Karroo Sentence Examples
Basutoland is entirely occupied by the upper division (Stormberg series) of the Karroo formation.
A broad ring of crystalline rocks (Swaziland schists) encircles the Transvaal except on the south, where the Karroo formation extends over the Vaal River.
Within this nearly complete circle of crystalline rocks several geological formations have been determined, of which the age cannot be more definitely fixed than that they are vastly older than the Karroo formation and newer than the Swaziland schists.
The following subdivisions have been recognized by Molengraaff Karroo System, Transvaal System, Vaal River System, South African Primary System.
The Karroo System attains its chief development in the southeastern Transvaal in the districts of Ermelo, Standerton and Wakkerstroom.Advertisement
The Karroo beds lie almost horizontally, in marked contrast to the highly inclined older rocks.
Remnants have been found of their former existence in the neighbourhood of Pretoria; and portions of the Bushveld Sandstone have recently been relegated to the Karroo formation.
In the vicinity of Lakes Nyasa and Tanganyika, sandstones and shales of Lower Karroo age and yielding seams of coal are considered to owe their position and preservation to being let down by rift faults into hollows of the crystalline rocks.
No traces of the Karroo formation have been detected.
Except a small area around Vredefort in the north, the whole of the province is occupied by rocks of Karroo age.Advertisement
The Karroo formation and associate dolerites (Loalemandelstein) occur in the same region.
It lies in the Little Karroo, about Boo ft.
The upper part certainly belongs to the Cretaceous formation; the lower part has been considered to be of Karroo age by some geologists, while others regard the whole formation to be of Cretaceous age.
The western region, both plateau and coastlands, specially that part north of the Orange, is largely semi or wholly desert, while in the Cape province the terrace lands below the interior plateau are likewise arid, as is signified by their Hottentot name karusa (Karroo).
On the Karroo are numerous ostrich farms. Lucerne is very largely grown as fodder for the cattle.Advertisement
Over the Karroo and other arid regions some io,000 boreholes had been sunk to depths varying from 50 to 500 ft., their yield being 60,000,000 gallons a year.
Karroo is a corruption of Karusa, a Hottentot word meaning dry, barren, and its use as a place-name indicates the character of the plateaus so designated.
The Little (also called Southern) Karroo is the table-land nearest the southern coast-line of the Cape, and is bounded north by the Zwaarteberg, which separates it from the Great Karroo.
From west to east the Little Karroo has a length of some 200 m., whilst its average width is 30 m.
West of the Zwaarteberg the Little Karroo merges into the Great Karroo.Advertisement
The Great Karroo is of much larger extent.
Whilst the Little Karroo is divided by a chain of hills which run across it from east to west, and varies in altitude from 1000 to 2000 ft., the Great Karroo has more the aspect of a vast plain and has a level of from 2000 to 3000 ft.
The chief characteristics of the Karroo are the absence of running water during a great part of the year and the consequent parched aspect of the country.
There is little vegetation save stunted shrubs, such as the mimosa (which generally marks the river beds), wild pomegranate, and wax heaths, known collectively as Karroo bush.
Such parts of the Karroo as are under perennial irrigation are among the most productive lands in South Africa.Advertisement
There are also numerous ostrich farms, in particular in the districts of Oudtshoorn and Ladismith in the Little Karroo, where lucerne grows with extraordinary luxuriance.
The Karroo is admirably adapted to sufferers from pulmonary complaints.
In a looser sense the term Karroo is also used of the vast northern plains of the Cape which are part of the inner table-land of the continent.
Both are considered to represent the Karroo formation of South Africa.
The Adigrat Sandstone possibly represents some portion of the Karroo formation of South Africa.
The largest town in the western part of the Great Karroo, it lies, at an elevation of 2792 ft., at the foot of the southern slopes of the Nieuwveld mountains.
Having crossed the Little Karroo, from which rise minor mountain chains, a second high range has to be climbed.
This done the traveller finds himself on another tableland - the Great Karroo.
Northwards the Karroo (q.v.) is bounded by the ramparts of the great inner tableland, of which only a comparatively small portion is in Cape Colony.
This plateau is called the Southern or Little Karroo, Karroo being a (4) second range of hills, (5) second plateau (the Great Karroo), (6) main chain of mountains guarding, (7) the vast interior tableland - is characteristic of the greater part of the colony but is not clearly marked in the south-east and north-west borders.
After the periodical rains, the Karroo and the great plains of Bushmanland are converted into vast fields of grass and flowering shrubs, but the summer sun reduces them again to a barren and burnt-up aspect.
The Gamka rises in the Nieuwveld not far from Beaufort West, traverses the Great Karroo from north to south, and forces a passage through the Zwarteberg.
Crossing the Little Karroo, it is joined from the east by the Olifants (115 m.), a stream which rises in the Great Karroo, being known in its upper course as the Traka, and pierces the Zwarteberg near its eastern end.
Thence it flows west across the Little Karroo past Oudtshoorn to its junction with the Gamka.
The Touws (90 m.),which rises in the Great Karroo not far from the sources of the Hex river, is a tributary of the Groote river.
Flowing south-east, it is joined by the Kariega on the left, and breaking through the escarpment of the Great Karroo, on the lower level changes its name to the Groote, the hills which overhang it to the north-east being known as Groote River Heights.
Sunday river does not, like so many of the Cape streams, change its name on passing from the Great to the Little Karroo and again on reaching the coast plain.
It rises in the Sneeuwberg north-west of Graaff Reinet, flows south-east through one of the most fertile districts of the Great Karroo, which it pierces at the western end of the Zuurberg (of the coast chain), and reaches the ocean in Algoa Bay.
Several small streams rising in the Zuurberg (of the inner chain) unite to form the Great Fish river which passes through Cradock, and crossing the Karroo, changes its general direction from south to east, and is joined by the Kooner (or Koonap) and Kat, both of which rise in the Winterberg.
Although, like the other streams which cross the Karroo, the river is sometimes dry in its upper course, it has an estimated annual discharge of 51,724,000,000 cubic ft.
They are often found on the flat-topped hills which dot the Karroo.
A line drawn from Port Elizabeth north-west across the Karroo in the direction of Walfish Bay roughly divides the regions of the winter and summer rains.
The western coastlands and the Little Karroo have a rainfall of from io to 20 in.; the Cape peninsula by exception having an average yearly rainfall of 40 in.
The climate of the northern plains is similar to that of the Karroo, but the extremes of cold and heat are greater.
Snow seldom falls in the coast region, but it lies on the higher mountains for three or four months in the year, and for as many days on the Karroo.
It may be regarded as a shallow basin occupied by the almost horizontal rocks of the Karroo.
Rocks of pre-Cape age rise from beneath them on the north and west; on the south and east the Lower Karroo and Cape systems are bent up into sharp folds, beneath which, but in quite limited areas, the pre-Cape rocks emerge.
The Karroo System is par excellence the geological formation of South Africa.
They form the kopjes, or characteristic flat-topped hills of the Great Karroo.
Cheetahs are also found, including a rare woolly variety peculiar to the Karroo.
The ant-bear, with very long snout, tongue and ears, is found on the Karroo, where it makes inroads on the ant-heaps which dot the plain.
On the Karroo and the interior plateau there is less variety.
Ostrich farms are maintained in the Karroo and in other parts of the country, young birds having been first enclosed in 1857.
The railways going north have to cross, within a comparatively short distance of the coast, the mountains which lead to the Karroo.
It was not to the hostility of the natives, nor to the hard struggle with nature necessary to make agriculture profitable on Karroo or veld, that the slow progress made by the colonists was due, so much as to the narrow and tyrannical policy adopted by the East India Company, which closed the colony against free immigration, kept the whole of the trade in its own hands, combined the administrative, legislative and judicial powers in one body, prescribed to the farmers the nature of the crops they were to grow, demanded from them a large part of their produce, and harassed them with other exactions tending to discourage industry and enterprise.
It takes ten acres of Karroo to feed a sheep, but it was now seen that a few square yards of diamondiferous blue ground would feed a dozen families.
The largest of these level areas, the Great Karroo, is a dry, barren region, and a large tract of the plateau proper is of a still more arid character and is known as the Kalahari Desert.
At the close of the Karroo period there was a remarkable manifestation of volcanic activity which again has its parallel in the Deccan traps of India.
How far the Karroo formation extended beyond its present confines has not been determined.
The Crystal Mountains of Angola may represent its western boundary; while the absence of mesozoic strata beneath the Cretaceous rocks of the mid-Sahara indicates that the system of Karroo lakeland had here reached its most northerly extension.
Towards the close of the Karroo period, possibly about the middle, the southern rim of the great central depression became ridged up to form the folded regions of the Zwaarteberg, Cedarberg and Langeberg mountains in Cape Colony.
Of the Karroo System all the groups from the basal Dwyka Conglomerate to the Cave Sandstone of the Stormberg series (see Cape Colony) are represented; but these rocks have not been so minutely subdivided as in the Cape.
The Karroo system (sandstones and marls) covers immense areas (see Africa, § Geology).
The total area of the Karroo plateaus is stated to be over ioo,000 sq.
On the Karroo the bush consists of dwarf mimosas, wax-heaths and other shrubs, which after the spring rains are gorgeous in blossom (see Karroo).