But Justinian (527-565) was the first to interfere directly in the religious institutions of the Jewish people.
When, therefore, Justinian undertook the reconquest of Italy, his generals, Belisarius and Narses, were supported by the south.
In Constantinople he seems to have early won the notice of Justinian, one of the main objects of whose policy was the consolidation of Eastern Christianity as a bulwark against the heathen power of Persia.
Though the emperor Julian improved its defences, the town was destroyed by the Huns under Attila, in the 5th century, but Justinian did his best to restore it.
By this time the emperor Justinian was taking energetic measures to check the Goths.
At this time the Ostrogothic kingdom, founded in Italy by Theodoric the Great, was shaken by internal dissensions, of which Justinian resolved to avail himself.
The 77th Novel of Justinian assigned death as the penalty, as did also the Capitularies.
The building activity of the Gothic kings was continued by Justinian, to whose time we owe the completion of S.
In the next century Justinian (Nov.
It had therefore been specially garrisoned by Justinian under first Peter, a Persian slave, and subsequently Johannes Tzibos, who built Petra on the coast as the Roman Headquarters.
In the 6th century the emperor Justinian erected a magnificent basilica at Jerusalem, in honour of the Virgin Mary, and attached to it two hospitals, one for the reception of pilgrims and one for the accommodation of the sick poor.
during the earlier part of his reign, and moreover as a trained and able lawyer, the bishop took a prominent part in the legislative acts of the "English Justinian," whose activity in this direction coincides practically with Burnell's tenure of the office of chancellor.
Law still refused in general to recognize the marriages of slaves; but Justinian gave them a legal value after emancipation in establishing rights of succession.
was only a tool in the hands of his nephew Justinian, who sided with the orthodox and brought about the reconciliation between Rome and Constantinople.
In Egypt, however, monophysitism was as strong as ever, and soon at Constantinople the arrogance of Rome caused a reaction, led by Theodora, the wife of the new emperor Justinian (527565).
Justinian himself, with the aid of Leontius of Byzantium (c. 4 8 5-543), a monk with a decided turn for Aristotelian logic and metaphysics, had tried to reconcile the Cyrillian and Chalcedonian positions, but he inclined more and'more towards the monophysite view, and even went so far as to condemn by edict three teachers (Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret, the opponent of Cyril, and Ibas of Edessa) who were offensive to the monophysites.
it often changed its masters (Huns, Sarmatians, Goths, Gepids); then the emperor Justinian brought it once more under Roman rule and fortified and embellished it.
Destroyed by the Vandals in 434 it was rebuilt by Justinian and renamed Justinianopolis (Procop. De aedif.
TRIBONIAN, the famous jurist and minister of Justinian, was born in Pamphylia in the latter part of the 5th century.
Adopting the profession of an advocate, he came to Constantinople and practised in the prefectural courts there, reaching such eminence as to attract the notice of the emperor Justinian, who appointed him in 528 one of the ten commissioners directed to prepare the first Codex of imperial constitutions.
Justinian, yielding for the moment, removed him from office, and appointed a certain Basilides in his place.
He was evidently the prime mover in the various changes effected in the law by the novels of Justinian (Novellae constitutiones), which became much less frequent and less important after death had removed the great jurist.
But he was an energetic, clear-headed man, of great practical force and skill, cultivated, accomplished, agreeable, flexible, possibly unscrupulous, just the sort of person whom a restless despot like Justinian finds useful.
Conscious of her unpopularity she banished, and afterwards put to death, three Gothic nobles whom she suspected of intriguing against her rule, and at the same time opened negotiations with the emperor Justinian with the view of removing herself and the Gothic treasure to Constantinople.
His victim's death so impressed him that he was converted, became head of the sect, and was martyred in 690 by Justinian II.
St Sofia when erected by Justinian had vaults covered with mosaics and immense windows filled with plates of glass fitted into pierced marble frames; some of the plates, 7 to 8 in.
In the 8th century, when peace was made between the caliph Walid and the emperor Justinian II., the former stipulated for a quantity of mosaic for the decoration of the new mosque at Damascus, and in the 10th century the materials for the decoration of the niche of the kibla at Cordova were furnished by Romanus II.
Along with these crimes against religion went treason to the emperor, offences against the laws, especially counterfeiting, defraudation in taxes, seizure of confiscated property, evil conduct of imperial officers, &c. There is no formal definition of sacrilege in the code of Justinian but the conception remains as wide.
PHILIPPICUS, East Roman emperor, 711-713, was the son of the patrician Nicephorus, and became distinguished as a soldier under Justinian II.
Here Bardanes, taking the name of Philippicus, successfully incited the inhabitants to revolt, and on the assassination of Justinian he at once assumed the purple.
The freedom of teaching was first curtailed by Theodosius I.; the edict of Justinian (529), forbidding the study of philosophy, dealt the death-blow to ancient Athens.
The monophysite monks appealed to his authority, but could not prevent Justinian and the fifth oecumenical council at Constantinople (553) from anathematizing his teaching.
Meyer (1905); Code and Novells of Emperor Justinian, ed.
Justinian gave the finishing touch by proclaiming in 537 the Jews absolutely ineligible for any honour whatsoever (" honore fruantur nullo ").
In the year 551 Germanus, nephew of Justinian, accompanied by his bride, Matasuntha, grand-daughter of Theodoric, set forth to reconquer Italy for the empire.
The work of his life was the restoration of the Gothic kingdom in Italy and he entered upon the task at the very beginning of his reign, collecting together and inspiring the Goths and winning a victory over the troops of the emperor Justinian, near Faenza.
147; Justinian, Ep. ad Mennam (Mansi, ix.
(518-527) and the early years of Justinian, completely lost.
But this, like his former victories, stimulated Justinian's envy.
Belisarius dallied with the proposal until he had obtained an entrance within the walls of the capital, and proclaimed his inviolable fidelity to Justinian.
485 the whole of Sardinia was taken by the Vandals from Africa; but in 533 it was retaken by Justinian.
690) from the ruins of Justinian's church of St Mary on Mount Sion, and the central avenue or nave built with them presents the appearance of a Christian church; it however runs north and south, the Mecca niche being at the south end; originally there were seven aisles on each side, now reduced to three.
But a stronger influence of Christianity appears in Theodosius, and this influence is at the highest in the legislation of Justinian.
Combats of men with beasts were longest continued; they had not ceased even in the early years of the reign of Justinian.
It was the practice to cut away the portion thus marked; but in case of legal documents this mutilation was forbidden by the laws of Justinian.
An opposite tendency was that of the Aphthartodocetae or Phantasiastae, represented by Julian, bishop of Halicarnassus, and, in his closing days, by Justinian.
But he remained Justinian's chief legal minister.
The second article says that the Tribonian to whom it refers was of Side (in Pamphylia), was also Core) Suo ybpwv Twv uirap X wv, was a man of learning and wrote various books, among which are mentioned certain astronomical treatises, a dialogue On Happiness, and two addresses to Justinian.
In modern times Tribonian has been, as the master workman of Justinian's codification and legislation, charged with three offences - bad Latinity, a defective arrangement of the legal matter in the Code and Digest, and a too free handling of the extracts from the older jurists included in the latter compilation.
Upon the whole subject of the codification and legislation in which Tribonian bore a part, see JusTINIAN.
170, but in Justinian's reign was destroyed by an earthquake.
during the reign of Justinian.
Gratian's Decretum mirrors two tendencies, the church legislation with its growingly less extended application, and the wide meaning as in Justinian's Code, owing to the revival of Roman law in the 11th century.
The emperor Justinian Rhinotmetus took refuge with him during his exile and married his daughter (702).
Justinian's rival Vardanes in turn sought an asylum in Khazaria, and in Leo IV.
The headsman's axe proved more fatal, and the martyr's body was borne by angels to Mount Sinai, where Justinian I.
We next hear of Vacarius as lecturing at Oxford, in 1149, to "crowds of rich and poor," and as preparing, for the use of the latter, a compendium, in nine books, of the Digest and Code of Justinian, "sufficient," it was said, "if thoroughly mastered, to solve all legal questions commonly debated in the schools."
But though the line of great lawyers had ceased, the effects of their work remained and are clearly visible long after in the "codes" - the code of Theodosius (438) and the still more famous code of Justinian (529 and 533), with which is associated the name of Tribonianus.
Syrians by race and Arab-speaking, they are descendants of those "Melkites" who took the side of the Byzantine church in the time of Justinian II.
The sectaries, after helping Justinian II.
These fragments of the "province of Italy," as it was when reconquered by Justinian, were almost all lost either to the Lombards, who finally conquered Ravenna itself about 750, or by the revolt of the pope, who separated from the empire on account of the iconoclastic reforms. The intervention of Pippin the Carolingian, who was called in by the popes to protect them against the Lombards and the Eastern emperors alike, made a revival of the exarchate impossible.
The laws of Justinian are still the basis of the common law, the Code of Rohan is not altogether abrogated, and considerable weight is still given to the Roman Canon Law.
518, but was rebuilt by Justinian under the name of Justiniana Prima.
Claude Rigot, the procureur-general, put it to Servetus that his legal education must have warned him of the provisions of the code of Justinian to this effect; but in 1535 all the old laws on the subject of religion had been set aside at Geneva; the only civil penalty recognized by the edicts of 1 543 being banishment.
This school ended under Damascius when Justinian closed the Athenian schools (A.D.
(I) De Thematibus, an account of the military districts (Themata) of the empire during the time of Justinian, chiefly borrowed from Hierocles and Stephanus of Byzantium.
The Breviarium was enlarged and continued down to the time of Justinian by Paulus Diaconus; the work of the latter was in turn enlarged by Landolfus Sagax (c. i 000), and taken down to the time of the emperor Leo the Armenian (813-820) in the Historia Miscella.
Murner also wrote the humorous Chartiludium logicae (1507) and the Ludus studentum freiburgensium (151 I), besides a translation of Justinian's Institutiones (1519).
Under Justinian I.
Cedrenus and Nicephorus err in dating Abyssinian Christianity from Justinian, c. 542.
somewhat before Justinian.
The Roman age thus ends in the West with Boethius, Cassiodorus and St Benedict, and in the East with Priscian and Justinian.
Among the scholars of Italian birth, probably the only one in this age who rivalled the Greeks as a public expositor of their own literature was Politian (1454-1494), who lectured on Homer and Aristotle in Florence, translated Herodian, and was specially interested in the Latin authors of the Silver Age and in the text of the Pandects of Justinian.
Silver stood to copper in Egypt as 80 to 1 (Brugsch), or 120 to 1 (Revillout); in early Italy and Sicily as 250 to 1 (Mommsen), or 120 to 1 (Soutzo), under the empire 120 to 1, and under Justinian 100 to 1.
The coinage standard, however, was always higher (18; the oldest gold shows 5056, the Campanian Roman 5054, the consular gold 5037, the aurei 5037, the Constantine solidi 5053 and the Justinian gold 4996.
When Justinian issued the edict for the suppression of the school, Damascius along with Simplicius (the painstaking commentator on Aristotle) and five other Neoplatonists set out to make a home in Persia.
This country was subdued (c. 550) by the Emperor Justinian, who introduced Christianity.
At the instance of the emperor Justinian he adopted the proposition unus de Trinitate passus est in carne as a test of the orthodoxy of certain Scythian monks accused of Nestorian tendencies.
decreed banishment against its adherents, Justinian the punishment of death.
Mercati, Studi e testi (Rome, 1901) to be the proces verbal of an actual discussion held under Justinian at Constantinople in 527.
The power which the king exercised on these various occasions was a royal privilege recognized by old French law, and can be traced to a maxim which furnished a text of the Digest of Justinian: "Rex solutus est a legibus."
He presented to the emperor Justinian, on his accession in 527, a work entitled Scheda regia sive de officio regis, which contained advice on the duties of a Christian prince.
Under Justinian a monopoly of the trade and manufacture was reserved to the emperor, and looms, worked by women, were set up within the imperial palace at Constantinople.
Justinian also endeavoured, through the Christian prince of Abyssinia, to divert the trade from the Persian route along which silk was then brought into the east of Europe.
On the Byzantine side his hands were less tied; but here he had to reckon with the theory of the five patriarchates which had been a force since Justinian.
At the beginning of the Armenian era, held by Nerses in Dvin, in the fourth year of his catholicate, in the fourteenth of Chosroes' reign and in the fourteenth of Justinian Caesar.
Its restoration by Justinian in the 6th century A.D.
It may be mentioned that in the time of Justinian the word hesychast was applied to monks in general simply as descriptive of the quiet and contemplative character of their pursuits.
However, the eastern hankering after the eremitical life long survived, and it was only by dint of legislation, both ecclesiastical (council of Chalcedon) and civil (Justinian Code), that the Basilian cenobitic form of monasticism came to prevail throughout the Greek-speaking lands, though the eremitical forms have always maintained themselves.
After the death of Justinian (565), some of Agathias's friends persuaded him to write the history of his own times.
Theodora (Wife Of Justinian) >>
The 123rd Novel of Justinian, promulgated about the end of the 5th century, decreed "that if any man should erect an oratory, and desire to present a clerk thereto by himself or his heirs, if they furnish a competency for his livelihood, and nominate to the bishop such as are worthy, they may be ordained."
For rejecting certain canons of the Trullan (Quinisext) council of 692, Justinian II.
(28 73, p. 599 seq.) had substantially arrived at the right conclusion when he assigned the portions of the Geography referring to Armenia to the time between Justinian and Maurice.
He was also the author of rhetorical exercises on hackneyed sophistical themes; of a Quadrivium (Arithmetic, Music, Geometry, Astronomy), valuable for the history of music and astronomy in the middle ages; a general sketch of Aristotelian philosophy; a paraphrase of the speeches and letters of Dionysius Areopagita; poems, including an autobiography; and a description of the Augusteum, the column erected by Justinian in the church of St Sophia to commemorate his victories over the Persians.
To the Gothic count again succeeded, under Justinian, a Roman praetor, in Greek 6rparrj'yos.
Procopius's writings fall into three divisions: the Histories (Persian, Vandal and Gothic Wars), in eight books; the treatise on the Buildings of Justinian (De aedificiis), in six books; and the Unpublished Memoirs ('AvEKbora, Historia arcana), so called because they were not published during the lifetime of the author.
They consist of: (1) the Persian Wars,- in two books, giving a narrative of the long struggle of the emperors Justin and Justinian against the Persian kings Kavadh and Chosroes Anushirvan down to 550; (2) the Vandal War, in two books, describing the conquest of the Vandal kingdom in Africa and the subsequent events there from 532 down to 546 (with a few words on later occurrences); (3) the Gothic War, in three books, narrating the war against the Ostrogoths in Sicily and Italy from 536 till 552.
Although a warmly patriotic Roman, he does full justice to the merits of the barbarian enemies of the empire, particularly the Ostrogoths; although the subject of a despotic prince, he criticizes the civil and military administration of Justinian and his dealings with foreign peoples with a freedom which gives a favourable impression of the tolerance of the emperor.
The De aedificiis contains an account of the chief public works executed during the reign of Justinian down to 558 (in which year it seems to have been composed), particularly churches, palaces, hospitals, fortresses, roads, bridges and other river works throughout the empire.
If not written at the command of Justinian (as some have supposed), it is evidently grounded on official information, and is full of gross flattery of the emperor and of the (then deceased) empress.
The Anecdota (" Secret History") purports to be a supplement to the Histories, containing explanations and additions which the author could not insert in the latter work for fear of Justinian and Theodora.
Sahidic and Bohairic are the most important In the temple of- Philae, where the worship of Isis was permitted to continue till the reign of Justinian, Brugsch found demotic inscriptions with dates to the end of the 5th century.
The Greek rulers of the Orthodox faith were unable to protect the tillers of the soil, and these being of the Monophysite persuasion and having their own church and patriarch, hated the Orthodox patriarch (who from the time of Justinian onwards was identical with the prefect) and all his following.
In 52 9 Justinian closed the school, and Damascius with six of his colleagues sought an asylum, probably in 532, at the court of Chosroes I., king of Persia.
They found the conditions intolerable, and in 533, in a treaty between Justinian and Chosroes, it was provided that they should be allowed to return.
When Justin ascended the throne in 518, Justinian became at once a person of the first consequence, guiding, especially in church matters, the policy of his aged, childless and ignorant uncle, receiving high rank and office at his hands, and soon coming to be regarded as his destined successor.
On Justin's death in 527, having been a few months earlier associated with him as coemperor, Justinian succeeded without opposition to the throne.
Justinian's reign was filled with great events, both at home and abroad, both in peace and in war.
It is as a legislator and codifier of the law that Justinian's name is most familiar to the modern world; and it is therefore this department of his action that requires to be most fully dealt with here.
As regards the jus vetus, therefore, the judges and practitioners of Justinian's time had two terrible difficulties to contend with - first, the bulk of the law, which made it impossible for any one to be sure that he possessed anything like the whole of the authorities bearing on the point in question, so that he was always liable to find his opponent quoting against him some authority for which he could not be prepared; and, secondly, the uncertainty of the law, there being a great many important points on which differing opinions of equal legal validity might be cited, so that the practising counsel could not advise, nor the judge decide, with any confidence that he was right, or that a superior court would uphold his view.
The evil had been long felt, and reforms apparently often proposed, but nothing (except by the compilation of the Codex theodosianus) had been done till Justinian's time.
By this means the bulk of the statute law was immensely reduced, its obscurities and internal discrepancies in great measure removed, its provisions adapted, by the abrogation of what was obsolete, to the circumstances of Justinian's own time.
The instructions given to them by the emperor were as follows: - they were to procure and peruse all the writings of all the authorized jurists (those who had enjoyed the jus respondendi); were to extract from these writings whatever was of most permanent and substantial value, with power to change the expressions of the author wherever conciseness or clearness would be thereby promoted, or wherever such a change was needed in order to adapt his language to the condition of the law as it stood in Justinian's time; were to avoid repetitions and contradictions by giving only one statement of the law upon each point; were to insert nothing at variance with any provision contained in the Codex constitutionum; and were to distribute the results of their labours into fifty books, subdividing each book into titles, and following generally the order of the Perpetual Edict.2 These directions were carried out with a speed which is surprising when we remember not only that the work was interrupted by the terrible insurrection which broke out in Constantinople in January 532, and which led to the temporary retirement from office of Tribonian, but also that the mass of literature which had to be read through consisted of no less than two thousand treatises, comprising three millions of sentences.
4 In enacting the Digest as a law book, Justinian repealed all the other law contained in the treatises of the jurists (that jus vetus which has been already mentioned), and directed that those treatises should never be cited in future even by way of illustration; and he of course at the same time abrogated all the older statutes, from the Twelve Tables downwards, which had formed a part of the jus vetus.
These two great enterprises had substantially despatched Justinian's work; however, he, or rather Tribonian, who seems to have acted both as his adviser and as his chief executive officer in all legal affairs, conceived that a third book was needed, viz.
Justinian accordingly directed Tribonian, with two coadjutors, Theophilus, professor of law in the university of Constantinople, and Dorotheus, professor in the great law school at Beyrout, to prepare an elementary textbook on the lines of Gaius.
This they did while the Digest was in progress, and produced the useful little treatise which has ever since been the book with which students commonly begin their studies of Roman law, the Institutes of Justinian.
However, the i spirit of that great legal classic seems to have in a measure dwelt with and inspired the inferior men who were recasting his work; the Institutes is better both in Latinity and in substance than we should have expected from the condition of Latin letters at that epoch, better than the other laws which emanate from Justinian.
The constitutions contained in it number 4652, the earliest dating from Hadrian, the latest being of course Justinian's own.
the so-called classical period of Roman law down to the time of Alexander Severus (244); but the great majority are later, and belong to one or other of the four great eras of imperial legislation, the eras of Diocletian, of Constantine, of Theodosius II., and of Justinian himself.
But Justinian and Tribonian had grown so fond of legislating that they found it hard to leave off.
Between 534 and 565 Justinian issued a great number of ordinances, dealing with all sorts of subjects and seriously altering the law on many points - the majority appearing before the death of Tribonian, which happened in 545.
And, whereas Justinian's constitutions contained in the Codex were all issued in Latin, the rest of the book being in that tongue, these Novels were nearly all published in Greek, Latin translations being of course made for the use of the western provinces.
From what has been already stated, the reader will perceive that Justinian did not, according to a strict use of terms, codify the Roman law.
But let it be observed, first, that to reduce the huge and confused mass of pre-existing law into the compass of these two collections was an immense practical benefit to the empire; secondly, that, whereas the work which he undertook was accomplished in seven years, the infinitely more difficult task of codification might probably have been left unfinished at Tribonian's death, or even at Justinian's own, and been abandoned by his successor; thirdly, that in the extracts preserved in the Digest we have the opinions of the greatest legal luminaries given in their own admirably lucid, philosophical and concise language, while in the extracts of which the Codex is composed we find valuable historical evidence bearing on the administration and social condition of the later Pagan and earlier Christian empire; fourthly, that Justinian's age, that is to say, the intellect of the men whose services he commanded, was quite unequal to so vast an undertaking as the fusing upon scientific principles into one new organic whole of the entire law of the empire.
With sufficient time and labour the work might no doubt have been done; but what we possess of Justinian's own legislation, and still more what we know of the general condition of literary and legal capacity in his time, makes it certain that it would not have been well done, and that the result would have been not more valuable to the Romans of that age, and much less valuable to the modern world, than are the results, preserved in the Digest and the Codex, of what he and Tribonian actually did.
Tribonian has been blamed for the insertions the compilers made in the sentences of the old jurists (the so-called Emblemata Triboniani); but it was a part of Justinian's plan that such insertions should be made, so as to adapt those sentences to the law as settled in the emperor's time.
On Justinian's own laws, contained in the Codex and in his Novels, a somewhat less favourable judgment must be pronounced.
It is somewhat remarkable that, although Justinian is so much more familiar to us by his legislation than by anything else, this sphere of his imperial labour is hardly referred to by any of the contemporary historians, and then only with censure.
The Corpus Juris of Justinian continued to be, with naturally a few additions in the ordinances of succeeding emperors, the chief law-book of the Roman world till the time of the Macedonian dynasty when, towards the end of the 9th century, a new system was prepared and issued by those sovereigns, which we know as the Basilica.
It is of course written in Greek, and consists of parts of the substance of the Codex and the Digest, thrown together and often altered in expression, together with some matter from the Novels and imperial ordinances posterior to Justinian.
In the western provinces, which had been wholly severed from the empire before the publication of the Basilica, the law as settled by Justinian held its ground; but copies of the Corpus Juris were extremely rare, nor did the study of it revive until the end of the 1 ith century.
In his financial administration of the empire, Justinian is represented to us as being at once rapacious and extravagant.
It is not always easy to discover, putting together the trustworthy evidence of Justinian's own laws and the angry complaints of Procopius, what was the nature and justification of the changes made in the civil administration.
As these sums were provided by the state, Justinian saved something considerable by stopping the payment.
Justinian's selections were usually capable, but not so often honest; probably it was hard to find thoroughly upright officials; possibly they would not have been most serviceable in carrying out the imperial will, and especially in replenishing the imperial treasury.
Vitale at Ravenna, though built in Justinian's reign, and containing mosaic pictures of him and Theodora, does not appear to have owed anything to his mind or purse.
Justinian's ecclesiastical policy was so complex and varying that it is impossible within the limits of this article to do more than indicate its bare outlines.
One of Justinian's first public acts was to put an end to this schism by inducing Justin to make the then patriarch renounce this formula and declare his full adhesion to the creed of Chalcedon.
Not stopping to reflect that in the angry and suspicious state of men's minds he was sure to lose as much in one direction as he would gain in the other, Justinian entered into the idea, and put forth an edict exposing and denouncing the errors contained in the writings of Theodore generally, in the treatise of Theodoret against Cyril of Alexandria, and in a letter of Bishop Ibas (a letter whose authenticity was doubted, but which passed under his name) to the Persian bishop Marls.
At the very end of his long career of theological discussion, Justinian himself lapsed into heresy, by accepting the doctrine that the earthly body of Christ was incorruptible, insensible to the weaknesses of the flesh, a doctrine which had been advanced by Julian, bishop of Halicarnassus, and went by the name of Aphthartodocetism.
Inquiries made in the third year of Justinian's reign drove nearly all of these persons into an outward conformity, and their offspring seem to have become ordinary Christians.
Justinian, partly from religious motives, partly because he discountenanced all rivals to the imperial university of Constantinople, closed these Athenian schools (529).
The professors sought refuge at the court of Chosroes, king of Persia, but were soon so much disgusted by the ideas and practices of the fire-worshippers that they returned to the empire, Chosroes having magnanimously obtained from Justinian a promise that they should be suffered to pass the rest of their days unmolested.
The Nestorians and the Eutychian Monophysites were not threatened with such severe civil penalties, although their worship was interdicted, and their bishops were sometimes banished; but this vexatious treatment was quite enough to keep them disaffected, and the rapidity of the Mahommedan conquests may be partly traced to that alienation of the bulk of the Egyptian and a large part of the Syrian population which dates from Justinian's persecutions.
When Justinian came to the throne, his troops were maintaining an unequal struggle on the Euphrates against the armies of Kavadh I.
This lasted till 539, when Chosroes declared war, alleging that Justinian had been secretly intriguing against him with the Hephthalite Huns, and doubtless moved by alarm and envy at the victories which the Romans had been gaining in Italy.
Thus no result of permanent importance flowed from these Persian wars, except that they greatly weakened the Roman Empire, increased Justinian's financial embarrassments, and prevented him from prosecuting with sufficient vigour his enterprises in the West.
The ease with which so important a conquest had been effected encouraged Justinian to attack the Ostrogoths of Italy, whose kingdom, though vast in extent, for it included part of south-eastern Gaul, Raetia, Dalmatia and part of Pannonia, as Well as Italy, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, had been grievously weakened by the death first of the great Theodoric, and some years later of his grandson Athalaric, so that the Gothic nation was practically without a head.
Justinian began the war in 535, taking as his pretext the murder of Queen Amalasuntha, daughter of Theodoric, who had placed herself under his protection, and alleging that the Ostrogothic kingdom had always owned a species of allegiance to the emperor at Constantinople.
Vitiges was sent prisoner to Constantinople, where Justinian treated him, as he had previously treated the captive Vandal king, with clemency.
Justinian was occupied by the ecclesiastical controversy of the Three Chapters, and had not the money to fit out a proper army and fleet; indeed, it may be doubted whether he would ever have roused himself to the necessary exertions but for the presence at Constantinople of a knot of Roman exiles, who kept urging him to reconquer Italy, representing that with their help and the sympathy of the people it would not be a difficult enterprise.
Justinian's policy both in the Vandalic and in the Gothic War stands condemned by the result.
However, Justinian must have been almost preternaturally wise to have foreseen this: his conduct was in the circumstances only what might have been expected from an ambitious prince who perceived an opportunity of recovering territories that had formerly belonged to the empire, and over which its rights were conceived to be only suspended.
Besides these three great foreign wars, Justinian's reign was troubled by a constant succession of border inroads, especially on the northern frontier, where the various Slavonic and Hunnish tribes who were established along the lower Danube and on the north coast of the Black Sea made frequent marauding expeditions into Thrace and Macedonia, sometimes penetrating as far as the walls of Constantinople in one direction and the Isthmus of Corinth in another.
It only remains to say something regarding Justinian's personal character and capacities, with regard to which a great diversity of opinion has existed among historians.
The truth seems to be that Justinian was not a great ruler in the higher sense of the word, that is to say, a man of large views, deep insight, a capacity for forming just such plans as the circumstances needed, and carrying them out by a skilful adaptation of means to ends.
Justinian was rather quick than strong or profound; his policy does not strike one as the result of deliberate and well-considered views, but dictated by the hopes and fancies of the moment.
Still, after making all deductions, it is plain that the man who accomplished so much, and kept the whole world so occupied, as Justinian did during the thirty-eight years of his reign, must have possessed no common abilities.
- For the life of Justinian the chief authorities are Procopius (Historiae, De aedificiis, Anecdota) and (from 552 A.D.) the History of Agathias; the Chronicle of Johannes Malalas is also of value.
The Vita Justiniani of Ludewig or Ludwig (Halle, 1731), a work of patient research, is frequently referred to by Gibbon in his important chapters relating to the reign of Justinian, in the Decline and Fall (see Bury's edition, 1900).
Justinian II Rhinotmetus >>
Before two years had elapsed they returned to Greece, Chosroes, in his treaty of peace concluded with Justinian in 533, expressly stipulating that the seven philosophers should be allowed "to return to their own homes, and to live henceforward in the enjoyment of liberty of conscience" (Agathias ii.
Giurgevo occupies the site of Theodorapolis, a city built by the Roman emperor Justinian (A.D.
Justinian made an effort to revive it, and Procopius describes his repairing of the walls; but its glory was past.
This uncertainty had been brought about by the conflicting opinions of the jurists of the 6th century as to the proper interpretation to be given to the legislation of the emperor Justinian, from which had resulted a system of teaching which had deprived that legislation of all authority, and the imperial judges at last were at a loss to know by what rules of law they were to regulate their decisions.
About 535 Justinian made some changes in the provincial administration: the governor of Pacatiana was henceforth a comes, while Salutaris was still ruled by a consularis.
See Justinian; and Roman Law.
The elaborate building operations of Justinian (527-565) must not be forgotten.
In the age of Justinian (first half of the 6th century) the great church of St Sophia at Constantinople was adorned with an almost incredible amount of wealth and splendour in the form of screens, altars, candlesticks and other ecclesiastical furniture made of massive gold and silver.
Vigilius continued him in his diplomatic appointment, and he was sent by the emperor Justinian in 542 to Antioch on ecclesiastical business; he afterwards took part in the synod at Gaza which deposed Paul of Alexandria.
But when Vigilius died (June 7, 555), he accepted the council, and allowed himself to be designated by Justinian to succeed the late pope.
Merwan, the caliph's brother, who was appointed governor of Mesopotamia and Armenia, and in 692 beat the army of Justinian II.
If we may believe Theophanes, who says that Justinian II.
NARSES (c. 478 - J73) an important officer of Justinian, in the 6th century.
In this capacity, in 530, he received into the emperor's obedience another Narses, a fellow-countryman, with his two brothers, Aratius and Isaac. These Persarmenian generals, having formerly fought under the standard of Persia, now in consequence of the successes of Belisarius transferred their allegiance to the emperor Justinian, came to Constantinople, and received costly gifts from the great minister.
In 532 the insurrection known as the Nika broke out in Constantinople, when for some hours the throne of Justinian seemed doomed to overthrow.
Belisarius understood that Narses came to serve under him like any other officer of distinguished but subordinate rank, and he received a letter from Justinian which seemed to support this conclusion.
Justinian could not deprive his great general of the supreme command, yet he wished to have a very powerful emissary of the court constantly at his side.
This event forced Justinian to recognize the dangers of even a partially divided command, and he recalled Narses to Constantinople.
At the close of 565 Justinian died, and a deputation of Romans waited upon his successor Justin II., representing that they found "the Greeks" harder taskmasters than the Goths, that Narses the eunuch was determined to reduce them all to slavery, and that unless he were removed they would transfer their allegiance to the barbarians.
It is not till the 6th century of our era, in the reign of Justinian, that we find bubonic plague in Europe, a s a part of the great cycle of pestilence, accompanied by extraordinary natural phenomena, which lasted fifty years, and is described with a singular misunderstanding of medical terms by Gibbon in his forty-third chapter.
(3) The plague of Justinian began at Pelusium in Egypt in A.D.
Of his personal history nothing is known, except that it was at the instance of the countess Matilda, Hildebrand's friend, who died in 1115, that he directed his attention and that of his students to the Institutes and Code of Justinian; that after 1116 he appears to have held some office under the emperor Henry V.; and that he died, perhaps during the reign of the emperor Lothair II., but certainly before 1140.
578), East Roman emperor (565-578), was the nephew and successor of Justinian I.
The Monophysites, who like the Greeks knew themselves simply as the Orthodox, were grievously persecuted by the emperor Justinian and the graecizing patriarchs of Antioch, because they rejected the decrees of the council of Chalcedon, in which they - not without good reason - saw nothing but a thinly veiled relapse into those opinions of Nestorius which the previous council of Ephesus had condemned.
Justinian during those years imprisoned, deprived or exiled most of the recalcitrant clergy of Syria, Mesopotamia, Cilicia, Cappadocia, and the adjacent regions.
The throne in Italy had been vacant before, and the restoration of unity was realized in fact under Justinian.
A political middle age certainly lay between Theodosius and William the Conqueror, or at least between Justinian and Henry II.
Gospel; another exile was Justinian II., who is said to have destroyed the city in revenge.
His treatises On Procedure and On Evidence are amongst his most valuable works, whilst his Commentary on the Code of Justinian has been in some countries regarded as of equal authority with the code itself.
547) became king of the Visigoths (in Spain) in 534, having invoked the aid of the emperor Justinian for his revolt against his predecessor Agila.
In its present state it begins with the mythical history of Egypt and ends with the expedition to Africa under Marcianus, the nephew of Justinian.
Except for the history of Justinian and his immediate predecessors, it possesses little historical value; it is written without any idea of proportion and contains astonishing blunders.
Justinian made the accumulation of arrears (anatocismus) illegal, and fixed the rate at 6%, except for mercantile loans, in which the rate received was 8%.
Justinian built a fortress above Ascrivium in A.D.
concluded a peace with Justinian (532), pledging the Romans to an annual subsidy for the maintenance of the Caucasus fortresses.
His reputation as an enlightened ruler stood so high that when Justinian, in 529, closed the school of Athens, the last Neoplatonists bent their steps to him in hopes of finding in him the true philosopher-king.
From 540 onward he conducted a great war against Justinian (527565), which, though interrupted by several armistices, lasted till the fifty years peace of 562.
Thus the hundred years struggle between Rome and Persia, which had begun in 527 with the atack of the first Kavadh Th A b on Justinian, had run its fruitless course, utterly Co,nqist.
The great legislative work which Basil undertook and his successor completed, and which may be described as a revival of Justinianean law, entitles him to the designation of a second Justinian (the Basilica, a collection of laws in sixty books; and the manuals known as the Prochiron and Epanagoge.
The wrongs of Hilderic, a Catholic, and with the blood of Theodosius in his veins, afforded to Justinian a long-coveted pretext for overthrowing the Vandal dominion, the latent weakness of which was probably known to the statesmen of Constantinople.
Gelimer, who was strangely ignorant of the plans of Justinian, had sent his brother Tzazo with some of his best troops to quell a rebellion in Sardinia (that island as well as the Balearic Isles forming part of the Vandal dominions), and the landing of Belisarius was entirely unopposed.
this as in many other fields Justinian sowed that Mahomet might reap. (T.
(On this council see below.) Thereafter Ephesus seems to have been gradually deserted owing to its malaria; and life transferred itself to another and higher site near the Artemision, the name of which, Ayassoluk (written by early Arab geographers Ayathulukh), is now known to be a corruption of the title of St John TheolOgos, given to a great cathedral built on a rocky hill near the present railway station, in the time of Justinian I.
This was simply the old Roman jurisprudence embodied in the legislation of Justinian, modified by custom and legislative decrees during the course of the centuries which witnessed the growth of civilization in Europe; and it is to all intents and purposes the jurisprudence which was the foundation of the Code Napoleon.
A joint forms a holder for papers or pens, and it was in a joint of bamboo that silk-worm eggs were carried from China to Constantinople during the reign of Justinian.
Malalas, a Greek historian subsequent to Justinian, who gives the place as Pentapolis in Africa, Chron.
In these quarrels both nations aimed at obtaining the support of the emperor Justinian, who, in pursuance of his policy of playing off one against the other, invited the Langobardi into Noricum and Pannonia, where they now settled.
A large force of Lombards under Audoin fought on the imperial side at the battle of the Apennines against the Ostrogothic king Totila in 5 53, but the assistance of Justinian, though often promised, had no effect on the relations of the two nations, which were settled for the moment after a series of truces by the victory of the Langobardi, probably in 554.
From this time onwards Greek patriotism and Greek orthodoxy have been almost convertible terms, and this led naturally to revolts against Greek supremacy in the days of Justinian and other emperors.
The long wars of Justinian's reign (535-555) recovered Italy for the Empire, and the Gothic name died out on Italian soil.
On the 1st of April 527 Justin, enfeebled by an incurable wound, yielded to the request of the senate and assumed Justinian at his colleague; on the 1st of August he died.
Adana is connected with Tersus and Mersina by a railway built in 1887, and has a magnificent stone bridge, which carries the road to Missis and the east, and dates in parts from the time of Justinian, but was restored first in 743 A.D.
It embraces the period from the arrival of the Cotriguri Hunni in Thrace during the reign of Justinian in 558 down to the death of the emperor Tiberius in 582.
is ascribed to Eratosthenes, a contemporary of Justinian, while reference is frequently made to the views of Munatius, who lived in the time of Herodes Atticus, and Amarantus, a contemporary of Galen.
The legal system is said to be based on the Justinian code.
In the early part of the 6th century the king of the Homerites, on the opposite coast of the Red Sea, having persecuted the Christians, the emperor Justinian I.
In the enactments of Justinian, summing up the whole course of development (C.J.
In 542 it was established throughout the entire East Roman empire by Justinian.
(1 555 Lance- 1 559) by Giovanni Paolo Lancelotti, a professor of Bologna, on the model of the Institutes of Justinian.
The Code of Justinian (lib.
It was not till the reign of Justinian, A.D.
There are several mosques, none of them remarkable, and many interesting Roman and Byzantine remains, especially a magazine of the emperor Justinian (483-565), a square castle and tower attributed to Bayezid I.
Basil's reign marks the highest point of the power of the Eastern empire since Justinian I.
(10) The ruins of the palace of Hormisdas, near Chatladi Kapu, once the residence of Justinian the Great and Theodora.
In the area of the square stood the Milion, whence distances from Constantinople were measured, and a lofty column which bore the equestrian statue of Justinian the Great.
Sergius and Bacchus (Kutchuk Aya Sofia) and St Sophia are erections of Justinian the Great.
St Irene, founded by Constantine, and repaired by Justinian, is in its present form mainly a restoration by Leo the Isaurian, in the middle of the 8th century.
The present edifice was built by Justinian the Great, under the direction of Anthemius of Tralles and his nephew Isidorus of Miletus.
There are forty columns on the ground floor and sixty in the galleries, often crowned with beautiful capitals, in which the monograms of the emperor Justinian and the empress Theodora are inscribed.
They were subsequently carried to Rome by Aurelian, and at length presented to Justinian by a lady named Marcia, to be erected in this church " for the salvation of her soul."
The aqueduct of Justinian, the Crooked aqueduct, in the open country, and the aqueduct of Valens that spans the valley between the 4th and 3rd hills of the city, still carry on their beneficent work, and afford evidence of the attention given to the water-supply of the capital during the Byzantine period.
He was eager to assert the supremacy of the papal see; at the command of the emperor Justinian II.
of Justinian, ii.
From the Romans the town passed to the Vandals and afterwards to Byzantium, the emperor Justinian restoring its fortifications in 535.
The Ostrogoths overran it in 489; in 535 it was annexed by Justinian; in 568 it was conquered by the Avars.
He endeavoured to unite Italy and Germany by inter-marriages between the families of the two countries, governed Italy to a large extent by German officials, and ordered that the law of Justinian should supersede Lombard law in the Roman territories.
Favored by the war between Justinian, the East Roman emperor, and Theodorics Ostrogoths, the Frankish kings divided Provence among them as they had done in the case of Burgundy.
Their school at Resaina is known from the name of Sergius, one of the first of these translators, in the days of Justinian; and from their monasteries at Kinnesrin (Chalcis) issued numerous versions of the introductory treatises of the Aristotelian logic. To the Isagoge of Porphyry, the Categories and the Hernieneutica of Aristotle, the labours of these Syrian schoolmen were confined.
Justinian recognized it as one of the three official law schools of the empire (A.D.
Little is known of him except that he was one of those who accompanied Damascius to the Persian court when Justinian closed the schools in Athens in 529.
The reigns of his two successors, Agila (549--5~4) and Athanagild (554567), coincided with the reign of Justinian and the temporary revival of the Eastern Empire.
The series of the Visigothic gold coins begins with him, and it is to be noted that while the earliest are struck in the name of the emperor Justinian, the imperial superscription disappears in the later.
The history of the succeeding periods, moreover, has been partially recovered and the study of architecture enriched by the excavation of numerous churches dating from the time of Justinian, when Nubia was first Christianized, down to the late medieval period when Christianity was extirpated by Mahommedanism.
His writings altogether have supplied to Justinian's Digest about a third of its contents, and his commentary on the Edict alone about a fifth.
Some recent writers have preferred to identify the Jutes with a tribe called Eucii mentioned in a letter from Theodberht to Justinian (Mon.
St Sophia (Aya Sofia), formerly the cathedral, and probably erected in the 6th century by Justinian's architect Anthemius, was converted into a mosque in 1589.
of which are covered with a rich mosaic representing the Ascension; St Demetrius, which is probably older than the time of Justinian, consists of a long nave and two side aisles, each terminating eastward in an atrium the full height of the nave, in a style not known to occur in any other church.
Even in the Institutes of Justinian the distinction is carefully drawn in the laws of a country between those which are peculiar to itself and those which natural reason appoints for all mankind.
This legislation was, substantially, adopted by Justinian.
The Church, East and West, had long asserted a right to supervise those legacies which were devoted to pious uses, a right recognized by Justinian (Cod.
As regards civil law, Jews were at first allowed to settle disputes between Jew and Jew before their own courts, but Justinian denied to them and to heretics the right to appear as witnesses in the public courts against orthodox Christians.
The book closes with the allusion to Germanus and the panegyric on Justinian as the conqueror of the Goths referred to above.
Wicking); Justinian in 527 furnished it with an aqueduct, and built the wall of which the ruins still remain (Procopius, De aedif, ii.
Roman law owes much to Hadrian, who instructed Salvius Julianus to draw up an edictum perpetuum, to a great extent the basis of Justinian's Corpus juris (see M.
ANTHEMIUS, Greek mathematician and architect, who produced, under the patronage of Justinian (A.D.
A female slave was still held incapable of the offence of adultery; but Justinian visited with death alike the rape of a slave or freedwoman and that of a free maiden.
Justinian abolished the personal conditions which the legislation of Augustus had required to be satisfied by the master who emancipated and the slave who was manumitted, and removed the limitation of number.
A little earlier than the publication of the Digest, or Pandects, there had been published another but much smaller law-book, the Institutes, prepared under Justinian's orders by Tribonian, with Theophilus and Dorotheus, professors of law (see Preface to Institutes).
In the Anecdota Procopius adds as an illustration of Justinian's vanity the story that he took in good faith an observation made to him by Tribonian, while sitting as assessor, that he (Tribonian) greatly feared that the emperor might some day, on account of his piety, be suddenly carried up into heaven.
The Constantinopolitan Acoemeti took a prominent part in the Christological controversies of the 5th and 6th centuries, at first strenuously opposing Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, in his attempted compromise with the monophysites; but afterwards, in Justinian's reign, falling under ecclesiastical censure for Nestorian tendencies.
The oldest known monument of the cult of St Nicholas seems to be the church of SS Priscus and Nicholas built at Constantinople by the emperor Justinian (see Procopius, De aedif.
(2) Basilica, a compilation from the different parts of the Justinian Corpus Juris, subsequently the text-book for the study of law.
(See Theodosian Code, book 16, for the various imperial edicts relating to the Church, and for fuller particulars touching the relation between Church and Empire see the articles Constantine; Gratian; Theodosius; Justinian.) For a long time after the establishment of Christianity as the state religion, paganism continued strong, especially in the country districts, and in some parts of the world had more adherents than Christianity, but at length the latter became, at any rate nominally, the faith of the whole Roman world.
The Institutiones grammaticae is a systematic exposition of Latin grammar, dedicated to Julian, consul and patrician, whom some have identified with the author of a well-known epitome of Justinian's Novellae, but the lawyer appears to be somewhat later than Priscian.
It was probably made in the 6th century i n connexion with the attempts of Justinian to abolish Judaism.
The relative value of gold and silver (17, 21) in Asia is agreed generally to have been 13+1/3 to 1 in the early ages of coinage; at Athens in 434 B.C. it was 14 to 1; in Macedon, 350 B.C., 12+1/2 to 1; in Sicily, 400 B.C., 15 to 1, and 300 B.C., 12 to 1; in Italy in 1st century, it was 12 to 1, in the later empire 13.9 to 1, and under Justinian.
Fortyfour years after the death of Proclus the school of Athens was closed by Justinian (A.D.
Maria a Praesepio), which is still standing, was restored and added to by Justinian, and was later surrounded by the three convents successively erected by the Greek, Latin and Armenian Churches (see de Vogue, Les Eglises de la Terre Sainte).
He went to Constantinople, and Justinian, who entertained his complaint, sent him back to Rome, but Vigilius was ultimately able to banish his rival to Pandataria, where the rest of his life was spent in obscurity.
Owing to the ferocity and brutality of the attacks upon Justinian, the authenticity of the Anecdota has often been called in question, but the claims of Procopius to the authorship are now generally recognized.
This Corpus juris, which bears and immortalizes Justinian's name, consists of the four books described above: (1) The authorized collection of imperial ordinances (Codex constitutionum); (2) the authorized collection of extracts from the great jurists (Digesta or Pandectae); (3) the elementary handbook (Institutiones); (4) the unauthorized collection of constitutions subsequent to the Codex (Novellae).
Long disputes and negotiations followed, the end of which was that Justinian summoned a general council of the church, that which we reckon the Fifth, which condemned the impugned writings, and anathematized several other heretical authors.
This is the controversy known as that of theThree Chapters (Tria capitula,r pia KEg4aXaca), apparently from the three propositions or condemnations contained in Justinian's original edict, one relating to Theodore's writings and person, the second to the incriminated treatise of Theodoret (whose person was not attacked), the third to the letter (if genuine) of Ibas (see Hefele, Conciliengeschichte, ii.
Justinian was engaged in three great foreign wars, two of them of his own seeking, the third a legacy which nearly every emperor had come into for three centuries, the secular strife of Rome and Persia.
ravSEKTr7s, allcontaining), a name given to a compendium or digest of Roman law compiled by order of the emperor Justinian in the 6th century (A.D.
He was the first of the Glossators (see GLoss), and according to ancient opinion (which, however, has been much controverted) was the author of the epitome of the Novellae of Justinian, called the Authentica, arranged according to the titles of the Code.
Being ignorant even of the rudiments of letters, Justin entrusted the administration of state to his wise and faithful quaestor Proclus and to his nephew Justinian, though his own experience dictated several improvements in military affairs.
It is, however, certain that the Lebanon Christians as a whole were not orthodox in the time of Justinian II., against whose supporters, the Melkites, they ranged themselves after having co-operated awhile with the emperor against the Moslems. They were then called Mardaites or rebels, and were mainly Monothelite in the 12th century, and remained largely so even a century later.
Justinian uses aim-014)6::a,', as his formal title, and (ae-tAeus as the popular term.
Justinian's phrase, " Sabbata Judaeorum a Mose in omne aevum j ejunio dicata " (1.
In the seventh session it accepted the suggestion of Justinian, merely to order the name of Vigilius to be removed from the liturgical prayers, at the same time expressing its desire to maintain unity with the see of Old Rome (Hefele, sect.
It was also in the reign of Justinian that Cosmas Indicopleustes, an Egyptian merchant, made several voyages, and afterwards composed his XpUTTcavuxr} Toaoypa(Pia (Christian Topography), containing, in addition to his absurd cosmogony, a tolerable description of India.
The mosaics of the choir (547) are due to Justinian, and, though inferior in style, are remarkable for their splendour of colouring and the gorgeous dresses of the persons represented, and also for their historical interest, especially the scenes representing the emperor and the empress Theodora presenting offerings.
Kir-sheher represents the ancient Mocissus, a small town which became important in the Byzantine period: it was enlarged by the emperor Justinian, who re-named it Justinianopolis, and made it the capital of a large division of Cappadocia, a position it still retains.
Relying on the support of the Monothelite party, he made some pretensions to the throne on the outbreak of the first great rebellion against Justinian; these led to his relegation to Cephalonia by Tiberius Absimarus, and subsequently to his banishment, by order of Justinian, to Cherson.
At the beginning of his reign he concluded an " eternal " peace with the emperor Justinian, who wanted to have his hands free for the conquest of Africa and Sicily.
When Justinian in 529 closed the university of Athens, the last seat of paganism in the Roman empire, the last seven teachers of Neoplatonism emigrated to Persia.
But they soon found out that neither Chosroes nor his state corresponded to the Platonic ideal, and Chosroes, in his treaty with Justinian, stipulated that they should return unmolested.
In the following year, according to Procopius, Justinian perceived the value of the Ghassanids as an outpost of the Roman empire, and as opponents of the Persian dependants of Hira, and recognized Harith as king of the Arabs and patrician of the Roman empire.
The country was overrun by the Goths in the 4th and 5th centuries, but reconquered by Justinian in 535.
A portion of Basil's new city was surrounded with strong walls and turned into a fortress by Justinian; and within the walls, rebuilt in the 13th and 16th centuries, lies the greater part of Kaisarieh, altitude 3500 ft.
During the sedition of the "green" and "blue" parties of the circus (known as the Nika sedition, 532) he did Justinian good service, effectually crushing the rebels who had proclaimed Hypatius emperor.
After the council, Justinian banished the pope to Egypt, and afterwards to an island, until he accepted the council, which he ultimately did (ib.
It will be noticed that Justinian supposes that the prosecutor may begin the proceedings before the civil judge.
The emperor Justinian (483-565), in whose reign the greatness of the Eastern empire culminated, sent two Nestorian monks to China, who returned with eggs of the silkworm concealed in a hollow cane, and thus silk manufactures were established in the Peloponnesus and the Greek islands.
Nine years after the death of Theodoric Justinian sent an army to destroy the Gothic monarchy and restore Italy to the empire.
And, moreover, the instincts of Jordanes, as a subject of the Eastern Empire, predisposed him to flatter the sacred majesty of Justinian, by whose victorious arms the overthrow of the barbarian kingdom in Italy had been effected.
On the other hand he speaks of the great anti-Teuton emperor Justinian, and of his reversal of the German conquests of the 5th century, in language which would certainly have grated on the ears of Totila and his heroes.
The first stage of the controversy covers the seventy-five years between the council of Chalcedon and the accession of Justinian in 527.
20) that, although he left a son and many grandchildren, Justinian confiscated part of the inheritance.
Justinian has a clearer perception of the demarcation between the spheres of spiritual and temporal law.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.