Back in Kentucky with his step father.
(1821-1875), soldier and political leader, was born at Lexington, Kentucky, on the 19th of February 1821.
WINCHESTER, a town and the county-seat of Clark county, Kentucky, U.S.A., in the E.
"Uncle Morrie" of the next letter is Mr. Morrison Heady, of Normandy, Kentucky, who lost his sight and hearing when he was a boy.
DAYTON, a city of Campbell county, Kentucky, U.S.A., on the S.
housed the state library and the library of the Kentucky State Historical Society.
The city has a fine natural park (Central Park) of about 30 acres; and Clyffeside Park (maintained by a private corporation), of about 75 acres, just east of the city, is a pleasure resort and a meeting-ground (with a casino seating 3000 people) for the Tri-State "Chautauqua" (for certain parts of Kentucky, Ohio and West Virginia).
More or less closely connected with the Northern Church are the theological seminaries at Princeton, Auburn, Pittsburg (formerly Allegheny - the Western Seminary), Cincinnati (Lane), New York (Union) and Chicago (McCormick), already named, and San Francisco Seminary (1871) since 1892 at San Anselmo, Cal., a theological seminary (1891) at Omaha, Nebraska, a German theological seminary (1869) at Bloomfield, New Jersey, the German Presbyterian Theological School of the North-west (1852) at Dubuque, Iowa, and the Presbyterian Theological Seminary of Kentucky, which is under the control and supervision of the northern and southern churches.
Virginia has contributed largely to the population of West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Missouri.
He was a school teacher in his native state, served during the War of 1812 in the Kentucky militia, and then settled in Missouri, where he worked as a schoolmaster and practised law.
I was born in Kentucky, you know, where all the best and most aristocratic horses come from.
The city is served by the Chesapeake & Ohio, the Louisville & Nashville, and the Frankfort & Cincinnati railways, by the Central Kentucky Traction Co.
It is built among picturesque hills on both sides of the river, and is in the midst of the famous Kentucky "blue grass region" and of a rich lumber-producing region.
HARRODSBURG, a city and the county-seat of Mercer county, Kentucky, U.S.A., 32 m.
by the Ohio river which separates it from West Virginia and Kentucky, and W.
General Wayne's victory was followed by an extensive immigration of New Englanders, of Germans, Scotch-Irish and Quakers from Pennsylvania, and of settlers from Virginia and Kentucky, many of whom came to escape the evils of slavery.
ASHLAND, a city of Boyd county, Kentucky, U.S.A., on the Ohio river, about 130 m.
Scotland, North of England, and Midlands, Wales, France, Belgium, Carniola, Moravia, Elsass, Saxony, Perm, Sizran, China, Cape Colony, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Kansas, Arkansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, Tasmania, Victoria (Permo-Carboniferous), West Australia (Permo-Carboniferous).
With the Spanish governor Estevan Miro, who succeeded Galvez in 1785, James Wilkinson of Kentucky, arrested at New Orleans with a flat-boat of supplies in 1787, intrigued, promising him that Kentucky would secede from the United States and would join the Spanish; but Wilkinson was unsuccessful in his efforts to carry out this plan.
NEWPORT, a city of Campbell county, Kentucky, U.S.A., on the Ohio River opposite Cincinnati, Ohio, and at the mouth of the Licking River opposite Covington, Ky.
Promoted, brigadier-general of volunteers, Sherman was in August sent to Kentucky to serve under General Robert Anderson.
On the 26th of October he reported that 200,000 men would be required for the Kentucky campaign.
The movement resembled those under the Campbells and Stone in Kentucky in 1801-1804, and in Lyndon, Vermont, among the Baptists in 1800.
He began to take an active part in the movement for separate statehood for Kentucky, and in 1787 he entered into an irregular commercial agreement with the Spanish officials of Louisiana.
His commercial connections at New Orleans enabled him to hold out the lure of a ready market at that port for Kentucky products, and this added greatly to the strength of the separatist movement.
NEWPORT, a city of Campbell county, Kentucky, U.S.A., on the Ohio River opposite Cincinnati, Ohio, and at the mouth of the Licking River opposite Covington, Ky.
Its strength was increased by the addition: in 1863 of the small Independent Presbyterian Church of South Carolina; in 1865 of the United Synod (New School), which at that time had 120 ministers, 190 churches, and 12,000 communicants; in 1867 of the presbytery of Patapsco; in 1869 of the synod of Kentucky; and in 1874 of the synod of Missouri.
In 1869-1879 he was professor of Hebrew in the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary (first in Greenville, South Carolina, and after 1877 in Louisville, Kentucky), and in 1880 he became professor of Hebrew and Oriental languages in Harvard University, where until 1903 he was also Dexter lecturer onzbiblical literature.
DUFF GREEN (1791-1875), American politician and journalist, was born in Woodford county, Kentucky, on the 15th of August 1791.
Kentucky ' 'From survey by Edgar Vaughan and W.L.
He participated with his regiment in various engagements during General Don Carlos Buell's campaigns in Kentucky and Tennessee in 1862 and 1863; took part in General W.
The active growth of the petroleum industry of the United States began in 1859, though in the early part of the century the petroleum of Lake Seneca, N.Y., was used as an embrocation under the name of " Seneca oil," and the "American Medicinal Oil" of Kentucky was largely sold after its discovery in 1829.
Blaine graduated at Washington College in Washington, Pennsylvania, in 1847, and subsequently taught successively in the Military Institute, Georgetown, Kentucky, and in the Institution for the Blind at Philadelphia.
The town is the seat of the Kentucky Wesleyan College (co-educational; Methodist Episcopal, South), opened in 1866, and of the Winchester Trades and Industrial School (1900).
Blaine graduated at Washington College in Washington, Pennsylvania, in 1847, and subsequently taught successively in the Military Institute, Georgetown, Kentucky, and in the Institution for the Blind at Philadelphia.
Frankfort, Kentucky >>
Scotland, Devonshire, Spain, Hanover, Archangel, Vitebsk, Athabasca, Mackenzie, Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Kentucky.
Jefferson Davis was educated at Transylvania University (Lexington, Kentucky) and at the United States Military Academy at West Point.
He served in the first battle of Bull Run; commanded a brigade in Kentucky in the winter of 1861, a division in Tennessee and Mississippi early in 1862, and the 1st Corps in Kentucky in October of the same year; was in command of Nashville in November and December of that year; and was then engaged in Tennessee until after the battle of Chickamauga, after which he saw no active service at the front during the Civil War.
Richmond, Kentucky >>
In a modification of this method, known as the Kentucky cure, large barns are used, the temperature is not raised above 100° F., and the process occupies from four to six weeks.
The principal tobacco-producing states, with the approximate value of their crops, were: Kentucky, £3,885,400; Ohio, £1,706,600;£1,706,600; North Carolina, £1,396,153; Wisconsin, £1,342,600; Virginia, £1,206,309, Pennsylvania, £979,550; Connecticut, £883,184; Tennessee, £511,035£511,035 Florida, £330,750; New York, £244,053, and Maryland, £241,046.
ROGER QUARLES MILLS (1832-), American legislator, was born in Todd county, Kentucky, on the 30th of March 1832.
He was shortly assigned to a territorial command on the Mississippi, and first won distinction by his energy in seizing, on his own responsibility, the important point of Paducah, Kentucky, situated at the confluence of the two great waterways of the Tennessee and the Ohio (6th Sept.
It is near the great mineral deposits of Virginia, Tennessee, West Virginia, Kentucky and North Carolina; an important distributing point for iron, coal and coke; and has tanneries and lumber mills, iron furnaces, tobacco factories, furniture factories and packing houses.
In October-November 1768, Sir William Johnson and representatives of Virginia and Pennsylvania met 3200 Indians of the Six Nations here and made a treaty with them, under which, for 10,460 in money and provisions, they surrendered to the crown their claims to what is now Kentucky and West Virginia and the western part of Pennsylvania.
He neutralized the intrigues of certain British agents who were then working in Kentucky.
Lexington to Jackson) extending into the mineral and timber region of Eastern Kentucky.
This group of fields is followed in importance by the " Eastern Interior " group in Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky, and the " Western Interior " group in Iowa, Missouri and Kansas.
harlani) from the Pleistocene of Kentucky and other parts of the United States, but more abundantly represented in the corresponding formations of South America, especially Argentina and Brazil.
The only states Greeley carried were Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, Tennessee and Texas.
BENJAMIN HELM BRISTOW (1832-1896), American lawyer and politician, was born in Elkton, Kentucky, on the 10th of June 1832, the son of Francis Marion Bristow (1804-1864), a Whig member of Congress in 1854-1855 and 1859-1861.
He graduated at Jefferson College, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, in 1851, studied law under his father, and was admitted to the Kentucky bar in 1853.
At the beginning of the Civil War he became lieutenant-colonel of the 25th Kentucky Infantry; was severely wounded at Shiloh; helped to recruit the 8th Kentucky Cavalry, of which he was lieutenant-colonel and later colonel; and assisted at the capture of John H.
of the river, and it is upon this southern half that Covington, Newport, Dayton, Ludlow and other Kentucky suburbs of Cincinnati are situated.
Other pleasure resorts are the Lagoon on the Kentucky side (in Ludlow, Ky.), Chester Park, about 6 m.
This provides for taking water from the Ohio river at a point on the Kentucky side opposite the village of California, Ohio, and several miles above the discharge of the city sewers; for the carrying of the water by a gravity tunnel under the river to the Ohio side, the water being thence elevated by four great pumping engines, each having a daily capacity of 30,000,000 gallons, to settling basins, being then passed through filters of the American or mechanical type, and flowing thence by a gravity tunnel more than 4 m.
All the remaining states and territories stood by the Union, except Missouri, Kentucky and Maryland, in which public opinion was divided.
In Kentucky the Unionist victory was secured almost without a blow, and, even at the end of 1861, the Confederate outposts west of the Alleghenies lay no farther north than the line Columbus - Bowling Green - Cumberland Gap, though southern Missouri was still a contested ground.
In the central theatre (Kentucky), the only event of importance was a daring reconnaissance of the Confederate fort at Columbus on the Mississippi by a small force under Brigadier-General U.
C. Buell in Kentucky had likewise drilled his troops to a high state of efficiency and was preparing to move against the Confederate general Albert Sidney Johnston, whose reputation was that of being the foremost soldier on either side.
Here Fort Donelson on the Cumberland, Fort Henry on the Tennessee and Columbus on the Mississippi guarded the left of the Southern line, Sidney Johnston himself maintaining a precarious advanced position at Bowling Green, with his lieutenants, Zollicoffer and Crittenden, farther east at Mill Springs, and a small force under General Marshall in the mountains of eastern Kentucky.
It was at this moment that Bragg was in the full tide of his temporary success in Tennessee and Kentucky, and, after his great victory of Second Bull Run, Lee naturally invaded Maryland, which, it was assumed, had not forgotten its Southern sympathies.
Morgan and other leaders created much excitement, especially "Morgan's Raid" (June 27 - July 26), through Indiana, Kentucky and Ohio, which states had hitherto little or no experience of the war on their own soil.
KENTUCKY, a South Central State of the United States of America, situated between 36° 30' and 39° 6' N., and 82° and 89° 38' W.
From mountain heights along its eastern border the surface of Kentucky is a north-western slope across two much dissected plateaus to a gracefully undulating lowland in the north central part and a longer western slope across the same plateaus to a lower and more level lowland at the western extremity.
The entire eastern quarter of the state, coterminous with the Eastern Kentucky coalfield, is commonly known as the region of the " mountains," but with the exception of the narrow area just described it properly belongs to the Alleghany Plateau Province.
Another lowland area embraces that small part of the state in the extreme south-east which lies west of the Tennessee river; this belongs to that part of the Coastal Plain Region which extends north along the Mississippi river; it has in Kentucky an average elevation of less than 500 ft.
The Licking, Kentucky, Green and Tradewater are the principal rivers wholly within the state.
The Cumberland, after flowing for a considerable distance in the south-east and south central part of the state, passes into Tennessee at a point nearly south of Louisville, and in the extreme south-west the Cumberland and the Tennessee, with only a short distance between them, cross Kentucky and enter the Mississippi at Smithland and Paducah respectively.
In its primeval state Kentucky was generally well timbered, but most of the middle section has been cleared and here the blue grass is now the dominant feature of the flora.
Kentucky is chiefly an agricultural state.
Indian corn is the largest and most valuable crop. As late as 1849, when it produced 58,672,591 bu., Kentucky was the second largest Indiancorn producing state in the Union.
The culture of tobacco, which is the second most valuable crop in the state, was begun in the north part about 1780 and in the west and south early in the 19th century, but it was late in that century before it was introduced to any considerable extent in the Blue Grass Region, where it was then in a measure substituted for the culture of hemp. By 1849 Kentucky ranked second only to Virginia in the production of tobacco, and in 1899 it was far ahead of any other state in both acreage and yield, there being in that year 384,805 acres, which was 34'9% of the total acreage in the continental United States, yielding 314,288,050 lb.
In 1909 the tobacco acreage in Kentucky was 420,000, the crop was 350,700,000 lb, valued at $37, 1 74, 200; the average price per pound had increased from 5'9 cents in 1899 to 10'6 cents in 1909.
Kentucky is the principal hemp-growing state of the Union; the crop of 1899, which was grown on 14,107 acres and amounted to 10,303,560 lb, valued at $468,454, was 87'7% of the hemp crop of the whole country.
In 1899 the total value of fruit grown in Kentucky was $2,491,457 (making the state rank thirteenth among the states of the Union in the value of this product), of which $ 1, 943, 6 45 was the value of orchard fruits and $435,462 that of small fruits.
Kentucky also grows considerable quantities of cherries, pears, plums and peaches, and, for its size, ranks high in its crops of strawberries, blackberries and raspberries.
The thoroughbred Kentucky horse has long had a world-wide reputation for speed; and the Blue Grass Region, especially Fayette, Bourbon and Woodford counties, is probably the finest horse-breeding region in America and has large breeding farms. In Fayette county, in 1900, the average value of colts between the ages of one and two years was $377.78.
Manufactures.--Kentucky's manufactures are principally those for which the products of her farms and forests furnish the raw material.
Good whisky is made in Maryland and in parts of Pennsylvania from rye, but all efforts in other states to produce from Indian corn a whisky equal to the Bourbon have failed, and it is probable that the quality of the Bourbon is largely due to the character of the Kentucky lime water and the Kentucky yeast germs. The average annual product of the state from 1880 to 1900 was about 20,000,000 gallons; in 1900 the product was valued at $9,786,527; in 1905 at $11,204,649.
In 1900 and in 1905 Kentucky ranked fourth among the states in the value of distilled liquors.
Measured by the value of the product, flour and grist mill products rose from third in rank in 1900 to first in rank in 1905, from $13,017,043 to $18,007,786, or 38.3%; and chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff fell during the same period from first to third in rank, from $14,948,192 to $13,117,000, or 12.3%; in 1900 Kentucky was second, in 1905 third, among the states in the value of this product.
Other important manufactures (each with a product value in 1905 of more than one million dollars) were cotton-seed oil and cake (in 1900 Kentucky was fifth and in 1905 sixth among the states in the value of cotton-seed oil and cake), cooperage, agricultural implements, boots and shoes, cigars 1 In the census of 1905 statistics for other than factory-made products, such as those of the hand trades, were not included.
Minerals.-The mineral resources of Kentucky are important and valuable, though very little developed.
Bituminous coal is the principal mineral, and in 1907 Kentucky ranked eighth among the coal-producing states of the Union; the output in 1907 amounted to 10,753,124 short tons, and in 1902 to 6,766,984 short tons as compared with 2,399,755 tons produced in 1889.
All Kentucky coal is either bituminous or semi-bituminous, but of several varieties.
Of cannel coal Kentucky is the largest producer in the Union, its output for 1902 being 65,317 short tons, and, according to state reports, for 1903, 72,856 tons (of which 46,314 tons were from Morgan county), and for 1904, 68,400 tons (of which 52,492 tons were from Morgan county); according to the Mineral Resources of the United States for 1907 (published by the United States Geological Survey) the production of Kentucky in 1907 of cannel coal (including 4650 tons of semi-cannel coal) was 77,733 tons, and exclusive of semi-cannel coal the output of Kentucky was much larger than that of any other state.
Some of the coal mined in eastern Kentucky is an excellent steam producer, especially the Jellico coal of Whitley county, Kentucky, and of Campbell county, Tennessee.
Coal was first mined in Kentucky in Laurel or Pulaski county in 1827; between 1829 and 1835 the annual output was from 2000 to 6000 tons; in 1840 it was 23,527 tons and in 1860 it was 285,760 tons.
Kentucky is the S.W.
The value of clay products was $2,406,350 in 1905 (when Kentucky was tenth among the states) and was $2,611,364 in 1907 (when Kentucky was eleventh among the states).
The manufacture of cement was begun in 1829 at Shippingport, a suburb of Louisville, whence the natural cement of Kentucky and Indiana, produced within a radius of 15 m.
This confined sea-water is gradually being displaced by the downward sinking of the rain-water through the rifts of the strata, and thus finds its way to the surface: so that these springs offer to us a share of the ancient seas, in which perhaps a hundred million of years ago the rocks of Kentucky were laid down."
Several of the Kentucky springs have been somewhat frequented as summer resorts; among these are the Blue Lick in Nicholas county (about 48 m.
of Somerset) and Paroquet Springs (near Shepherdsville, Bullitt county), which was a well-known resort before the Civil War, and near which, at Bullitt Lick, the first salt works in Kentucky are said to have been erected.
Kentucky in 1909 had 3,503.98 m.
Kentucky's trade during the greater part of the 19th century was very largely with the South, and with the facilities which river navigation afforded for this the development of a railway system was retarded.
The population of Kentucky in 1880 2 was 1,648,690; in 1890, 1,858,635, an increase within the decade of 12.7%; and in 1900 it was 2,147,174, a further increase of 15.5%.
of the Memoirs of the Kentucky Geological Survey (1876).
The taking of life and " moon-shining," however, have become less and less frequent among them, and Berea College, at Berea, the Lincoln Memorial University, and other schools in Kentucky and adjoining states have done much to educate them and bring them more in harmony with the outside community.
The population of Kentucky is largely rural.
The cities 'of Kentucky which in 1900 had a population of more than 5000 were: Louisville (pop. in 1900, 204,731); Covingto`t (42,938); Newport (28,301); Lexington (26,369); Paducah (19,446); Owensboro (13,189); Henderson (10,272); Frankfort, the capital (9487); Bowling Green (8226); Hopkinsville (7280); Ashland (6800); Maysville (6423); Bellevue (6332); Dayton (6104), and Winchester (5964).
Kentucky is governed under a constitution adopted in 1891.3 A convention to revise the constitution or to draft a new one meets on the call of two successive legislatures, ratified by a majority of the popular vote, provided that majority be at least one-fourth of the total number of votes cast at the preceding general election.
The early history of the schools of Kentucky shows that the rural school conditions have been very unsatisfactory.
The state makes provision for revenue for school purposes as follows: (1) the interest on the Bond of the Commonwealth for $1,327,000 00; (2) dividends on 798 shares of the capital stock of the Bank of Kentucky - representing a par value of $79,800.00; (3) the interest at 6% on the Bond of the Commonwealth for $381,986.08, which is a perpetual obligation in favour of the several counties; (4) the interest at 6% on $606,641.03, which was received from the United States; (5) the annual tax of 262 cents on each $100 of value of all real and personal estate and corporate franchises directed to be assessed for taxation; (6) a certain portion of fines, forfeitures and licences realized by the state; and (7) a portion of the dog taxes of each county.
The present school system of Kentucky may be summarized under three heads: the rural schools, the graded schools, and the high schools (which are further classified as city and county high schools).
A Kentucky Normal and Industrial School (1886) for negroes is maintained at Frankfort.
Among the private and denominational colleges in Kentucky are Central University (Presbyterian), at Danville; Transylvania University, at Lexington; Georgetown College (Baptist) at Georgetown; Kentucky Wesleyan College (M.E.
Kentucky, in common with other states in this part of the country, suffered from over-speculation in land and railways during 1830-1850.
The first banking currency in Kentucky was issued in 1802 by a co-operative insurance company established by Mississippi Valley traders.
The Bank of Kentucky, established at Frankfort in 1806, had a monopoly for several years.
The Bank of the Commonwealth was chartered in 1820 as a state institution and the charter of the Bank of Kentucky was revoked in 1822.
In 1834 the .legislature chartered the Bank of Kentucky, the Bank of Louisville and the Northern Bank of Kentucky.
Kentucky was the first settlement in this movement, the first state west of the Alleghany Mountains admitted into the Union.
In 1763 the Kentucky country was claimed by the Cherokees as a part of their hunting grounds, by the Six Nations (Iroquois) as a part of their western conquests, and by Virginia as a part of the territory granted to her by her charter of 1609, although it was actually inhabited only by a few Chickasaws near the Mississippi river and by a small tribe of Shawnees in the north, opposite what is now Portsmouth, Ohio.
The early settlers were often attacked by Indian raiders from what is now Tennessee or from the country north of the Ohio, but the work of colonization would have been far more difficult if those Indians had lived in the Kentucky region itself.
It was Finley's descriptions that attracted Daniel Boone, and soon after Boone's first visit, in 1767, travellers through the Kentucky region became numerous.
In March 1 775 Richard Henderson and some North Carolina land speculators met about 1200 Cherokee Indians in council on the Watauga river and concluded a treaty with them for the purchase of all the territory south of the Ohio river and between the Kentucky and Cumberland rivers.
Kentucky county, practically coterminous with the present state of Kentucky and embracing all the territory claimed by Virginia south of the Ohio river and west of Big Sandy Creek and the ridge of the Cumberland Mountains, was one of three counties which was formed out of Fincastle county in 1776.
Four years later, this in turn was divided into three counties, Jefferson, Lincoln and Fayette, but the name Kentucky was revived in 1782 and was given to the judicial district which was then organized for these three counties.
Between these extremes were the small farmers of the" Barrens" 2 in Kentucky and of the Piedmont Region in Virginia.
The aristocratic influences in both states have always been on the Southern and Democratic side, but while they were strong enough in Virginia to lead the state into secession they were unable to do so in Kentucky., 1 Most of the early settlers of Kentucky made their way thither either by the Ohio river (from Fort Pitt) or - the far larger number - by way of the Cumberland Gap and the " ` Wilderness Road."
In the Act of 1776 for dividing Fincastle county, Virginia, the ridge of the Cumberland Mountains was named as a part of the east boundary of Kentucky; and now that this ridge had become a part of the boundary between the states of Virginia and Kentucky they, in 1 799, appointed a joint commission to run the boundary line on this ridge.
In1798-1799the legislature passed the famous Kentucky Resolutions in protest against the alien and sedition acts.
For several years the Anti-Federalists or Republicans had contended that the administration at Washington had been exercising powers not warranted by the constitution, and when Congress had passed the alien and sedition laws the leaders of that party seized upon the event as a proper occasion for a spirited public protest which took shape principally in resolutions passed by the legislatures of Kentucky and Virginia.
The original draft of the Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 was prepared by Vice-President Thomas Jefferson, although the fact that he was the author of them was kept from the public until he acknowledged it in 1821.
In 1820 commissioners representing Kentucky and Tennessee formally adopted the line of1779-1780and the line of 1819 as the boundary between the two states.
Many would have followed Burr in a filibustering attack upon the Spanish in the South-West, but scarcely any would have approved of a separation of Kentucky from the Federal Union.
No battles were fought in Kentucky during the War of 1812, but her troops constituted the greater part of the forces under General William Henry Harrison.
Kentucky voted the Whig ticket in every presidential election from 1832 until the party made its last campaign in 1852.
In 1860 the people of Kentucky were drawn toward the South by their interest in slavery and by their social relations, and toward the North by business ties and by a national sentiment which was fostered by the Clay traditions.
A large majority of the state legislature, however, were Democrats, and in his message to this body, in January 1861, Governor Magoffin, also a Democrat, proposed that a convention be called to determine " the future of Federal and inter-state relations of Kentucky;" later too, in reply to the president's call for volunteers, he declared, " Kentucky will furnish no troops for the wicked purpose of subduing her sister Southern States."
An election in August of one-half the Senate and all of the House of Representatives resulted in a Unionist majority in the new legislature of 103 to 35, and in September, after Confederate troops had begun to invade the state, Kentucky formally declared its allegiance to the Union.
From September 1861 to the fall of Fort Donelson in February 1862 that part of Kentucky which is south and west of the Green River was occupied by the Confederate army under General A.
This body, composed mostly of Kentucky men who had joined the Confederate army, passed an ordinance of secession, elected state officers, and sent commissioners to the Confederate Congress, which body voted on the 9th of December to admit Kentucky into the Confederacy.
Throughout the war Kentucky was represented in the Confederate Congress - representatives and senators being elected by Confederate soldiers from the state.
Zollicoffer (1812-1862) had entered the south-east part of the state through Cumberland Gap in September, and later with a Confederate force of about 7000 men attempted the invasion of central Kentucky, but in October 1861 he met with a slight repulse at Wild Cat Mountain, near London, Laurel county, and on the 19th of January 1862, in an engagement near Mill Springs, Wayne county, with about an equal force under General George H.
Carlos Buell, in command of the Federal Army of the Ohio stationed there, and entering Kentucky in August 1862 proceeded slowly toward Louisville, hoping to win the state to the Confederate cause and gain recruits for the Confederacy in the state.
This was the last serious attempt on a large scale by the Confederates to win Kentucky; but in February 1863 one of General John H.
Governors Of Kentucky William O.
$ Governor Stevenson resigned on the 13th of February 1871 to become U.S. Senator from Kentucky.
Fordescriptionsof physical featuresand accounts of natural resources see Reports of the Kentucky Geological Survey, the Biennial Reports of the Bureau of Agriculture, Labor and Statistics, the Reports of the United States Census and various publications of the U.S. Geological Survey, and other publications listed in Bulletin 301 (Bibliography and Index of North American Geology for 1901-1905) and other bibliographies of the Survey.
For a brief description of the Blue Grass Region, see James Lane Allen's The Blue Grass Region of Kentucky and other Kentucky Articles (New York, 1900).
Haney's The Mountain People of Kentucky (Cincinnati, 1906).
For administration, see the Official Manual for the Use of the Courts, State and County Officials and General Assembly of the State of Kentucky (Lexington), which contains the Constitution of 1891; The Report of the Debates and Proceedings of the Convention..
Young, History and Texts of Three Constitutions of Kentucky (Louisville, 1890); J.
Bullitt and John Feland, The General Statutes of Kentucky (Frankfort and Louisville, 1877, revised editions, 1881, 1887); and the Annual Reports of state officers and boards.
McElroy's Kentucky in the Nation's History (New York, 1909, with bibliography); or (more briefly) N.
Shaler's Kentucky (Boston, 1885), in the American Commonwealths Series.
Brown's The Political Beginnings of Kentucky (Louisville, 1889) is a good monograph dealing with the period before 1792; it should be compared with Thomas M.
Among older histories are Humphrey Marshall, The History of Kentucky.
and the Present State of the Country (2 vols., Frankfort, 1812, 1824), extremely Federalistic in tone; Mann Butler, History of Kentucky from its Exploration and Settlement by the Whites to the close of the Southwestern Campaign of 1813 (Louisville, 1834; 2nd ed., Cincinnati, 1836), and Lewis Collins, The History of Kentucky (2 vols., revised edition, Covington, Ky., 1874), a valuable store-house of facts, the basis of Shaler's work.
Warfield's The Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 (New York, 2nd ed., 1887) is an excellent monograph.
For the Civil War history see " Campaigns in Kentucky and Tennessee," in the 7th volume of Papers of the Military Historical Society of Massachusetts (Boston, 1908); Thomas Speed, The Union Cause in Kentucky (New York, 1907); Basil W.
Lewis, History of Higher Education in Kentucky, in Circulars of Information of the U.S. Bureau of Education (Washington, 1899), and R.
There is much valuable material in the Register (Frankfort, 1903 seq.) of the Kentucky State Historical Society, and especially in the publications of the Filson Club of Louisville.
Durrett's John Filson, the first Historian of Kentucky (1884); Thomas Speed, The Wilderness Road (1886); W.
Perrin, The Pioneer Press of Kentucky (1888); G.
Ranck, Boonesborough: Its Founding, Pioneer Struggles, Indian Experiences, Transylvania Days and Revolutionary Annals (1901), and The Centenary of Kentucky (1892), containing an address, " The State of Kentucky: Its Discovery, Settlement, Autonomy and Progress in a Hundred Years," by Reuben T.
The Democrats carried every state except Massachusetts, Vermont, Kentucky and Tennessee.
Marcy of New York, secretary of state; Jefferson Davis of Mississippi, secretary of war; James Guthrie (1792-1869) of Kentucky, secretary of the treasury; James C. Dobbin (1814-1857) of North Carolina, secretary of the navy; Robert McClelland (1807-1880) of Michigan, secretary of the interior; James Campbell (1813-1893) of Pennsylvania, postmaster-general; and Caleb Cushing of Massachusetts, attorney-general.
in Kentucky and Tennessee, where the name Cumberland plateau is used for the highest portion, and to still less in northern Alabama, where the plateau, like the mountain belt, disappears under the Gulf coastal plain.
Again, in Kentucky and Tennessee, there is a double alternation of sandstone and limestone in the plateau-making strata; and as the skyline of the plateau bevels across these formations, there are west-facing escarpments, made ragged by mature dissection, as one passes from the topographically strong sandstone to the topographically weak limestone.
in southern Michigan; (4) the eastern interior field in Indiana, Illinois and Kentucky, with an area of about 58,000 sq.
The Caiolinian area extends from southern Michigan to northern Georgia and from the Atlantic coast to Western Kansas, comprising Delaware, all of Maryland except the mountainous Western portion, all of Ohio except the north-east corner, nearly the whole of Indiana, Illinois, Iowa and Missouri, eastern Nebraska and Kansas, south-eastern South Dakota, western central Oklahoma, northern Arkansas, middle and eastern Kentucky, middle Tennessee and the Tennessee valley in eastern Tennessee, middle Virginia and North Carolina, western \Vest Virginia, north-eastern Alabama.
The Austroriparian zone comprises nearly all the Gulf States as far West as the mouth of the Rio Grande, the greater part of Georgia, eastern South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia, and extends up the lowlands of the Mississippi Valley acru_~s western Tennessee and Kentucky into southern Illinois andlndiana and across eastern and southern Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma into south-eastern Missouri and Kansas.
Four outlying groups beyond the mountains, with perhaps a twentieth part of the total population of the nation, one about Pittsburg, one in West Virginia, another in northern Kentucky, and the last in.
(I) the North Atlantic division~down to New Jersey and Pennsylvania; (2) the South Atlantic divisionfrom Delaware to Florida (including West Virginia); (3) the North Central divisionincluding the states within a triangle tipped by Ohio, Kansas and North Dakota; (4) the South Central division -covering a triangle tipped by Kentucky, Alabama and Texas; and (5) the Western divisionincluding the Rocky Mountains and Pacific states.
Colorado, 296,272; Illinois, 240,000; \Vest Virginia, 231,000; Utah, 196,408; Pennsylvania, 112,574; Kentucky, 104,028; OhiO, 86,028; Alabama, 68,903; Indiana, 44,169; Missouri, 40,ooo; New Mexico, 30,805, Tennessee, 25,665; Virginia.
Ohio, West Virginia and California appeared as producers in 1876, Kentucky and Tennessee in 1883, Colorado in 1887.
It is also found associated with limestone, as in the Mammoth Caves, Kentucky, and with gypsum, as atMontmartre.
Zanesville was first platted in 1800 by Ebenezer Zane (r 747181 r) of Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia), his brother Jonathan, and John McIntire, his son-in-law, of Alexandria, Va., who under an act of Congress of 1796 surveyed a road from Wheeling to what is now Maysville, Kentucky, and received for this service three sections of land.
A public park extending from the James to the heart of the city, a deep, spacious and well-protected harbour, a large shipbuilding yard with three immense dry docks, and two large grain elevators of 2,000,000 bushels capacity, are among the most prominent features; at the shipbuilding yard various United States battleships, including the "Kearsarge," "Kentucky," "Illinois," "Missouri," "Louisiana," "Minnesota," "Virginia" and "West Virginia," were constructed, as well as cruisers, gun-boats, merchant vessels, ferry-boats and submarines.
On receiving Blount's report to the effect that the revolution had been accomplished by the aid of the United States minister and by the landing of troops from the " Boston," President Cleveland sent Albert Sydney Willis (1843-1897) of Kentucky to Honolulu with secret instructions as United States minister.
COLOSSAL CAVERN, a cave in Kentucky, U.S.A., the main entrance of which is at the foot of a steep hill beyond Eden Valley, and 12 m.
ORMSBY MACKNIGHT MITCHEL (1809-1862), American astronomer, was born at Morganfield, Kentucky, on the 28th of July, 1809.
JAMES GILLESPIE BIRNEY (1792-1857), American reformer, leader of the conservative abolitionists in the United States from about 1835 to 1845, was born in Danville, Kentucky, of a family of wealth and influence, on the 4th of February 1792.
He entered immediately, as a Democrat, into Kentucky politics, and political ambition caused his removal in 1818 to northern Alabama, near Huntsville.
Birney's father was among those who advocated a "free state" constitution for Kentucky, and the home environment of the boy had thus fostered a questioning attitude towards slavery, though later he was himself a slave-holder.
For this he was ostracized from Kentucky society; his anti-slavery journals were withheld in the mails; he could not secure a public hall or a printer.
He removed with his family to Bloomington, Illinois, in 1852; was educated at the Illinois Wesleyan University at Bloomington and at Centre College, Danville, Kentucky; and was admitted to the Illinois bar in 1857.
Georgetown, Kentucky >>
Gymnocladus - Kentucky Coffee Amygdalus - Almond.
The party held its national convention at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, on the 11th of August 1852, delegates being present from all the free states, and from Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and Kentucky; and John P. Hale, of New Hampshire, and George W.
RICHMOND, a city and the county-seat of Madison (disambiguation)|Madison county, Kentucky, U.S.A., about 95 m.
It is the seat of Madison Institute for girls (1856) and of the Eastern Kentucky State Normal School (1906).
United States, in Missouri, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio and elsewhere, there is an unconformable junction between the Lower and Upper Carboniferous, representing an interval of time during which the lower member was strongly eroded; it has even been proposed to regard the Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) as a distinct geological period, mainly on account of this break in the succession.
CHRISTOPHER [" CARSON KIT "1 (1809-1868), American hunter and scout, was born in Madison county, Kentucky, on the 24th of December 1809.
RICHARD MENTOR JOHNSON (1781-1850), ninth vicepresident of the United States, was born at Bryant's Station, Kentucky, on the 17th of October 1781.
He died in Frankfort, Kentucky, on the 19th of November 1850.
Other states in which the Church had communicants were: Maryland (13,442), Wisconsin (8386), Indiana (8289), New York (5700), North Carolina (4718), Iowa (3692), Illinois (2652), Virginia (2288), Kentucky (2101), Michigan (1666), Nebraska (1616), and (less than 1500 in each of the following arranged in rank) S.
Carolina, Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee, Wisconsin, California, Oregon and Indiana.
A rock similar to the blue ground of Kimberley has been found in the states of Kentucky and New York.
from Hodgenville, in Hardin (now Larue) county, Kentucky, on the 12th of February 1809.'
His grandfather,' Abraham Lincoln, settled in Kentucky about 1780 and was killed by Indians in 1784.
His father, Thomas (1778-1851), was born in Rockingham (then Augusta) county, Virginia; he was hospitable, shiftless, restless and unsuccessful, working now as a carpenter and now as a farmer, and could not read or write before his marriage, in Washington county, Kentucky, on the 12th of June 1806, to Nancy Hanks (1783-1818), who was a native of Virginia, who is said to have been the illegitimate daughter of one Lucy Hanks, and who seems to have been, in 1 Lincoln's birthday is a legal holiday in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, West Virginia and Wyoming.
In meeting all the extraordinary demands resulting from the Civil War he displayed great energy and resourcefulness, and was active in thwarting the schemes of the secessionists in the neighbouring state of Kentucky, and of the Knights of the Golden Circle, the Order of American Knights, and the Sons of Liberty (secret societies of Southern sympathizers and other opponents of the war) in Indiana.
by the Ohio river, which separates it from Kentucky, and S.W.
into Kentucky, thus including more than three-fourths (42,900 sq.
Pope and Hardin counties were the only sources of fluorspar in the United States from 1842 until 1898, when fluorspar began to be mined in Kentucky; in 1906 the output was 28,268 tons, valued at :8160,623, and in 1905 33, 2 75 tons, valued at $220,206.
The Virginia House of Delegates, in 1778, extended the civil jurisdiction of Virginia to the north-west, and appointed Captain John Todd (1750-1782), of Kentucky, governor of the entire territory north of the Ohio, organized as "The County of Illinois"; the judges of the courts at Cahokia, Kaskaskia, and Vincennes, who had been appointed under the British administration, were now chosen by election; but this government was confined to the old French settlements and was entirely inefficient.
The majority of the early settlers came from the southern and border states, principally from Missouri and Kentucky; but subsequently there was a large immigration of New England and Eastern people, and these elements were stronger in the population of Jacksonville than in any other city of southern Illinois.
In answer to those odious measures Jefferson and Madison prepared and procured the passage of the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions.
bank of the river, in Kentucky.
On the 11th of September President Lincoln, who regarded the action as premature and who saw that it might alienate Kentucky and other border states, whose adherence he was trying to secure, annulled these declarations.
Out of consideration for the "Radicals," however, Fremont was placed in command of the Mountain Department of Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee.
The Virginia resolutions and the Kentucky resolutions (the latter having been drafted by Jefferson) were met by dissenting resolutions from the New England states, from New York, and from Delaware.
Nearly all his arguments, especially where he attempts to interpret Jefferson's writings on the point, notably the Kentucky resolutions, are rather strained and specious, but it does seem that the Virginia resolutions were based on a different idea from Calhoun's doctrine of nullification.
The plan was endorsed of holding a convention of all the states to settle the slavery question, and delegates were chosen to the proposed Border State Convention that was to meet at Frankfort, Kentucky, on the 27th of May.
north-west of Louisville, Kentucky.
It is the shipping point of the Bedford Indiana (oolitic) limestone, which is found in the vicinity and is one of the most valuable and best known building stones in the United States - of this stone were built the capitols of Indiana, Georgia, Mississippi and Kentucky; the state historical library at Madison, Wisconsin; the art building at St Louis, Missouri; and many other important public buildings.
JOHN JORDAN CRITTENDEN (1787-1863), American statesman, was born in Versailles, Kentucky, on the 10th of September 178 7.
He served for three months, in 1810, as attorney-general of Illinois Territory, but soon returned to Kentucky, and during the War of 1812 he was for a time on the staff of General Isaac Shelby.
Settling in Frankfort, he soon took high rank as a criminal lawyer, was in the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1825 and 1829-1832, acting as speaker in the latter period, and from 1827 to 1829 was United States district-attorney.
He was again a member of the United States Senate from 1842 to 1848, and in1848-1850was governor of Kentucky.
When war became inevitable he threw himself zealously into the Union cause, and lent his great influence to keep Kentucky in the Union.
He died at Frankfort, Kentucky, on the 26th of July 1863.
His son, George Bibb Crittenden (1812-1880), soldier, was born in Russellville, Kentucky, on the 20th of March 1812, and graduated at West Point in 1832, but resigned hid commission in 1833.
He was commissioned majorgeneral and given a command in south-east Kentucky and Tennessee, but after the defeat of his forces by General George H.
Williams. From 1867 to 1871 he was state librarian of Kentucky.
He died at Danville, Kentucky, on the 27th of November 1880.
Another SOD, Thomas Leonidas Crittenden (1815-1893), soldier, was also born at Russellville, Kentucky.
Newport, Kentucky >>
by Kentucky and West Virginia, the irregular boundary line following mountain ridges for a part of its course; on the N.E.
Tobacco was an important crop in the earlier history of the colony, and Virginia continued to be the leading tobacco-producing state of the Union (reporting in 1850 28.4% of the total crop) until after the Civil War, which, with the division of the state, caused it to fall into second place, Kentucky taking the lead; and in 1900 the crop of North Carolina also was larger.
In 1774 Lord Dunmore, the governor, led an army to the Ohio river to break an Indian coalition which had been formed to check the rapid expansion of Virginia over what is now Kentucky and West Virginia.
In 1784, Virginia, after some hesitation, ceded to the Federal government the north-west territory, which it held under the charter of 1609; in 1792 another large strip of the territory of Virginia became an independent state under the name of Kentucky.
But the people of these cessions, especially of Kentucky, were closely allied to the great up-country party of Virginia, and altogether they formed the basis of the Jeffersonian democracy, which from 1794 opposed the chief measures of the Washington administration, and which on the passage of the Alien and Sedition laws in 1798 precipitated the first great constitutional crisis in Federal politics by the adoption in the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures of the resolutions, known by the names of those states, strongly asserting the right and duty of the states to arrest the course of the national government whenever in their opinions that course had become unconstitutional.
Jefferson was the author of the Kentucky resolutions, and his friend Madison prepared those passed by the Virginia Assembly.
above Louisville, Kentucky.
The temperature is uniformly 54° Fahr., coinciding with that of Mammoth Cave, Kentucky.
He was tail, rawboned and awkward; his early instruction was scant; but he "read books," talked well, and so, after his admission to the bar at Richmond, Virginia, in 1797, and his removal next year to Lexington, Kentucky, he quickly acquired a reputation and a lucrative income from his law practice.
At the age of twenty-two (1799), he was elected to a constitutional convention in Kentucky; at twenty-six, to the Kentucky legislature; at twenty-nine, while yet under the age limit of the United States constitution, he was appointed to an unexpired term (1806-1807) in the United States Senate, where, contrary to custom, he at once plunged into business, as though he had been there all his life.
He again served in the Kentucky legislature (1808-1809), was chosen speaker of its lower house, and achieved distinction by preventing an intense and widespread anti-British feeling from excluding the common law from the Kentucky code.
His earliest championship of protection was a resolution introduced by him in the Kentucky legislature (1808) which favoured the wearing by its members of home-made clothes; and one in the United States Senate (April 1810), on behalf of home-grown and home-made supplies for the United States navy, but only to the point of making the nation independent of foreign supply.
He was only twenty-two, when, as an opponent of slavery, he vainly urged an emancipation clause for the new constitution of Kentucky, and he never ceased regretting that its failure put his state, in improvements and progress, behind its free neighbours.
Although in 1849 he again vainly proposed emancipation in Kentucky, he was unanimously elected to the United States Senate, where in 1850 he temporarily pacified both sections of the country by successfully offering, for the sake of the "peace, concord and harmony of these states," a measure or series of measures that became known as the "Compromiseof 1850."
In 1848, Zachary Taylor, a Mexican War hero, and hardly even a convert to the Whig party, defeated Clay for the nomination, Kentucky herself deserting her "favourite son."
From North Carolina as a centre "Separate" Baptist influence permeated Virginia and extended into Kentucky and Tennessee.
He was educated for the medical profession, but entered the Sulpician Seminary of Paris in November 1803, was ordained priest in 1808, refused the post of chaplain to Napoleon, was professor of theology in the Diocesan Seminary at Rennes in 1808-1810, and in August 1810 settled in Baltimore, Maryland, whither his long general interest in missions, and particularly his acquaintance with Bishop Flaget of Kentucky, had drawn him.
In 1815 Gallitzin was suggested for the bishopric of Bardstown, Kentucky, and in 1827 for the proposed see of Pittsburg, and he refused the bishopric of Cincinnati.
MAMMOTH CAVE, a cave in Edmondson county, Kentucky, U.S.A., 37° 14' N.
The Cambarus and Amblyopsis have wide distribution, being found in many other caves, and also in deep wells, in Kentucky and Indiana.
- Plan and Description of the Great and Wonderful Cave in Kentucky, by Dr Nahum Ward (1816); Notes on the Mammoth Cave, with a Map, by Edmund F.
JOHN CABELL BRECKINRIDGE (1821-1875), American soldier and political leader, was born near Lexington, Kentucky, on the 21st of January 1821.
He was a member of a family prominent in the public life of Kentucky and the nation.
His grandfather, John Breckinridge (1760-1806), who revised Jefferson's draft of the "Kentucky Resolutions" of 1798, was a United States senator from Kentucky in1801-1805and attorney-general in President Jefferson's cabinet in 1805-1806.
His uncles, John Breckinridge (1797-1841), professor of pastoral theology in the Princeton Theological Seminary in1836-1838and for many years after secretary of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, and Robert Jefferson Breckinridge (1800-1871), for several years superintendent of public instruction in Kentucky, an important factor in the organization of the public school system of the state, a professor from 18J3 to 1871 in the Danville Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Danville, Kentucky, and the temporary chairman of the national Republican convention of 1864, were both prominent clergymen of the Presbyterian Church.
John Cabell Breckinridge graduated in 1838 at Centre College, Danville, Kentucky, continued his studies at Princeton, and then studied law at Transylvania University, Lexington, Kentucky.
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