Ketones sentence example

ketones
  • The tertiary glycols are known as pinacones and are formed on the reduction of ketones with sodium amalgam.
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  • By the action of dehydrating agents they are converted into aldehydes or ketones.
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  • Taking as types hydrogen, hydrochloric acid, water and ammonia, he postulated that all organic compounds were referable to these four forms: the hydrogen type included hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones; the hydrochloric acid type, the chlorides, bromides and iodides; the water type, the alcohols, ethers, monobasic acids, acid anhydrides, and the analogous sulphur compounds; and the ammonia type, the amines, acid-amides, and the analogous phosphorus and arsenic compounds.
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  • Compounds containing the group - CH: O are known as aldehydes (q.v.), while the group >C: O (sometimes termed the carbonyl or keto group) characterizes the ketones (q.v.).
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  • This group may be considered as resulting from the fusion of a carbonyl (:CO) and a hydroxyl (HO-) group; and we may expect to meet with compounds bearing structural resemblances to the derivatives of alcohols and aldehydes (or ketones).
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  • Experience has shown that such mono-derivatives as nitro compounds, sulphonic acids, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, and ketones yield as a general rule chiefly the meta-compounds, and this is independent of the nature of the second group introduced; on the other hand, benzene haloids, amino-, homologous-, and hydroxy-benzenes yield principally a mixture of the orthoand para-compounds.
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  • Thus in the normal fatty alcohols, acids, esters, nitriles and ketones, the increment per CH 2 is 19°-21°; in the aldehydes it is 26°-27°.
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  • This is true of the fatty acid series, and the corresponding ketones and alcohols, and also of the succinic acid series.
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  • The same difference attends the introduction of the methyl group into many classes of compounds, for example, the paraffins, olefines, acetylenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters, while a slightly lower value (157.1) is found in the case of the halogen compounds, nitriles, amines, acids, ethers, sulphides and nitro compounds.
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  • It is remarkable that the difference in the heats of formation of ketones and the paraffin containing one carbon atom less is 67.94 calories, which is the heat of formation of carbon monoxide at constant volume.
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  • Those derived from aldehydes are known as aldoximes, those from ketones as ketoximes.
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  • They are prepared by condensing thio-amides with a-haloid ketones or aldehydes, the thio-amide reacting as the tautomeric thio-imino acid.
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  • Amino derivatives similarly result from thio-ureas and a-haloid ketones; the oxy derivatives from a-sulphocyanoketones by the action of caustic alkali; and the carboxylic acids from chloro-aceto-acetic ester, &c. and thioamides.
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  • In organic chemistry, his study of the ketones and aldehydes, begun in 1857, provided him with the subject of his other doctoral thesis.
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  • Wallach, Ber., 1881, 14, P. 421); by the action of reducing agents on nitroparaffins; by the action of zinc and hydrochloric acid on aldehyde ammonias (German Patent 73,812); by the reduction of the phenylhydrazones and oximes of aldehydes and ketones with sodium amalgam in the presence of alcohol and sodium acetate (J.
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  • Ketones, secondary alcohols and tertiary alcohols yield a mixture of acids on oxidation.
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  • The calcium salts distilled with calcium formate yield aldehydes r distilled with soda-lime, ketones result.
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  • It condenses with aldehydes and ketones to produce semioxamazones.
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  • It combines with aldehydes and ketones to form the nitriles of oxy-acids, for example, CH 3 CHO+HCN=CH 3 CH(OH)(CN).
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  • For the formation of primary and secondary alcohols see Aldehydes and Ketones.
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  • Acid amides also react to form ketones (C. Beis, ibid., 1903, 1 37, 575): R Conh 2 - E Rr' :C(OMgX) NHMgX R'H--R CO.
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  • The ketones are of neutral reaction, the lower members of the series being colourless, volatile, pleasant-smelling liquids.
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  • The -y-diketones are characterized by the readiness with which they yield furfurane, pyrrol and thiophene derivatives, the furfurane derivatives being formed by heating the ketones with a dehydrating agent, the thiophenes, by heating with phosphorus pentasulphide, and the pyrrols by the action of alcoholic ammonia or amines.
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  • And so, as a rule, from isomeric alcohols, those containing a group - CH 2.0H, yield by oxidation aldehydes and are distinguished by the name primary; whereas those containing CH OH, called secondary, produce ketones.
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  • These compounds generally behave as ketones; but at the same time they may act as alcohols, i.e.
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  • Villiger (Be y ., 1901, 34, pp. 2679, 3612) showed that many organic compounds (ethers, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, &c.) behave towards acids, particularly the more complex acids, very much like bases and yield crystallized salts in which quadrivalent oxygen must be assumed as the basic element.
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  • Acetoacetic ester is a most important synthetic reagent, having been used in the production of pyridines, quinolines, pyrazolones, furfurane, pyrrols, uric acid, and many complex acids and ketones.
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  • It condenses under the influence of sulphuric acid to form dodecahydrotriphenylene, C H and a mixture of ketones (C. Mannul, Ber., 1907, 40, p. 153).
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  • - Two types of ketones are to be noted in this group, namely the a/3 and, fay ketones, depending upon the position of the double linkage in the molecule, thus: H2C / CH2: CH CO HC?
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  • For example, on reduction with zinc and alcoholic potash, the a/' compounds give saturated ketones and also bi-molecular compounds, the Jay being unaffected; the Jay series react with hydroxylamine in a normal manner, the a/3 yield oxamino-oximes.
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  • With aldehydes and ketones it forms oximes.
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  • Secondary alcohols yield ketones, which are subsequently oxidized to a mixture of two acids.
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  • Tertiary alcohols yield neither aldehydes nor ketones, but a mixture of two or more acids.
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  • Secondary alcohols result from the reduction of ketones; and from the reaction of zinc alkyls on aldehydes or formic acid esters.
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  • The aldehydes and ketones provided material for his earlier work.
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  • He observed that aldehydes and ketones may suffer reduction in neutral, alkaline, and sometimes acid solution to secondary and tertiary glycols, substances which he named pinacones; and also that certain pinacones when distilled with dilute sulphuric acid gave compounds, which he named pinacolines.
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  • The thiophen ketones may be prepared by the interaction of thiophen and its homologues with acid chlorides in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride.
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  • They combine with aldehydes and ketones, with elimination of water and formation of mercaptals and mercaptols.
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  • The products of oxidation are not yet fully known; most likely they consist of lower fatty acids, such as formic and acetic acids, and perhaps also of aldehydes and ketones.
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  • The aldol condensation (using aldehydes, ketones, two different carbonyl partners, and the intramolecular variant ).
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  • For example, methanal, ethanal and propanone - the common small aldehydes and ketones - are miscible with water in all proportions.
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  • There are two functional group isomers of which you need to be aware: alcohols and ethers aldehydes and ketones What is here?
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  • Ketoacidosis If you are producing ketones and are not treated with insulin, you will develop a serious condition called ketoacidosis.
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  • But when you have diabetes rising blood glucose and rising blood ketones can go together.
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  • You should not exercise if your blood sugar is more than 14 mmol/l and you have ketones present in your urine.
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  • Therapeutic opportunities The ability of the brain to use ketones was only once exploited for therapeutic purposes.
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  • Many people with diabetes can benefit from measuring blood ketones as part of their overall diabetes management program.
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  • Click here to find out more about testing blood ketones.
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  • Thus with hydroxylamine aldehydes yield aldoximes, R CH: N OH, and ketones, ketoximes, R 2 C: N OH (see Oximes), while phenyl hydrazine gives phenylhydrazones, R 2 C:N NH C 6 H 5 (see Hydrazones).
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  • Thus in the normal fatty alcohols, acids, esters, nitriles and ketones, the increment per CH 2 is 19°-21°; in the aldehydes it is 26°-27°.
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  • The isomerism of the oximes of unsymmetrical ketones is explained in the same manner, and their configuration is determined by an application of the Beckmann transformation (see Ber., 1891, 24, p. 1 3); thus: R C R' - R C(OH): NR'-->R Conhr'(R' and OH, " syn ").
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  • Ketones do not polymerize in the same way as aldehydes, but under the influence of acids and bases yield condensation products; thus acetone gives mesityl oxide, phorone and mesitylene (see below).
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  • Many cyclic ketones are known, and in most respects they resemble the ordinary aliphatic ketones (see Polymethylenes; Terpenes).
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  • They represent a large number of classes of substances of which the most important are: (1) Hydrocarbons, such as pinene in oil of turpentine, camphene in citronella oil, limonene in lemon and orange-peel oils, caryophyllene in clove oil and cumene in oil of thyme; (2) ketones, such as camphor from the camphor tree, and irone which occurs in orris root; (3) phenols, such as eugenol in clove oil, thymol in thyme oil, saffrol in sassafras oil, anethol in anise oil; (4) aldehydes, such as citral and citronellal, the most important constituents of lemon oil and lemon-grass oil, benzaldehyde in the oil of bitter almonds, cinnamic aldehyde in cassia oil, vanillin in gum benzoin and heliotropin in the spiraea oil, &c.; (5) alcohols and their esters, such as geraniol (rhodinol) in rose oil and geranium oil, linalool, occurring in bergamot and lavender oils, and as the acetic ester in rose oil, terpineol in cardamom oil, menthol in peppermint oil, eucalyptol in eucalyptus oil and borneol in rosemary oil and Borneo camphor; (6) acids and their anhydrides, such as cinnamic acid in Peru balsam and coumarin in woodruff; and (7) nitrogenous compounds, such as mustard oil, indol in jasmine oil and anthranilic methyl-ester in neroli and jasmine oils.
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  • Ketones are acid compounds that form in the blood when the body breaks down fats and proteins for energy.
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  • When blood sugars are high (i.e., over 249 mg/dl, or 13.8 mmol/L) for prolonged periods of time, ketones build up in the bloodstream to dangerous levels.
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  • As an alternate source of energy, fat cells are broken down, producing ketones, toxic compounds that make the blood acidic.
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  • Type I diabetes usually occurs in childhood and is associated with low or absent blood insulin and production of ketones even in the absence of stressed metabolic conditions.
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  • The physician may also perform enzyme studies on or look for the presence of "reducing substances" in the child's urine, look for ketones in the urine, and measure enzyme activity in the red blood cells.
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  • If elevated glucose levels are present, the doctor will want to determine if ketoacidosis is also present by measuring levels of ketones in the blood serum and urine.
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  • Burning fat produces chemicals called ketones.
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  • Ketosis. Ketosis is a state in which the body is burning fat and producing ketones.
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  • Ketones are a by-product of fat metabolism, and the state of ketosis should not be confused with ketoacidosis, which is a life-threatening condition that may be developed by diabetics who are burning fat too quickly.
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  • The fatigue is caused by the body switching over from burning glucose to burning ketones for energy, it only lasts a few days.
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  • Ketosis and dieting accelerate fat loss as the liver converts fat to ketones.
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  • Diets that provide adequate protein protect your lean muscle tissue and burn fat in the form of ketones.
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  • Ketones are a source of fuel that provide energy for the body.
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  • This fuel is produced by the liver through the breakdown of body fat into fatty acids and ketones.
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  • These fatty acids are released into the bloodstream and the body converts them to ketones.
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  • Excess ketones are eliminated through urination.
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  • However, following a low-carb diet helps the body use ketones as fuel instead of glucose.
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  • Ketones are a byproduct of this conversion.
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  • The main element in Ketoacidosis is acid, not ketones.
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  • If you're in ketosis you really need water to flush the ketones out of your system.
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  • When the body uses fat as a fuel source it produces ketones.
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  • The result is the release of mild acids called ketones.
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  • Brain cells calm down, which in some people even help prevent epileptic seizures Another benefit is that ketones have shown to sterilize urine against infection and may even help to dissolve some kidney stones.
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  • When the fat burns and releases ketones it burdens the kidneys even more.
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  • It occurs by lowering carbohydrate intake to such a level that ketones are present in your bloodstream.
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  • Ketosis in low carb diets is a metabolic state that occurs when ketones are present in your body.
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  • Ketones are generated whenever your body metabolizes fat.
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  • In other words, whenever your body uses fat for energy, it generates ketones.
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  • Ketones can increase your energy levels.
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  • The difference with carbohydrate counting is that the body goes into ketosis which helps the body burn fat when the liver converts fat to ketones.
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  • In fact, during ketosis, the body's main source of energy is ketones, and as a result the body does not burn lean muscle if you take in enough protein.
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  • Once the liver turns fat into ketones, it is excreted.
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  • Simply put, ketosis is a state in which there are elevated ketones in the blood.
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  • Because the brain cannot utilize fatty acids for energy, the liver produces excess ketones so as not to deplete the glycogen stores in the muscles and to prevent the breakdown of body proteins and muscle mass.
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  • The test checks for ketones in your urine and will display an indicated color if ketones are detected.
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  • Your doctor can also check your urine or blood for ketones.
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  • Staying hydrated helps the body remove excess ketones in the blood.
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  • Test your blood sugar level and your urine for ketones as soon as any such symptoms of hyperglycaemia occur as described above.
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