrier, and receiving some important tributaries from the highlands of Tung Chieng Kum and Chieng Kwang, the finest country in Indo-China.
Their internal or tribal affairs were in the hands of the princes, those which concerned a whole aimak being settled at gatherings of the princes under the eldest of them, named khan.
This organization was maintained by the Manchu rulers, the khan being elected from among the princes, and the latter having each an adviser, tusalakchi, nominated from Peking.
When Murad Beg died, the power passed into the hands of another Usbeg, Mahommed Amir Khan.
DERA GHAZI KHAN, a town and district of British India, in the Punjab.
The town was founded at the close of the 15th century and named after Ghazi Khan, son of Haji Khan, a Baluch chieftain, who after holding the country for the Langah sultans of Multan had made himself independent.
Together with the two other deras (settlements), Dera Ismail Khan and Dera Fateh Khan, it gave its name to the territorial area locally and historically known as Derajat, which after many vicissitudes came into the possession of the British after the Sikh War, in 1849, and was divided into the two districts of Dera Ghazi Khan and Dera Ismail Khan.
The frontier tribes on the Dera Ghazi Khan border include the Kasranis, Bozdars, Khosas, Lagharis, Khetvans, Gurchanis, Mazaris, Mariris and Bugtis.
Dera Ismail Khan >>
The city and the dynasty were destroyed by a Chinese (or rather Mongol) invasion(1284 A.D.) in the reign of Kublai Khan.
In 1258 Hulagu Khan took Bagdad, and about 1400 Timur again seized and sacked the city.
The legend of Prester John is based on the idea of the conversion of a Mongol tribe, the Karith, whose chieftain Ung Khan at baptism received the title Malek Juchana (King John).
MUSA KHEL, a Pathan tribe on the Dera Ghazi Khan border of the Punjab province of India.
At first she influenced Jahangir for good, but surrounding herself with her relatives she aroused the jealousy of the imperial princes; and Jahangir died in 1627 in the midst of a rebellion headed by his son, Khurram or Shah Jahan, and his greatest general, Mahabat Khan.
He succeeded in maintaining his disguise, and on arriving at Khiva went safely through two audiences of the khan.
SHERE ALI KHAN (1825-1879), Amir of Afghanistan, was born in 1825, one of the younger sons of the amir Dost Mahommed, whom he succeeded in 1863.
Supported by the viceroys of India, Lord Lawrence and Lord Mayo, Shere Ali remained on good terms with the British government for some years; but after the rebellion of his son Yakub Khan, 1870-74, he leaned towards Russia, and welcomed a Russian agent'at Kabul in 1878, and at the same time refused to receive a British mission.
Yun-nan, long independent, was subdued by Kublai Khan, but was not finally incorporated in the empire until the 17th century.
AGA KHAN I., HIS HIGHNESS THE (1800-1881), the title accorded by general consent to Hasan Ali Shah (born in Persia, 1800), when, in early life, he first settled in Bombay under the protection of the British government.
Ali's son, Hosain, having married a daughter of one of the rulers of Persia before the time of Mahomet, the Aga Khan traced his descent from the royal house of Persia from the most remote, almost prehistoric, times.
Before the Aga Khan emigrated from Persia, he was appointed by the emperor Fateh Ali Shah to be governor-general of the extensive and important province of Kerman.
At that period the first Afghan War was at its height, and in crossing over from Persia through Afghanistan the Aga Khan found opportunities of rendering valuable services to the British army, and thus cast in his lot for ever with the British.
The Aga Khan reciprocated the British commander's confidence and friendship by giving repeated proofs of his devotion and attachment to the British government, and when he finally settled down in India, his position as the leader of the large Ismailiah section of Mahommedan British subjects was recognized by the government, and the title of His Highness was conferred on him, with a large pension.
From that time until his death in 1881 the Aga Khan, while leading the life of a peaceful and peacemaking citizen, under the protection of British rule, continued to discharge his sacerdotal functions, not only among his followers in India, but towards the more numerous communities which acknowledged his religious sway in distant countries, such as Afghanistan, Khorasan, Persia, Arabia, Central Asia, and even distant Syria and Morocco.
He was succeeded by his eldest son, AGA Khan Ii.
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