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jurassic

jurassic

jurassic Sentence Examples

  • The Jurassic system is represented by two types.

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  • This view is supported by Neumayr's comparison of Jurassic faunas throughout the world.

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  • Jurassic Oeuonian Volcanic Rock, country was free from outbursts, except in the regions of the Alps and Pyrenees.

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  • Elsewhere the plants generally indicate a higher horizon and are considered to correspond with the Rhaetic of Europe_ Jurassic beds are known only in the Cordillera itself, and the Cretaceous beds, which occur in the west of the country, are of freshwater origin.

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  • Nearly complete skeletons of allied reptiles have been discovered in the Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks of North America.

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  • From the number of its cheek-teeth, the banded ant-eater has been regarded as related to some of the primitive Jurassic mammals; but this view is disputed by Mr Bensley, who regards this multiplicity of teeth as a degenerate feature.

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  • On the other hand, it is noteworthy that this marsupial retains in its lower jaw the so-called mylo-hyoid groove, which is found in the aforesaid Jurassic mammals.

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  • These movements in the south-east formed the Great Valley of Victoria, which traverses nearly the whole of the state between the Victorian highlands to the north, and the Jurassic sandstones of the Otway Ranges and the hills of south Gippsland.

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  • Neumayr finds evidence of the existence of a continent between Africa and South America, which protruded into the central North Atlantic, in Jurassic times.

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  • Once widely distributed in the Jurassic penod throughout the world, they are now dying out: the former is represented by the solitary maiden-hair tree of China and Japan; the latter by some ten species confined to the southern hemisphere, once perhaps their original home.

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  • The Australian land-surface must be of great antiquity, possibly Jurassic, and its isolation scarcely less ancient.

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  • During the Jurassic period the sea again invaded the region, both from the N.

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  • During the Jurassic period the sea began again to invade Russia from S.E.

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  • The limits of the Russian Jurassic system may be represented by a line drawn from the double valley of the Sukhona and Vytchegda to that of the upper Volga, and thence to Kieff, with a wide gulf penetrating towards the N.W.

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  • to N.E., are filled up with Upper Jurassic deposits.

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  • The later beds of the island belong to the Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary systems. At the western foot of the Ida massif calcareous beds with corals, brachiopods (Rhvnchonella inconstans, &c.) have been found, the fossils indicating the horizon of the Kimmeridge clay.

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  • With the J urassic beds is associated an extensive series of eruptive rocks (gabbro, peridotite, serpentine, diorite, granite, &c.); they are chiefly of Jurassic age, but the eruptions may have continued into the Lower Cretaceous.

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  • This idea originated in the discovery of a jelly-fish, gasteropods, and other organisms of a more or less marine type, and presenting some affinity with forms of Jurassic age.

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  • Various considerations throw doubt on Mr Moore's theory, especially the almost entire absence of marine fossiliferous beds in the whole of equatorial Africa at a distance from the sea, of any remains of Jurassic faunas which might link the Tanganyika forms with those of undoubted Jurassic age in neighbouring regions.

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  • In the Jurassic period many of the existing families, such as the Cicadidae, Fulgoridae, Aphidae, Nepidae, Reduviidae, Hydrometridae, Lygaeidae and Coreidae, had already become differentiated.

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  • This is actually the case; the Carboniferous, Cretaceous and Jurassic systems (qq.v.) contain coal-bearing strata though in unequal degrees,- the first being known as the Coal Measures proper, while the others are of small economic value in Great Britain, though more productive in workable coals on the continent of Europe.

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  • Fossils of both vertebrates and invertebrates are also common in the Permian and Jurassic formations.

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  • They are underlain by Jurassic rocks, from beneath which sandstones and shales yielding Glossopteris browniana var.

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  • indica, and therefore of Lower Karroo age, appear in the south but are overlapped on the north by Jurassic strata.

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  • Some Cretaceous or Upper Jurassic rocks occur in the basin of the Fly river.

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  • It appears to consist in the main of a continuation of an axis of old schists and slates, with granite intrusions, and flanked by coastal plains with Cretaceous or Jurassic, and Miocene beds, with Pleistocene sands and reefs and volcanic rocks.

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  • The deposits near Caylus and in Quercy occupy fissures and pockets in Jurassic limestone, and have yielded a remarkable assemblage of the relics of Tertiary mammals and other fossils.

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  • Bands of black nodules, highly phosphatic, are found at the top of the Bala limestone in North Wales; beds of concretions occur in the Jurassic series; and important deposits are known in the Cretaceous strata, especially in the Lower Greensand and at the base of the Gault.

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  • During the Jurassic period the sea began again to invade Russia from S.E.

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  • With the J urassic beds is associated an extensive series of eruptive rocks (gabbro, peridotite, serpentine, diorite, granite, &c.); they are chiefly of Jurassic age, but the eruptions may have continued into the Lower Cretaceous.

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  • These are composed chiefly of Triassic beds, but Jurassic and Cretaceous beds take some share in their formation.

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  • Geology.Many years ago it was pointed out by Elie de Beaumont and Dufrnoy that the Jurassic rocks of France form upon the map an incomplete figure of 8.

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  • Geology unknown or unexplored shown thus Jurassic Trias & Permo-Trial r 'i ' Quaternary :.

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  • The structure is further complicated by a great thrust-plane which has brought the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous beds upon the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene beds.

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  • A remarkable &c, expedition by Baron Toll in 1892 through the regions watered by the Lena, resulted in the collection of material which Afghan- will greatly help to elucidate some of the problems which beset the geological history of the world, proving inter alia the primeval existence of a boreal zone of the Jurassic sea round the North Pole.

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  • The greater part of western Asia, including the basin of the Obi, the drainage area of the Aral Sea, together with Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Persia and Arabia, was covered by the sea during the later stages of the Cretaceous period; but a considerable part 3f this region was probably dry land in Jurassic times.

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  • Some of the deposits appear to be of Permian age, but others are probably Jurassic; and they are all included under the general name of the Angara series.

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  • Excepting in the extreme north, where marine Jurassic and Cretaceous fossils have been found, there is no evidence that this part of Siberia has been beneath the sea since the early part of the Palaeozoic era.

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  • An interesting deposit of oolitic magnetic ore occurs in the Dogger (Inferior Oolite) of Rosedale Abbey, in Yorkshire; and a somewhat similar pisolitic ore, of Jurassic age, is known on the continent as chamoisite, having been named from Chamoison (or Chamoson) in the Valais, Switzerland.

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  • In the Jurassic rocks are found Ephemeroptera and Odonata, as well as Hemiptera, referable to existing families, some representatives of which had already appeared in.

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  • the oldest of the Jurassic ages - the Lias.

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  • This order can be traced with certainty back to the early Jurassic epoch, while the Permian fossil Eugereon, and the living order - specially modified in many respects - of the Thysanoptera indicate steps by which the aberrant suctorial and piercing mouth of the Hemiptera may have been developed from the biting mouth of primitive Isopteroids, by the elongation of some parts and the suppression of others.

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  • Abich (Sur la structure et la geologic du Daghestan, 1862), the successive folds of Jurassic limestones and slates, all nearly parallel to the Caucasus, which form lofty, narrow plateaus.

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  • Ansariya, which presently springs up into a high chain of Jurassic limestone with basaltic intrusions, whose peaks rise to 10,000 ft.

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  • Farther north, however, Jurassic beds are met with, but of very limited extent.

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  • Along the west frontier there appear broad and strongly marked zones of Cretaceous limestone, alternating with Jurassic and Triassic, joined by a strip of Palaeozoic formations running from the north-west corner of Bosnia.

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  • These do not occur on the west coast, but on the east coast the German expedition discovered marls and sandstones on Kuhn Island, resembling those of the Russian Jurassic, characterized by the presence of the genus Aucella, Olcostephanus Payeri, 0.

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  • On the south coast of the same island are coarse-grained, brownish micaceous and light-coloured calcareous sandstone and marls, containing fossils, which render it probable that they are of the same age as the coal-bearing Jurassic rocks of Brora (Scotland) and the Middle Dogger of Yorkshire.

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  • The Danish expeditions of 1899-1900 have added considerably to our knowledge of the Jurassic rocks of East Greenland.

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  • Coal occurs in many Jurassic fresh-water;basins, namely, on the outskirts of the Altai, in south Yeniseisk, about Irkutsk, in the Nerchinsk district, at many places in the Maritime province, and on the island of Sakhalin.

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  • Deslongchamps has described the tint of several Jurassic species.

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  • The principal folding took place at the close of the Carboniferous period, and was contemporaneous with that of the old Hercynian chain of Belgium, &c. The Permian and later beds lie unconformably upon the denuded folds, and in the space between the Montagne Noire and the Cevennes proper the folded belt is buried beneath the horizontal Jurassic strata of the Causses.

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  • During the Triassic and Jurassic periods even the basin of the Amazon appears to have been dry land.

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  • Coal is known to exist to the southeast of Kobdo, in the Tannu-ola, and in the basin of the Yenisei, but its age is unknown (fresh-water Jurassic ?).

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  • Rising amid the ancient gneiss rocks of the St Gotthard, the Rhine finds its way down to the Lake of Constance between layers of Triassic and Jurassic formation; and between that lake and Basel it penetrates the chalk barrier of the Jura.

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  • They are covered by marine Jurassic beds and they in turn by Cretaceous coal-bearing, terrestrial deposits, resembling those of New Zealand.

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  • The Central Cordillera consists mainly of crystalline and volcanic rocks, on each side of which are aqueous, in great part Jurassic, strata thrown up almost vertically.

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  • From the analogy of the neighbouring countries it is possible that some of the tuffs may be Jurassic, but the other deposits probably belong for the most part to the Cretaceous system.

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  • The Cheilostomata are usually believed to have made their appearance in the Jurassic period.

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  • Mesozoic rocks are represented by slates containing Ammoniles and Monotis, evidently of Triassic age, rocks containing Ammonites Bucklandi of Liassic age, a series of beds rich in plants of Jurassic age, and beds of Cretaceous age containing Trigonia and many other fossils.

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  • The Jurassic and Cretaceous beds are also in part marine and in part terrestrial.

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  • Geologically they are known to date back to the Oligocene period, and wings believed to be referable to them have been found in Liassic and Jurassic beds.

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  • The Klippen are isolated hills, chiefly of Jurassic limestone, rising up in the midst of the later and softer deposits on the inner border of the sandstone zone.

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  • The past history of the lake has long been a disputed question, and Mr Moore's view that it represents an old Jurassic arm of the sea is contested by other writers.

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  • But Professor Park has obtained Jurassic fossils in the Maitai series; so that it will probably be ultimately divided between the Carboniferous and Jurassic. The two systems should, however, be separable by an unconformity, unless the Maitai series also includes representatives of the Kaihiku series (the New Zealand Permian), and of the Wairoa series, which is Triassic.

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  • New Zealand includes representatives of all the three Mesozoic systems. The Hokanui group comprises the Triassic Wairoa .and Otapira beds, and the Jurassic Mataura beds.

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  • One of the best known of these is the Stonesfield slate, which is a Jurassic limestone occurring near Oxford and famous for its fossils.

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  • Festschrift zum 70ten Geburtstage von Ernst Haeckel, 19(34) has restored the conditions existing in the lagoons and atoll reefs of the Jurassic sea of Solnhofen in Bavaria; he has traced the process of gradual accumulation of the coral mud now constituting the fine lithographic stones in the inter-reef region, and has recognized the periodic laying bare of the mud surfaces thus formed; he has determined the winds which carried the dust particles from the not far distant land and brought the insects from the adjacent Jurassic forests.

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  • - Carnivorous dinosaur Allosaurus o f the U mal closely related to the Me alosaurus (Allosaurus) pper Jurassic period of North America, an anit type of England.

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  • 4) was found nearly complete in the beds of the Morrison formation, Upper Jurassic of central Wyoming, U.S.A. Near it was discovered the posterior portion of the skeleton of a giant herbivorous dinosaur (Brontosaurus Marsh).

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  • Successive discoveries gradually revealed the world of extinct Reptilia; in 1821 Charles Konig (1784-1851), the first keeper of the mineralogical collection in the British Museum, described Ichthyosaurus from the Jurassic; in the same year William Daniel Conybeare (1787-1857) described Plesiosaurus; and a year later (1822) Mosasaurus; in 1824 William Buckland described the great carnivorous dinosaur Megalosaurus; while Gideon Algernon Mantell (1790--1852) in 1848 announced the discovery of Iguanodon.

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  • Especially noteworthy was the discovery of birds with teeth both in Europe (Archaeopteryx) and in North America (Hesperornis), of Eocene stages in the history of the horse, and of the giant dinosauria of the Jurassic and Cretaceous in North America.

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  • Neumayr was the first to attempt to restore the grander earth outlines of the earth as a whole in Jurassic times.

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  • Among the ammonites of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods types occur which in their external appearance so closely resemble each other that they could be taken for members of a single series, and not infrequently have been taken for species of the same genus and even for the same species; but their early stages of development and, in fact, their entire individual history prove them to be distinct and not infrequently to belong to widely separated genetic series.

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  • In the Jurassic period there were no less than six orders of reptiles which independently abandoned terrestrial life and acquired more or less perfect adaptation to sea life.

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  • The Triassic and Jurassic systems are met with only in scattered patches.

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  • The Jurassic beds are marls, sandstones and limestones, which contain marine fossils.

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  • A wonderful series of these forms occurs in southern Utah, where in passing northward from the Carboniferous platform one ascends in succession the Vermilion Cliffs (Triassic sandstones), the ViThite Cliffs (Jurassic sandstones, of remarkably cross-bedded structure, interpreted the dunes of an ancient desert), and finally the Pink Cliffs (Eocene strata of fluviatile and lacustrine origin) of the high, forested plateaus.

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  • In Western Utah and through most of Nevada many of the blocks exhibit deformed structures, involving folds and faults of relatively ancient (Jurassic) date; so ancient that the moun~ tains then formed by the folding were worn down to the lowland stage of old age before the block-faulting occurred.

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  • Gold occurs in quartz veins traversing various formations (some as young as Jurassic), and also in gravels, which were for the most part deposited previous to the uplift of the Sierra block.

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  • I Jurassic.

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  • Jurassic SystemThis system is not known with certainty in the eastern half of the United States, though there are some beds on the mid-Atlantic coast, along the inland border of the coastal plain, which have been thought by some, on the basis of their reptilian fossils, to be Jurassic. The lower and middle parts of the system are but doubtfully represented in the western interior.

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  • On the Pacific coast marine Jurassic beds reach in from the Pacific to about the same distance as the Triassic system.

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  • The Upper Jurassic formations are much more widely distributed.

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  • The Jurassic faunas of the United States were akin to those of other continents.

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  • The close of the period, too, saw the exclusion of the sea from the Pacific coast east of the Sierras, and the disappearance, so far as the United States is concerned, of the great north-western bay of the late Jurassic. Before the close of the period, the aridity which had obtained during the Permian, and at least a part of the Triassic, seems to have disappeared.

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  • In the western interior there is difference of opinion as to whether certain beds rich in reptilian remains (the Morrison, Atlantosaurus, Como, &c.) should be regarded as Jurassic or Comanchean.

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  • Dakota formation 40 300 Jurassic.

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  • Morrison formation (may be Jurassic).

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  • 100 300,, Jurassic.

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  • Cucullaea; recent and fossil from the Jurassic. All the other genera are fossil: Parallelodon; Devonian to Tertiary.

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  • This genus was very abundant in the Secondary epoch, especially in Jurassic seas.

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  • Inoceramus; Jurassic to Cretaceous.

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  • Dimya; recent in abyssal depths and fossil since the Jurassic.

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  • Eligmidae.-Extinct; Jurassic.

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  • Pinnigena; Jurassic and Cretaceous.

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  • Anisocardia; Jurassic to Tertiary.

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  • Gonodon; Trias and Jurassic. Mutiella; Upper Cretaceous.

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  • (From Gegen- Cardinia; Trias and Jurassic.

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  • adductor Jurassic. Durga; Jurassic.

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  • mp, Posterior Dicerocardium; Jurassic. muscle.

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  • Diceras; Jurassic. Requienia; Cretaceous.

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  • Plectomya; Jurassic and Cretaceous.

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  • The Plecoptera are world-wide in their range and fossils referable to them have been described from rocks of Eocene, Miocene and Jurassic age, while C. Brongniart states that allied forms lived in the Carboniferous Period.

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  • They are generally but sparingly distributed over the earth's surface and can be traced back in time to the early Jurassic epoch.

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  • The islands of these outer arcs consist chiefly of crystalline schists and limestones, overlaid by Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary deposits.

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  • Fragments of Jurassic rock have been found amongst the volcanic material on the island of Rotti, but they have not yet been discovered in situ.

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  • The chief geological formations belong to the Cretaceous system, backed towards the north and east by Jurassic and Triassic formations.

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  • The Mesozoic belt of the Bavarian and Austrian Alps consists mainly of the Trias, Jurassic and Cretaceous beds playing a comparatively subordinate part.

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  • The Jurassic and Cretaceous beds also differ, though in a less degree, from those of northern Europe.

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  • Tithonian fossils, characteristic of southern Europe, occur in the upper Jurassic, while the Gosau beds, belonging to the upper Cretaceous, contain many of the forms of the Hippuritic sea.

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  • Jurassic and Cretaceous beds play a larger part than on the northern border, but the Trias still predominates.

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  • Jurassic and Cretaceous beds form the greater part of the Mesozoic band.

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  • They consist chiefly of Jurassic and Triassic beds, but it is the Trias and the Jura of the Eastern Alps and not of Switzerland.

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  • It is interesting to note, in this Quaternary Tertiary Cretaceous Jurassic 1,;'-,"i Eocene & Jurassic Range �' ?

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  • Cretaceous Jr. Jurassic Tr.

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  • It consists almost entirely of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds, the Trias in these outer ranges being of very limited extent.

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  • But it is divided longitudinally by a well-marked belt of stratified deposits, known as the zone of the Briangonnais, composed chiefly of Carboniferous, Triassic and Jurassic beds.

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  • At the same time it must be remembered that there is in India, South Africa, the Urals, in Australasia and parts of North America an important series of rocks, with a " Permo-Carboniferous " fauna, which constitutes a passage formation between the Carboniferous, sensu stricto, and Jurassic rocks.

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  • Germany gets about two-thirds of her total ore supply from the great Jurassic " Minette " ore deposit of Luxemburg and Lorraine, which reaches also into France and Belgium.

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  • The fact that in Belgium Jurassic beds are found upon the southern and not upon the northern margin indicates that in this region the chain was still a ridge in Jurassic times.

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  • Except along the southern border of the Ardennes, and at one or two points in the middle of the Palaeozoic massif, Triassic and Jurassic beds are unknown in Belgium, and the Palaeozoic rocks are directly and unconformably overlaid by Cretaceous and Tertiary deposits.

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  • Along the southern margin of the Triassic area there is a long band of Jurassic beds dipping towards the Danube; and at its eastern extremity this band is continuous with a synclinal of Jurassic beds, running parallel to the western border of the Bohemian massif, but separated from it by a narrow strip of Triassic beds.

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  • Towards the north, in Hanover and Westphalia, the Triassic beds are followed by Jurassic and Cretaceous deposits, the latter being here the more important.

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  • Still more to the east, in the province of Silesia, both Jurassic and Cretaceous beds are again met with, but they are to a large extent concealed by the recent accumulations of the great plain.

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  • In both areas they are accompanied by Jurassic, and occasionally by Cretaceous, beds; but of the latter there are only a few small patches.

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  • There the boulder clay lies immediately on the primitive rock, except in the south-western corner of the island, where a series of strata appear belonging to the Cambrian, Silurian, Jurassic and Cretaceous formations, the true Coal formation, &c., being absent.

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  • The islands are volcanic, the main geological formation being Tertiary or Jurassic basalt, which occasionally protrudes through the ice-cap in high isolated blocks near the shore.

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  • The salt of Bex in Switzerland is Jurassic, whilst Cretaceous salt occurs in Westphalia and Algiers.

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  • There is a central region, roughly triangular in shape, with its base resting upon the Quaternary K Triassic Tertiary Carboniferous q & Metamorphic 7 Jurassic Aegean Sea and its apex in Servia.

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  • In the south, the older beds disappear and the whole chain is formed chiefly of Cretaceous beds, though Eocene and probably Jurassic rocks are Medit Er R Anean Plutonic Rocks Volcanic Rocks o Active Volcanoes present.

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  • 1.2.1 Archean Rocks 1.2.2 Eastern or Younger Schists 1.2.3 Torridonian Sandstone 1.2.4 Cambrian 1.2.5 Ordovician and Silurian 1.2.6 Old Red Sandstone 1.2.7 Carboniferous 1.2.8 Permian 1.2.9 Triassic 1.2.10 Jurassic 1.2.11 Cretaceous 1.2.12 Older Tertiary 1.2.13 Post-Tertiary 1.2.14 Recent

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  • Archean gneiss, Cambrian sandstone, Silurian quartzite, limestone and schist, Jurassic sandstone and limestone, Cretaceous sandstone, and Tertiary basalts, gabbros, and granitic rocks all enter into the composition of the islands.

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  • The Jurassic system - comprising, in descending order, the subdivisions of Upper Oolites (Portlandian Kimmeridge Clay), Middle Oolites (coal limestones; Oxford clay), Lower Oolites (Great Oolite series; Inferior Oolite series), Lias (Upper, Middle, Lower) - is well represented on both sides of the Highlands.

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  • On the west side of the Highlands Jurassic rocks are found in many detached areas from the Shiant Isles to the southern shores of Mull.

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  • They form the highest members of the Jurassic series, representing probably some part of the Oxford Clay.

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  • The geological formations represented are the following in descending order: Recent or sub-recent Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Lower Miocene Oligocene and Eocene Upper Cretaceous or Lower Eocene Upper Cretaceous Jurassic or Lower Cretaceous Carboniferous to Trias Archaean The latest movement to which the Gulf has been or is now being subjected is one of gradual elevation, of which traces are found in recent littoral concretes, now as much as 450 ft.

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  • The Ionian islands consist almost entirely of Cretaceous and Tertiary beds, but in Corfu Jurassic deposits belonging to various horizons have also been found.

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  • These are overlaid conformably by a thick series of platy limestones, known as the Viglas limestone, which appears to represent the rest of the Jurassic system and also the lower part of the Cretaceous.

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  • The name of Archaeopteryx litho graphica was based by Hermann von Meyer upon a feather (Gr.irrEpv, wing) found in 1861 in the lithographic slate quarries of Solenhofen in Bavaria, the geological horizon being that of the Kimmeridge clay of the Upper Oolite or Jurassic system.

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  • These beds are conformably succeeded, along the Central Asian watershed, by a continuous series of strata which apparently represent the Permian, Trias and Jurassic of Europe.

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  • The Upper Trias has been definitely identified by the occurrence of Halobia and other fossils; while in the higher beds of the series marine forms belonging to the middle and upper Jurassic have been found.

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  • The Jurassic beds are followed, generally with perfect conformity, by the Cretaceous, which covers a large part of Afghan Turkestan and probably forms the greater part of the ranges which run south and south-west from the principal watershed.

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  • Contemporaneously with the formation of the upper part of the Gondwana series marine deposits of Jurassic age were laid down in Cutch.

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  • It is now very generally believed that in Jurassic and Cretaceous times a great land-mass stretched from South Africa through Madagascar to India, and that the Cretaceous deposits of Cutch, &c., were laid down upon its northern shore, and those of Pondicherry and Trichinopoly upon its southern shore.

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  • The sedimentary deposits were formerly believed to be Palaeozoic, but Jurassic fossils have since been found in them, and it is probable that several different formations are represented.

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  • In the Kapoewas district radiolarian cherts supposed to be of Jurassic age are met with.

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  • Undoubted Jurassic fossils, belonging to several horizons, have been described from west Borneo and Sarawak.

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  • Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous beds form a band south of the Sea of Marmora, probably the continuation of the Mesozoic band of the Black Sea coast.

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  • Bouvier (1896) has shown that Palaeinachus longipes, Woodward, from the Forest Marble of Wiltshire, is in close relationship, not to the oxyrhynch Inachidae, but to the genera Homolodromia and Dicranodromia of the Homolodromiidae, and that the Jurassic crabs in general, of the family Prosoponidae (Meyer), are Dromiidea.

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  • in the Permian and Jurassic deposits.

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  • The Chilean Andes correspond with the Western Cordillera of Bolivia and Peru, and consist almost entirely of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds, together with the products of the Tertiary eruptions.

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  • The Cretaceous beds form a synclinal upon the eastern side of the chain (and, in general, beyond the Chilean boundary), while the Jurassic beds are thrown into a number of folds which form the axis and the western flank.

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  • They are not confined to any one horizon, but occur irregularly throughout the Jurassic and occasionally also amongst the Cretaceous strata.

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  • Besides the Cretaceous and Tertiary beds, Jurassic rocks are known to take a considerable part in the formation of the hills of British Baluchistan.

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  • Its northern shores were washed by the Sea of Tethys, which, at least in Jurassic and Cretaceous times, stretched across the Old World from west to east, and in this sea were laid down the marine deposits of the Himalaya.

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  • From the Permian to the Lias the sequence in the central Himalaya shows no sign of a break, nor has any unconformity been proved between the Liassic beds and the overlying Spiti shales, which contain fossils of Middle and Upper Jurassic age.

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  • Among the Jurassic Mollusca, also, are many species that are common in Europe.

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  • Of the Mesozoic systems the Jurassic is the most widely-spread.

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  • The Jurassic deposits are partly marine and partly fresh-water or terrestrial, including beds of lignite.

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  • On the whole, excepting in eastern Algarve, the Upper Jurassic beds indicate the neighbourhood of a shore-line.

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  • The Cintra granite sends veins into the base of the Upper Jurassic, and is very probably of Tertiary age.

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  • More recent clay-slates and marls belonging to the middle Jurassic occur in the western coast-region about Matochkin Shar.

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  • The eastern ranges of the Bolivian Andes are formed of Palaeozoic rocks with granitic and other intrusions; the Western Cordillera consists chiefly of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds, together with the lavas and ashes of the great volcanoes; while the intervening plateau is covered by freshwater and terrestrial deposits through which rise ridges of Palaeozoic rock and of a series of red sandstones and gypsiferous marls of somewhat uncertain age (probably, in part at least, Cretaceous).

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  • Marine fossils found by Gustav Steinmann in the middle of the series are said to indicate an age not earlier than the Jurassic, and Steinmann refers them to the Lower Cretaceous.

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  • - Upper Jurassic (Lithographic stone); Bavaria.

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  • Other long-tailed pterodactyles occur well preserved in the Upper Jurassic (lithographic stone) of Bavaria and Wurttemberg, which is so fine-grained as to show impressions of the wing-membrane.

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  • The Triassic age of the Hawkesbury Sandstone is supported by the evidence of the fossil fish; though, according to Dr Smith Woodward, they may perhaps be Rhaetic, .'But the fossil plants of which the chief are Taeniopteris daintreei and Thinnfeldia odontopteroides are regarded by Seward as Lower Jurassic. At Talbragar there is a bed containing Jurassic fish, which rests in an erosion hollow in the Hawkesbury Sandstone.

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  • The Talbragar beds, then, may be representative of the Jurassic; and the underlying Hawkesbury Sandstone may be Upper Triassic. The Cretaceous system is widely developed in the western part of the state, where it is represented by two divisions.

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  • True Decapods are first met with in Mesozoic rocks, the first to appear being the Penaeidea, a primitive group comprising the Penaeidae and Sergestidae, which occur in the Jurassic and perhaps in the Trias.

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  • The Stenopidea, another primitive group, differing from the Penaeidea in the character of the gills,, appear in the Trias and Jurassic. The Caridea or true prawns and shrimps appear later, in the Upper Jurassic, some of them presenting primitive characteristics in the retention of swimming exopodites on the walking-legs.

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  • Stomatopoda of a very modern-looking type, and even their larvae, occur in Jurassic rocks.

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  • 2.1 Natural Divisions 2.2 Lake District 2.3 Pennine Region 2.4 Wales 2.5 Cornwall and Devon 2.6 The Jurassic Belt 2.7 The Chalk Country 2.8 The Fenland 2.9 The Weald 2.10 The London Basin 2.11 The Hampshire Basin 2.12 Communications 2.13 Density of Population 2.14 Political Divisions

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  • It is built up of nearly uniform sheets of Mesozoic rock, the various beds of the Jurassic lying above the New Red Sandstone (Triassic), and dipping south-eastward under the successive beds of the Cretaceous system.

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  • The Thames is the one great river of the division, rising on the Jurassic Belt, crossing the Chalk country, and finishing its course in the Tertiary London Basin, towards which, in its prevailing west-to-east direction, it draws its tributaries from north and south.

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  • The Jurassic belt is occupied by the counties of Gloucester, Oxford, Buckingham, Bedford, Northampton, Huntingdon, Rutland, Lincoln and the North Riding of Yorkshire.

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  • The low escarpments of the harder beds of the Lias are the real, though often scarcely perceptible, boundary between the Triassic plain and the Jurassic belt.

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  • Reading flourishes from its position on the edge of the London Tertiary Basin, Croydon is a suburb of London, and Hull, though on the Chalk, derives its importance from the Humber estuary, which cuts through the Chalk and the Jurassic belts, to drain the Triassic plain and the Pennine region.

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  • The distinction between the low grounds of the Jurassic belt and the Chalk country is not always very apparent on the surface, and from the historic point of view it is important to recognize the individuality of the Eastern plain which extends from the Vale of York across the Humber and the Wash into Essex.

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  • The Eastern plain thus includes a portion of the Triassic plain in the north, a portion of the Jurassic and Chalk belts in the middle, and a portion of the Tertiary plain of the London Basin in the south.

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  • (2) The second striking feature is the regular succession of Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks which crop out in almost unbroken lines from the coast of Dorsetshire, whither they appear to converge, to the Cleveland Hills and the Yorkshire coast.

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  • In early Jurassic times the sea probably again occupied most of England with the exception of the above-mentioned areas, the Lake District and eastern part of the London Basin; Wales, too, and much of Scotland were land.

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  • Elevation gradually caused more, nd to appear in later Jurassic a.nd early Cretaceous times when a.

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  • These basins or ` longitudinal folds ' are enclosed on the south by the long high ridge of dark slates, which extends parallel to the crystalline [main] chain from the neighbourhood of Sukhum-Kale to the Krestovaya Gora [pass of Darial.] Behind this slate crest spreads a confused multitude of hills, Jurassic and Cretaceous in their formation..

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  • The rest of the Daghestan region consists of a series of roughly parallel folds, of Jurassic or Cretaceous age, ranging in altitudes from 7500 up to 12,500 ft., separated from one another by deep gorge-like river glens which cut it up into a number of arid, treeless plateaus which have something of the appearance of independent ranges, or rather elongated tablelands of a mountainous character.

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  • Beneath it, on both sides, plunge the strongly folded Palaeozoic and Jurassic schists.

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  • On the northern flank the folded beds are followed by a zone of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds which rapidly assume a gentle inclination towards the plain.

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  • Loewinson-Lessing states that there is a more or less marked discordance between the Lias and the Upper Jurassic and between the latter and the Cretaceous; E.

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  • The difference in character of the Jurassic beds on the two sides of the chain appears to indicate that a ridge existed Metamorphic Plutonic & Volcanic in that period.

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  • Cretaceous Jurassic N k Bodorno  :s: Vladikaukaz Lars `n - - - n ° Tiflis a =Plain of Vladikaukaz; b= Upper Jurassic; Moraine terrace; d= Folded lias shales; e = Upper Jurassic; = Paleozoic schists; Creenstone dykes; h= Granite; g°= Gneiss; i = Andesites; k = Jurassic?; I = Pliocene fNagelfluh); m = Miocene; 11 = Oligocene; r = Nullipore limesto n e & conglomerate.

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  • In general the Upper Jurassic beds are much more calcareous on the north flank of the chain than they are on the south.

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  • Jurassic. Antalo Limestones.

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  • Jurassic. Ashangi group.

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  • During the Triassic and Jurassic periods the genus Baiera - no doubt a representative of the Ginkgoales--was widely spread throughout Europe and in other regions; Ginkgo itself occurs abundantly in Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks, and was a common plant in the Arctic regions as elsewhere during the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous periods.

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  • The axis of the Transylvanian Alps consists of sericite schists and other similar rocks; and these are followed on the south by Jurassic, Cretaceous and Early Tertiary beds.

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  • The Jurassic and Cretaceous beds are ordinary marine sediments, but from the Cenomanian to the Oligocene the deposits are of the peculiar facies known in the Alps and Carpathians as Flysch.

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  • Pondoland Cretaceous Series Uitenhage Series Stormberg Series Beaufort Series Ecca Series Dwyka Series Witteberg Series Bokkeveld Series Table Mountain Sandstone Series Includes several independent unfossiliferous formations of pre-Devonian age Cretaceous Carboniferous to Jurassic Devonian Archaean to Silurian(?) { Karroo System Cape System Pre-Cape Rocks Cretaceous System imperfect remains of plants (Spirophyton) are the only fossils, and these are not sufficient to determine if the beds belong to the Devonian or Carboniferous System.

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  • Boo Jurassic 4000 1400 2000 Trias 5000 Permian 2600 600 Carboniferous woo 700 Series Beaufort Series Ecca Series Dwyka Series the eastern coast-lands the vegetation becomes distinctly subtropical.

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  • Typical genera - Stylina, Lamarck (Jurassic).

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  • (Jurassic).

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  • and H.(Jurassic).

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  • Leptophyllia, Reuss (Jurassic and Cretaceous).

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  • Many Graptolite zones, showing a constant uniformity of succession, paralleled in this respect only by the longer known Ammonite zones of the Jurassic, have been distinguished in Britain and northern Europe, each marked by a characteristic species.

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  • Cutch and Kathiawar they are underlaid by Jurassic and Neocomian beds.

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  • The Jurassic beds are marine and contain numerous Ammonites, but the beds which are referred to the Neocomian include a series of sandstones and shales with remains of plants.

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  • 6, Dysaster; Jurassic.

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  • All 3, A radiole of Cidaris; Jurassic. except 2 and 3 are reduced in 4, Hemicidaris; Mid.

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  • Jurassic. size.

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  • - Ambulacrals sometimes compound, with one or two pores to a plate, some dorsal podia begin to assume respiratory function; interambulacrals multi-tuberculate, none resorbed; mouth central, with jaws weak or wanting, with external gills and sphaeridia; anus exocyclic. Families: Pygasteridae, Discoidiidae, Galeritidae, Conoclypeidae; Jurassic to Recent.

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  • 19, 7), Palaeostomidae, and Pourtalesiidae; Jurassic to Recent.

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  • (jaws unknown) Trias Jurassic Cretaceous Tertiary Recent The probable relationship of these orders is shown in the annexed table.

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  • The type is, moreover, common among the mammals of the early Eocene, and still more so in those of the Jurassic epoch; this forming one of the strongest arguments in favour of the tritubercular theory.

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  • - That mammals have become differentiated from a lower type of vertebrates at least as early as the commencement of the Jurassic period is abundantly testified by the occurrence of the remains of small species in strata of that epoch, some of which are mentioned in the articles Marsupialia and Monotremata.

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  • Of the European Jurassic (or Oolitic) mammals our knowledge is unfortunately very imperfect; and from the scarcity of their remains it is quite probable that they are merely stragglers from the region (possibly Africa) where the class was first differentiated.

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  • Be this as it may, the Apennines, excepting in Calabria, are formed chiefly of Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene and Miocene beds.

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  • Throughout the Triassic and Jurassic periods nearly all Turkestan remained a continent indented by gulfs and lagoons of the south European Triassic and Jurassic sea.

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  • They are of special interest, since they have been shown to be the surviving forms of a group species which have been identified from Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks.

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  • _ .i The Jurassic system is represented in Ireland by the Lower Lias alone, aid it is probable that no marine beds higher than the Upper Lias were deposited during this period.

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  • Denudation, consequent on the renewed uplift of the country, affected the Jurassic beds until the middle of Cretaceous times.

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  • Probably its original thickness Lough Neagh Tertiary Clays Eocene Basalt and Dolerite Cretaceous Trias, sometimes surmounted by Lower Jurassic Upper Carboniferous Carboniferous was not more than 150 ft., while now only from 40 to loo ft.

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  • West of Cracow the Cretaceous beds are underlaid by Jurassic and Triassic deposits, the general dip being eastward.

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  • In the hilly region of western Transylvania a large mass of Quaternary Tertiary Cretaceous Jurassic Geological Map Of Austria-Hungary.

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  • The Carboniferous coal-fields of Silesia and Bohemia are of the greatest importance; while Jurassic coal is worked at Steyerdorf and Ftinfkirchen in Hungary, and lignite at many places in the Tertiary beds.

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  • These beds are most probably lower members of the Jurassic series.

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  • Westward of and above these strata, the Middle and Upper Jurassic formations are found (Lias, Lower Oolite, Oxfordian, &c.), with well-marked and numerous fossils (Ammonites, Nerinaea, Natica, Astarte, Rhynchonella, Echinodermata, &c.); then the Cretaceous rocks, both these and the Jurassic series being largely developed, the Cretaceous fossils including Nautilus, Belemnites, Ostrea, Gryphaea, &c., and some very large Ammonites (Pachydiscus).

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  • In the deposits of a much more remote era than those already spoken of - the Jurassic - the bones of some enormous terrestrial lizards have been brought to light, belonging to Sauropodous Dinosaurs of the genera Bothriospondylus and Titanosaurus, and to a Theropod of the genus Megalosaurus.

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  • Jurassic. N.

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  • It was doubtless connected with the disruption of Gondwana Land, since it is known that this great alteration of geographical outline commenced in Jurassic times.

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  • In Jurassic times the sea gained access to East Africa north of Mozambique, but does not appear to have reached far beyond the foot-plateau except in Abyssinia.

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  • The Kimeridge clay is succeeded by the Spilsby sandstone, Tealby limestone, Claxby ironstone, and carstone which represent the highest Jurassic and lowest Cretaceous rocks.

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  • On the French side the central zone is followed by (1) the zone of Ariege, consisting of Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic beds, together with granitic masses; (2) the zone of the Petites Pyrenees, Upper Cretaceous and Eocene; and (3) the zone of the Corbieres, consisting of Eocene and Primary rocks.

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  • On the northern side granitic masses occur in the zone of Ariege amongst the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous beds.

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  • On the southern side they are not found except in the axial zone, and the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous deposits are reduced to a narrow band.

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  • Around it the deposits of the Jurassic an Cretaceous seas were laid down: and during the Tertiary era the~ were crushed, together with the earlier Tertiary beds, against th~ ancient rocks, and thus formed the folded zones of the Cordillerr Betica on the south, the hills of southern Aragon on the east and thi Pyrenees on the north.

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  • EJ Quaternary Triassic Slluro-Can,brian L~LL4 Tertiary Permian Met,,rno,-phic E~i Ci-etaceous Carbon iferous I~~iI1 Plutonic Rocks Jurassic Oeyr,nian Volcanic Rock, from the province of Cordova into that of Badajoz.

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  • - These strata are overlain by members of the Jurassic series, which are especially conspicuous in the eastern part of the peninsula between Castile and Aragon, along the Mediterranean border, in Andalusia, and likewise along the flanks of the Pyrenees.

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  • The Jurassic of Andalusia belongs to the Mediterranean facies of the system; the Jurassic of the rest of Spain is more nearly allied to that of northwestern Europe.

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  • Upon it, in the trough thus formed, rest conformably the basal strata of the Cretaceous; the Jurassic and Triassic being wholly absent (unless in the extreme north-west).

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  • The Jurassic and Cretaceous formations, which in the Southern Cordillera are situated outside of the range to the east, form to a considerable extent the mass of the great range, together with quartz porphyry, the Tertiary, granite and other eruptive rocks, which have been observed along all the chain in South America up to Alaska in the north.

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  • These three peaks are formed of eruptive rocks, surrounded by Jurassic beds which have undergone a thorough metamorphosis.

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  • the chain consists broadly of a series of simple folds of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds.

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  • The Cretaceous beds lie in a broad synclinal upon the eastern flank, but the greater part of the chain is formed of Jurassic beds, through which, on the western margin, rise the numerous andesitic volcanic centres.

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  • There is no continuous band of ancient gneiss, nor indeed of any beds older than the Jurassic. There is very little over-folding or faulting, and the structure is that of the Jura mountains rather than of the Alps.

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  • It has recently been stated, however, that the supposed Algae are in reality the megaspores of Vascular Cryptogams. Scarcely anything is known of Palaeozoic Florideae; Solenopora, ranging from the Ordovician to the Jurassic, resembles, in the structure of its thallus, with definite zones of growth, Corallinaceae such as Lithothamnion, and may probably be of the same nature.

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  • The Mesozoic era, as defined in geological textbooks, includes the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous epochs; but from the point of view of the evolution of plants and the succession of floras, this division is not the most natural or most convenient.

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  • From strata in New South Wales overlying Devonian and Lower Carboniferous rocks certain plants were discovered in the early part of the 19th century which were compared with European Jurassic genera, and for several years it was believed that these plant-beds belonged to the Mesozoic period.

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  • Phyllotheca occurs also in Jurassic rocks in Italy and in Siberian strata originally described as Jurassic, but which Zeiller has shown are no doubt of Permian age.

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  • Lower Jurassic, Upper Gondwana (Argentine).

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  • The Permo - Carboniferous beds of South Africa, India and Australia are succeeded by other plant-bearing strata, containing numerous species agreeing closely with members of the Rhaetic and Jurassic floras of the northern hemisphere.

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  • These post-Permian floras, as represented by the Upper Gondwana beds of India and corresponding strata in Australia, South Africa, and South America, differ but slightly from the northern floras, and point to a uniformity in the Rhaetic and Jurassic vegetation which is in contrast to the existence of two botanical provinces during the latter part of the Palaeozoic period.

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