(I) It was regarded as a true offering or sacrifice; for in the Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, in Justin Martyr and in Irenaeus it is designated by each of the terms which are used to designate sacrifices in the Old Testament.
"Rainy, Ving, Justin, this is Pierre," the surly blond said.
My name is Justin Keaton.
Where was Justin now?
Was Justin back already?
Justin says I should get out more, but I came here to take a break from the miseries of social life.
You and Justin are seeing a lot of each other, aren't you?
If Denton found out about Justin, there would be a scene, of that she was certain.
Justin leaned across the pool and cupped a hand under the stream of water.
Justin tugged her back into his arms.
She glanced up to find Justin watching her intently.
My name is Justin Keaton.
You and Justin are seeing a lot of each other, aren't you?
The date of the conquest by Carthage may perhaps be fixed at about 500-480 B.e., following the chronology of Justin Martyr (xviii.
29, Justin iii.
about 127 B.C., perished in a battle against the Tochari, a Mongolian tribe, which had invaded the east of Iran (Justin xli.
Hostilities took place, in which Philip was defeated and nearly lost his life (Justin ix.
About 280 a host of Gauls under Cerethrius defeated the Getae and Triballi (Justin xxv.
69), Justin, Melito (in Eusebius, H.E., iv.
the works of Justin, Irenaeus, the Alexandrian Clement, Origen, Tertullian, Cyprian.
A second group, known as the "Greek Apologists," embraces Aristides, Justin, Tatian, Athenagoras and Theophilus; and a third consists of the early polemical writers, Irenaeus and 4 In his book De viris illustribus.
Justin had, no doubt, special reasons for wishing to see an end to the reign of Theodoric. Justin was orthodox, Theodoric was an Arian.
The letters addressed by him to Justin were forgeries, and he had not been guilty of any conspiracy.
What was it Justin had said?
No wonder Justin had concocted the story about working on a poultry farm.
Justin was lounging against his car staring into the forest when she stepped out on the porch.
To Justin, it all came natural.
Each evening Justin dropped by on his way home, and each day she was more convinced that his interest in her was genuine.
When Justin announced that he would be out of the state for a few days on business, she wondered if he was actually going back to talk to her father.
No wonder Justin had concocted the story about working on a poultry farm.
To Justin, it all came natural.
Justin was going to have his chance.
Why did she feel so depressed when she was with Denton and so elated when she was with Keaton - Justin?
And what did she know about Justin?
A knock on the front door was followed by Justin's voice.
Why did Denton keep entering her mind when she was enjoying the evening so much with Justin?
For crying out loud, Justin.
Her attention was abruptly brought back to Justin.
As they reached the clearing, Justin stooped and retrieved the twine, winding it into a ball as they continued back toward the house.
With meticulous care, Justin dried it and stored it in the cabinet.
Justin was on his feet immediately, placing himself between her and the intruder.
He eyed Justin distastefully.
Justin scowled at him.
His cool gaze shifted to Justin, measuring the taller man disdainfully.
Did Denton know Justin?
Had Justin been after the money all along?
Her heart resumed beating with a painful surge when Justin's attention returned to Denton.
His expression changed to incredulity when he saw the confusion on Justin's face.
Justin divided his attention between them, obviously waiting for an explanation.
Justin stared at him, realization slowly bringing a flush to his face.
Before the sting of his words had time to penetrate, Justin paused, throwing a quick jab to Denton's mouth.
He wiped the blood from his mouth and watched in dazed silence as Justin marched out the door.
And what made him think Dad wouldn't approve of Justin?
What did he know about Justin?
One thing was sure, now Justin was convinced she was stringing him along.
Justin owns this cabin?
At the road she turned toward Justin's apartment, dust flying behind her car.
She would never see Justin again.
Justin owned the land, and he would never sell it to her now.
Would Justin rent it out, or would he simply move in?
With any luck, she would be out of Arkansas before another storm struck - a storm without Justin to solace her.
Probably the same way you knew about Justin and me.
Justin's world was completely different than hers.
There's only one Justin.
There were offers for evenings out, but it wasn't the same without Justin.
If Justin was going to call, he would have done so by now.
Something about the way he walked reminded her of Justin.
She glanced from Justin to Megan and then back again.
Leaning forward she reached for the baby and said something to Justin.
She glanced at Denton, who had instantly recognized Justin.
Obviously he thought the baby belonged to Justin.
Mr. O'Hara pursed his lips and studied Justin.
Denton disappeared into the room, and she glanced up at her father, acutely aware that Justin was less than twenty feet away.
His name is Justin.
Justin was handing the baby to his sister.
Justin Keaton, didn't you say?
He stood, glancing toward the elevator where Justin had disappeared.
Was he going to talk to Justin?
Nothing he could say would make any difference, and Justin couldn't be bought.
Nothing more was said about Justin, and Mr. O'Hara's silence was confirmation that he had tried and failed.
Painful as it might be, she was going to have to write any plans that included Justin out of her future.
Unwittingly, she had done the same thing to Justin.
"Justin," she whispered, wrapping her arms around his neck and pulling his mouth down to hers.
Justin stopped in front of him, still holding her hand captive.
Justin glanced at Megan, never battling an eye.
Justin turned to her.
She scowled at Justin.
She turned an imploring gaze on Justin.
Not this way, Justin.
Justin watched Sylvia diaper and dress little Todd.
She lifted Todd to her shoulder and followed Justin to the door.
Justin nodded and gave her a wry smile.
The chief uncertainty is as to whether he knew Justin's Syntagma, and also as to whether he had access to the Philosophumena of Hippolytus in their complete form.
24 §§ 3-7) gives a sketch of Basilides' school of thought, perhaps derived from Justin's Syntagma.
(5) It was offered in the assembly by the hands of the president; this is stated by Justin Martyr (Apol.
pp. 513, 515; Justin xli.
In January 1756 he says: " I determined to read over the Latin authors in order, and read this year Virgil, Sallust, Livy, Velleius Paterculus, Valerius Maximus, Tacitus, Suetonius, Quintus Curtius, Justin, Florus, Plautus, Terence and Lucretius.
16; Justin xxv.
But his fortunes changed soon after the accession of Justin II.
to the 6th or 7th year of Justin II., was (as F.
71-74; Justin xii.
This account is partly preserved in Justin i.
p. 729, and Justin i.
48, 62, 63; Justin xii.
He could not have been what he was unless two generations before him had laboured at the problem of finding an intellectual expression and a philosophic basis for Christianity (Justin, Tatian, Athenagoras, Pantaenus, Clement).
In Justin xii.
He was slain by Arsaces (Justin xli.
65; Justin, xli.
and his own brother Antiochus Hierax, enabled him not only to maintain himself in Parthia, but also to conquer Hyrcania; but he was constantly threatened by Diodotus of Bactria (Justin xli.
But Seleucus was soon recalled by a rebellion in Syria, and Arsaces returned victorious to Parthia; " the day of this victory is celebrated by the Parthians as the beginning of their independence " (Justin xli.
Charac.), and built his residence Dara on a rock in a fertile valley in Apavarktikene (Justin xli.
4; the Parni are said by Strabo [ibid.] to have immigrated from southern Russia, a tradition wrongly transferred to the Parthians themselves by Justin xli.
The next king, whom Justin calls Priapatius, ruled 15 years (about 190-175); his successor, Phraates I., subjected the mountainous tribe of the Mardi (in the Elburz).
Thayer, with other essays, 1889), originally a lecture, and in spite of the compression due to its form, up to that time probably the ablest defence, based on external evidence, of the Johannine authorship, and certainly the completest treatment of the relation of Justin Martyr to this gospel.
7.11, who takes the name from Ctesias, Tanaoxares; by Justin i.
The real name of the usurper was, as Darius tells us, Gaumata, a Magian priest from Media; this name has been preserved by Justin i.
Procopius says that they were far more civilized than the Huns of Attila, and the Turkish ambassador who was received by Justin is said to have described them as av-rucoi, which may merely mean that they lived in the cities which they conquered.
JUSTIN MARTYR, one of the earliest and ablest Christian apologists, was born about loo at Flavia Neapolis (anc. Sichem), now Nablus, in Palestinian Syria (Samaria).
Though this narrative is a mixture of truth and fiction, it may be said with certainty that a thorough study of the philosophy of Peripatetics and Pythagoreans, Stoics and Platonists, brought home to Justin the conviction that true knowledge was not to be found in them.
ad Graec. 19), that the accusation of Justin before the authorities, which led to his death, was due to Crescentius.
But we know, from the undoubtedly genuine Acta SS Justini et sociorum, that Justin suffered the death of a martyr under the prefect Rusticus between 163 and 167.
In the first part Justin defends his fellow-believers against the charge of atheism and hostility t4 the state.
In the so-called Second Apology, Justin takes occasion from the trial of a Christian recently held in Rome to argue that the innocence of the Christians was proved by the very persecutions.
Even as a Christian Justin always remained a philosopher.
Thus Justin may give the impression of having rationalized Christianity, and of not having given it its full value as a religion of salvation.
It must not, however, be forgotten that Justin is here speaking as the apologist of Christianity to an educated Pagan public, on whose philosophical view of life he had to base his arguments, and from whom he could not expect an intimate comprehension of the religious position of Christians.
Justin is a most valuable authority for the life of the Christian Church in the middle of the 2nd century.
While we have elsewhere no connected account of this, Justin's Apology contains a few paragraphs (61 seq.), which give a vivid description of the public worship of the Church and its method of celebrating the sacraments (Baptism and the Eucharist).
And from this it is clear that though, as a theologian, Justin wished to go his own way, as a believing Christian he was.
None of these writings, not even the Cohortatio, which former critics ascribed to Justin, can be attributed to him.
Full information about Justin's history and views may be had from the following monographs: C. Semisch, Justin der Martyrer (2 vols., 1840-1842); J.
Freppel, St Justin (3rd ed., 1886); Moritz von Engelhardt, Das Christentum Justins des Mdrtyrers (1878); T.
- See the annual City Documents; also Justin Winsor (ed.) The Memorial History of Boston, including Suffolk County.
adversus Paganos, 1844); besides the Old and New Testaments, he appears to have consulted Caesar, Livy, Justin, Tacitus, Suetonius, Florus and a cosmography, attaching also great value to Jerome's translation of the Chronicles of Eusebius.
2; Justin vii.
The description given by Justin of the army which Antiochus Sidetes took to the East in 130 B.C., boot-nails and bridles of gold, gives an idea of their standard of splendour (Just.
The Jewish expectations are adopted for example, by Papias, by the writer of the epistle of Barnabas, and by Justin.
He condemned and deposed Acacius, a proceeding which the latter regarded with contempt, but which involved a breach between the two sees that lasted after Acacius's death (489), through the long and troubled reign of Anastasius, and was only healed by Justin I.
His successor, Justin II.
In some respects Justin anticipated him.
The last notice of them is in Justin Martyr (Dial.
The former was known to Justin(Dial.
Finally, as Justin's statements as to the birth of Jesus in a cave and Mary's descent from David show in all probability his acquaintance with the book, it may with good grounds be assigned to the first decade of the 2nd century.
The latter scholar shows that probably it was used by Justin (Dial.
It was probably in the hands of Justin and Aristides.
the Great, king of Parthia (c. 120-88 B.C.), saved the kingdom from the Mongolian Sacae (Tochari), who had occupied Bactria and eastern Iran, and is said to have extended the limits of the empire (Justin 42, 2, where he is afterwards confused with Mithradates III.).
116), no doubt rightly, calls the founder of the colony Aristoteles, while Justin (xiii.
(3) A History of the Reign of Justin I.
See Justin, Apol.
The Didache and Justin Martyr are no less unsatisfactory from the Roman point of view.
2, 43-47; and Justin i.
See Justin xxii., xxiii.; Diodorus Siculus xix., xxi., xxii.
Mention should be made of two other early Monophysite leaders who suffered persecution at the hands of the emperor Justin I.
had already conquered eastern Media, about Rhagae (Rai), and subjected the Mardi on the border of the Caspian (Justin 41, 5; Isidor.
In a war against the Elymaeans (in Susiana) he took the Greek town Seleucia on the Hedyphon, and forced their king to become a vassal of the Parthians (Justin 41, 6; Strabo xv.
Mithradates settled him with a royal household in Hyrcania and gave him his daughter Rhodogune in marriage (Justin 36, 1, 38, 9; Jos.
nrov: so named by the anonymous 5th-century writer in Buresch, Klaros, 1889, p. 95) is mentioned in conjunction with the Sibyllines by Justin (Apol.
According to Justin, it prophesied the destruction of the world by fire.
Totila besieged Florence in 542, but was repulsed by the imperial garrison under Justin, and later it was occupied by the Goths.
The American Presbyterian Mission, established in Persia in1834-1835by the Rev. Justin Perkins and Dr A.Grant, comprises large buildings near Urmia, a college and a hospital.
The so-called logion in (Justin's?) De resurrect.
See Plutarch, Alexander, 9, 39, 68; Justin, vii.
Bongars wrote an abridgment of Justin's abridgment of the history of Trogus Pompeius under the title Justinus, Trogi Pompeii Historiarum Pltilippicarum epitoma de manuscriptis codicibus emendatior et prologis auctior (Paris, 1581).
[JUSTIN LOUIS] EMILE COMBES (1835-), French statesman, was born at Roquecourbe in the department of the Tarn.
Justin I., who succeeded Anastasius in 518, was less favourable to the party of Severus and Philoxenus, and in 519 they were both sentenced to banishment.
As long as the Christian Church was itself persecuted by the pagan empire, it advocated freedom of conscience, and insisted that religion could be promoted only by instruction and persuasion (Justin Martyr, Tertullian, Lactantius); but almost immediately after Christianity was adopted as the religion of the Roman empire the persecution of men for religious opinions began.
Most of these were primarily writers, but Justin Martyr has left a reputation for speaking, especially in debate, as well.
Kattenbusch does not shrink from suggesting that he shows acquaintance with the Roman Creed, and that Justin Martyr also knew it, in which case all the so-called Eastern characteristics have been imprinted on the original Roman form, and are not derived from an Eastern archetype.
34; Plutarch, Pyrrhus, 9; Justin xviii.
we are comparatively well informed from Greek sources; for the earlier part of his reign from Ctesias and Xenophon (Anabasis), for the later times from Dinon of Ephesus, the historian of the Persians (from whom the account of Justin is derived), from Ephorus (whose account is quoted by Diodorus) and others.
60 sqq.; Justin v.
of Justin Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America (Boston, 1884) there is an excellent chapter by Gregory B.
From these possible and highly probable references we pass on to the clear testimony of Justin Martyr, who is the first to declare that Revelation is by "John, one of the Apostles of Christ" (Dial.
Amongst the chiliasts were Cerinthus, Papias, Justin, Irenaeus, Hippolytus, Tertullian and Victorinus.'
According to a later version, he was a lame schoolmaster, sent by the Athenians as likely to be of the least assistance to the Spartans (Justin iii.
The Christians' of Bithynia were evidently quite frank about them to Pliny (c. 112), and Justin in his Apology reveals everything to a pagan emperor (c. 150).
The custom of delivering expositions or comments more or less extemporaneous on the lessons of the day at all events passed over soon and readily into the Christian Church, as may be gathered from the first Apology (c. 67) of Justin Martyr, where we read that, in connexion with the practice of reading portions from the collected writings of the prophets and from the memoirs of the apostles, it had by that time become usual for the presiding minister to deliver a discourse in which "he admonishes the people, stirring them up to an imitation of the good works which have been brought before their notice."
For the military history of the War of Independence see also Justin Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America, vol.
While incumbent of Curdridge Chapel near Bishops Waltham in Hampshire, he published (1835) The Story of Justin Martyr and Other Poems, which was favourably received, and was followed in 1838 by Sabbation, Honor Neale, and other Poems, and in 1842 by Poems from Eastern Sources.
There are indications, too, of an acquaintance with Justin Martyr and the Sibylline literature (vii.
Justin Martyr (163-167) certainly uses the Gospel; but his conception of Jesus' life is so strictly Synoptic that he can hardly have accepted it as from an apostolic eyewitness.
It may be noted also that the same view of the origin of the Gospel of Mark appears to have been held by a contemporary of Papias, Justin Martyr.
cited above, and Justin Martyr (c. A.D.
in its natural theology, with the earliest Apologists, Aristides and Justin, even as it is itself in substance an apology addressed not to the State, but to thoughtful public opinion.
15; 1 Clement 44; Justin's first Apology, 67).
Origen, Tertullian and by Justin Martyr.
13; Justin xviii.
17, 94; Justin vii.
With the middle of the century we reach a considerable writer in Justin Martyr.
170 Tatian, the disciple of Justin, composed out of these Gospels his Diatessaron.
If Justin used any other Gospel, his use of it was very subordinate.
It was originally a harmony of the four gospels made by Tatian, the pupil of Justin Martyr, towards the end of the 2nd century.
All writers earlier than the 5th century are valuable, but particularly important are the following groups: (1) Greek writers in the West, especially Justin Martyr, Tatian, Marcion, Irenaeus and Hippolytus; (2) Latin writers in Italy, especially Novatian, the author of the de Rebaptismate and Ambrosiaster; (3) Latin writers in Africa, especially Tertullian and Cyprian; (4) Greek writers in Alexandria, especially Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Athanasius and Cyril; (5) Greek writers in the East, especially Methodius of Lycia and Eusebius of Caesarea; (6) Syriac writers, especially Aphraates and Ephraem; it is doubtful whether the Diatessaron of Tatian ought to be reckoned in this group or in (1).
The earliest Christian philosophers, particularly Justin and Athenagoras, likewise prepared the way for the speculations of the Neoplatonists - partly by their attempts to connect Christianity with Stoicism and Platonism, partly by their ambition to exhibit Christianity as " hyperplatonic."
But were the oldest Neoplatonists really acquainted with the speculations of Philo, or Justin, or Valentinus, or Basilides?
The most ancient of these is Justin, who according to his Apol.
He founds his work upon that of his master Justin, but adds from his own knowledge among many other things, notably the detailed account of Valentinianism at the beginning of the book.
On Irenaeus, and probably also on Justin, Hippolytus drew for his Syntagma (beginning of the 3rd century), a work which is also lost, but can, with great certainty, be reconstructed from three recensions of it: in the Panarion of Epiphanius (after 374), in Philaster of Brescia, Adversus haereses, and the Pseudo-Tertullian, Liber adversus omnes haereses.
With the Naasseni, moreover, are related also the other sects of which Hippolytus alone gives us a notice in his Philosophumena (Docetae, Perates, Sethiani, the adherents of Justin, the Gnostic of Monoimos).
Prescott, Conquest of Mexico (3 vols., London, 1845); and the works of Gomara, Helps, Kingsborough, Las Casas, Sahagun and Justin Winsor.
In the Epistle to Diognetus, formerly assigned to Justin Martyr, we read (v.
In Justin's first apology (c. 140) we have two detailed accounts of the Eucharist, of which the first, in ch.
These contributions of the faithful seem to be included by Justin along with the bread and cup as sacrifices ^cceptable to God.
Justin was a Roman, but may not represent the official Roman church.
- Justin Martyr perhaps contemplated the use of water instead of wine, and Tatian his pupil used it.
The Eucharist being the seal of Christian fellowship, it was a natural custom to send portions of the consecrated elements by the hands of the deacons to those who were not present (Justin Martyr, Apol.
(8) There appears to be more evidence than is commonly supposed to show that a practice analogous to that of Justin Martyr's day has been adopted from time to time in England, viz.
Their method and aim were entirely congenial to the rising Catholic Church, and one is not surprised to find from writers in the East (Theophilus of Antioch, Justin Martyr) and West (Irenaeus, Tertullian and the author of 2 Clement) that they were widely read and valued.
Godkin, In The Nation, 71, P. 441; By Justin Winsor In The Atlantic, 73, P. 660; By W.
2, II; Justin xii.
Not only was he master of the contents of the Bible: he also read carefully the works of Hermas, Justin, Tatian, Miltiades, Melito, Irenaeus, Proculus, Clement, as well as many Gnostic treatises, the writings of Marcion in particular.
In apologetics his principal master was Justin, and in theology proper and in the controversy with the Gnostics, Irenaeus.
His special interest in Christian Greek was partly the cause of his editing in 1877 The Apologies of Justin Martyr, " which" (to use his own words) "I used unblushingly as a repository for my syntactical formulae."
The most important of the writings now in question are two by Justin Martyr (circa A.
There is a good deal of difference of opinion still as to whether Justin reckoned other sources for the Gospel-history besides our Gospels among the Apostolic Memoirs.
In this connexion, however, as well as on other grounds, it is a significant fact that within twenty years or so after the death of Justin, which probably occurred circa A.D.
160, Tatian, who had been a hearer of Justin, produced a continuous narrative of the Gospel-history which received the name Diatessaron (" through four "), in the main a compilation from our four Gospels.'
The last event recorded by the epitomator Justin (q.v.) is the recovery of the Roman standards captured by the Parthians (20 B.C.).
Frotscher's edition of Justin); A.
of Roman Literature, § 258; and article JusTIN.
But there is no doubt that his history was very popular, and much used by Diodorus Siculus, Quintus Curtius, Justin and Plutarch, and the authors of the Alexander romances.
44) a more moderate tradition which placed the foundation of Tyre 2300 years before his time, i.e., c. 2756 B.C. According to Justin (xviii.
18) as that from which the era of Tyre begins, may refer to the epoch which Justin mentions.
According to tradition, Metten's son Pygmalion (820-773) slew the husband of his sister Elissa or Dido; whereupon she fled and founded Carthage (q.v.) in Libya (813; Justin xviii.
But Elulaeus, according to Menander, suppressed the revolt of Citium, and early in the reign of Sennacherib joined the league of Philistia and Judah, which had considerable effect upon the' cities of Phoenicia (above, Justin xviii.
2 Justin xviii.
At fifteen Grotius accompanied Count Justin of Nassau, and the grand pensionary J.
- xxxviii.), and indirectly by Justin (xxx.
A later story represents Jason as reconciled to Medea (Justin, xlii.
He used the Apology of Justin, but hardly the works of Aristides or Tatian.
She was worshipped as a goddess under the title of OEa cbtXh5EX40s, and she and her husband as OEoi HEX of (Justin xxiv.
In Justin Martyr, Apol.
Justin Martyr, describing divine worship in the middle of the 2nd century says: "On the day called Sunday all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the Apostles, or the writings of the Prophets are read as long as time permits" (A poi.
The little book was perhaps used by Justin Martyr in his own Dialogue with Trypho, and probably also by Tertullian and Cyprian, but it has not been preserved.
and follows closely the Ecclesiastical History of Socrates; while the third, extending to Justin II., reproduces the second part of the History of John of Asia or Ephesus, and also contains the well-known chronicle attributed to Joshua the Stylite.
They consist of: (1) the Persian Wars,- in two books, giving a narrative of the long struggle of the emperors Justin and Justinian against the Persian kings Kavadh and Chosroes Anushirvan down to 550; (2) the Vandal War, in two books, describing the conquest of the Vandal kingdom in Africa and the subsequent events there from 532 down to 546 (with a few words on later occurrences); (3) the Gothic War, in three books, narrating the war against the Ostrogoths in Sicily and Italy from 536 till 552.
It is possible that the Apology was read to Hadrian in person when he visited Athens, and that the Syriac inscription was prefixed by a scribe on the analogy of Justin's Apology, a mistake being made in the amplification of Hadrian's name.
He cannot see, as Justin and Clement see, a striving after truth, a feeling after God, in the older religions, or even in the philosophies of Greece.
The attribution of the Crucifixion to the Jews appears in several 2nd-century documents; Justin actually uses the words "He was pierced by you" in his dialogue with Trypho the Jew.
§ 184; Justin xxxviii.
2 Justinianus was a Roman name which he took from his uncle Justin I., who adopted him, and to whom his advancement in life was due.
When Justin ascended the throne in 518, Justinian became at once a person of the first consequence, guiding, especially in church matters, the policy of his aged, childless and ignorant uncle, receiving high rank and office at his hands, and soon coming to be regarded as his destined successor.
On Justin's death in 527, having been a few months earlier associated with him as coemperor, Justinian succeeded without opposition to the throne.
One of the three contains 168 (together with 13 Edicts), but some of these are by the emperors Justin II.
For many years before the accession of his uncle Justin, the Eastern world had been vexed by the struggles of the Monophysite party, who recognized only one nature in Christ, against the view which then and ever since has maintained itself as orthodox, that the divine and human natures coexisted in Him.
One of Justinian's first public acts was to put an end to this schism by inducing Justin to make the then patriarch renounce this formula and declare his full adhesion to the creed of Chalcedon.
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