How to use Justices in a sentence
The members were called "justices," and in the king's absence the chief justiciar presided over the court.
It was followed by the Lives of the Chief Justices of England, from the Norman Conquest till the death of Lord Mansfield, 8vo, 2 vols., a book of similar construction but inferior merit.
The supreme court is composed of a chief justice and two associate justices elected for a term of six years.
The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court of Appeals, the Circuit courts, such inferior courts as may be established, county courts, the powers and duties of which are, however, chiefly police and fiscal, and in justices of the peace.
See Holliday's Life (1797); Campbell's Chief Justices; Foss's Judges; Greville's Memoirs, passim; Horace Walpole's Letters; and other memoirs and works on the period.Advertisement
The judiciary is composed of a supreme court of seven members, a court of chancery, a county court in each county, a probate court in each probate district, and justices of the peace.
The judicial department consists of a supreme court with a chief justice and two associate justices, chosen for six years, and district courts, with judges chosen for four years.
This tribunal differs from similar courts in the states inasmuch as it consists of a single member, called the " president," an officer appointed by the governor-general from among the justices of the High Court of Australia.
The same year he was named one of the justices of the peace for his borough; and on the grant of a new charter showed great zeal in defending the rights of the commoners, and succeeded in procuring an alteration in the charter in their favour, exhibiting much warmth of temper during the dispute and being committed to custody by the privy council for angry words spoken against the mayor, for which he afterwards apologized.
These honorary justices are mainly recruited from the ranks of the higher bureaucracy and the army.Advertisement
They can apply to the police commissaries (stanovoti) or to the justices of the peace; but the great distances to be traversed in a country so sparsely populated makes this course highly inconvenient.
In 1674 he is mentioned as endeavouring to prevent the justices putting into force the laws against the Roman Catholics and Nonconformists.'
There are 26 justices of peace, to whose decision are referred slight contraventions of the law (lrraLQµara) and civil causes in which the amount claimed is below 600 francs.
The local judicial authorities are the county board of supervisors of five members and the justices of the peace.
Subordinate to them are the township boards of trustees, composed of a clerk, and two justices of the peace.Advertisement
Three justices of the peace are elected from each ward for a term of two years.
The justices were authorized to fix wages at the Easter quarter sessions.
The constitution provides that the terms of supreme and circuit judges shall be such even number of years not less than six as may be prescribed by the legislature - the statutory provision is six years - that of the judges of the common pleas six years, that of the probate judges four years, that of other judges such even number of years not exceeding six as may be prescribed by the legislature - the statutory provision is six years - and that of justices of the peace such even number of years not exceeding four as may be thus prescribed - the statutory provision is four years.
The other township officials are the clerk, treasurer, assessor, supervisor of roads, justices of the peace, constables, board of education and board of health.
He acted as one of the lords justices during the absence from Ireland of the lord deputy, the earl of Sussex, in 1557.Advertisement
The mayor, aldermen, treasurer, comptroller, justices of the peace and supervisors must be elected by the people, but the other offices are filled as the council of each city directs.
The municipal court justices are appointed by the Supreme Court judges for one year.
James I., by a charter dated 1610, increased the number of chief burgesses to twenty-five and instituted a recorder, a clerk of the market, justices of the peace and other officers.
For the administration of justice there have been established a supreme court composed of six justices elected for a term of six years; a criminal court of appeals composed of three justices appointed by the governor with the advice and consent of the Senate; twenty-one district courts each with one or more justices elected for a term of four years; a county court in each county with one justice elected for a term of two years; a court of a justice of the peace, elected for a term of two years, in each of six districts of each county, and police courts in the cities.
The county courts have, besides the concurrent jurisdiction above stated, original jurisdiction in all probate matters, original jurisdiction in civil actions for sums greater than $200 and not exceeding $500, concurrent jurisdiction with the justices of the peace in misdemeanour cases, and appellate jurisdiction in all cases brought from a justice of the peace or a police court.Advertisement
The justices were also ordered to try proprietary actions commenced by the king's writ for the recovery of land held by the service of half a knight's fee or less.
The royal bailiffs were to answer at the exchequer for rents of assize and all the perquisites which they made in their offices, and apparently the duty of enforcing this provision was entrusted to the justices.
As a result of the rebellion of 1173-1174 it was provided that an oath of fealty should be taken by all, to wit, barons, knights, freeholders and even villeins (rustici)", and that any one who refused should be arrested as the king's enemy, and the justices were to see that the castles whose demolition had been ordered were completely razed.
Lords Justices Porter and Coningsby promised to do their utmost to obtain a parliamentary ratification, but the Irish parliament would not be persuaded.
No Catholic was allowed arms, two justices being empowered to search; and if he had a good horse any Protestant might claim it on tendering 1-5.
The government was determined not to use the Crimes Act, and the result was that offenders nearly always went unpunished, benches of magistrates being often swamped by the chairmen of district councils who were ex officio justices under the act of 1898.
An act or bill of indemnity used to be passed every session by the English parliament for the relief of those who had unwittingly neglected to qualify themselves in certain respects for the holding of offices, &c., as, for example, justices, without taking the necessary oaths.
He was one of the Boston grand jurors who refused to serve in 1774 because parliament had made the justices independent of the people for their salaries; was a leader in the Boston Tea Party; was one of the thirty North End mechanics who patrolled the streets to watch the movements of the British troops and Tories; and in December 1774 was sent to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, to urge the seizure of military stores there, and induced the colonists to attack and capture Fort William and Mary - one of the first acts of military force in the war.
This clause would seem to leave the state government with no powers not expressly granted, and to make the rule for interpreting the Nebraska constitution similar to that for interpreting the Federal constitution; but in their practice the Nebraska courts have been little influenced by it, and it is chiefly of historical interest.2 The administration of justice is vested in a supreme court, 15 district courts, county courts and courts of justices of the peace and police magistrates.
Before this event, however, Richard had been appointed a baron of the exchequer, his great industry and exceptional abilities as an accountant being recognized by giving him a special seat at the exchequer table, and from 1168 until his death he frequently acted as one of the itinerant justices.
It has at various times granted divorces, confirmed faulty titles, annulled decisions of the justices of the peace, and validated contracts against which judgment by default had been secured.
In several of the counties the county court is composed of a county judge, elected for a term of eight years, together with the justices of the peace in the county, and in the other counties it consists of the justices of the peace alone.
Each county is divided into civil districts varying in number according to population, and each district elects at least two justices of the peace for a term of six years; each county town or incorporated town also elects one justice of the peace.
The county board consists of five members elected annually by the county court; justices of the peace are ineligible to election on this board, as are also all persons who have served on it within five years.
Licenses are granted by the local licensing justices or magistrates' court.
Remind the justices to see robert the inaugural Brian.
Back to top Where do justices ' clerks fit?
Sarah told the justices she was on her way to Ashton-under-Lyne to see the colonel at the barracks.
The market was allowed to her by the justices itinerant.
Neither is it proposed that justices ' clerks ought to take the judicial oath.
Additional Justices of the Peace were appointed in all areas of England who produced Recusancy lists which supplied the government details of catholic recusants.
And finally, with regards to security, the Justices found the prison to be grossly understaffed.
Lancaster had its own justices and the king's writ did not run within the palatine county.
In 1178 he appointed five members of the curia to form a special court of justice, and these justices, unlike the other members of the curia, were not to follow the king's court from place to place, but were to remain in one place.
In this latter passage Lord Coke records how, notwithstanding an agreement asserted to have been made in 1575 between the justices of the King's Bench and the judge of the admiralty, the judges of the common law courts successfully maintained their right to prohibit suits in admiralty upon contracts made on shore, or within havens, or creeks, or tidal rivers, if the waters were within the body of any county, wheresoever such contracts were broken, for torts committed within the body of a county, whether on land or water, and for contracts made in parts beyond the seas.
The justices of a county may convert it or any portion of it into a highway district to be governed by a highway board, the powers and responsibilities of which will be the same as those of the parish surveyor under the former act.
His chief measures are contained in his instruction to the itinerant justices of 1194 and 1198, in his ordinance of 1195 for the conservation of the peace, and in his scheme of 1198 for the assessment of the carucage.
The Commissioners of Supply, originally appointed to apportion and collect the national revenue and afterwards entrusted with the regulation of the land tax, the control of the county police, the raising of the militia, and the levying of rates for county expenditure, were practically superseded by the county councils, which are also the local authority under the Contagious Diseases (Animals) and the Public Health Acts in all parishes (burghs and police burghs excepted), perform the administrative duties formerly entrusted to the justices of the peace, and may also enforce the Rivers Pollution Act each within its own jurisdiction.
Of the powers vested in the county authority under the Highway Act 1878, the most important are those relating to main roads, which are specially noticed hereafter; (ix.) the tables of fees to be taken by and the costs to be allowed to any inspector, analyst or person holding any office in the county other than the clerk of the peace and the clerks of the justices; (x.) the appointment, removal and determination of salaries of the county treasurer, the county surveyor, the public analysts, any officer under the Explosives Act 1875, and any officers whose remuneration is paid out of the county rate, other than the clerk of the peace and the clerks of the justices; (xi.) the salary of any coroner whose salary is payable out of the county rate, the fees, allowances and disbursements allowed to be paid by any such coroner, and the division of the county into coroners' districts and the assignments of such districts; (xii.) the division of the county into polling districts for the purposes of parliamentary elections, the appointment of the places of election, the places of holding courts for the revision of the lists of voters, and the costs of, and other matters to be done for the registration of parliamentary voters; (xiii.) the execution as local authority of the acts relating to contagious diseases of animals, to destructive insects, to fish conservancy, to wild birds, to weights and measures, and to gas meters, and of the Local Stamp Act i 869; (xiv.) any matters arising under the Riot (Damages) Act 1886.
If the person on whom the notice is served objects to give effect to it, he may be summoned before justices, and the justices may make an order upon him to abate the nuisance, or prohibiting the recurrence of the nuisance if this is likely, and directing the execution of the necessary works.
Under the Highway Acts it is enforceable by summary proceedings before justices and by orders of the county council, but in either case, if the liability to repair is disputed, that question has to be decided on indictment preferred against the highway authority alleged to be in default.
Additional Justices of the Peace were appointed in all areas of England who produced Recusancy lists which supplied the government details of Catholic recusants.
The superintending constable came under the exclusive directions of the local justices and was paid out of the county rates.
Lancaster had its own justices and the king 's writ did not run within the palatine county.
However, just one year later, a federal appeals court ruled that prayers led by students should be allowed at graduation ceremonies, and justices refused to review the case.
Today, besides veterans, many notables are buried at Arlington, including U.S. presidents, Supreme Court justices, U.S. senators, and civilians who were honored for their work and dedication to their country.
The three judges of the Supreme Court and the seven of the circuit court serve for six years, those of the county courts for four years, and justices of the peace (one for each justice district, of which the county commissioners must form at least two in each county) hold office for four years.
By an act of 1844 it has been also given to the justices of assize; and crimes done within the jurisdiction of the admiralty are now tried as crimes committed within the body of a county.
In 1219 the prior secured the right of holding a court there for all crown pleas and of sitting beside the justices itinerant, .and this led to serious collision between the monks and burgesses.
The judge of the United States district court and the chief justice and associate justices of the supreme court are appointed by the President with the consent of the Senate, and the judges of the district courts by the governor with the consent of the Executive Council.
This was confirmed in 1641, when it was also provided that the mayor and recorder should be ipso facto justices of the peace.
Parish boundaries are laid down with the help of local meresmen appointed by justices at quarter.
These Personal Liberty Laws forbade justices and judges to take cognizance of claims, extended the habeas corpus act and the privilege of jury trial to fugitives, and punished false testimony severely.
The judicial department comprises a supreme court consisting of a chief justice and (since 1881) four associate justices elected for terms of six years, and lower courts consisting of district courts with original jurisdiction in civil cases in law and equity, and in criminal cases upon indictments by grand juries; justices' courts, in which the amount in litigation cannot exceed $ioo, or the punishment cannot exceed three months' imprisonment or a fine of $loo; and of municipal and probate courts with the usual jurisdictions.
His itinerant justices were not altogether a novelty in England or Normandy.
There is a provincial division of the Supreme Court of South Africa sitting at Pretoria (consisting of a judge president and six puisne justices) with original and appellate jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters.
The arrangements of quarter-sessions, justices, coroners, sheriffs, &c., were thus brought into line with other counties, except in so far as the ordinary organization is modified by the existence of the central criminal court, the metropolitan police, police courts and magistrates, and a paid chairman of quarter-sessions.
It is the duty of the surveyor to keep the highways in repair; and if a highway is out of repair, the surveyor may be summoned before justices and convicted in a penalty not exceedin ordered to complete the repairs within, a limited time.
The board consists of representatives of the various parishes, called "way wardens" together with the justices for the county residing within the district.
There is a chief court for the province with a chief justice and three justices, established in May 1900.
A statute of 1553 made the breaking or defacing of an altar, crucifix or cross in any church, chapel or churchyard punishable with three months' imprisonment on conviction before two justices, the imprisonment to be continued unless the offender entered into surety for good behaviour at quarter sessions.
Laws were passed, for example in 1503, requiring that new ordinances of "fellowships of crafts or misteries" should be approved by the royal justices or by other crown officers; and the authority of the companies to fix the price of wares was thus restricted.
The judiciary is composed of a supreme court, superior courts and courts of first instance, and justices of the peace.
Of these, three are appointed by the governor (of whom one must be, and two at present are, members of the Chinese community); one is elected from the chamber of commerce, and one from the justices of the peace.
Below this are the twelve district courts, the town councils, probate courts in the larger towns, and justices of the peace.
The circuit of the justices in eyre, or their deputies, continued down to 1635; they were virtually ended by the Act for the Limitation of Forests (1640), though Charles II.
To remedy the evil, Casimir drew up and promulgated the severe statute of Great Poland, which went to the very root of the matter and greatly strengthened the hands of the king's justices.
Six judges - a chancellor, a chief justice, and four associate justices - of whom there shall be at least one resident in each of the three counties, and not more than three shall belong to the same political party, are appointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate, for a term of twelve years.
Each county has its own administrative boards and officers; and there are two justices of the peace and two constables for every township. The board of supervisors, consisting of not more than seven members, elected for a term of three years, has the care of county property and the management of county business, including highways and bridges; it fixes the rate of county taxes within prescribed limits, and levies the taxes for state and county purposes.
The inquiry was entrusted in England to the overseers, acting under the justices of the peace and the high constables, and in Scotland, to village schoolmasters, under the sheriffs.
At the close of the colonial era there were a court of chancery, a supreme court, circuit courts and courts of oyer and terminer which were held in the several counties by the justices of the supreme court, a court of common pleas and a court of sessions in each county, and courts held by justices of the peace in the several towns.
This system, with the addition of the Senate, the chancellor and the justices of the supreme court occasionally sitting as a court for the correction of errors, was retained with only slight changes until 1846.
Some further alterations in the constitution affecting the courts were made in 1869, 1879, 1888, 1894, 1899 and 1909, and the system as at present constituted comprises a supreme court of ninetyseven justices, an appellate division of the same, a court of appeals, a court of claims and local courts.
Vacancies are temporarily filled from among the justices of the supreme court by the governor.
To expedite business, at the request of the court, the governor may designate not more than four justices of the supreme court to act temporarily as additional associate judges of the court of appeals.
The ninety-seven justices of the supreme court are elected for fourteen years from the nine districts into which the state is divided.
The salary of the justices in the first district and in Kings county of the second district is $17,500 a year; in the remainder of the second district it is $16,300 a year; in the other districts it is $10,000 a year.
The state is divided into four departments for each of which there is an Appellate Division consisting of seven justices in the first department (county of New York) and five in each of the others.
The justices and presiding justice are designated from among the justices of the supreme court by the governor;.
The local judiciary includes the usual county and city judges, county surrogates and justices of the peace.
William Smith (1697-1769), but when they excepted to the commissions of the chief-justice, James de Lancey (1703-1760) and one of his associates, because by these commissions the justices had been appointed " during pleasure " instead of " during good behaviour," the chief justice disbarred them.
Justice is administered principally by a supreme court, superior courts and justices of the peace.
Justices of the peace, one or more in each election precinct, are elected for a term of two years.
There are also special justices of the peace, having criminal jurisdiction in minor cases.
The administration of justice is intrusted to a supreme court, an increasing number of district courts, and at least two justices' courts in each organized township, besides police and municipal courts.
Justices of the peace are elected for two years and have civil jurisdiction in several classes of actions in which the amount demanded does not.
The judicial department consists of the supreme court, circuit courts, county courts, justices of the peace, and police Sioux Falls, 12,283; Lead, 8052; Aberdeen, 5841; Mitchell, 5719; Watertown, 5164;5164; Deadwood, 4364; Yankton, 4189; Huron, 3783;3783; Brookings, 3265.
The jurisdiction of justices of the peace is determined by law, but it is restricted by the constitution to cases involving $loo or less.
The justices of the Cinque Ports exercise certain jurisdiction, the non-corporate members of the Cinque Ports of Dover and Sandwich having separate commissions of the peace and courts of quarter sessions.
The judicial department consists of the supreme court, district courts, county courts, municipal courts, and justices of the peace.
Justices of the peace have jurisdiction in civil cases involving no land titles and sums of money not exceeding $200.
The council chooses the city clerk, treasurer and tax receiver, and the mayor appoints the city attorney, police justices, the board of education, the trustees of the public library, and the excise and assessment commissioners, and, subject to the ratification of his choice by the council, the comptroller, auditor and the tax, police, health and fire commissioners.
In 1634 the justices of the peace were ordered to enter houses to search for persons holding conventicles and bring them before the commissioners.
Since then the jurisdiction of the Cinque Ports' justices has ceased within its limits, which include the parishes of Ramsgate and St Lawrence Intra.
He, however, still appoints, subject to the confirmation of the senate, the secretary of state, the superintendent of public education, the commissioner of the land office, the adjutantgeneral, justices of the peace, notaries public, the members of numerous administrative boards, and other administrative officers..
Justice, &c. - The administration of justice is entrusted to a court of appeals, circuit courts, special courts for the city of Baltimore, orphans' courts, and justices of the peace.
The number of justices of the peace for each county is fixed by local law; they are appointed by the governor, subject to the confirmation of the Senate, for a term of two years.
There are also tribunals of commerce and justices of the peace with extensive jurisdiction.
The word is also applied, and perhaps more usually, to certain subordinate magistrates who administer justice in minor matters, and who are usually called justices of the peace (q.v.).
The financial board of the county is composed of the county judge and the justices of the peace, or of the county judge and three commissioners elected on a general ticket.
The supreme court is composed of 11 " ministros " or justices, four alternates, a " fiscal " or public prosecutor and the attorneygeneral - all elected by popular vote for a term of six years.
The supreme court and the superior court consist each of one justice and four associate justices.
J udges and justices are appointed by the governor and council, and with the exception of justices of the peace they hold office during good behaviour or until they have attained the age of seventy years; justices of the peace are appointed for a term of five years only, but they may be reappointed.
They arrived in December 1676, and the case was tried before the Lords Chief Justices of the King's Bench and Common Pleas in April 1677.
The family is assumed to have sprung from Walsingham in Norfolk, but the earliest authentic traces of it are found in London in the first half of the 15th century; and it was one of the numerous families which, having accumulated wealth in the city, planted themselves out as landed gentry and provided the Tudor monarchy with its justices of the peace and main support.
The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, consisting of a chief justice and four associate justices elected by the people; six appeal courts, each with three judges, also elected by the people; and twenty-six courts of first instance, each consisting of one judge appointed by the president and two by the chief justice of the supreme court.
The circuit courts consist of twenty-nine circuit judges, acting iji nine judicial circuits, while to each circuit there is also allotted one of the justices of the Supreme Court.
The appointment, first made in 1897, of the chief justice of Canada, along with the chief justices of Cape Colony and.
The system came into existence in isolated communities through the connivance of justices of the peace with white farmers.
The executive officials are elected for a term of two years, and the judges of the Supreme Court and of the court of appeals for six years, while those of the superior court and of the ordinaries and the justices of the peace are chosen every four years.
This granted two weekly markets on Tuesday and Friday and a fair on the eve of St Augustine lasting thirty days; it made the town a free borough and provided that the king would send his justices to deliver the prison when necessary.
When William in 1695 went to take command of the army in the Netherlands, Tenison was appointed one of the seven lords justices to whom his authority was delegated.
Justices of the peace are elected in wards, districts, boroughs and townships.
Superior court and common pleas judges serve for ten years, and justices of the peace for five.
Another charter, dated 1664, appointed two capital burgesses t o be justices of the peace with the warden.
Justice is represented by the gmina tribunals, which correspond to those of the mir in Russia; the justices of the peace (nominated by government); the syezd, or " court " of the justices of the peace; the district tribunals (assizes) in each government; and the Warsaw courts of appeal and cassation.
Woolrych, The Life of Sir Edward Coke (1826); Foss, Lives of the Judges; Campbell, Lives of the Chief Justices; also English Law.
The administration of justice is vested in a municipal court and in one court under justices of the peace and auxiliary justices; the administration of school affairs is vested in a special board of six members; and matters pertaining to health are administered by the insular bureau of health.
Tithes of small amount or due from Quakers could be recovered by summary proceedings before justices under statutes ranging from William III.
The justices of 1194 were to order the election of four coroners by the suitors of each county court.
His reliance upon the knights, or middle-class landowners, who now for the first time appear in the political foreground, is all the more interesting because it is this class who, either as members of parliament or justices of the peace, were to have the effective rule of England in their hands for so many centuries.
It is possible that the itinerant justices of the English kings Henry I.
Separate acts enjoining the justices of the peace, and afterwards along with them the commissioners of supply, to take measures for the maintenance of roads were passed in 1617, 1669, 1676 and 1686.
Eight justices were appointed, the sheriffs were mainly Scots of the kingdom; the bishop of St Andrews was one of the Scottish representatives.
In 1610 James had three Scottish bishops consecrated by three English bishops, ensuring for the northern country apostolic succession; and justices of the peace were created in Scotland.
He worked for a revision of Ellsworth's judiciary act of 1789, and especially to relieve justices of the supreme court 1 The plan was not drafted by Randolph, but he presented it because he was governor.
Justice is administered principally by a supreme court, courts of first instance, and courts of justices of the peace.
The supreme court consists of seven members, four Americans and three Filipinos; and the chief justice and associate justices of the supreme court are appointed by the president of the United States with the consent of the Senate.
His baillis, who at first rather resembled the itinerant justices of Henry II.
And besides all these, there existed three competing chief justices and commanders of the forces called in from abroad and holding office for six months, viz.
The administration of justice is vested principally in a supreme court, district courts, justices of the peace and municipal courts.
The supreme court consists of three justices who are elected by the state at large for a term of eight years, and the one having the shortest term to serve is chief justice.
Justices of the peace, one of whom is elected biennially in each precinct, have jurisdiction in civil actions in which the amount in controversy does not exceed $200 and the title to or boundary of real estate is not involved, and in criminal actions less than a felony and in which the punishment prescribed by law does not exceed a fine of $100 and imprisonment for six months.
The supreme judicial authority is vested in a Supreme Court, which consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices, all appointed for life by the president, subject to confirmation by the Senate.
Three justices of the peace are elected in each magisterial district for a term of four years.
There are also justices of the peace (elected) and police justices (appointed) in cities, and in various minor cases a justice's court has original jurisdiction, either exclusive or concurrent, with the circuit and corporation courts.
Virginia held the position of leadership in Congress, controlled the cabinet and supplied many justices of the Supreme Court.
In the United States the supreme court consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices, any six of whom make a quorum.
The judicial department included a supreme court, district courts, probate courts and local justices of the peace.
The supreme court consisted of a chief justice and five associate justices appointed by the President.
The general dissatisfaction received a somewhat unguarded and intemperate expression in a letter sent to the justices of Marlborough by a gentleman of the neighbourhood, named Oliver St John, 6 in which he denounced the attempt to raise funds in this way as contrary to law, reason and religion, as constituting in the king personally an act of perjury, involving in the same crime those who contributed, and thereby subjecting all parties to the curses levelled by the church at such offences.
For this purpose four circuits, two for North and two for South Wales, each circuit containing a convenient group of three counties, were created; whilst justices of the peace and custodes rotulorum for each shire were likewise appointed.
The court has a membership of 18 justices (justitierad), two of whom are present in the council of state when law questions are to be settled; while the body also gives opinion upon all proposed changes of law.
The judicial power consists of a Supreme Court of Justice of seven members located in the national capital, which exercises supervisory and disciplinary authority over all the law courts of the republic; six courts of appeal, in Tacna, Serena, Valparaiso, Santiago, Talca and Concepcion; tribunals of first instance in the department capitals; and minor courts, or justices of the peace, in the subdelegacies and districts.
There is, however, a common court of appeal for the group as well as for Barbados, composed of the chief justices of the respective islands, and there is also a common audit system, while the islands unite in maintaining certain institutions of general utility.
Acts of 1839 and 1840 permitted the formation by the justices of a paid county police force.
Two justices of the peace were appointed, presently named commissioners of police, to administer the act under the immediate direction of the secretary of state for the home department.
The zeal of that age was succeeded by apathetic reaction, and it became necessary in the metropolis to secure the services of paid justices.
This was effected, and thus magisterial functions were completely separated from the duties of the executive police; for although the jurisdiction of the two justices, afterwards called commissioners, as magistrates extended to ordinary duties (except at courts of general or quarter sessions), from the first they took no part in the examination or committal for trial of persons charged with offences.
Sec. 16 contains a provision empowering the chief governor and privy council of Ireland by a proclamation under the great seal of Ireland to suspend the act during such time only as there shall be an actual invasion or rebellion in Ireland; and it is enacted that during the currency of the proclamation no judge or justices shall bail or try any person charged with being concerned in the rebellion or invasion without an order from the lord lieutenant or lord deputy and senior of the privy council.
In the same year on the 24th of August Peteratte-Wode and William of Wykeham, clerk, were appointed keepers of the rolls and writs in the eyre for the forests of Hants and Wilts, of which Henry Sturmy was one of the justices.
One of the duties of the Chamber is to elect the justices of the supreme court.
The supreme court is composed of seven justices elected by the Chamber of Deputies from lists of three names for each seat sent in by the Senate.
The mayor, ex-mayor and one selected alderman were to be justices of the peace with exclusive jurisdiction and the mayor was the coroner.
The administration of justice is entrusted to a supreme court, a continually increasing number of circuit courts (thirty-eight in 1909), one probate court in each county, and not exceeding four justices of the peace in each township. The supreme court is composed of one chief justice and seven associate justices, all elected for a term of ten years, not more than two retiring every two years; it holds four sessions annually, exercises a general control over the inferior courts, may issue, hear and determine any of the more important writs, and has appellate jurisdiction only in all other important cases.
Justices of the peace are elected by the townships for a term of four years - there are not more than four in each township; in civil matters they have exclusive jurisdiction of cases in which the demand does not exceed $loo and concurrent jurisdiction with the circuit courts in contract cases in which the demand does not exceed $300.
The supervisor, two of the justices of the peace and the clerk constitute the township board, whose duty it is to settle claims against the township, audit accounts, and publish annually an itemized statement of receipts and disbursements.
At its head is a court of errors and appeals composed of the chancellor, the justices of the supreme court and six additional " lay " judges.
The supreme court consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices, but it may be held by the chief justice alone or by any one of the associate justices.
In each township there are from two to five justices of the peace, any one of whom may preside over the " small cause court," which has jurisdiction of cases in which the matter in dispute does not exceed $too and is not an action of replevin, one in which the charge is slander, trespass or assault, battery or imprisonment, or in which the title to real estate is in question.
The court leet began to decline in the 14th century, being superseded by the more modern courts of the justices, but in many cases courts leet were kept up until nearly the middle of the 19th century.
For centuries before, from the reign of Edward III., under a number of statutes and commissions, the administrative work in the counties had been in the hands of the country gentlemen and the clergy, acting as justices of the peace, and sitting in petty sessions and quarter sessions.
In 1782 Gilbert's Act introduced the grouping of parishes for poor law purposes, and boards of guardians appointed by the justices of the peace.
Act 1888 the only form of countygovern 1' S' g lent in England was that of the justices in quarter sessions (q.v.).
The overseers of any parish aggrieved by the basis may appeal against it to quarter sessions, and it is to be noticed that this appeal is not interfered with, the transfer of the duties of justices relating only to administrative and not to judicial business.
The hundred rate is seldom made, though in some counties it may be made for purposes of main roads and bridges chargeable to the hundred as distinguished from the county at large; (ii.) the borrowing of money; (iii.) the passing of the accounts of, and the discharge of the county treasurer; (iv.) shire halls, county halls, assize courts, the judges' lodgings, lock-up houses, court houses, justices' rooms, police stations and county buildings, works and property; (v.) the licensing under any general act of houses and other places for music or for dancing, and the granting of licences under the Racecourses Licensing Act 1879; (vi.) the provision, enlargement, maintenance and management and visitation of, and other dealing with, asylums for pauper lunatics; (vii.) the establishment and maintenance of, and the contribution to, reformatory and industrial schools; (viii.) bridges and roads repairable with bridges, and any powers vested by the Highways and Locomotives Amendment Act 1878 in the county authority.
In addition to the business of quarter sessions thus transferred, there was also transferred to the county council certain business of the justices of the county out of session, that is to say, in petty or special sessions.
It was matter of considerable discussion before the passing of the act whether the police should remain under the control of the justices, or be transferred wholly to the control of the county council.
The powers, duties and liabilities of the quarter sessions and justices out of session with respect to the county police were vested in the quarter sessions and the county council jointly, and are now exercised through the standing joint-committee of the two bodies.
That committee consists of an equal number of members of the county council and of justices appointed by the quarter sessions, the number being arranged between the two bodies or fixed by the secretary of state.
The committee are also charged with the duties of appointing or removing the clerk of the peace, and they have jurisdiction in matters relating to justices' clerks, the provision of accommodation for quarter sessions or justices out of session, and the like, and their expenses are paid by the county council out of the county fund.
It was provided by the Highway Act 1878 that every road which was disturnpiked after the 31st of December 1870 should be deemed to be a main road, the expenses of the repair and maintenance of which were to be contributed as to one-half thereof by the justices in quarter sessions, then the county authority.
Where a borough has not a separate court of quarter sessions, but has a separate commission of the peace, the justices of the county in which the borough is situate have a concurrent jurisJuris d - diction with the borough justices in all matters arising ti o n o within the borough.
Where, however, the borough has Justices; a court of quarter sessions, the county justices have no quarter jurisdiction within the borough.
He takes precedence over all justices in and for the borough, and is entitled to take the chair at all meetings at which he is present by virtue of his office of mayor.
Where the borough has a separate commission, the borough justices have power to appoint a clerk, who is now paid by salary, the fees and costs pertaining to his office being paid into the borough fund, out of which his salary is paid.
He has all the powers of a court of quarter sessions in a county, including the power to hear appeals from the borough justices; but to this there are a few exceptions, notably the power to grant licences for the sale of intoxicating liquor.
Moreover, the owner or occupier of premises without the district has the same right, subject only to such terms and conditions as may be agreed or, in case of dispute, settled by justices or by arbitration.
The district council are also empowered to obtain an order of justices directing the closing of any well, tank or cistern, public or private, or any public pump the water from which is likely to be used for drinking or domestic purposes, or for manufacturing drinks for the use of man, if such water is found to be so polluted as to be injurious to health.
If the nuisance is such as to render a dwellinghouse unfit for human habitation, the justices may close it until it is rendered fit for that purpose.
Disobedience under the order of justices involves a penalty and a daily penalty for every day during which default continues.
Private persons may complain to justices in respect of nuisances by which they are personally aggrieved, and if the district council make default in doing their duty, the Local Government Board may authorize any officer of police to institute any necessary proceedings at the cost of the defaulting council.
The district council may, if in their opinion proceedings before justices afford an inadequateremedy, take proceedings in the high court, but in that case, if the nuisance is of a public nature, they must proceed by action in the name of the attorney-general.
If upon such inspection the meat, &c., appears to be diseased, unsound or unwholesome, it may be taken before a justice for the purpose of being condemned, and the person to whom the meat, &c., belongs or in whose possession it was found is liable to a penalty or, in the discretion of the justices, to imprisonment for three months without the option of a fine.
The act of 1890 also forbids the keeping for more than forty-eight hours of the body of a person who has died of infectious disease in a room used at the time as a dwelling-place, sleeping-place or workshop. It provides for the bodies of persons dying of infectious diseases in a hospital being removed only for burial, and gives power to justices in certain cases to order bodies to be buried.
Licences may be suspended by justices in the event of their being used contrary to the provisions of the act or of the by-laws, and on a second conviction the licence may be revoked.
Under the Pawnbrokers Act 1872 the licences to pawnbrokers, which were formerly granted by justices, are now granted by district councils.
The assistant overseer, who was formerly nominated by the inhabitants and vestry and then formally appointed by justices, is now, as has been stated, appointed by the parish council.
The local administration of justice devolving upon the justices in quarter or petty sessions is hardly a matter of local government, although in one important respect, that, namely, of the licensing of premises for the sale of intoxicating liquors, it may be thought that the duties of justices fall within the scope of local government.
At the head of the department of justice is the supreme judicial court, which consists of a chief justice and seven associate justices appointed by the governor and council for a term of seven years.
But only one of its justices is required for a trial court, and trial courts are held two or three times a year in each county for the trial of both civil and criminal cases which come before it in the first instance or upon appeal.
In the following April Connolly took forcible possession of the court-house at Hanna's Town (near the present Greensburg), the county-seat of Westmoreland county (which then included the Fort Pitt region), a few days afterwards arrested the three justices who lived in Pittsburg, and for the remainder of the year terrorized the settlement.
The judicial power is vested in the Senate sitting as a court of impeachment, in the Supreme Court, the district courts, in justices of the peace, and in " such inferior courts as may be established by law."
The Supreme Court is composed of three justices (but the number may be increased to five whenever the legislature shall deem it expedient) each of whom must be thirty years old, learned in the law, and a resident of the state for five years preceding his election.
In connexion with the juvenile court detention homes have been established, and in certain conditions justices of the peace are empowered to act as judges of the juvenile court in their respective precincts.
Swift then accepted an offer from Lord Berkeley, who in the summer of 1699 was appointed one of the lords justices of Ireland.
Of the remainder, 36 are elected by the ratepayers, 16 by the justices of the peace, 2 by the senate of the university, and 2 by the chamber of commerce.
He was one of the associate justices of the New York Supreme Court from 1829 to 1831, presiding over the trial of the alleged murderers of William Morgan and in other important cases; and was a member of the United States Senate from December 1831 to July 1832, when he resigned to become governor of New York.
The supreme court consists of five (before 1909 the number was three) justices elected for a term of six years, and its jurisdiction extends only to appeals from the decisions of the circuit courts.
The judges of the circuit courts were formerly supreme court justices on circuit; they also are chosen for six years, and they have cognizance over all cases, including appeals from inferior courts, not specifically reserved by law for some other tribunal.
This granted that in all eyres the justices itinerant should come to Shaftesbury and that the burgesses should not answer for aught without the town and might choose for themselves two coroners annually.
There were two chief justices for the forests intra and ultra Trentam respectively.
The township officers, all elected for two years, are a trustee, a clerk, a treasurer, two or more justices of the peace, two constables and one road overseer for each road district.
In cities of the first class the state law requires the election of a mayor, city clerk, city treasurer, police judge and councilmen; in those of the second class it requires the election of a mayor, police judge, city treasurer, councilmen, board of education, justices of the peace and constables; and in those of the third class it requires the election of a mayor, police judge and councilmen.
From these itinerant commissioners (justices in eyre) descend the modern justices of assize.
He led the shire-levies, collected the royal revenues both feudal and non-feudal, and presided in the shire-court as judge, till in the course of years his functions in that sphere were gradually taken over by the itinerant justices.
This was a measure for the repression of local riots, empowering justices in every shire to suppress clubmen (trailbastons), gangs of marauders who had been rendering the roads unsafe.
In the countryside the insurrection was accompanied by wholesale burnings of manor-rolls, the hunting down of unpopular bailiffs and landlords, and a special crusade against the commissioners of the poll-tax and the justices who had been enforcing the Statute of Laborers.
In the course of Charless reign two chief justices and one chief baron were dismissed or suspended.
Besides the ordinary judges there were the extraordinary tribunals, the court of high commission nominated by the crown to punish ecclesiastical offenders, and the court of star chamber, composed of the privy councillors and the chief justices, and therefore also nominated by the crown, to inflict fine, imprisonment, and even corporal mutilation.
Each township (or "town," as it is commonly called) elects at its annual town meeting on the first Tuesday in April three supervisors, a clerk, a treasurer, one or more assessors, two justices of the peace, from one to three constables, and, if the town has a library, a librarian.
Justices of the peace hold office for two years, other town officers for one year only, except that in a county having a population of 100,000 or more (Milwaukee county), town meetings are biennial and all officers are elected for two years.
He returned in October, but was not included among the lords justices appointed regents during William's absence in this year.
These must be heard in the county courts before two visiting justices and four knights of the shire.
New provisions were introduced for the preservation of the peace - unlawful castles were to be destroyed - while others were directed towards making the administration of justice by the visiting justices less burdensome.
From April to December 1697 he discharged the duties of lord chamberlain, and for part of this time he was one of the lords justices, but the general suspicion with which he was regarded terrified him, and in December he resigned.
On the 20th of October 1349 Clement published a bull commanding the bishops and inquisitors to stamp out the growing heresy, and in pursuance of the pope's orders numbers of the sectaries perished at the stake or in the cells of the inquisitors and the episcopal justices.
The first of these, based on the English model, are the courts of the elected justices of the peace, with jurisdiction over petty causes, whether civil or criminal; the second, based on the French model, are the ordinary tribunals of nominated judges, sitting with or without a jury to hear important cases.
The justices of the peace, who must be landowners' or (in towns) persons of moderate property, are elected by the municipal dumas in the towns, and by the zemstvos Justices in the country districts, for a term of three years.
From the town The judge (ispravnik), who, in spite of the principle laid ordinary down in 1864, combines judicial and administrative functions, an appeal lies (as in the case of the justices of the peace) to an assembly of such judges; from these again there is an appeal to the district court (okrugniya sud), consisting of three judges; 4 from this to the court of appeal (sudebniya palata); while over this again is the senate, which, as the supreme court of cassation, can send a case for retrial for reason shown.
In 1909 the third Duma restored the election of justices of the peace.
In 1661 the lords justices forbade all unlawful assemblies, and in these they included meetings of presbytery as exercising ecclesiastical jurisdiction not warranted by the law.