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juvenal

juvenal

juvenal Sentence Examples

  • 45 is quoted as a proof that Juvenal had visited Egypt.

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  • Juvenal >>

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  • He also published commentaries on portions of Cicero (especially the De finibus), on Ausonius, Juvenal, Curtius Rufus, and other classical authors.

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  • Whilst under the first of these tutors, in nine months he read all Thucydides, Sophocles and Sallust, twelve books of Tacitus, the greater part of Horace, Juvenal, Persius, and several plays of Aeschylus and Euripides.

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  • The closeness of the connexion is illustrated by Juvenal's epigram that a Cynic differed from a Stoic only by his cloak.

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  • The classics, " as low as Tacitus, Pliny the Younger and Juvenal," had been long familiar.

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  • According to Juvenal the sons of such proselytes were apt to go farther and to substitute the Jewish Law for the Roman Romanas autem soliti contemnere leges; Judaicum ediscunt et servant ac metuunt ius Tradidit arcano quodcunque volumine Moyses.

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  • Oldham took Juvenal for his model, and in breadth of treatment and power of invective surpassed his English predecessors.

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  • In classical literature he was the first who made the world acquainted with the Fables of Phaedrus (1596); he also edited the Pervigilium Veneris (1587), and Juvenal and Persius (1585).

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  • 399-575; Juvenal x.

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  • 42, 3) says "one would compare the sound most nearly to the broken chord of a harp or a lute" (Juvenal xv.

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  • In Palestine the fanatical monks led by Theodosius captured Jerusalem and expelled the bishop, Juvenal.

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  • 39), and several Latin writersconfirm this (Cicero, Pro Flacco, § 28; Juvenal xiv.

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  • Virgil, Statius, Terence, Juvenal, Horace, Persius and Lucan are specially named as entering into a course of training which was rendered more stimulating by a free use of open discussion.

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  • It is close to the site of the ancient Aquinum, a municipium in the time of Cicero, and made a colony by the Triumviri, the birthplace of Juvenal and of the emperor Pescennius Niger.

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  • In this period, however, the tunica, corresponding to the Greek chiton, was universally worn in ordinary life, and the toga gradually became a full-dress garment which was only worn over the tunica on important social occasions; Juvenal (iii.

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  • 90), who is mentioned by Juvenal.

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  • They may have contributed to the formation of the style of comedy which appears at the very outset much more mature than that of serious poetry, tragic or epic. They gave the name and some of the characteristics to that special literary product of the Roman soil, the satura, addressed to readers, not to spectators, which ultimately was developed into pure poetic satire in Lucilius, Horace, Persius and Juvenal, into the prose and verse miscellany of Varro, and into something approaching the prose novel in Petronius.

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  • We find now only imitative echoes of the old music created by Virgil and others, as in Statius, or powerful declamation, as in Lucan and Juvenal.

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  • The spirit of Rome appears only as animating the protest of Lucan, the satire of Persius and Juvenal, the sombre picture which Tacitus paints of the annals of the empire.

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  • The new extraneous element introduced into Roman literature draws into greater prominence the characteristics of the last great representatives of the genuine Roman and Italian spirit - the historian Tacitus and the satirist Juvenal.

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  • The reign of Domitian, although it silenced the more independent spirits of the time, Tacitus and Juvenal, witnessed more important contributions to Roman literature than any age since the Augustan, - among them the Institutes of Quintilian, the Punic War of Silius Italicus, the epics and the Silvae of Statius, and the Epigrams of Martial.

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  • Fabius Quintilianus, or Quintilian (c. 35-95), is brought forward by Juvenal as a unique instance of a thoroughly successful man of letters, of one not belonging by birth to the rich or official class, who had risen to wealth and honours through literature.

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  • Iunius Iuvenalis or Juvenal (c. 47-130), sum up for posterity the moral experience of the Roman world from the accession of Tiberius to the death of Domitian.

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  • With the death of Juvenal, the most important part of whose activity falls in the reign of Trajan, Latin literature as an original and national expression of the experience, character, and sentiment of the Roman state and empire, and as one of the great literatures of the world, may be considered closed.

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  • For two centuries after Juvenal there are no names but those of Q.

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  • The most important writer in the age succeeding Juvenal was the biographer C. Suetonius Tranquillus (c. 7 5-160), whose work is more valuable for its matter than its manner.

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  • Ciriaco, is said to occupy the site of a temple of Venus, who is mentioned by Catullus and Juvenal as the tutelary deity of the place.

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  • But this is unlikely, notwithstanding the fact that even some pagan writers, such as Juvenal, Pliny and Martial (?), traced a resemblance between Domitian and Nero.

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  • Juvenal, in his seventeenth satire, takes as his text a religious riot between the Tentyrites and the neighbouring Ombites, in the course of which an unlucky Ombite was torn to pieces and devoured by the opposite party.

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  • Persius, Juvenal and Quintilian vouch for the admiration with which he was regarded in the first century of the empire.

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  • His character and tastes were much more akin to those of Horace than of either Persius or Juvenal.

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  • He left behind him thirty books of satires, and there is reason to believe that each book, like the books of Horace and Juvenal, was composed of different pieces.

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  • "Rustica Vinalia"; Juvenal xii.

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  • Juvenal of Jerusalem and Flavian of Thessalonica were some days late.

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  • To; Juvenal iii.

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  • But the authors whom he quotes most frequently are Virgil, and, next to him, Terence, Cicero, Plautus; then Lucan, Horace, Juvenal, Sallust, Statius, Ovid, Livy and Persius.

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  • Their own poems soon became the theme of criticism and of comment; and, by the time of Quintilian and Juvenal, they shared the fate (which Horace had feared) of becoming textbooks for use in schools.

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  • The Latin poets to be studied include Virgil, Lucan, Statius, Ovid's Metamorphoses, and (with certain limitations) Horace, Juvenal and Persius, as well as Plautus, Terence and the tragedies of Seneca; the prose authors recommended are Cicero, Livy and Sallust.

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  • Among the Latin authors studied were Virgil and Lucan, with selections from Horace, Ovid and Juvenal, besides Cicero and Quintilian, Sallust and Curtius, Caesar and Livy.

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  • Among the Latin classical authors Juvenal, Suetonius and Pliny in well-known passages refer to the practice of physiognomy, and numerous allusions occur in the works of the Christian Fathers, especially Clement of Alexandria and Origen (for example, the familiar passage in his work against Celsus, i.

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  • ii.), Juvenal (Sat.

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  • His lost Ars (Juvenal, vii.

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  • 215), a system of grammar much used in his own time and largely drawn upon by later grammarians, contained rules for correct diction, illustrative quotations and treated of barbarisms and solecisms (Juvenal vi.

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  • It is probable that what he had suffered during his first year in London had often reminded him of some parts of the satire in which Juvenal had described the misery and degradation of a needy man of letters, lodged among the pigeons' nests in the tottering garrets which overhung the streets of Rome.

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  • What Pope had done for Horace, Johnson aspired to do for Juvenal.

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  • In January 1749 he published The Vanity of Human Wishes, an excellent imitation of the tenth satire of Juvenal, for which he received fifteen guineas.

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  • lviii.; Juvenal x.

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  • 20.8), the real name of Propertius's Cynthia, according to Apuleius (Apologia x.) and the scholiast on Juvenal (vi.

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  • Jahn (with Juvenal and Persius, revised by F.

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  • Evans in Bohn's Classical Library (prose, with Juvenal and Persius) and by J.

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  • 3; Suetonius, Galba, 15; Plutarch, Galba, Otho; ancient authorities quoted by Mayor on Juvenal, i.

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  • Philological: Critical editions of Juvenal, Persius and Sulpicia (3rd ed.

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  • 14-31; Juvenal vi.

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  • Among the Romans lighted candles and lamps formed part of the cult of the domestic tutelary deities; on all festivals doors were garlanded and lamps lighted (Juvenal, Sat.

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  • See Mayor's note on Juvenal iv.

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  • JUVENAL (DECIMus Junius Juvenalis) (c. 60-140), Roman poet and satirist, was born at Aquinum.

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  • According to the version which appears to be the earliest: " Juvenal was the son or ward of a wealthy freedman; he practised declamation till middle age, not as a professional teacher, but as an amateur, and made his first essay in satire by writing the lines on Paris, the actor and favourite of Domitian, now found in the seventh satire (lines 90 seq.).

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  • Juvenal is no organ of the pride and dignity, still less of the urbanity, of the cultivated representatives of the great families of the republic. He is the champion of the more sober virtues and ideas, and perhaps the organ of the rancours and detraction, of an educated but depressed and embittered middle class.

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  • There is no Roman writer of satire who could be mentioned along with those others by so judicious a critic, except Juvenal.

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  • The undoubted reference to Juvenal in Sidonius Apollinaris as the victim of the rage of an actor only proves that the original story from which all the varying versions of the lives are derived was generally believed before the middle of the 5th century of our era.

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  • If Juvenal was banished at the age of eighty, the author of his banishment could not have been the " enraged actor " in reference to whom the original lines were written, as Paris was put to death in 83, and Juvenal was certainly writing satires long after loo.

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  • The satire in which the lines now appear was probably first published soon after the accession of Hadrian, when Juvenal was not an octogenarian but in the maturity of his powers.

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  • Among the many victims of Juvenal's satire it is only against him and against one of the vilest instruments of his court, the Egyptian Crispinus, that the poet seems to be animated by personal hatred.

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  • But if he was banished under Domitian, it must have been either before or after 93, at which time, as we learn from an epigram of Martial, Juvenal was in Rome.

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  • An epigram of Martial, written at the time when Juvenal was most vigorously employed in their composition, speaks of him as settled in Rome.

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  • The evidence as to the military post filled by Juvenal is curious, when taken in connexion with the confused tradition of his exile in a position of military importance.

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  • The only other contemporary evidence which affords a glimpse of Juvenal's actual life is contained in three epigrams of Martial.

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  • The first attests the strong regard which Martial felt for him; but the subject of the epigram seems to hint that Juvenal was not an easy person to get on with.

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  • In the second, addressed to Juvenal himself, the epithet facundus is applied to him, equally applicable to his " eloquence " as satirist or rhetorician.

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  • The negative evidence afforded in the account of his establishment suggests the inference that, like Lucilius and Horace, Juvenal had no personal experience of either the cares or the softening influence of family life.

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  • Gaston Boissier has drawn from the indications afforded of the career and character of the persons to whom the satires are addressed most unfavourable conclusions as to the social circumstances and associations of Juvenal.

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  • If we believe that these were all real people, with whom Juvenal lived in intimacy, we should conclude that he was most unfortunate in his associates, and that his own relations to them were marked rather by outspoken frankness than civility.

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  • It is noticeable that, while Juvenal writes of the poets and men of letters of a somewhat earlier time as if they were still living, he makes no reference to his friend Martial or the younger Pliny and Tacitus, who wrote their works during the years of his own literary activity.

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  • It is equally noticeable that Juvenal's name does not appear in Pliny's letters.

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  • The fifth is a social picture of the degradation to which poor guests were exposed at the banquets of the rich, but many of the epigrams of Martial and the more sober evidence of one of Pliny's letters show that the picture painted by Juvenal, though perhaps exaggerated in colouring, was drawn from a state of society prevalent during and immediately subsequent to the times of Domitian.

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  • 16 Juvenal speaks of his friend Calvinus as now past sixty years of age, having been born in the consulship of Fonteius.

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  • former oppression," acted upon Juvenal.

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  • Tacitus belonged to the highest official and senatorial class, Juvenal apparently to the middle class and to that of the struggling men of letters; and this difference in position had much influence in determining the different bent of their genius, and in forming one to be a great national historian, the other to be a great social satirist.

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  • The peculiar greatness and value of both Juvenal and Tacitus is that they did not shut their eyes to the evil through which they had lived, but deeply resented it - the one with a vehement and burning passion, like the " saeva indignatio " of Swift, the other with perhaps even deeper but more restrained emotions of mingled scorn and sorrow, like the scorn and sorrow of Milton when " fallen on evil days and evil tongues."

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  • But the gloom of Juvenal's pessimism is unlighted by hope.

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  • C. Swinburne has suggested that the secret of Juvenal's concentrated power consisted in this, that he knew what he hated, and that what he did hate was despotism and democracy.

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  • But it is characteristic of his strong nature that, where he does betray any sign of human sympathy or tenderness, it is for those who by their weakness and position are dependent on others for their protection - as for " the peasant boy with the little dog, his playfellow," 1 or for " the home-sick lad from the Sabine highlands, who sighs for his mother whom he has not seen for a long time, and for the little hut and the familiar kids."2 If Juvenal is to be ranked as a great moralist, it is not for his greatness and consistency as a thinker on moral questions.

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  • The difference between Tacitus and Juvenal in power of representation is that the prose historian is more of an imaginative poet, the satirist more of a realist and a grotesque humorist.

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  • Juvenal can paint great historical pictures in all their detail - as in the famous representation of the fall of Sejanus; he can describe a character elaborately or hit it off with a single stroke.

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  • The difficulty is often felt of distinguishing between a powerful rhetorician and a genuine poet, and it is felt particularly in the case of Juvenal.

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  • On the whole no one of the ten or twelve really great writers of ancient Rome leaves on the mind so mixed an impression, both as a writer and as a man, as Juvenal.

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  • If we could imagine the elder Cato living under Domitian, cut off from all share in public life, and finding no outlet for his combative energy except in literature, we should perhaps understand the motives of Juvenal's satire and the place which is his due as a representative of the genius of his country.

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  • The earliest evidence for the banishment of Juvenal is that of Sidonius Apollinaris (c. 480), Carm.

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  • 269, " Non qui tempore Caesaris secundi Aeterno coluit Tomos reatu I Nec qui consimili deinde casu I Ad vulgi tenuem strepentis auram I Irati fuit histrionis exul," lines which by the exact parallel drawn between Ovid's fate and Juvenal's imply the belief that Juvenal died in exile.

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  • The best of the known manuscripts of Juvenal (P) is at Montpellier (125); but there are several others which cannot be neglected.

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  • Numerous scholia and glossaries attest the interest taken in Juvenal in post-classical times and the middle ages.

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  • There are no recent translations of Juvenal into English verse.

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  • 3, 4; Cicero, De senectute, 16; Juvenal xi.

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  • He is often righteously indignant, but never satirical, and such a pessimism as that of Tacitus and Juvenal is wholly foreign to his nature.

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  • are: - Chronica Caroli VI., written by a monk of Saint Denis, commissioned officially to write the history of his time, edited by C. Bellaguet with a French translation (6 vols., 1839-1852); Jean Juvenal des Ursins, Chronique, printed by D.

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  • 26; Juvenal v.

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  • For her influence see Juvenal, Satires, vi., and Tacitus, Hist.

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  • Her name does not appear in Tertullian's list of the indigetes di, and Juvenal contrasts her worship unfavourably with the old Roman Numa' ritual.

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  • 16; Juvenal viii.

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  • Thither, in virtual banishment, Juvenal was sent as prefect by Domitian.

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  • He also edited the text of Juvenal and Persius (1854) and Lucian's De conscribenda historia (1828).

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  • See Juvenal v.

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  • In the deathless volume of Chatiments, which appeared in 1853, his indignation, his genius, and his faith found such utterance and such expression as must recall to the student alternately the lyric inspiration of Coleridge and Shelley, the prophetic inspiration of Dante and Isaiah, the satiric inspiration of Juvenal and Dryden.

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  • with little education, but endowed with great poetical talelts, and the author of satirical verses not inferior to those of Juvenal both in force and coarseness.

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  • The natural geographical and ethnical southern frontier of Egypt is the First Cataract; Egyptian scribes of the Old Empire recognized this truth no less clearly than Diocletian, and Juvenal anticipates the verdict of every modern observer when he describes the " porta Syenes " as the gate of Africa.

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  • Aristarchus of Samos, Martianus Capella (the precursor of Copernicus), Cicero, Favorinus, Sextus Empiricus, Juvenal, and in a later age Savonarola and Pico della Mirandola, and La Fontaine, a contemporary of the neutral La Bruyere, were all pronounced opponents of astrology.

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  • 809-834; Juvenal x.

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  • He also published commentaries on portions of Cicero (especially the De finibus), on Ausonius, Juvenal, Curtius Rufus, and other classical authors.

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  • Whilst under the first of these tutors, in nine months he read all Thucydides, Sophocles and Sallust, twelve books of Tacitus, the greater part of Horace, Juvenal, Persius, and several plays of Aeschylus and Euripides.

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  • The closeness of the connexion is illustrated by Juvenal's epigram that a Cynic differed from a Stoic only by his cloak.

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  • His principal works are translations of Strabo and of some of the Lives of Plutarch, a compendium of the Greek grammar of Chrysoloras, and a series of commentaries on Persius, Juvenal, Martial and on some of the writings of Aristotle and Cicero.

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  • The classics, " as low as Tacitus, Pliny the Younger and Juvenal," had been long familiar.

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  • According to Juvenal the sons of such proselytes were apt to go farther and to substitute the Jewish Law for the Roman Romanas autem soliti contemnere leges; Judaicum ediscunt et servant ac metuunt ius Tradidit arcano quodcunque volumine Moyses.

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  • Oldham took Juvenal for his model, and in breadth of treatment and power of invective surpassed his English predecessors.

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  • In classical literature he was the first who made the world acquainted with the Fables of Phaedrus (1596); he also edited the Pervigilium Veneris (1587), and Juvenal and Persius (1585).

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  • His character as a munificent patron of literature - which has made his name a household word - is gratefully acknowledged by the recipients of it and attested by the regrets of the men of letters of a later age, expressed by Martial and Juvenal.

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  • 399-575; Juvenal x.

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  • 42, 3) says "one would compare the sound most nearly to the broken chord of a harp or a lute" (Juvenal xv.

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  • In Palestine the fanatical monks led by Theodosius captured Jerusalem and expelled the bishop, Juvenal.

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  • 39), and several Latin writersconfirm this (Cicero, Pro Flacco, § 28; Juvenal xiv.

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  • Virgil, Statius, Terence, Juvenal, Horace, Persius and Lucan are specially named as entering into a course of training which was rendered more stimulating by a free use of open discussion.

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  • It is close to the site of the ancient Aquinum, a municipium in the time of Cicero, and made a colony by the Triumviri, the birthplace of Juvenal and of the emperor Pescennius Niger.

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  • In this period, however, the tunica, corresponding to the Greek chiton, was universally worn in ordinary life, and the toga gradually became a full-dress garment which was only worn over the tunica on important social occasions; Juvenal (iii.

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  • 90), who is mentioned by Juvenal.

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  • They may have contributed to the formation of the style of comedy which appears at the very outset much more mature than that of serious poetry, tragic or epic. They gave the name and some of the characteristics to that special literary product of the Roman soil, the satura, addressed to readers, not to spectators, which ultimately was developed into pure poetic satire in Lucilius, Horace, Persius and Juvenal, into the prose and verse miscellany of Varro, and into something approaching the prose novel in Petronius.

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  • We find now only imitative echoes of the old music created by Virgil and others, as in Statius, or powerful declamation, as in Lucan and Juvenal.

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  • We have the testimony of two men of shrewd common sense and masculine understanding - Martial and Juvenal - to the stale and lifeless character of the art of the Silver Age, which sought to reproduce in the form of epics, tragedies and elegies the bright fancies of the Greek mythology.

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  • The spirit of Rome appears only as animating the protest of Lucan, the satire of Persius and Juvenal, the sombre picture which Tacitus paints of the annals of the empire.

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  • To these causes we attribute the pathological observation of Seneca and Tacitus, the new sense of purity in Persius called out by contrast with the impurity around him, the glowing if somewhat sensational exaggeration of Juvenal, the vivid characterization of Martial.

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  • The new extraneous element introduced into Roman literature draws into greater prominence the characteristics of the last great representatives of the genuine Roman and Italian spirit - the historian Tacitus and the satirist Juvenal.

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  • Though it was not one of the great eras in the annals of literature, yet the century which produced Martial, Juvenal and Tacitus cannot be pronounced barren in literary originality, nor that which produced Seneca and Quintilian devoid of culture and literary taste.

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  • The reign of Domitian, although it silenced the more independent spirits of the time, Tacitus and Juvenal, witnessed more important contributions to Roman literature than any age since the Augustan, - among them the Institutes of Quintilian, the Punic War of Silius Italicus, the epics and the Silvae of Statius, and the Epigrams of Martial.

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  • Fabius Quintilianus, or Quintilian (c. 35-95), is brought forward by Juvenal as a unique instance of a thoroughly successful man of letters, of one not belonging by birth to the rich or official class, who had risen to wealth and honours through literature.

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  • Of the epic poets of the Silver Age P. Papinius Statius (c. 45-96) shows the greatest technical skill and the richest pictorial fancy in the execution of detail; but his epics have no true inspiring motive, and, although the recitation of the Thebaid could attract and charm an audience in the days of Juvenal, it really belongs to the class of poems so unsparingly condemned both by him and Martial.

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  • Valerius Martialis or Martial (c. 41-104) that we have a true image of the average sensual frivolous life of Rome at the end of the 1st century, seen through a medium of wit and humour, but undistorted by the exaggeration which moral indignation and the love of effect add to the representation of Juvenal.

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  • Iunius Iuvenalis or Juvenal (c. 47-130), sum up for posterity the moral experience of the Roman world from the accession of Tiberius to the death of Domitian.

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  • The Letters of C. Plinius Caecilius Secundus or Pliny the Younger (61-c. 115), though they do not contradict the representation of Tacitus and Juvenal regarded as an exposure of the political degradation and moral corruption of prominent individuals and classes, do much to modify the pervadingly tragic and sombre character of their representation.

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  • With the death of Juvenal, the most important part of whose activity falls in the reign of Trajan, Latin literature as an original and national expression of the experience, character, and sentiment of the Roman state and empire, and as one of the great literatures of the world, may be considered closed.

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  • For two centuries after Juvenal there are no names but those of Q.

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  • The most important writer in the age succeeding Juvenal was the biographer C. Suetonius Tranquillus (c. 7 5-160), whose work is more valuable for its matter than its manner.

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  • Ciriaco, is said to occupy the site of a temple of Venus, who is mentioned by Catullus and Juvenal as the tutelary deity of the place.

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  • But this is unlikely, notwithstanding the fact that even some pagan writers, such as Juvenal, Pliny and Martial (?), traced a resemblance between Domitian and Nero.

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  • Juvenal, in his seventeenth satire, takes as his text a religious riot between the Tentyrites and the neighbouring Ombites, in the course of which an unlucky Ombite was torn to pieces and devoured by the opposite party.

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  • Persius, Juvenal and Quintilian vouch for the admiration with which he was regarded in the first century of the empire.

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  • His character and tastes were much more akin to those of Horace than of either Persius or Juvenal.

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  • He left behind him thirty books of satires, and there is reason to believe that each book, like the books of Horace and Juvenal, was composed of different pieces.

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  • "Rustica Vinalia"; Juvenal xii.

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  • Juvenal of Jerusalem and Flavian of Thessalonica were some days late.

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  • To; Juvenal iii.

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  • But the authors whom he quotes most frequently are Virgil, and, next to him, Terence, Cicero, Plautus; then Lucan, Horace, Juvenal, Sallust, Statius, Ovid, Livy and Persius.

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  • Their own poems soon became the theme of criticism and of comment; and, by the time of Quintilian and Juvenal, they shared the fate (which Horace had feared) of becoming textbooks for use in schools.

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  • The Latin poets to be studied include Virgil, Lucan, Statius, Ovid's Metamorphoses, and (with certain limitations) Horace, Juvenal and Persius, as well as Plautus, Terence and the tragedies of Seneca; the prose authors recommended are Cicero, Livy and Sallust.

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  • Among the Latin authors studied were Virgil and Lucan, with selections from Horace, Ovid and Juvenal, besides Cicero and Quintilian, Sallust and Curtius, Caesar and Livy.

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  • It was, however, crude and unedited and contained many serious mistakes, having been taken from the MS. notes of an unknown Italian priest (now believed to be Father Juvenal of Agra, who had been stationed near the frontier of Bhutan), whose MS. was translated into English by Fr.

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  • Among the Latin classical authors Juvenal, Suetonius and Pliny in well-known passages refer to the practice of physiognomy, and numerous allusions occur in the works of the Christian Fathers, especially Clement of Alexandria and Origen (for example, the familiar passage in his work against Celsus, i.

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  • ii.), Juvenal (Sat.

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  • His lost Ars (Juvenal, vii.

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  • 215), a system of grammar much used in his own time and largely drawn upon by later grammarians, contained rules for correct diction, illustrative quotations and treated of barbarisms and solecisms (Juvenal vi.

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  • It is probable that what he had suffered during his first year in London had often reminded him of some parts of the satire in which Juvenal had described the misery and degradation of a needy man of letters, lodged among the pigeons' nests in the tottering garrets which overhung the streets of Rome.

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  • What Pope had done for Horace, Johnson aspired to do for Juvenal.

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  • In January 1749 he published The Vanity of Human Wishes, an excellent imitation of the tenth satire of Juvenal, for which he received fifteen guineas.

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  • lviii.; Juvenal x.

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  • 20.8), the real name of Propertius's Cynthia, according to Apuleius (Apologia x.) and the scholiast on Juvenal (vi.

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  • Jahn (with Juvenal and Persius, revised by F.

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  • Evans in Bohn's Classical Library (prose, with Juvenal and Persius) and by J.

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  • 3; Suetonius, Galba, 15; Plutarch, Galba, Otho; ancient authorities quoted by Mayor on Juvenal, i.

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  • Philological: Critical editions of Juvenal, Persius and Sulpicia (3rd ed.

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  • 14-31; Juvenal vi.

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  • Among the Romans lighted candles and lamps formed part of the cult of the domestic tutelary deities; on all festivals doors were garlanded and lamps lighted (Juvenal, Sat.

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  • See Mayor's note on Juvenal iv.

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  • JUVENAL (DECIMus Junius Juvenalis) (c. 60-140), Roman poet and satirist, was born at Aquinum.

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  • According to the version which appears to be the earliest: " Juvenal was the son or ward of a wealthy freedman; he practised declamation till middle age, not as a professional teacher, but as an amateur, and made his first essay in satire by writing the lines on Paris, the actor and favourite of Domitian, now found in the seventh satire (lines 90 seq.).

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  • Juvenal is no organ of the pride and dignity, still less of the urbanity, of the cultivated representatives of the great families of the republic. He is the champion of the more sober virtues and ideas, and perhaps the organ of the rancours and detraction, of an educated but depressed and embittered middle class.

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  • There is no Roman writer of satire who could be mentioned along with those others by so judicious a critic, except Juvenal.

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  • The undoubted reference to Juvenal in Sidonius Apollinaris as the victim of the rage of an actor only proves that the original story from which all the varying versions of the lives are derived was generally believed before the middle of the 5th century of our era.

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  • If Juvenal was banished at the age of eighty, the author of his banishment could not have been the " enraged actor " in reference to whom the original lines were written, as Paris was put to death in 83, and Juvenal was certainly writing satires long after loo.

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  • The satire in which the lines now appear was probably first published soon after the accession of Hadrian, when Juvenal was not an octogenarian but in the maturity of his powers.

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  • 45 is quoted as a proof that Juvenal had visited Egypt.

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  • Among the many victims of Juvenal's satire it is only against him and against one of the vilest instruments of his court, the Egyptian Crispinus, that the poet seems to be animated by personal hatred.

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  • But if he was banished under Domitian, it must have been either before or after 93, at which time, as we learn from an epigram of Martial, Juvenal was in Rome.

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  • An epigram of Martial, written at the time when Juvenal was most vigorously employed in their composition, speaks of him as settled in Rome.

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  • The evidence as to the military post filled by Juvenal is curious, when taken in connexion with the confused tradition of his exile in a position of military importance.

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  • The only other contemporary evidence which affords a glimpse of Juvenal's actual life is contained in three epigrams of Martial.

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  • The first attests the strong regard which Martial felt for him; but the subject of the epigram seems to hint that Juvenal was not an easy person to get on with.

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  • In the second, addressed to Juvenal himself, the epithet facundus is applied to him, equally applicable to his " eloquence " as satirist or rhetorician.

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  • The negative evidence afforded in the account of his establishment suggests the inference that, like Lucilius and Horace, Juvenal had no personal experience of either the cares or the softening influence of family life.

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  • Gaston Boissier has drawn from the indications afforded of the career and character of the persons to whom the satires are addressed most unfavourable conclusions as to the social circumstances and associations of Juvenal.

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  • If we believe that these were all real people, with whom Juvenal lived in intimacy, we should conclude that he was most unfortunate in his associates, and that his own relations to them were marked rather by outspoken frankness than civility.

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  • It is noticeable that, while Juvenal writes of the poets and men of letters of a somewhat earlier time as if they were still living, he makes no reference to his friend Martial or the younger Pliny and Tacitus, who wrote their works during the years of his own literary activity.

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  • It is equally noticeable that Juvenal's name does not appear in Pliny's letters.

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  • The fifth is a social picture of the degradation to which poor guests were exposed at the banquets of the rich, but many of the epigrams of Martial and the more sober evidence of one of Pliny's letters show that the picture painted by Juvenal, though perhaps exaggerated in colouring, was drawn from a state of society prevalent during and immediately subsequent to the times of Domitian.

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  • In the tenth, the theme of the " vanity of human wishes " is illustrated by great historic instances, rather than by pictures of the men and manners of the age; and, though the declamatory vigour and power of expression in it are occasionally as great as in the earlier satires, and although touches of Juvenal's saturnine humour, and especially of his misogyny, appear in all the satires of this book, yet their general tone shows that the white heat of his indignation is abated; and the lines of the eleventh, already referred to (201 seq.), " Spectent juvenes quos clamor et audax Sponsio, quos cultae decet assedisse puellae: Nostra bibat vernum contracta cuticula solem," leave no doubt that he was well advanced in years when they were written.

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  • 16 Juvenal speaks of his friend Calvinus as now past sixty years of age, having been born in the consulship of Fonteius.

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  • former oppression," acted upon Juvenal.

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  • Tacitus belonged to the highest official and senatorial class, Juvenal apparently to the middle class and to that of the struggling men of letters; and this difference in position had much influence in determining the different bent of their genius, and in forming one to be a great national historian, the other to be a great social satirist.

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  • The peculiar greatness and value of both Juvenal and Tacitus is that they did not shut their eyes to the evil through which they had lived, but deeply resented it - the one with a vehement and burning passion, like the " saeva indignatio " of Swift, the other with perhaps even deeper but more restrained emotions of mingled scorn and sorrow, like the scorn and sorrow of Milton when " fallen on evil days and evil tongues."

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  • But the gloom of Juvenal's pessimism is unlighted by hope.

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  • C. Swinburne has suggested that the secret of Juvenal's concentrated power consisted in this, that he knew what he hated, and that what he did hate was despotism and democracy.

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  • But it is characteristic of his strong nature that, where he does betray any sign of human sympathy or tenderness, it is for those who by their weakness and position are dependent on others for their protection - as for " the peasant boy with the little dog, his playfellow," 1 or for " the home-sick lad from the Sabine highlands, who sighs for his mother whom he has not seen for a long time, and for the little hut and the familiar kids."2 If Juvenal is to be ranked as a great moralist, it is not for his greatness and consistency as a thinker on moral questions.

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  • The difference between Tacitus and Juvenal in power of representation is that the prose historian is more of an imaginative poet, the satirist more of a realist and a grotesque humorist.

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  • Juvenal can paint great historical pictures in all their detail - as in the famous representation of the fall of Sejanus; he can describe a character elaborately or hit it off with a single stroke.

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  • The difficulty is often felt of distinguishing between a powerful rhetorician and a genuine poet, and it is felt particularly in the case of Juvenal.

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  • On the whole no one of the ten or twelve really great writers of ancient Rome leaves on the mind so mixed an impression, both as a writer and as a man, as Juvenal.

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  • If we could imagine the elder Cato living under Domitian, cut off from all share in public life, and finding no outlet for his combative energy except in literature, we should perhaps understand the motives of Juvenal's satire and the place which is his due as a representative of the genius of his country.

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  • The earliest evidence for the banishment of Juvenal is that of Sidonius Apollinaris (c. 480), Carm.

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  • 269, " Non qui tempore Caesaris secundi Aeterno coluit Tomos reatu I Nec qui consimili deinde casu I Ad vulgi tenuem strepentis auram I Irati fuit histrionis exul," lines which by the exact parallel drawn between Ovid's fate and Juvenal's imply the belief that Juvenal died in exile.

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  • The best of the known manuscripts of Juvenal (P) is at Montpellier (125); but there are several others which cannot be neglected.

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  • Numerous scholia and glossaries attest the interest taken in Juvenal in post-classical times and the middle ages.

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  • There are no recent translations of Juvenal into English verse.

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  • 3, 4; Cicero, De senectute, 16; Juvenal xi.

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  • He is often righteously indignant, but never satirical, and such a pessimism as that of Tacitus and Juvenal is wholly foreign to his nature.

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  • are: - Chronica Caroli VI., written by a monk of Saint Denis, commissioned officially to write the history of his time, edited by C. Bellaguet with a French translation (6 vols., 1839-1852); Jean Juvenal des Ursins, Chronique, printed by D.

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  • 26; Juvenal v.

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  • For her influence see Juvenal, Satires, vi., and Tacitus, Hist.

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  • Her name does not appear in Tertullian's list of the indigetes di, and Juvenal contrasts her worship unfavourably with the old Roman Numa' ritual.

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  • 16; Juvenal viii.

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  • Thither, in virtual banishment, Juvenal was sent as prefect by Domitian.

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  • He also edited the text of Juvenal and Persius (1854) and Lucian's De conscribenda historia (1828).

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  • See Juvenal v.

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  • In the deathless volume of Chatiments, which appeared in 1853, his indignation, his genius, and his faith found such utterance and such expression as must recall to the student alternately the lyric inspiration of Coleridge and Shelley, the prophetic inspiration of Dante and Isaiah, the satiric inspiration of Juvenal and Dryden.

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  • with little education, but endowed with great poetical talelts, and the author of satirical verses not inferior to those of Juvenal both in force and coarseness.

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  • The natural geographical and ethnical southern frontier of Egypt is the First Cataract; Egyptian scribes of the Old Empire recognized this truth no less clearly than Diocletian, and Juvenal anticipates the verdict of every modern observer when he describes the " porta Syenes " as the gate of Africa.

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  • Aristarchus of Samos, Martianus Capella (the precursor of Copernicus), Cicero, Favorinus, Sextus Empiricus, Juvenal, and in a later age Savonarola and Pico della Mirandola, and La Fontaine, a contemporary of the neutral La Bruyere, were all pronounced opponents of astrology.

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  • 809-834; Juvenal x.

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