It's only a matter of time until justice is served.
He would understand on whose side justice lies.
Maybe it was poetic justice that her soul was doomed.
He was successful in winning the support of many of the younger princes, and in establishing a new court of justice, the members of which were named by himself.
They would have social peace at the expense of social and racial justice.
Poetic law has its place, as does poetic justice, but imprecise legal writing is poor legal writing.
"But justice prevailed at the last," said Ozma, "for here is my pet, and Eureka is once more free."
"And is that what you call justice?" asked the shah.
The global appeal of restorative justice is truly startling.
By its nature, criminal justice is almost entirely negative.
He pinched me for obstructing justice and a whole bunch of stuff.
No bullying of the innocent is allowed and it is encouraged to take up the cudgels to uphold justice and truth.
But a government in which the majority rule in all cases cannot be based on justice, even as far as men understand it.
Once social justice has been achieved, there is nothing more to talk about.
Now we're campaigning for trade justice, with new rules weighted in favor of the poor.
The courts aim to administer justice as defined by the law.
Further progress was also being made on speeding up youth justice.
What had she to do with the justice or injustice of other people?
The picture on the cover did not do justice to the old ship.
It gave normal people the ability to directly access the King, to seek justice or to make a complaint.
If they had appealed to the General Assembly they might have received justice, or possibly the separation might have been on a larger scale.
That is John Marshall, Chief Justice of the United States.
Obstructing an investigation is an offense, and covers altering, concealing or destroying documents, or attempting to obstruct justice.
"Thank you, my dear, for doing me justice," responded the Wizard, gratefully.
Truth is always in harmony with herself, and is not concerned chiefly to reveal the justice that may consist with wrong-doing.
It is the seat of a justice of the peace, and is the electoral unit for the general council and the district council.
Each has its own judicial system, and enacts laws relating to the administration of justice, the distribution and imposition of taxes, and all matters affecting the province.
He was given the right to dispense justice, to coin money and to appoint the bishops in Bavaria.
The building has been restored in modern times to serve as a court of justice and a prison.
The administration of justice, he declared, had fallen to so low an ebb as to be practically non-existent.
The cabinet is composed of eight ministers - the heads of the government departments of the interior, foreign affairs, finance, war, marine, justice, agriculture, and public works.
He is generosity, mercy, justice, order, genius--that's what the Emperor is!
"Posterity will do him justice," he concluded, and at once turned to Pierre.
Your picture doesn't do you justice.
They do great justice to even the most ordinary dishes, right down to the soup and salad.
It was heart wrenching when sometimes our tip failed to bring about justice.
the historic frontiers of the Czechoslovak State it would indeed have been difficult, with justice, to deduce a right of self-determination, that is to say, the right, in this case, of retaining all the fruits of misused power.
The courts of justice and the public offices are also required to pay due regard in respect of language to the desires of a minority which numbers at least 20% of the inhabitants of the locality.
The executive Government is placed in charge of 15 ministries concerned with the following matters: - foreign affairs, interior, finance, commerce, labour, food supplies, railways, health, social welfare, justice, agriculture, public instruction, national defence, posts and telegraphs, and the unification of laws.
The tribunals of the republic are the Supreme Court of Justice, which sits at Brno and is the court of final appeal both in civil and criminal causes, two high courts sitting at Prague and Brno respectively, 33 provincial courts and 410 district courts, all of which possess j urisdiction in both civil and criminal causes.
Since the institution of the Ministry of Justice in 1892 very great improvements have been effected in this branch of the administration.
His reign is a period of some importance in the legislative history of Scotland, as measures were passed with regard to the tenure of land, the reformation of the coinage, and the protection of the poor, while the organization for the administration of justice was greatly improved.
There are nine departments, each under a director: namely, justice; interior; instruction, public worship and industry; agriculture (created in 1905); civil public works; government works (created in 1908); finance; war; marine.
Justice for Europeans is administered by European judges, but, as with administration at large so in judicial matters, native chiefs have extensive powers in native affairs.
In later accounts (and even in the Odyssey) Ares' character is somewhat toned down; thus, in the "Homeric" hymn to Ares, he is addressed as the assistant of Themis (Justice), the enemy of tyrants, and leader of the just.
As regards the administration of justice, the distinction is maintained between (I) Europeans and persons assimilated with them (who include Christians and Japanese), and (2) natives, together with Chinese, Arabs, &c. The former are subject to laws closely resembling those of the mother country, while the customs and institutions of natives are respected in connexion with the administration of justice to the latter.
The government is carried on by a ministry of five, with departments for the ducal house and foreign affairs, home affairs, justice, education and public worship and finance.
of the Belgian representatives who founded the kingdom of Belgium - surmounted by a statue of King Leopold I., was erected in 1859, and in 1866 the foundation-stone was laid of the Palais de Justice, which was not finished till 1883, at a cost of sixty million francs.
Not far away is the palais de justice, built in 1709 as a hospital, but used as a court house since 1858.
The actual terms of the constitution are introduced by a preamble, which runs: " We, the Czechoslovak nation, desiring to consolidate the perfect unity of our people, to establish the reign of justice in the Republic, to assure the peaceful development of our native Czechoslovak land, to contribute to the common welfare of all citizens of this State and to secure the blessings of freedom to coming generations, have in our National Assembly this 29th day of February 1920 adopted the following Constitution for the Czechoslovak Republic: and in so doing we declare that it will be our endeavour to see that this Constitution together with all the laws of our land be carried out in the spirit of our history as well as in the spirit of those modern principles embodied in the idea of Self-determination, for we desire to take our place in the Family of Nations as a member at once cultured, peace-loving, democratic and progressive."
Mr Justice Stephen decided (Attorney-General v.
The presidency of the council of state belongs ex officio to the minister of justice.
They are composed of employers and workmen in equal numbers and are established by decree of the council of state, advised by the minister of justice.
For convenience the judge often sits at the royal courts of justice.
An article in the Spectator of the 17th of February 1883, by Lord Justice Bowen, gives perhaps the best idea of Smith's extraordinary personal qualities and influence.
It is therefore not a criterion which can do justice to the principles of Wagner's non-symphonic art, for its.
A special Ministry - that for " the unification of legislation and administrative organization " - has been entrusted with the unification of the law s for the whole republic; and two commissions of legal experts under the control of the Ministry of Justice were in 1921 at work on a careful revision of the old codes, which when completed would be issued as a uniform code for the entire republic.
68, Mr Justice Denman held that he had power to hear the case in camera, but he afterwards stated that there was considerable doubt among the judges as to the power to hear cases in camera, even by consent, and the case was, by consent of the parties, finally proceeded with before the judge as arbitrator.
" If matters arise," said Justice Saunders in Buckley v.
He used all his influence to hamper the president and to advance the political interests of Alexander Hamilton, until he was dismissed, after refusing to resign, in May 1800, Returning to Massachusetts, he served as chief justice of the court of common pleas of Essex county in 1802-1803.
His dying depositions, which were taken by Sir Francis North, chief justice of the common pleas, revealed nothing of importance.
The Theodosian Code and the Breviary of Alaric alike seem to imply a continuance of the municipal system which had been established by the Romans; nor does the later Lex Visigothorum, though avowedly designed in some points to supersede the Roman law, appear to have contemplated any marked interference with the former fora, which were still to a large extent left to be regulated in the administration of justice by unwritten, immemorial, local custom.
In an open space near the old palace stood the celebrated plane tree, beneath which Prince Nicholas gave audience to his subjects, and administered justice until the closing years of the 19th century.
A lineal descendant, William Crowninshield Endicott (1826-1900), graduated at Harvard in 1847, was a justice of the Massachusetts supreme court in 1873-1882, and was secretary of war in President Cleveland's cabinet from 1885 to 1889.
His supervision of the law courts was close and jealous; he transacted a great amount of judicial business in his own person, even after he had formed a high court of justice which might sit without his personal presence.
But it is the general opinion of historians that he had a high sense of his responsibilities and a strong love of justice; despite the looseness of his personal morals, he commanded the affection and respect of Gilbert Foliot and Hugh of Lincoln, the most upright of the English bishops.
In November 1813 he became minister of justice.
(1536) the subsequent administration of all law and justice in the English tongue throughout the Principality threatened for a time the ancient language of the people with practical extincttion.
The most prominent members of the convention were Sir Henry de Villiers, 4 chief justice of Cape Colony (president), exPresident Steyn (vice-president), Generals Botha, The de Wet and Delarey, Messrs Smuts, Schalk Burger, National Merriman and F.
He became in the same year chief justice of South Africa.
He had from the first been strongly opposed to the war, and in 1776 he published a pamphlet entitled Observations on Civil Liberty and the Justice and Policy of the War with America.
He was presently displaced by a thorough reactionary, General Zuloaga, and expelled from Mexico early in 1858; and for three years Mexico was a prey to civil war between two rival governments - the Republicans at Vera Cruz under Juarez, who, as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, succeeded Comonfort; and the reactionaries at the capital.
Just trying to explain them can't do them justice.
Dean could not understand someone voluntarily subjecting themselves to the tedium of the molasses-process of justice.
According to Vico, law emanates from the conscience of mankind, in whom God has infused a sentiment of justice.
31 a a formal protestatio, in which he not only denounced the failure of the Powers to do justice to.
The central court of justice at Malines was abolished, but the Grand Council was reorganized :and made thoroughly representative.
He redressed many grievances, regulated the administration of justice, encouraged commerce, reformed the coinage, but as time went on he was compelled to demand larger subsidies and to take severer measures against heretical opinions.
The love of right reason is the supreme virtue, whence flow the cardinal virtues, diligence, obedience, justice and humility.
On the one hand, there was no law except that of force by which an offence could be attributed to the sovereign, the anointed king, the source of justice.
Large steps were made towards the union of the two kingdoms by the representation of Scotland in the parliament at Westminster; free trade between the two countries was established, the administration of justice greatly improved, vassalage and heritable jurisdictions abolished, and security and good order maintained by the council of nine appointed by the Protector.
A merchant named Cony refused to pay customs not imposed by parliament, his counsel declaring their levy by ordinance to be contrary to Magna Carta, and Chief Justice Rolle resigning in order to avoid giving judgment.
Yet Cromwell's monument is not altogether misplaced in such surroundings, for in him are found the true principles of piety, of justice, of liberty and of governance.
The twelve senior thegns of the hundred play a part, the nature of which is rather doubtful, in the development of the English system of justice.
The possibility of reforming these contracts in some parts of the kingdom has been studied, in the hope of bringing them into closer harmony with the needs of rational cultivation and the exigencies of social justice.
In 1851 he was elected president of the chamber, and In the same year minister of justice, being the first Catholic who had held so high an office in Hanover.
The Florida Keys, a chain of islands extending in a general south-westerly direction from Biscayne Bay, are included in the state boundaries, and the city of Key West, on an island of the same name, is the seat of justice of Monroe county.
The supreme court consists of nine judges elected for a term of six years, one of those whose term next expires being chosen chief justice, and is divided into two departments.
" Our policy," said Dr. Benes in 1921, " is a policy of peace: in domestic affairs our programme is the logical sequel to our foreign policy, namely, social and racial order and justice, and unremitting effort on behalf of social and political democracy.
On June 9 1914 he became prime minister and Minister of Justice, but his Government was bitterly assailed by the Radical Socialists as well as other groups, and only lasted one day.
Four special commissions were appointed to superintend the administration of justice, the police and the finances.
Besides its legislative functions, the senate is the highest court of justice in the case of political offences or the impeachment of ministers.
Each county contains from three to eight justice of the peace districts.
A second objection urged, perhaps with less justice, against the theory is that it fails to account for the made his tour in 1773, whilst Hume's death did not take place till 1776.
A police court has the same jurisdiction as that of a justice of the peace, and, in addition, concurrent jurisdiction with the superior court in certain cases where the title to real estate is not involved and the damage demanded does not exceed one hundred dollars.
At the Reformation it was deprived of its status as a cathedral, and the building was used for some of the purposes of the courts of justice.
InApril1901,in the Canadian House of Commons, the minister of justice made a statement about them in which he said that "not a single offence had been committed by the Doukhobors; they were law-abiding, and if good conduct was a recommendation, they were good immigrants..
There is a ministry with five departments - for the prince's household, domestic affairs, finance, churches and schools, and justice.
the names, functions and powers of the houses of the legislature, the chief executive officials, and the courts of justice, with provisions regulating the electoral franchise; Provisions creating, or directing the creation of, a system of local government for cities and rural areas; Miscellaneous provisions relating to law and administration, including the militia, revenue and taxation, state prisons and hospitals, agriculture, banking and other corporations, railways, labor questions; Provisions for the amendment of the constitution; A schedule prescribing the method of submitting the draft constitution to the vote of the people, with temporary provisions regulating the mode of tranfition from the old constitutional arrang~ments to the new ones.
The administration of civil justice is decidedly better than that of criminal justice.
This signified particularly that when the king intervened directly in the administration proper, or in the administration of justice, by a special act of his will, he could decide without heeding the laws, and even in a sense contrary to the laws.
At the beginning of that reign Malesherbes during his short ministry endeavoured to infuse some measure of justice into the system, and in March 1784 the baron de Breteuil, a minister of the king's household, addressed a circular to the intendants and the lieutenant of police with a view to preventing the crying abuses connected with the issue of lettres de cachet.
JOHN COLERIDGE PATTESON (1827-1871), English missionary, bishop of Melanesia, was born in London on the 1st of April 1827, the eldest son of Sir John Patteson, justice of the King's Bench, and Frances Duke Coleridge, a near relative of Samuel Taylor Coleridge.
Harlan, a justice of the Supreme Court, and Mr John T.
4) in order to prove that in a wrong the injurer gains as much as the injured loses, and immediately afterwards to the reciprocal justice of commerce (ib.
Secondly, the Eudemian Ethics, while not agreeing with Plato's Republic that the just can be happy by justice alone, does not assign to the external goods of good fortune (Eutu X ia) the prominence accorded to them in the Nicomachean Ethics as the necessary conditions of all virtue, and the instruments of moral virtue.
But gentlemanliness is no longer called perfect virtue, as in the Eudemian Ethics: its place has been taken by justice, which is perfect virtue to one's neighbour, by prudence which unites all the moral virtues, and by wisdom which is the highest virtue.
In dealing with justice, it does not make it clear, as the Nicomachean Ethics (Book v.) does, that even universal justice is virtue towards another (M.M.
34, 11 93 b 1-15), and it omits altogether the division into distributive and corrective justice.
He means that a sophist like Protagoras will teach superficially anything as wisdom for money; and that even a dialectician like Plato will write a dialogue, such as the Republic, nominally about justice, but really about all things from the generality of the form of good, instead of from appropriate moral principles; but that a primary philosopher selects as a definite subject all things as such without interfering with the special sciences of different things each in its kind (Met.
Latterly, and possibly from its inception, this repository consisted of a closet with three locks, of which the keys were entrusted, one to the chief justice of England, another to the attorney-general and the third to the master of the crown office, or coroner.
In 1 453 the king succumbed, Alvaro was arrested, tried and condemned by a process which was a mere parody of justice, and executed at Valladolid on the 2nd of June 1453.
Considering the circumstances of the moment, Hodson's act at the worst was one of irregular justice.
This is an interpretation, frequently and not without some justice, put upon Berkeley's own expression.
On the 16th of May, after sessions in which the Senate repeatedly reversed the rulings of the chief justice as to the admission of evidence, in which the president's counsel showed that their case was excellently prepared and the prosecuting counsel appealed in general to political passions rather than to judicial impartiality, the eleventh article was voted on and impeachment failed by a single vote (35 to 19; 7 republicans and 12 democrats voting " Not guilty ") of the necessary two-thirds.
His characteristically British temperament was wholly unsympathetic to the French, whose sensibility was irritated by his cold and slightly contemptuous justice.
The palace of justice, on Rua Primeiro de Margo, is one of the finest edifices in the city; and the ministry of industry and public works, on the south side of the Praga 15 de Novembro may be noticed.
He was made minister of justice (Oct.
18 1919 he opened the Peace Conference in Paris with a short speech, in which he emphasized "justice" as the guiding principle of the victorious Allies.
On the right bank of the Elbe in Neustadt stand the fine buildings of the ministries of war, of finance, justice, the interior and education.
And although the Hundred Years' War led to a decline in the study of French and the disappearance of Anglo-Norman literature, the French language continued, through some vicissitudes, to be the classical language of the courts of justice until the 17th century.
481); two Anglo-Norman versions of Quatre sceurs (Justice, Truth, Peace, Mercy), 13th century (ed.
A further development in the common efforts which have been made by different powers to assure the reign of justice and judicial methods among the states of the world was the proposal of Secretary Knox of the United States to insert in the instrument of ratification of the International Prize Court Convention (adopted at the Hague in 1897) a clause stating that the International Prize Court shall be invested with the duties and functions of a court of arbitral justice, such as recommended by the first Voeu of the Final Act of the conference.
The object of this proposal was to give effect to the idea that the existing " permanent " court lacked the essential characteristics of national courts of justice in not being ready at all times to hear cases, and in needing to be specially constituted for every case submitted to it.
Secretary Knox's idea, as expressed in the identical circular note addressed by him on the 18th of October 1909 to the powers, was to invest the International Prize Court, proposed to be established by the convention of the 18th of October 1907, with the functions of a " court of arbitral justice."
This court, which the American government proposed to call a " Court of Arbitral Justice," would take the place of that which it was proposed to institute under Vc u No.
The declaration of the French government stated that: " France hoped that other nations would grow, as she had done, more and more attached to solutions of international difficulties based upon the respect of justice, and she trusted that the progress of universal opinion in this direction would enable nations to regard the lessening of the present military budgets, declared by the states represented at the Hague to be greatly desirable for the benefit of the material and moral state of humanity, as a practical possibility."
A new society was recently (1906) formed in America called the American Society of International Law, " to foster the study of international law and promote the establishment of international relations on the basis of law and justice."
He was associate justice of the United States Supreme Court in 1789-91, and chief justice of the supreme court of South Carolina in 1791-95.
Nominated chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States in 1795, he presided during the August term, but the Senate refused to confirm the nomination, apparently because of his opposition to the Jay Treaty.
was a most liberal monarch, reigning with great mildness and justice to his end, but that his brother, from his despotic and harsh disposition, upset all the other had done, and lost the throne.
On receiving the tidings of the conclusion of the peace of Nystad (August 30, 1721), Peter declared, with perfect justice, that it was the most profitable peace Russia had ever concluded.
Young Thomas More obtained admission through the influence of his father, Sir Thomas, then a rising barrister and afterwards a justice of the court of king's.
He not only refused all gifts - such as had been usual - himself, but took measures to prevent any of his connexions from interfering with the course of justice.
They were maladroit enough to attack him on his least vulnerable side, summoning him before the privy council to answer to a charge of receiving bribes in the administration of justice.
In June 1780 he was created chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas, with the title of Baron Loughborough.
Here the local authorities had their offices, justice was administered, traders trafficked, citizens and idlers gathered.
in 1189 granted the burghers leave to choose their bailiffs and a justice to hold the pleas of the crown within the borough, freedom from the obligation of duel, freedom of passage and pontage through England, free warren, fishery and custom as in the time of Henry I., and other privileges.
Three of the four judges allowed the defence of the cardinal to be valid; but it was held that the papal rescript upon which he relied for his extraordinary powers as delegate was illegal under statute; and the lord chief justice decided that the plaintiff could not renounce his natural and civil liberty.
They had also their special courts of justice, which were composed of not less than a hundred members, and their decisions, which were arrived at with extreme care, were irreversible.
If the result was satisfactory, he was admitted, but before partaking of the common meal he was required to swear awful oaths, that he would reverence the deity, do justice to men, hurt no man voluntarily or at the command of another, hate the unjust and assist the just, and that he would render fidelity to all men, but especially to the rulers, seeing that no one rules but of God.
On the Montbenon heights to the southwest of the cathedral group is the federal palace of justice, the seat (since 1886) of the federal court of justice, which, erected by the federal constitution of 29th May 1874, was fixed at Lausanne by a federal resolution of 26th June 1874.
This struggle between spiritual and secular powers, owing to the tremendous sensation which it created throughout Christendom, showed the nations that at the head of the Church there was a great force for justice, always able to combat iniquity and oppression, and sometimes to defeat them, however powerful the evil and the tyrants might seem.
History has not done sufficient justice to the Italian monk Paschal II., who was the equal of Urban in private virtues, personal disinterestedness, and religious conviction, Paschal /L, but was surpassed by him in ardour and rigidity 1099-u18.
As a statesman, he certainly committed grave faults - through excess of diplomatic subtlety, lack of forethought, and sometimes even through ingenuousness; but it must with justice be admitted that, in spite of his reputation for pugnacity and obstinacy, he never failed, either by temperament or on principle, to exhaust every peaceful expedient in settling questions.
On several occasions he defended the cause of moderation and justice against the fanatical crusaders, but he never had the energy to make it prevail.
387, that in cases for judicial separation the court has jurisdiction to hear the case in camera, where it is satisfied that justice cannot be done by hearing the case in public.
fnraros op&cvapcos =consul ordinarius, &pxcov op&cvapcos=praefectus ordinarius); but it also occasionally implied rank as distinct from office, all those who had the title of clarissimus being sometimes described as 6p&cvapcoc. In England the only case of the term being employed in its civil use was that of the office of judge ordinary created by the Divorce Act of 1857, a title which was, however, only in existence for the space of about eighteen years owing to the incorporation of the Divorce Court with the High Court of Justice by the Judicature Act 1875.
The Messiah is very variously conceived: (i) "a passive, though supreme member of the Messianic Kingdom"; (2) "an active warrior who slays his enemies with his own hand"; (3) "one who slays his enemies by the word of his mouth, and rules by virtue of his justice, faith and holiness"; (4) a supernatural person, "eternal Ruler and Judge of Mankind" (R.
Clement of Alexandria taught that justice is not merely retributive, that punishment is remedial, that probation continues after death till the final judgment, that Christ and the apostles preached the Gospel in Hades to those who lacked knowledge, but whose heart was right, that a spiritual body will be raised.
Extradition treaties are undertakings between states curtailing the exercise of the right of asylum in respect of refugees from justice, but the conditions therein laid down invariably show that nations regard the maintenance of this right of asylum as intimately connected with their right of independent action, however weak as states they may be, on their own soil.
Gracefully and respectfully, with statesmanlike yet feminine dexterity, the demands of Darnley's father for justice on the murderers of his son were accepted and eluded by his daughter-in-law.
In Edinburgh she was received by a yelling mob, which flaunted before her at each turn a banner representing the corpse of Darnley with her child beside it invoking on his knees the retribution of divine justice.
Elizabeth, by the mouth of her chief justice, formally rebuked the audacity of the subjects who durst bring such a charge against their sovereign, and challenged them to advance their proofs.
The tyranny of these nobles drove the peasantry and smaller vassals to seek the protection for life and property, the equality of taxation and of justice, which could be found only inside the walled city and under the rule of the archbishop. Thus Milan grew populous, and learned to govern itself.
Samuel Huntington (1731-1796) removed to Norwich about 1758, was a member of the Continental Congress in1776-1783and its president in 1779-1781, was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a justice of the supreme court of Connecticut in 1774-1784, and governor of Connecticut in 1786-1796.
Re-elected to the Legislative Chamber in 1849 he succeeded Odilon Barrot as minister of justice, with the additional office of keeper of the seals, which he retained with short intervals until January 1852.
688,398 Ministry of justice.
He has a fivefold wergild, summons the nobles and clergy for purposes of deliberation, calls out the host, administers justice and regulates finance.
expelled the Jews from his duchy, did something for the security of traders, and improved both the administration of justice and the condition of the finances.
Other noteworthy buildings are the provincial museum of antiquities, containing interesting Germanic antiquities, as well as medieval and modern collections of porcelain, pictures, &c.; the courts of justice (transformed in the middle of the 18th century); the old Ommelanderhuis, formerly devoted to the administration of the surrounding district, built in 1509 and restored in 1899; the weigh-house (1874); the civil and military prison; the arsenal; the military hospital; and the concert hall.
The heads of the departments to whom the especial executive functions are entrusted are eight in number - ministers respectively of the interior, of " water-staat," trade and industry (that is, of public works, including railways, post-office, &c.), of justice, of finance, of war, of marine, of the colonies and of foreign affairs.
The administration of justice is entrusted (1) to the high council (hooge rand) at the Hague, the supreme court of the whole kingdom, and the tribunal for all high government officials and for the members of the states-general; (2) to the five courts of justice established at Amsterdam, the Hague, Arnhem, Leeuwarden and 's Hertogenbosch; (3) to tribunals established in each arrondissement; (4) to cantonal judges appointed over a group of communes, whose jurisdiction is restricted to claims of small amount (under 200 guilders), and to breaches of police regulations, and who at the same time look after the interest of minors.
Criminal and correctional procedure were formerly divided between the courts of justice and the arrondissement tribunals; but this distinction was suppressed by the penal code of 1886, thereby increasing the importance of the arrondissement courts, which also act as court of appeal of the cantonal courts.
The order in council mentioned, which may be described as the first constitution granted Ashanti by its British owners, provides that the governor, in issuing ordinances respecting the administration of justice, the raising of revenue, or any other matter, shall respect any native laws by which the civil relations of any chiefs, tribes or populations are regulated, "except so far as they may be incompatible with British sovereignty or clearly injurious to the welfare of the natives themselves."
There are also preserved the bronze statues which stood over the portal of the palace before the fire - figures of Strength, Wisdom, Health and Justice, designed by Thorvaldsen.
He reached London on the 22nd of August, and next day was taken to Westminster Hall, where he was impeached as a traitor by Sir Peter Mallorie, the king's justice.
David was the youngest of a family of three, two sons and a daughter, who after the early death of the father were brought up with great care and devotion by their mother, the daughter of Sir David Falconer, president of the college of justice.
If we were to say that on his view the essential step must be the establishment of identities or equivalences, we should probably be doing justice to his doctrine of numerical reasoning, but should have some difficulty in showing the application of the method to geometrical reasoning.
But the full significance of his work on the theological side was not at the time perceived, and justice has barely been done to the admirable manner in which he reduced the theological disputes of the century to their ultimate elements.
The discourse on the resurrection answers objections to the doctrine, and attempts to prove its truth from considerations of God's purpose in the creation of man, His justice and the nature of man himself.
The court house (x818) stands on the site of the old court house, in which Governor George Clinton was inaugurated in July 1777, and in which Chief Justice John Jay held the first term of the New York Supreme Court in September 1777.
On the 8th of August 1829 he accepted the offer of the portfolio of justice in the Polignac ministry, but resigned on the 19th of May 1830, when he realized that the government intended to abrogate the Charter and the inevitable revolution that would follow.
The ministers represent departments for finance, foreign affairs, colonies, justice, the interior, science and arts, war, railways, posts and telegraphs, agriculture, public works, and industry and labour.
The administration of justice is very fully organized, and in the Code Belge, which was carefully compiled between 1831 and 1836 from the old laws of the nine provinces leavened by the Code Napoleon and modern exigencies, the Belgians claim that they possess an almost perfect statute-book.
Justice is represented by the gmina tribunals, which correspond to those of the mir in Russia; the justices of the peace (nominated by government); the syezd, or " court " of the justices of the peace; the district tribunals (assizes) in each government; and the Warsaw courts of appeal and cassation.
But his worst encounter was with the chief justice, Sir George Jeffreys, in May 1685.
The trial is well known as among the most brutal perversions of justice which have occurred in England, though it must be remembered that no authoritative report of the trial exists.
In 1606 Coke was made chief justice of the common pleas, but in 1613 he was removed to the office of chief justice of the king's bench, which gave him less opportunity of interfering with the court.
James, through Bacon, who was then attorney-general, commanded the chief justice to delay judgment till he himself should discuss the question with the judges.
The administration of justice is vested in a municipal court and in one court under justices of the peace and auxiliary justices; the administration of school affairs is vested in a special board of six members; and matters pertaining to health are administered by the insular bureau of health.
Truth, morals and justice are subject to no evolution; but the collective man evolves better forms of knowledge and behaviour.
Kingsley's life was written by his widow in 1877, entitled Charles Kingsley, his Letters and Memories of his Life, and presents a very touching and beautiful picture of her husband, but perhaps hardly does justice to his humour, his wit, his overflowing vitality and boyish fun.
The narrative has no affinity with the point of view which looks on the history of Israel as a series of examples of divine justice and mercy in the successive rebellions and repentances of the people of God.'
After occupying various subordinate posts at the Porte he became successively under-secretary of state for foreign affairs, governorgeneral of Syria and Smyrna, minister of commerce, and governor-general of Tripoli; minister successively of justice and of marine (1869); grand vizier from 1871 to 1872 and from 1875 to 1876.
In 1803 he was nominated governor of Madras, where he quarrelled with the chief justice, Sir Henry Gwillim, and several members of his council.
Emmanuel reformed the currency, reorganized justice, prepared the way for the emancipation of the serfs, raised the standing army to 25,000 men, and fortified the frontiers, ostensibly against Huguenot raids, but in reality from fear of France.
He was employed, sometimes as a negotiator, sometimes as a justice, sometimes as a royal secretary.
In 1195 Hubert issued an ordinance by which four knights were to be appointed in every hundred to act as guardians of the peace, and from this humble beginning eventually was evolved the office of justice of the peace.
But they did justice to the acuteness of his observations on morals and manners, to the constant precision and frequent brilliancy of his language, to the weighty and magnificent eloquence of many serious passages, and to the solemn yet pleasing humour of some of the lighter papers.
Judge David Davis, who knew Lincoln on the Illinois circuit and whom Lincoln made in October 1862 an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, said that he was "great both at nisi Arius and before an appellate tribunal."
President Lincoln executed the draft with all possible justice and forbearance, but refused every importunity to postpone it.
He loved manliness, truth and justice.
The imperial ministry of justice (Reichsjustizamt), presided over by a secretary of state.
Not content with merely making them places of defence, he decreed that they should be centres for the administraThe th ~ tion of justice, and that in them should be held all public festivities and ceremonies; he also instituted markets, and encouraged traders to take advantage of the opportunities provided for them.
Among the causes which undermined Henrys strength was the fact that the mediate nobles, who had stood loyally by his father, Conrad, were not his friends; probably his wars made serious demands upon them, and his strict administration of justice, especially his insistence upon the maintenance of the public peace, was displeasing to them.
The princes, now for the first time referred to officially as domini terrae, were given full rights of jurisdiction over their lands and all the inferior officers of justice were made subservient to them.
By it private war was declared unlawful, except in cases where justice could not be obtained; a chief justiciar was appointed for the Empire; all tolls and mints erected since the death of Henry VI.
The electors - were granted full sovereign rights over their lands, and their subjects were allowed to appeal to the royal or the imperial tribunals only in case they could not obtain justice elsewhere.
was too short to enable him to do more than indicate his good intentions; he acted in general with the electors in observing a neutral attitude with regard to the dispute between the council of Basel and Pope Eugenius IV., and he put forward a scheme to improve the administration of justice.
of the technically imperial fiefs, were divided and devised princes, by them at will like other forms of private property; they had nearly all the rights of a sovereign with regard to levying tolls, coining money, administering justice and granting privileges to towns; they were assisted in the work of government by a privy council, while their courts with their numerous officials began to resemble that of the king or emperor.
They claimed the right of sanctioning taxation; they made their voice heard about the expenditure of public money; they insisted, although perhaps not very effectually, on justice being administered.
An imperial court of justice, the Re-ichskammergericht, was established; this consisted of sixteen members nominated by the estates and a president appointed by the king.
and from some classes impossible, to obtain payment culties and of this tax, and the king was persistently hostile to further the imperial court of justice, his hostility and the want of money being indeed successful in preventing that institution for a time from doing any real service to Germany.
The Swiss refused to pay the common penny and to submit to the jurisdiction of the imperial court of justice.
At Constance, two years later, the diet raised men and money in a similar fashion, and on this occasion the imperial court of justice was restored, with some slight alteration in the method of appointing its members.
But it was some time before the circles came into working order; the only permanent reform of the reign was the establishment of the imperial court of justice, and even this was not entirely satisfactory, I\Iaximilians remaining diets loudly denouncing it for delay and incompetence.
They asked for a renewal of their ancient rights of fishing and hunting freely, for a speedier method of obtaining justice, and for the removal of new and heavy burdens.
By the intervention of Austrian troops peace was restored; and when, early in 1852, the government of Denmark, in providing a constitution for the whole monarchy, promised to appoint separate ministers for Schleswig and Holstein, and to do equal justice to the German and the Danish populations, the two powers declared themselves satisfied and the Austrian~ forces were withdrawn.
It was, however, opposition in the Bundesrat which obliged him to abandon his scheme for imperial railways, and when, in 1877, it was necessary to determine the seat of the new supreme court of justice, the proposal of the government that Berlin should be chosen was out-voted by thirty to twenty-eight in favor of Leipzig.
The close connection with the Poles, the principle of federalism which they maintained,the support given to them by the Bavarian patriots, their protest against the revolution from above as represented equally by the annexation of Hanover and the abolition of the papal temporal power, threw them into strong opposition to the prevailing opinion, an opposition which received its expression When Hermann von Mallincrodt (182 I 1874), the most respected of their parliamentary leaders, declared that justice was not present at the birth of the empire.
It was possible under these to procure decisions in courts of justice dissolving the General Union of Workers and the coalitions and unions of working men.
The constitution provided that no member of the House might be brought before a court of justice without the permission of the House, a most necessary safeguard.
In it are the business and industrial quarters; the palace of justice; the academy of science, with picture-galleries, a library and a collection of antiquities; the theatre; the Franz Josef University, founded in 1874 to teach theology, law and philosophy; the synagogue; and the only Protestant church existing in the country at the beginning of the 10th century.
In1781-1783he was a member of the Continental Congress, which in 1782 made him a judge of the court of appeals for admiralty cases; in 1784 he was one of the commissioners from Massachusetts to settle the boundary line between Massachusetts and New York; in1789-1801he was a judge of the U.S. District Court of Massachusetts; and from 1801 until his death in Roxbury on the 6th of May 1802 he was a justice of the U.S. Circuit Court for the First Circuit (Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Rhode Island).
On their expulsion by Michael Palaeologus in 1261 Pachymeres settled in Constantinople, studied law, entered the church, and subsequently became chief advocate of the church (rrpwrkbucos) and chief justice of the imperial court (SucacochuAa).
A few months later (December 6, 1864) he was appointed chief justice of the United States Supreme Court to succeed Judge Taney, a position which he held until his death in 1873.
The elder takes the Gospel off the white cloth, where it has lain all through the ceremony, and places it on the postulant's head, and the other good men present place their right hands on his head; they shall say the parcias (spare), and thrice the "Let us adore the Father and Son and Holy Spirit," and then pray thus: "Holy Father, welcome thy servant in thy justice and send upon him thy grace and thy holy spirit."
In 1793 Godwin published his great work on political science, The Inquiry concerning Political Justice, and its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness.
By the words "political justice" the author meant "the adoption of any principle of morality and truth into the practice of a community," and the work was therefore an inquiry into the principles of society, of government and of morals.
An affectionate son, and ever ready to give of his hard-earned income to more than one ne'er-do-well brother, he maintained that natural relationship had no claim on man, nor was gratitude to parents or benefactors any part of justice or virtue.
But when his own trial was discussed in the privy council, Pitt sensibly held that Political Justice, the work on which the charge could best have been founded, was priced at three guineas, and could never do much harm among those who had not three shillings to spare.
Until he made a large sum by the publication of Political Justice, he lived on an average of £120 a year.
His early correspondence with Shelley, which began in 1811, is remarkable for its genuine good sense and kindness; but when Shelley carried out the principles of the author of Political Justice in eloping with Mary Godwin, Godwin assumed a hostile attitude that would have been unjustifiable in a man of ordinary views, and was ridiculous in the light of his professions.
Courts of justice have jurisdiction to prevent the improper expulsion of the member of a voluntary association where that member has a right of property in the association.
When in 1861 the Southern states seceded from the Union and took up arms against it, he saw clearly that slavery would perish in the struggle, that the constitution would be purged of its pro-slavery clauses, and that the Union henceforth would rest upon the sure foundations of libert y, justice and equality to all men.
In 1714 Stacy sold his plantation at "The Falls" to William Trent (c. 1655-1724), speaker of the New Jersey Assembly (1723) and chief justice of the colony (1723-1724), in whose honour the place came to be called Trenttown or Trenton.
This might have been urged with justice before the Thirty Years' Truce (447); but by that truce Athens gave up all her conquests in Greece proper except Naupactus and Plataea, while her solitary gains in Amphipolis and Thurii were compensated by other losses.
Although a warmly patriotic Roman, he does full justice to the merits of the barbarian enemies of the empire, particularly the Ostrogoths; although the subject of a despotic prince, he criticizes the civil and military administration of Justinian and his dealings with foreign peoples with a freedom which gives a favourable impression of the tolerance of the emperor.
There was a small judicial staff directed by a chief justice, and there was a native constabulary of about 1000 men, trained and drilled by white officers.
Seventeen legislative proclamations were enacted in the first year dealing with the immediate necessities of the position, and providing for the establishment of a supreme and provincial court of justice, for the legalization of native courts of justice, and dealing with questions of slavery, importation of liquor and firearms, land titles, &c. In the autumn of 1901 the emir of Yola, the extreme eastern corner of the territories bordering upon the Benue, was, in consequence of the aggressions upon a trading station established by the Niger Company, dealt with in the same manner as the emirs of Nupe and Kontagora, and a new emir was appointed under British rule.
On the contrary it was presumed with justice that their overthrow would be hailed Progress in Southern Nigeria, 1885= 1906.
It remained to organize the territories for British rule, to institute a reformed system of taxation, to establish courts of justice, and to open the country to civilized occupation.
Farther removed from the river are the offices of the ministries of public works and of war - a large building surrounded by gardens - and of justice and finance.
The ministries are those of the interior, finance, public works, justice, war, foreign affairs and public instruction,1 and in each of these are prepared the drafts of decrees, which are then submitted to the council of ministers for approval, and on being signed by the khedive become law.
The judicial systems applicable solely to Egyptians are supervised by the ministry of justice, to which has been attached since 1890 a British judicial adviser.
His representatives are attached to each tribunal, and form the parquet under whose orders the police act in bringing criminals to justice.
To succeed, it was essential that the fellah should be taught that discipline might be strict without being oppressive, that pay and rations would be fairly distributed, that brutal usage by superiors would be checked, that complaints would be thoroughly investigated, and impartial justice meted out to soldiers of all ranks.
He was also the dispenser of office, confirmer of hereditary titles and estates and the fountain of justice.
The Porte was not able at the time to take active measures for the suppression of All Bey, and the latter endeavoured to consolidate his dominions by sending expeditions against marauding tribes, both in north and south Egypt, reforming the finance, and improving the administration of justice.
We will have thee, they replied, to govern us according to the laws; for we see in thy countenance that thou art possessed of justice and goodness.
The establishment of the Mixed Tribunals in 1876, in place of the system of consular jurisdiction in civil actions, made some of the courts of justice international.
Sir Benson Maxwell British and Mr Clifford Lloyd, who had been sent out to nd native reform the departments of justice and the interior, officials.
- He must be blind who sees not what the English have wrought in Egypt; the gates of justice stand open to the poor; the streams flow through the land and are not stopped by order of the strong; the poor man is lifted up and the rich man pulled down, the hand of the oppressor and the briber is struck when outstretched to do evil.
The quieting effect that this drastic action might have had was marred by the fact that certain members of the British parliament called in question the justice of the sentencespassed unanimously by a court of which the best English and the best native judge were members.
Thousands of brigands were brought to justice: within a short time the country was again quiet and safe.
The state council (Statsraad) includes the presidency of the council and ministries of war, and marine, foreign affairs, the interior, justice, finance, public institution and ecclesiastical, agriculture and public works.
For the administration of justice Denmark is divided into herreds or hundreds; as, however, they are mostly of small extent, several are generally served by one judge (herredsfoged); the townships are likewise separate jurisdictions, each with a byfoged.
In a word, the natural cohesion of the Danish nation had been loosened and there was no security for law and justice.
The popular tribunals regained their authority, and a supreme court of justice, Det Kongelige Retterting, presided over by Valdemar himself, not only punished the unruly and guarded the prerogatives of the crown, but also protected the weak and defenceless from the tyranny of the strong.
Alberti, who had been minister of justice since 1901, and was admitted to be the strongest member of the cabinet, was openly accused of nepotism and abuse of the power of his position.
He resigned in 1885 on being appointed by the governor justice of the N.Y.
In 1898 he was elected chief justice of the N.Y.
He published in 1873 Pour la verite et pour la justice, in justification of the government of national defence, and in 1879 L'Armee francaise en 1879, par un officier en retraiie, a sort of supplement to his former work of 1867.
Alfred's care for the administration of justice is testified both by history and legend; and the title " protector of the poor " was his by unquestioned right.
There was nothing about which Frederick took so much trouble as the proper administration of justice.
They were to execute justice, to enforce respect for the royal rights, to control the administration of the counts, to receive the oath of allegiance, and to supervise the conduct and work of the clergy.
After the organization of the Federal government, President Washington offered him at different times appointments as associate justice of the Supreme Court (1791), secretary of war (1795) and secretary the document sent by Pinckney to Adams in 1818 is a genuine copy of his original plan.
Charles Pinckney, the father, was long prominent in colonial affairs; he was attorney-general of the province in 1733, speaker of the assembly in 1736-1738 and in 1740, chief justice of the province in 1752-1753, and agent for South Carolina in England in 1 7531758.
It was at first announced that he had been returned by two votes; but a scrutiny eventually seated his Conservative opponent, who became afterwards Mr. Justice Ridley.
" he exlaimed to Derzhavin, the minister of justice, " but I am the autocratic emperor, and I will this, and nothing else !
But the former is tainted by venality, which, aggravated by the scantiness of judicial salaries or in some cases by the judge having no salary at all, is almost universal among the administrators of justice.
The picture, painted for the elector Frederick of Saxony, is now in the Imperial Gallery at Vienna; the overcrowded canvas (into which Darer has again introduced his own portrait as a spectator alongside of the elector) is full of striking and animated detail, but fails to make any great impression on the whole, and does not do justice to the improved sense of breadth and balance in design, of clearness and dignity in composition, which the master had undoubtedly brought back with him from his second visit to Italy.
This is the Puerta Judiciaria rre de 1 a Plaza de la Artilleria 1 l ï¿½ Plaza de t orte de los Picos (Gate of Judgment), a massive horseshoe archway, surmounted by a square tower, and used by the Moors as an informal court of justice.
Among the other wonders of the Alhambra are the Sala de la Justicia (Hall of Justice), the Patio del Mexuar (Court of the Council Chamber), the Patio de Daraxa (Court of the Vestibule), and the Peinador de la Reina (Queen's Robing Room), in which are to be seen the same delicate and beautiful architecture, the same costly and elegant decorations.
An endeavour had been made by the emperor Leo the Isaurian to remedy this evil, but his attempted reform of the law had been rather calculated to increase its uncertainty; and it was reserved for Basil the Macedonian to show himself worthy of the throne, which he had usurped, by purifying the administration of justice and once more reducing the law into an intelligible code.
The chief secular buildings are the town-hall (Rathaus), built in 1691 and enlarged in 1866, the government offices, the palace of justice, the central railway station and the exchange.
But he was scrupulous of the rights of others, and it was his eager desire to further the cause of justice that impressed his French contemporaries.
In 1869 President Grant appointed him a justice of the United States Supreme Court, but he died on the 24th of December, four days after his appointment.
His charters to landowners and burghs (charters not being novel in Scotland, but now more lavishly conferred) substituted written documents for the unwritten customs of Celtic tenure, and converted the under kings of provinces into earls of the king, while vice-comites, or sheriffs, administered local justice in the king's name, though Celtic custom still prevailed, under a thin veneer of law, in the Celtic regions, as in Galloway.
In the matter of justice, royal succeeded to tribal authority.
While Roman law became the foundation of justice, a learned clerk was needed as assessor and developed into the Lord Justice Clerk.
The vice-comes, or sheriff, as the king's direct representative, was the centre of justice for shires, and his judicature tended to encroach on that of noble holders of courts.
More important was the establishment of a new court of justice, the court of Session, to sit thrice in the year.
On the 7th or 9th of October, Mary went to Jedburgh on the affairs of Border justice, and a week later she rode with Murray to Hermitage castle, where for several days Bothwell had lain, wounded nearly to death by Eliot, a border reiver.
While the rival bands of preachers squabbled, Cromwell, like Edward I., arranged that Scottish members should sit in Westminster, and, commercially, as in the administration of fair justice, and the peace of the country, Scotland prospered under English rule.
Scotland was to have forty-five members and sixteen elected peers at Westminster; the holders of Darien stock were compensated; as a balance to equality of taxation a pecuniary equivalent was to be paid, the kirk and Scottish courts of justice were safeguarded (final appeal being to the British House of Lords), and Scots shared English facilities and privileges of trade, in name, for many years passed before Scotland really began to enjoy the benefits.
310, in which,, when it came before the English courts, Mr Justice Kay inclined to the same view, but the court of appeal avoided giving an opinion on the point.
In 1880 he became editor of Justice, and worked with success to bring about a revision of the sentences passed on the Communards.
To the reign of Cnut belong the "Constitutiones de Foresta," according to which four thanes were appointed in every province for the administration of justice in all matters connected with the forests; under them were four inferior thanes to whom was committed immediate care of the vert and venison.'
In avenging wrong, a member of the village or of the clan to which the offender belonged would serve equally well to satisfy their ideas of justice if the culprit himself could not be easily reached.
He was Minister of Education in the Giolitti-Tittoni Cabinet of 1903-5, and of Justice in the Giolitti Cabinet of 1907-9, and again under Salandra in March 1914.
In 1880 he started his newspaper, La Justice, which became the principal organ of Parisian Radicalism; and from this time onwards throughout M.
In 1900 he withdrew from La Justice to found a weekly review, Le Bloc, which lasted until March 1902.
Other buildings remarkable for their size and interest are: the national museum (1836-1844); the town-hall (1869-1875), in the early Renaissance style; the university, with a baroque facade (rebuilt 1900), and the university library (opened in 1875), a handsome Renaissance building; the palace of justice (1896), a magnificent edifice situated not far from the Houses of Parliament.
In its neighbourhood also are the palatial buildings of the ministries of justice and of agriculture.
took place in September, of which event Henry stood in great suspicion, as Francis was ostensibly his most cordial ally, and had hitherto maintained the justice of his cause in the matter of the divorce.
He was renowned for his piety and justice.
Then follows a decree of the emperor (T`ait-sung, a very famous prince), issued in 638, in favour of the new doctrine, and ordering a church to be built in the square of justice and peace (Ining fang) in the capital.
The construction of roads, the abolition of direct taxes and of the system of farming the church lands, the securing of impartial administration of justice, and the establishment of educational institutions are among the services ascribed to his efforts.
There were many who questioned at the time the justice of his estimate of the workmen's feelings; and, though he renewed his vehement protest against the first Military Service bill in Jan.
In the early middle ages the term was applied to representatives of a count administering justice for him in the country or small towns and dealing with unimportant cases, levying taxes, &c. Monasteries and religious houses often employed a vicar to answer to their feudal lords for those of their lands which did not pass into mortmain.
15, 16), and as controlled in his administration by truth, kindness and justice (xx.
Still less historical justification is to be found for the vacillating Weisslingen in whom Goethe executed poetic justice on himself as the lover of Friederike, or in the women of the play, the gentle Maria, the heartless Adelheid.
Again poetic justice is effected on the unfortunate hero who has chosen his own personal advancement in preference to his duty to the woman he loves; more pointedly than in Gotz is the moral enforced by Clavigo's worldly friend Carlos, that the ground of Clavigo's tragic end lies not so much in the defiance of a moral law as in the hero's vacillation and want of character.
His zeal for the efficient administration of justice caused him, in addition to his other heavy work, to sit during several weeks in the spring of 1921 as a judge of first instance, in order to clear off the enormous arrears in the Divorce Court.
His works, The Five Wounds of the Holy Church and The Constitution of Social Justice, aroused great opposition, especially among the Jesuits, and in 1849 they were placed upon the Index.
His election for Clare in 1828 proved the forerunner of the inevitable change, and the Catholic claims were granted the next year, to the intense regret of the Protestant Irish, by a government avowedly hostile to the last, but unable to withstand the overwhelming pressure of a people united to insist on justice.
He was convicted (February 1844) after the trials that followed, but they were not good specimens of equal justice, and the sentence of imprisonment for a year and a fine of £2000 was reversed on a writ of error by the House of Lords (September 1844), and he and his colleagues were again free.
It is the capital of a department bearing the same name, and the seat of a prefecture, a tribunal of justice, a college and several national or normal schools.
The former, the sun-deity, god of justice, &c., was already well known, to judge from Palestinian place-names (Beth-Shemesh, &c.).
At all events, when one considers the Babylonian-Assyrian conceptions of Shamash as the supreme and righteous judge, god of truth and justice, or the monotheism of Amenophis IV.
While the code, according to its own lights, aims at strict justice rather than charity, the Old Testa ment has reforming aims, and the religious, legislative and social ideals are characterized by the insistence upon a lofty moral and ethical standard.
The constitution of 1572 was his work, and by these laws the church, the universities and the police were regulated, the administration of justice was improved, and the raising of taxes placed upon a better footing (see Saxony).
His death was variously ascribed "to despair, to poison, and to the divine justice."
His father, Peter Jefferson (1707-1757), of early Virginian yeoman stock, was a civil engineer and a man of remarkable energy, who became a justice of the peace, a county surveyor and a burgess, served the Crown in,' inter-colonial boundary surveys, and married into one of the most prominent colonial families, the Randolphs.
Jefferson began his public service as a justice of the peace and parish vestryman; he was chosen a member of the Virginia house of burgesses in 1769 and of every succeeding assembly and convention of the colony until he entered the Continental Congress in 1775.
But mere justice requires attention to the fact that incentive to that innovation, and excuse for it, were found in the absolute one-party monopoly maintained by the Federalists.
There were philosophic and philanthropic elements in his political faith which will always lead some to class him as a visionary and fanatic; but although he certainly indulged at times in dreams at which one may still smile, he was not, properly speaking, a visionary; nor can he with justice be stigmatized as a fanatic. He felt fervently, was not afraid to risk all on the conclusions to which his heart and his mind led him, declared himself with openness and energy; and he spoke and even wrote his conclusions, how ever bold or abstract, without troubling to detail his reasoning or clip his off-hand speculations.
In the Pyramid texts Thoth is already closely associated with the Osiris myth, having aided the god by his science and knowledge of magic, and demonstrated the justice of his claims in the contest with Set.
Next to the amir comes the court of the kazi, the chief centre of justice, and beneath the kazi comes the kotwal, who performs, as in India, the ordinary functions of a magistrate.
Lubeck has a court of first instance (Amtsgericht) and a high court of justice (Landgericht); from the latter appeals lie to the Hanseatic court of appeal (Oberlandesgericht) at Hamburg, and from this again to the supreme court of the empire (Reichsgericht) in Leipzig.
- At the first rise of the town justice was administered to the inhabitants by the Vogt (advocatus) of the count of Holstein.
The fifth and sixth definitions represent the close of the 5th century, when sophistry handled eristically, and perhaps, though Plato demurs to the inclusion, dialectically, questions of justice, injustice and the like, Su
In particular he allows that " there was at any rate enough of charlatanism in Protagoras and Hippias to prevent any ardour for their historical reputation," that the sophists generally " had in their lifetime more success than they deserved," that it was " antagonism to their teaching which developed the genius of Socrates," and, above all, that, " in his anxiety to do justice to the Sophist, Grote laid more stress than is at all necessary on the partisanship of Plato."
Impatient of all restraint upon his personal rule, he was continually in violent dispute with the parlement of Paris, and made "justice" another name for arbitrary government; yet he dreamed of a unification of the local customary laws (coutumes) of France.
If the Hindu village system may be praised for its justice, the Mogul farming system had at least the merit of efficiency.
At first nawabs were only found in important cities, such as Surat and Dacca, with the special function of administering civil justice; criminal justice was in the hands of the kotwdl.
The king, Wajid Ali, bowed to irresistible force, though he ever refused to recognize the justice of his deposition.
This document, which has been called the Magna Charta of the Indian people, went on to explain the policy of political justice and religious toleration which it was her royal pleasure to pursue, and granted an amnesty to all except those who had directly taken part in the murder of British subjects.
She was a poet of delicate power, but also possessed a lofty enthusiasm, a high conception of purity and justice, and a practical temper which led her to concern herself 1 See under Lowell, John.
The trials were conducted with the most scandalous contempt of justice, and moral and physical torture was applied to extort confessions.
In 1777 he was chairman of the committee of the convention which drafted the first New York state constitution After acting for some time as one of the council of safety (which administered the state government until the new constitution came into effect), he was made chief justice of New York state, in September 1777.
A clause in the state constitution prohibited any justice of the Supreme Court from holding any other post save that of delegate to Congress on a "special occasion," but in November 1778 the legislature pronounced the secession of what is now the state of Vermont from the jurisdiction of New Hampshire and New York to be such an occasion, and sent Jay to Congress charged with the duty of securing a settlement of the territorial claims of his state.
In making his first appointments to federal offices President Washington asked Jay to take his choice; Jay chose that of chief justice of the Supreme Court, and held this position from September 1789 to June 1795.
A supreme court of civil and criminal justice was established in 1831 under a chief judge and three puisne judges.
Lord Lee's eldest son, Sir William Lockhart of Lee (1621-1675), after fighting on the king's side in the Civil War, attached himself to Oliver Cromwell, whose niece he married, and by whom he was appointed commissioner for the administration of justice in Scotland in 1652, and English ambassador at the French court in 1656, where he greatly distinguished himself by his successful diplomacy.
His father used his utmost influence to have the guilty parties (for more than one were concerned, and there are grounds for thinking that it was not a fair duel) brought to justice.
Civil justice for natives is administered, in the first instance, by the headmen of villages, provinces, tribes, or by councils of notables (Shumagalle); in appeal, by the residents and regional tribunals, and, in the last instance, by the colonial court of appeal.
Penal justice is administered by Italian judges only.
On the 1st of September 1900 this body assumed the legislative functions of the central government at Manila; on the 4th of July 1901 the executive authority was, by order of the president, transferred from the military governor to Judge Taft, whom he had appointed civil governor; on the 6th of September 1901 the Philippine Commission, by authority of the president, established the four executive departments, of interior, commerce -and police, finance and justice, and public instruction; and on the 29th of October 1901 the president appointed a vice-governor.
Justice is administered principally by a supreme court, courts of first instance, and courts of justices of the peace.
The supreme court consists of seven members, four Americans and three Filipinos; and the chief justice and associate justices of the supreme court are appointed by the president of the United States with the consent of the Senate.
Shamash the sun-god was invested with justice as his chief trait, Marduk is portrayed as full of mercy and kindness, Ea is the protector of mankind who is grieved when, through a deception practised upon Adapa, humanity is deprived of immortality.
In such a movement as early Christian gnosticism, Babylonian elements - modified, to be sure, and transformed - are largely present, while the growth of an apocalyptic literature is ascribed with apparent justice by many scholars to the recrudescence of views the ultimate source of which is to be found in the astral-theology of the Babylonian and Assyrian priests.
The early months of 50 were occupied by the administration of justice, chiefly at Laodicea, and by various attempts to alleviate the distress in the province caused by the exactions of his predecessor, Appius Claudius.
Some critics have impugned his legal knowledge, but probably without justice.
From the speech pro Cluentio (1 451 54) we gain unique information concerning the condition of society in a country town, the extraordinary exemption of equites from prosecution for judicial corruption, the administration of domestic justice in the case of slaves examined by their owner (ib.
He had the satisfaction of carrying out the decree which ordered that all the statues of Antony should be demolished, and thus " the divine justice reserved the completion of Antony's punishment for the house of Cicero" (Plutarch).
The propositions maintained in the argument are - "(1) That something has existed from eternity; (2) that there has existed from eternity some one immutable and independent being; (3) that that immutable and independent being, which has existed from eternity, without any external cause of its existence, must be self-existent, that is, necessarily existing; (4) what the substance or essence of that being is, which is self-existent or necessarily existing, we have no idea, neither is it at all possible for us to comprehend it; (5) that though the substance or essence of the self-existent being is itself absolutely incomprehensible to us, yet many of the essential attributes of his nature are strictly demonstrable as well as his existence, and, in the first place, that he must be of necessity eternal; (6) that the self-existent being must of necessity be infinite and omnipresent; (7) must be but one; (8) must be an intelligent being; (9) must be not a necessary agent, but a being endued with liberty and choice; (to) must of necessity have infinite power; (I I) must be infinitely wise, and (12) must of necessity be a being of infinite goodness, justice, and truth, and all other moral perfections, such as become the supreme governor and judge of the world."
The Pagophila is the so-called ivory-gull, P. eburnea, names which hardly do justice to the extreme whiteness of its plumage, to which its jet-black legs offer a strong contrast.
Penal servitude, to use the words of the lord chief justice Sir Alexander Cockburn, one of the members of the committee, "was hardly calculated to produce on the mind of the criminal that salutary dread of the recurrence of the punishment which may be the means of deterring him and, through his example, others from the commission of crime."
After the administration of justice he directed his organizing activity, as the circumstances demanded, chiefly towards financial questions - the incidence of taxation in the conquered territories,' and the application of the vast resources which poured into the treasury at Medina.
She answered that, if he was confident in the justice of his cause, he must die sword in hand.
He endeavoured above all to procure justice for all his subjects.
He banished the musicians and singers, and forbade all kinds of games; he devoted himself to the administration of justice, and gave public audiences to the people for the redress of their grievances.
In 1788, having been appointed prosecuting attorney of the western district of North Carolina (now the state of Tennessee),he removed to Nashville, the seat of justice of the district.
As doubtful questions of trust, of wardship, of testamentary succession, they were taken up not in the strict course of justice, but as matters in which redress was sorely needed and had to be brought by the exceptional power of the court of chancery.
The former is composed of a chief justice and six puisne judges appointed by the Crown; the latter of a judicial commissioner and two additional judicial commissioners.
Recent logic does scant justice to scientific analysis.
What they said with justice was said as well or better elsewhere.
Yet in his anxiety to do justice to his subject he steeped himself in Macaulay till his style often recalls that which he is censuring.
There are, moreover, numerous passages in the sacred books of the East, especially those of the Buddhists, which warn the student against the assumption that "magical" performances of any kind are to be regarded as proving the truth of the performer's teaching; and indeed it must be owned in justice to the theosophists that similar warnings are to be found scattered throughout their writings; while even Madame Blavatsky herself was wont to expatiate on the folly of accepting her "phenomena" as the mark of spiritual truth.
It has been said with some justice that Philip II.
Its functions resemble the Venetian council of ten, and its objects are to preserve unity, peace and justice amongst the followers of Zoroaster.
The government is carried on by a ministry of three, holding the portfolios of finance; of home and foreign affairs; and of religion, education and justice, with which is combined the ducal household.
Justice is administered by two high courts (Landesgerichte), at Weimar and Eisenach respectively; the district of Neustadt falling under the jurisdiction of the Landesgericht at Gera; while the supreme court of appeal for the four Saxon duchies, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Reuss, together with portions of Prussia, is the Oberlandesgericht at Jena.
He exercised a moderating influence on Louis XIV.'s zeal against the Jansenists, and Saint-Simon, who was opposed to him in most matters, does full justice to his humane and honourable character.
The procedure was a travesty of justice.
The last phrase scarcely does justice to the truly humane and devout intentions of the missionaries; but in truth the mission system was a complete failure save in the accumulation of material wealth.
In the first volume, anticipating an obvious complaint, he had protested against digressions that left the main work to stand still, and had boasted - not without justice in a Shandean sense - that he had reconciled digressive motion with progressive.
Her elder sister, Martha, was betrothed by her parents to Thomas Kyme, a Lincolnshire justice of the peace, but she died before marriage, and Anne was induced or compelled to take her place.
With reference to their objects, treaties may perhaps be conveniently classified as (r) political, including treaties of peace, of alliance, of cession, of boundary, for creation of international servitudes, of neutralization, of guarantee, for the submission of a controversy to arbitration; (2) commercial, including consular and fishery conventions, and slave trade and navigation treaties; (3) confederations for special social objects, such as the Zollverein, the Latin monetary union, and the still wider unions with reference to posts, telegraphs, submarine cables and weights and measures; (4) relating to criminal justice, e.g.
to extradition and arrest of fugitive seamen; (5) relating to civil justice, e.g.
the power of having justice executed, which he passed on to the lesser officers, from the king or emperor direct.
Against this state of things the crafts rebelled, alleging mismanagement, malversation and the withholding of justice.
The last was, however, as in Germany, more properly the title of the jurors in the court of justice, which in many cases remained in the hands of the lord.
The administration of justice is vested principally in a supreme court, district courts, justices of the peace and municipal courts.
The supreme court consists of three justices who are elected by the state at large for a term of eight years, and the one having the shortest term to serve is chief justice.
A justice of the peace and a constable are elected for and by each precinct.
The first great inrush of population, following the discovery of gold and the opening of the railway, brought many desperate characters, who were held in check only by the stern, swift measures of frontier justice.
the national and priestly elements controlled; doubtless many individuals still were faithful to the purer prophetic message, though also zealous for the system of ritual and sacrifice, but for the ruling majority ritualistic service was the chief thing, justice, purity and mercy being subordinate.
Thus, according to the canons of the ancient philosophy, justice is done to all the factors of our problem - God remains as Father, the infinitely remote and absolute source of all; as Son, the Word who is.
"Justice and injustice," he said, "are not natural but legal."
The supreme judicial authority is vested in a Supreme Court, which consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices, all appointed for life by the president, subject to confirmation by the Senate.
The executive is entrusted to a president similarly chosen for six years (instead of four) and aided by a cabinet representing the five ministries of foreign affairs and education, finance, internal administration and justice, war and marine, and public works.
For administrative purposes the republic is divided into 13 departments and 2 comarcas, each under a political head who acts as military commandant and controls education, finance, &c. The administration of justice is entrusted to numerous courts of first instance, three courts of appeal, and a supreme court.
His conversational abilities won him the friendship of Lord Macclesfield (chief justice 1710-1718) who introduced him to Addison, described by Mandeville as "a parson in a tye-wig."
He increased the number of the praetors from six to eight, and ordained that henceforward all the eight should in their first year administer justice at Rome and in their second should as propraetors undertake the government of provinces.
The first few days of his reign - when he paid his uncle's debts, administered justice in person, and proclaimed universal religious toleration - gave bright promise, but in the face of the lawless aristocracy and defiant governors of provinces he effected few subsequent reforms. The most important event of his reign was the invasion of Italy by the Lombards, who, entering in 568, under Alboin, in a few years made themselves masters of nearly the entire country.
To meet this special perplexity, the author holds up the picture of early days, when the great protagonist of the Gospel constantly enjoyed protection at the hands of Roman justice.
The face of the world has changed so greatly since Paley's day that we are apt to do less than justice to his undoubted merits.
There is, as we shall see afterwards, some ground for believing that there were circulated in England two rival poetic versions of the story of the encounters with supernatural beings: the one referring them to Beowulf the Dane, while the other (represented by the existing poem) attached them to the legend of the son of Ecgtheow, but ingeniously contrived to do some justice to the alternative tradition by laying the scene of the Grendel incident at the court of a Scylding king.
In the Mall are the building of the Department of Agriculture, the Smithsonian Institution (q.v.), the National Museum (1910), the Army Medical Museum and the Bureau of Fisheries, and here a building for the Department of Justice is to be erected.
Simson continued as president of the Reichstag until 1874, when he retired from the chair, and in 1877 resigned his seat in the Diet, but at Bismarck's urging, accepted the presidency of the supreme court of justice (Reichsgericht), and this high office he filled with great distinction until his final retirement from public life in 1891.
The administration of justice is vested principally in a supreme court of appeals, circuit courts, city courts and courts of a justice of the peace.
There are also justices of the peace (elected) and police justices (appointed) in cities, and in various minor cases a justice's court has original jurisdiction, either exclusive or concurrent, with the circuit and corporation courts.
In each city having a population of 70,000 or more a special justice of the peace, known as a civil justice, is elected by a joint vote of the Senate and the House of Delegates for a term of four years.
The causes for an absolute divorce are adultery; impotency; desertion for three years; a sentence to confinement in the penitentiary; a conviction of an infamous offence before marriage unknown to the other; or, if one of the parties is charged with an offence punishable with death or confinement in the penitentiary, and has been a fugitive from justice for two years; pregnancy of the wife before marriage unknown to the husband, or the wife's being a prostitute before marriage unknown to the husband.
and Henry II., of Glanvill and Suger, of Abelard and Maimonides, of Frederick Barbarossa and Alexander III., of the emancipation of French communes and cities and the independence of those of Lombardy, of the growth of gilds and the extension of commerce, of trouvere and troubadour and the beginnings of vernacular literature, of the creation of Gothic art, of trial by jury and the supremacy of royal justice.
The highly theatrical manner of recitation which was fostered by the spirit of competition, and by the example of the stage, cannot have done justice to the even movement of the epic style.
Wilson remarks," notwithstanding the acknowledged purport of this worship, it is but justice to state that it is unattended in Upper India by any indecent or indelicate ceremonies, and it requires a rather lively imagination to trace any resemblance in its symbols to the objects they are supposed to represent."In spite, however, of its wide diffusion, and the vast number of shrines dedicated to it, the worship of Siva has never assumed a really popular character, especially in northern India, being attended with scarcely any solemnity or display of emotional spirit.
Courts of justice have been established and British garrisons quarfered at various places in the province.
The act of 1829 provides that nothing therein contained is to enable a Roman Catholic to hold the office of guardian and justice of the United Kingdom, or of regent of the United Kingdom; of lord chancellor, lord keeper, or lord commissioner of the great seal of Great Britain or Ireland or lord lieutenant of Ireland; of high commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, or of any office in the Church of England or Scotland, the ecclesiastical courts, cathedral foundations and certain colleges.
The petitions addressed to the senate by the town of Bononia and by the communities of Rhodes and Ilium were gracefully supported by him in Latin and Greek speeches, and during Claudius's absence in 52 at the Latin festival it was Nero who, as praefect of the city, administered justice in the forum.
Keble's life was written by his life-long friend Mr Justice J.
ELIZABETH CADY STANTON (1815-1902), American reformer, was born in Johnstown, New York, on the 12th of November 1815, the daughter of Daniel Cady (1773-1859), a Federalist member of the National House of Representatives in 1815-1817 and a justice of the supreme court of New York state in 1847-1855.
By these enactments it was provided that all classes of the sultan's subjects should have security for their lives and property; that taxes should be fairly imposed and justice impartially administered; and that all should have full religious liberty and equal civil rights.
Nevertheless he declared his loyalty and that he desired only justice and good government.
On relinquishing his command, for example, he was able to do what no other man could have done with either propriety or safety: he addressed a circular letter to the governors, pointing out changes in the existing form of government which he believed to be necessary, and urging "an indissoluble union of the states under one federal head," "a regard to public justice," the adoption of a suitable military establishment for a time of peace, and the making of "those mutual concessions which are requisite to the general prosperity."
Pachuca has some fine modern edifices, among which are the palace of justice, a scientific and literary institute, a school of mines and metallurgy, founded in 1877, a meteorological observatory and a public library.
In the former he claimed, for the protection of the rights of private persons in the administration of justice, the institution of a special court whose members should be irremovable, the right of oral defence, and publicity of trial.
Finally, peoples' court, acting wholly without reference to Kansas, and with no more than suited them (some districts refusing taxes) to the local "provisional" legislature, secured justice in the mining country.
Other matters within the jurisdiction of the commissioners were such as related to disputes between two or more colonies and the return of escaped servants, prisoners and fugitives from justice.
In 1676 the Lords of Trade and Plantations sent over Edward Randolph to investigate and gather information which would show the justice and expediency of imposing imperial control, and two years later Randolph was appointed Collector and Surveyor of Customs in New England.
Plutarch, too, though he takes the unfavourable view, mentions that the Sicilians gave to the severity of Phalaris the name of justice and a hatred of crime.
Phalaris may thus have been one of those men who combine justice and even humanity with religious fanaticism (Suidas, s.v.; Diod.
The country was divided into six governments, a second superior court of justice was founded at Vasa, many new towns were built, commerce flourished, and science and art were encouraged.
Good Order, Justice, Peace) the extension of their functions as goddesses of order from nature to the events of human life, and at the same time invests them with moral attributes.
Like the Moerae (Fates), they regulate the destinies of man, watch over the newly born, secure good laws and the administration of justice.
LORD CHIEF JUSTICE, in England, the presiding judge of the king's bench division of the High Court of Justice, and in the absence of the lord chancellor, president of the High Court.
The king's bench represented the original stock of the curia regis, and its chief justice the great justiciar.
Before the Judicature Act the king's bench and the common pleas were each presided over by a lord chief justice, and the lord chief justice of the king's bench was nominal head of all the three courts, and held the title of lord chief justice of England.
The titles of lord chief justice of the common pleas and lord chief baron were abolished by the Judicature Act 1873, and all the common law divisions of the High Court united into the king's bench division, the president of which is the lord chief justice of England.
The lord chief justice is, next to the lord chancellor, the highest judicial dignitary in the kingdom.
was worn by the chiefs of the three courts previous to their amalgamation in 1873, and that now worn by the lord chief justice of England was provided by Sir A.
In the United States the supreme court consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices, any six of whom make a quorum.
The salary of the chief justice is $13,000 and that of the associates $12,500.
The chief justice takes rank next after the president, and he administers the oath on the inauguration of a new president and vice-president.
The principal or presiding judge in most of the state judicatures also takes the title of chief justice.
In like manner the principle of formal justice has the same claim in respect to revenue as to expenditure.