Khalifa sentence example
Gordon (1874 to 1879), but under the Mandi and the Khalifa the slave trade was revived.
The mandi's successor, the khalifa Abdullah, was a Baggara, and throughout his rule the tribe held the first place in his favour.
According to the story of Hicks's cook, one of the survivors, the general was the last officer to fall, pierced by the spear of the khalifa Mahommed Sherif.
Haji Khalifa, frequently termed Katib Chelebi, was one of the most famous men of letters whom Turkey has produced.
At Agordat on the 21st of December 1893 the Italian troops under Colonel Arimondi inflicted a severe defeat on the followers of the khalifa.Advertisement
The Khalifa's house (a two-storeyed building), the mosque, the Beit el Amana (arsenal) and other houses famed in the history of the town also face the central square.
On the 2nd of September 1898 the Anglo-Egyptian army under Lord Kitchener totally defeated the forces of the Khalifa at Kerreri, 7 m.
Within the enclosure of the Khalifa's house is the tomb of Hubert Howard, son of the 9th earl of Carlisle, who was killed in the house at the capture of the city by a splinter of a shell fired at the Mandi's tomb.
To 1 First described by the Turk, Haj j i Khalifa, in the 37th century; first seen by the Swedish traveller Otter in 1736, and first published in 1840 in Ritter's Erdkunde, iii., after a drawing by Major Fischer, made in 1837.
After the fall of the khalifa trade revived, the imports in 1899 being valued at L180,000, as against r70,000 in 1880.Advertisement
The Baggara of Kordofan from that time onward were the chief supporters of the mandi, and his successor, the khalifa Abdullah, was a Baggara.
This was observed by British officers, from the time of the preliminary operations about Kosha and at the action near Ginnis in December 1885 down to the brilliant operations in the pursuit of the Mahdists on the Blue Nile after the action of Gedaref (subsequent to the battle of Omdurman), and the fighting in Kordofan in 1899, which resulted in the death of the khalifa and his amirs.
Prior to the death of the khalifa, many of his soldiers deserted to join their brethren who had been captured by the sirdars troops, during the gradual advance up the Nile.
On the 2nd of September the khalifa attacked the British-Egyptian troops at Kerreri (near Omdurman), and being routed, his men dispersed; Khartum was occupied, and on the i9th of September the Egyptian flag was rehoisted at Fashoda.
As the British troops retired to Upper Egypt, his followers seized the evacuated country, and the khalifa cherished the idea, already formulated by the mahdi, of the conquest of Egypt, but for some years he was too much occupied in quelling risings, massacring Lne Egyptians in the Sudan, and fighting Abyssinia, to move seriously in the matter.Advertisement
Instead of marching on to Kassala, Ras Alula, who at this time was much offended by the transfer of Massawa by the Egyptians to Italy, made a triumphant entry into Asmara, and absolutely refused to make any further efforts to extricate Egyptian garrisons from the grip of the khalifa.
During 1889 and 1890 Tokar became the centre of dervish authority, while Han.dub continued to be occupied for the khalifa.
The khalifa sent the amir Hamdan Abu Angar, a very skilful leader, with an army of over 80,000 men against him.
That night the king died, and the greater part of the army having gone ahead with the prisoners, a party of Arabs pursued the rearguard, which consisted of the kings bodyguard, routed them, and captured the kings body, which was sent to Omdurman to confirm the report of a brilliant victory sent by Zeki Tumal to the khalifa.
Internal strife prevented the new negus of Abyssinia from prosecuting the war, which thus, in spite of the Abyssinian success, resulted in the increased prestige of the khalifa.Advertisement
After the death of the mahdi in 1885, Madibbo revolted against the khalifa, but was defeated by Kararnalla, the dervish amir of the Bahr-el-Ghazal, and was caught and executed.
The Darfurian chiefs then allied themselves with Abu Gemaiza, sheikh of the Masalit Arabs, who had proclaimed himself Khalifa Osman, and was known as the anti-mahdi.
The revolt assumed large proportions, and became the more dangerous to Abdullah, the khalifa, by reason of its religious character, wild rumours spreading over the country and reaching to Egypt and Suakin of the advent to power of an opposition mahdi.
In 1890 the Shilluks in the neighborhood of Fashoda rose against the khalifa, and the dervish amir of Gallabat, Zeki Tumal, was engaged for two years in suppressing the rebellion.
He got the upper hand in 1892, and was recalled to oppose an Italian force said tobe advancing from Massawa; but on reporting that it was impossible to invade Eritrea, as the khalifa wished him to do, he was summoned to Omdurman and put to death.Advertisement
In the following year the Congo expedition established further posts, and in consequence the khalifa sent 3000 men, under the amir Khatem Musa, from Shakka to reoccupy the Bahr-el-Ghazal.
In the meantime the arrival of Stanley at Lake Albert had caused rumours, which quickly spread to Omdurman, of a great invading white pasha, with the result that in July the khalifa sent up the river three steamers and six barges, containing 4000 troops, to oppose this new-comer.
In the meantime the khalifa was not idle.
Towards the end of June the chief of the Jaalin tribe, Abdalla wad Said, who occupied Metemma, angered by the khalifa, made his submission to Kitchener and asked for support, at the same time foolishly sending a defiant letter to the khalifa.
The sirdar sent him rifles and ammunition across the desert from Korti; but before they arrived, Mahmuds army, sent by the khalifa, swept down on Metemma on the 1st of July and massacred Abdalla wad Said and his garrison.Advertisement
The khalifa, fearing an attack on Olndurman, moved Osman Digna from Adarama to Shendi.
The forces of the khalifa remaining quiet, the sirdar visited Kassala and negotiated with the Italian General Caneva for its restoration to Egypt.
On his return from Kassala to Berber the sirdar received information of an intended advance of the khalifa northward.
The khalifa was now in full retreat, and the sirdar, sending his cavalry in pursuit, marched into Omdurman.
Two thousand five hundred fighting men surrendered later, and the rest escaped with Ahmed Fedil to join the khalifa in Kordofan.Advertisement
On arriving at Fongor it was ascertained that the khalifa had gone north, and the cavalry and camel corps having reconnoitred Jebel Gedir, the expedition returned.
The very next day he encountered Ahmed Fedil at Abu Aadel, drove him from his position with great loss, and captured his camp and a large supply of grain he was convoying to the khalifa.
Gedid was reached on the 23rd, and the khalifa was ascertained to be at Om Debreikat.
They were repulsed with great slaughter, and Wingate of advancing, carried the camp. The khalif a Abdullah khalifa.
Thus ended the power of the khalifa and of Mahdism.Advertisement
Nearly every building in Khartum was destroyed by the Mandists and the city abandoned in favour of Omdurman, which place remained the headquarters of the mandi's successor, the khalifa Abdullah, till September 1898, when it was taken by the Anglo-Egyptian forces under General (afterwards Lord) Kitchener, and the seat of government again transferred to Khartum.
Since the defeat of the khalifa at Omdurman and the fixing (1899) of the Egyptian frontier farther south, the military value of Assuan has declined.
Silistria flourished under Ottoman rule; Hajji Khalifa describes it as the most important of all the Danubian towns; a Greek metropolitan was installed here with five bishops under his control and a settlement of Ragusan merchants kept alive its commercial interests.
The Mandi had been regarded by his adhe- Khalifa's rents as the only true commander of the faithful, Rule.
Notwithstanding all this opposition the khalifa found in his own tribesmen and in his black troops devoted adherents and successfully maintained his position.Advertisement
In the country under his dominion the khalifa's government was carried on after the manner of other Mahommedan states, but pilgrimages to the Mandi's tomb at Omdurman were substituted for pilgrimages to Mecca.
Otherwise Khartum was deserted, the khalifa making Omdurman his capital and compelling disaffected tribes to dwell in it so as to be under better control.
The khalifa after the fatal day of Omdurman fled to Kordofan where he was killed in battle in November 1899.
An exception was made in the case of Darfur, which before the battle of Omdurman had thrown off the khalifa's rule and was again under a native sovereign.
This book contains translations of letters and proclamations of the Mandi and Khalifa.Advertisement
The mandi himself died at Omdurman a few months later (June 22, 1885), and was succeeded in power by his khalifa Abdullah.
How far the mandi was the controller of the movement which he started cannot be known, but from the outset of his public career his right-hand man was a Baggara tribesman named Abdullah (the khalifa), who became his successor, and after his flight to Jebel Gedir the mandi was largely dependent for his support on Baggara sheikhs, who gratified one of his leading tastes by giving him numbers of their young women.
Its growth was rapid, the Khalifa (who succeeded the Mandi) compelling large numbers of disaffected tribesmen to live in the town under the eye of his soldiery.
The khalifa fled with a small force to Obeid in Kordofafl.