Judicial sentence example
Each province has also its own judicial system.
They were the king's lieutenants for judicial and administrative purposes and were established in the 12th century, either by Alexander I.
Lord Mansfield's great reputation rests chiefly on his judicial career.
The judicial authorities requested a rescript from the emperor Aurelian for the decision of the cause.
Under all these three acts there is a final appeal to the judicial committee of the privy council.Advertisement
All the public acts and judicial decisions of one province have full legal effect and authority in all the others.
Michel de Bourges was the counsel whose eloquent pleadings brought the suit for a judicial separation to a successful issue in 1836.'
Much that had been done by bishops, sine strepitu forensi et figura judicii, is now done in the course of regular judicial procedure.
St Ambrose and St Paulinus had even held high administrative and judicial offices.
As a woman could not prove her case in the judicial combat, it was felt that the earlier practice gave her an unfair advantage.Advertisement
There is nothing extraordinary in the general judicial system.
A few years later, in 347, the council of Sardica, a council of practically the whole West save Africa, reversed Tyre and acquitted St Athanasius after a full judicial inquiry.
The local judicial authorities are the county board of supervisors of five members and the justices of the peace.
Garner's Reconstruction Mississippi (New York, 1902) is judicial, scholarly and readable.
The judicial council (consiliarii Augusti, later called consistorium), composed of persons of the highest rank (especially jurists), became a permanent body of advisers, although merely consultative.Advertisement
As minister he carried through an important judicial reform which had been prepared by his predecessor, but had to retire from office because he was opposed to the reactionary measures for restoring the influence and privileges of the nobility.
The appeal to these "persons," called delegates, continued until it was transferred first to the privy council and then to the judicial committee of the privy council by acts of 1832 and 1833.
It recognizes the will and attaches great importance to written deeds, but on the other hand sanctions the judicial duel and the cojuratores (sworn witnesses).
His family was known among judicial circles in the 16th century, and maintained the Roman Catholic faith after the official introduction of the Reformed religion into Navarre.
The overseers of any parish aggrieved by the basis may appeal against it to quarter sessions, and it is to be noticed that this appeal is not interfered with, the transfer of the duties of justices relating only to administrative and not to judicial business.Advertisement
Murano, however, retained its original constitution of a greater and a lesser council for the transaction of municipal business, and also the right to coin gold and silver as well as its judicial powers.
It is divided into three co-ordinate branches, legislative, executive and judicial, and is carried on under the provisions of the constitution of 1886, profoundly modified by the amendments of 1905.
There are various inferior courts also, including magistrates or jueces de paz, but their organization and functions are loosely defined and not generally understood outside the republic. The supreme court has appellate jurisdiction in judicial matters, and original jurisdiction in impeachment trials and in matters involving constitutional interpretation.
The comprehensiveness of his legal and judicial reforms is very striking.
The judicial department consists of a supreme court with a chief justice and two associate justices, chosen for six years, and district courts, with judges chosen for four years.Advertisement
Worship is simpler at the smaller shrines than at the more famous temples; and, as the rulers are the patrons of the religion and are brought into contact with the religious personnel, the character of the social organization leaves its mark upon those who hold religious and judicial functions alike.
It soon became evident, however, that the Porte was endeavouring to obstruct the execution of the new reforms. Several months passed without any step being taken towards this realization; difficulties were raised with regard to the composition of the international commissions charged with the reorganization of the gendarmery and judicial system; intrigues were set on foot against the Christian governorgeneral; and the presence of a special imperial commissioner, who had no place under the constitution, proved so injurious to the restoration of tranquillity that the powers demanded his immediate recall.
As a ruler he showed legislative capacity, and a very commendable wish to provide his kingdoms with a code of laws and a consistent judicial system.
It was not to the hostility of the natives, nor to the hard struggle with nature necessary to make agriculture profitable on Karroo or veld, that the slow progress made by the colonists was due, so much as to the narrow and tyrannical policy adopted by the East India Company, which closed the colony against free immigration, kept the whole of the trade in its own hands, combined the administrative, legislative and judicial powers in one body, prescribed to the farmers the nature of the crops they were to grow, demanded from them a large part of their produce, and harassed them with other exactions tending to discourage industry and enterprise.
Outside his judicial duties he was responsible for much useful public work, particularly in the department of higher education.
The narration of Herodotus is only a popular tradition which derives the origin of kingship from its judicial functions, considered as its principal and most beneficent aspect.
The judicial power is vested in a high court and many subordinate courts.
There are civil, commercial and criminal courts in Montevideo, a departmental court in each departmental capital, and a justice of the peace in each of 205 judicial districts into which the republic is divided, with sub-district courts under deputy judges in addition.
The judicial functions are discharged by four grades of officials - the local magistrates, the courts of common pleas, the quarterly courts (five in number) and the supreme court.
The judicial and administrative work of the old council was in 1906 assigned to separate committees.
Not the least valuable of the gifts of the " tsar emancipator," Alexander II., to Russia was the judicial System system established by the statute (Sudebni Ustav) of the 10th of November 1864.
From the town The judge (ispravnik), who, in spite of the principle laid ordinary down in 1864, combines judicial and administrative functions, an appeal lies (as in the case of the justices of the peace) to an assembly of such judges; from these again there is an appeal to the district court (okrugniya sud), consisting of three judges; 4 from this to the court of appeal (sudebniya palata); while over this again is the senate, which, as the supreme court of cassation, can send a case for retrial for reason shown.
A certain amount of local self-government was entrusted to the nobles and the burghers, and the judicial administration was thoroughly reorganized in an enlightened and humane spirit.
Private operation, subject only to judicial regulation, was exemplified most fully in the early railway history of the United States.
But the jurisdiction of the state commissions was, by judicial interpretation, limited to commerce beginning and ending within the limits of the single state.
We stand on safer ground when we come to Elijah's bold intervention on behalf of righteousness when he declared in the name of Yahweh the divine judgment on Ahab and his house for the judicial murder of Naboth.
A triennial parliament, a cabinet, a privy council, and an elaborate judicial system were established, and the cumbrous machinery was placed in the hands of a " prime minister," a retired Wesleyan missionary, Mr Shirley Baker.
They are appointed, promoted, transferred or removed by order of the council of justice, a body composed of the five highest judicial dignitaries, sitting at Canea.
Weeks deals with the religious history in his Religious Development in the Province of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1892), Church and State in North Carolina (Baltimore, 1893) and Southern Quakers and Slavery (Baltimore, 1896); he is anti-Anglican, but judicial.
He had become convinced that his comrades in the Utilitarian Society, never more than ten, had not the stuff in them for a world-shaking propaganda; the society itself was dissolved; the Parliamentary Review was a failure; the Westminster did not pay its expenses; Bentham's Judicial Evidence produced little effect on the reviewers.
They contain the voluminous and invaluable records of the Venetian republic, diplomatic, judicial, commercial, notarial, &c. Under the republic the various departments of state stored their records in various buildings, at the ducal palace, at the Scuola di San Teodoro, at the Camerlenghi.
While the body of the noblesse formed the high court, the court of the burgesses was composed of twelve legists (probably named by the king) under the presidency of the vicomte - a knight also named by the king, who was a great financial as well as a judicial officer.
The Territory is administered, under the direction of the governor, by a resident commissioner, who is also the chief judicial officer.
Four legati juridici (or simply juridici) of consular rank were appointed for Italy, who took over certain important judicial functions formerly exercised by local magistrates (cases of fideicommissa, the nomination of guardians).
The confusion of the judicial and administrative functions was introduced again by the appointment of officials as judges.
They were to be elected for five years by seventeen of the tribes chosen by lot from the thirty-five; the imperium was to be conferred upon them by the lex curiata, together with judicial powers and the rank of praetor.
The judicial terms in the states are for three years.
Meanwhile the Conqueror had invested him with important judicial functions.
He abolished all privileges which were not secured by charter and imposed a more rigidly centralized scheme of government in which the activities of the provincial diet were restricted to some judicial and financial functions, and their freedom in matters of foreign policy was withdrawn altogether.
At the beginning of the 1 4 th century a certain number of those who were to hold the session of the Parlement were set apart to receive and judge the petitions (requetes) on judicial questions which had been presented to the king and not yet dealt with.
There were also great judicial bodies exercising the same functions as the parlements, though without bearing the name, such as the Conseil souverain of Alsace at Colmar, the Conseil superieur of Roussillon at Perpignan; the provincial council of Artois had not the supreme jurisdiction in all respects.
The parlements, besides their judicial functions, also possessed political rights; they claimed a share in the higher policy of the realm, and the position of guardians of its fundamental laws.
They could make regulations (pouvoir reglementaire) having the force of law within their province, upon all points not settled by law, when the matter with which they dealt fell within their judicial competence, and for this it was only necessary that their interference in the matter was not forbidden by law.
The state is divided into nine judicial districts, and each supreme court justice holds circuit courts within each county of a judicial district, besides being associated with the " president " judge of the court of common pleas of each county in holding the court of common pleas, the court of quarter sessions, the court of oyer and terminer and the orphans' court.
The will was contested by Smith's heirs, but in 1847 was sustained by the supreme judicial court of Massachusetts.
The verderer was a judicial officer chosen in full county by the freeholders in the same manner as the coroner.
Meanwhile he continued to secure popular esteem in his judicial capacity.
It was approached in a political, not in a judicial spirit.
Holders of judicial offices and permanent civil servants had the option of retiring with pensions, but the constabulary, whom the Home Rulers had openly threatened to punish when their time came, were to come after an interval under the power of the Irish Parliament.
Exclusive of the city of Baltimore, the state is divided into seven judicial circuits, in each of which are elected for a term of fifteen years one chief judge and two associate judges, who at the time of their election must be members of the Maryland bar, between the ages of thirty and seventy, and must have been residents of the state for at least five years.
These American corporations had the usual English system of borough government, consisting of a mayor, aldermen and councilmen, who carried out the simple administrative and judicial functions needed br the then small communities.
The vengeance of Henry was not satisfied by this judicial murder of his friend and servant; he enforced the confiscation of what small property More had left, expelled Lady More from the house at Chelsea, and even set aside assignments which had been legally executed by More, who foresaw what would happen before the commission of the alleged treason.
From them sprang a code of ecclesiastical laws and a whole judicial organization.
He studied grammar and rhetoric at Rome and philosophy at Athens, after which he returned to Rome, where he held a judicial office.
The state is divided into three supreme judicial districts, the eastern, the middle and the western.
In order to understand the organization of the various constituent parts of the Roman Curia, we must remember that the modern principle of the separation of powers is unknown to the Church; the functions of each department are limited solely by the extent of the powers delegated to it and the nature of the business entrusted to it; but each of them may have a share at the same time in the legislative, judicial and administrative power.
In this constitution he declared that the competency of these various organs was not always clear, and that their functions were badly arranged; that certain of them had only a small amount of business to deal with, while others were overworked; that strictly judicial affairs, with which the Congregations had not to deal originally, had developed to an excessive extent, while the tribunals, the Rota and the Signatura, had nothing to do.
They collect all taxes, are responsible for the levy of troops, the courier service, corvees, &c., and exercise judicial functions, corresponding directly with Lhasa.
He was master in chancery for Woodford county, Illinois, in 1860-1864, and district-attorney for the twenty-third judicial district of that state from 1865 to 1869, when he removed to Bloomington.
He continued to discharge his judicial duties till within a few days of his death at Edinburgh on the 27th of December 1782.
In South Carolina he was a judicial officer, but the office no longer exists, as South Carolina has now a probate court.
In the following month he resigned to accept an appointment as United States Judge for the Seventh Judicial Circuit.
All the innate hatred of the foreigner went to strengthen the hands of the archbishops, who slowly acquired, in addition to their spiritual authority, powers military, executive and judicial.
The chiefs, indeed, were little more than leaders in war; for the right of private revenge limited their authority in judicial matters; and they received no taxes.
In 167 the country suffered severely from the intrigues of a philo-Roman party, which caused a series of judicial murders and the deportation of many patriots to Italy.
For five years he was assistant city attorney in Austin, and from 1891 to 1898 was attorney of the 26th judicial district of Texas.
The finances and the judicial system were reorganized,a class of civil servants and a national militia founded,and several small districts were brought under the duke's authority.
Important reforms were now introduced, including the separation of the judicial and executive powers and the drawing up of a new criminal code.
In the 13th century, however, whatever the civic organization of the townsfolk may have been, it was still strictly subordinate to the archbishop and his Vogt; the council could issue regulations only with the consent of the former, while in the judicial work of the latter, save in small questions of commercial dishonesty, its sole function was advisory.
In the Apology, after contrasting the judicial treatment of Christians with that of other accused persons, he refutes the accusations brought against the Christians of atheism, eating human flesh and licentiousness, and in doing so takes occasion to make a vigorous and skilful attack on pagan polytheism and mythology.
While the lower classes remained pagan, a fairly civilized system of administration, with an efficient judicial and fiscal organization, was established in the Hausa territories.
The desire to see for himself what is true in the light of reasonable evidence, and that others should do the same, was his ruling passion, if the term can be applied to one so calm and judicial.
On his retirement he returned to his judicial duties; in 1867 he was made life-member of the Upper House in the Reichsrath, of which he became vicepresident, and in 1871 president.
The medieval constitution of Bolsward, though in its government by eight scabini, with judicial, and four councillors with administrative functions, it followed the ordinary type of Dutch cities, was in some ways peculiar.
The appeals from the decisions of the Arches court were formerly made to the king in chancery, but they are now by statute addressed to the king in council, and they are heard before the judicial committee of the privy council.
Under the Clergy Discipline Act 1892 an appeal lies from the judgment of a consistory court under that act, in respect of fact by leave of the appellate court, and in respect of law without leave, to either the Arches court or the judicial committee of the privy council at the option of the appellant.
For example, we find him arguing for the legitimacy of judicial punishments and military service against an over-literal interpretation of the Sermon on the Mount; and he took an important part in giving currency to the distinction between evangelical " counsels " and " commands," and so defending the life of marriage and temperate enjoyment of natural good against the attacks of the more extravagant advocate of celibacy and self-abnegation; although he fully admitted the superiority of the latter method of avoiding the contamination of sin.
The highest judicial authority in Servia is the Court of Cassation, created in 1855 and reorganized in 1865.
A law of 1908 requires that an agricultural school of secondary grade be established in each of the five supreme court judicial districts, and that an experimental farm be operated in connexion with each; and in 1909 the number of these districts was increased to six.
The clauses have several times been the subject of judicial decision in the Supreme Court.
Although he had impeached the turbulent tribune C. Norbanus (q.v.), and resisted the proposal to repeal judicial sentences by popular decree, he did not hesitate to incur the displeasure of the Julian family by opposing the candidature for the consulship of C. Julius Caesar (Strabo Vopiscus), who had never been praetor and was consequently ineligible.
For the enforcement of such laws and for administrative efficiency in general it was necessary that the council should have judicial power.
The law was paralysed, for no jury could be trusted to convict even on the clearest evidence, and the National League branches assumed judicial functions.
The government passed a bill giving leaseholders the benefit of the act of 1881, and prescribing a temporary reduction upon judicial rents already fixed.
In their opinion it unsettled the agricultural mind, and encouraged judicial tenants to go to law at the expiration of the first fifteen years' term instead of bargaining amicably with their landlords.
A judicial decision made it doubtful whether this percentage became the private property of tenants for life on settled estates, but a further act passed in 1904 answered the question in the affirmative.
The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court and two circuit courts, a court of common pleas having civil jurisdiction, and a court of general sessions having criminal jurisdiction.
The highest judicial authority is the supreme court or Septemviral Table, which sits at Agram, and ranks above the royal courts of appeal, the county courts of first instance, and the district courts or.magistracies.
For Europeans and in suits between Europeans and natives the French judicial code is applicable; suits between natives are tried by native tribunals (established 1898) presided over by a European assisted by two native assessors.
As feudal customs grew more stereotyped, the sword and sceptre, emblematic respectively of service and military command and of judicial prerogatives, became the usual emblems of investiture of laymen.
The duties of the kings were mainly religious, judicial and military.
The Merovingians had no idea that they were abdicating the least part of their authority, nevertheless the deprivations acquiesced in by the feebler kings led of necessity to the diminution of their authority and their judicial powers, and to the abandonment of public taxation.
The system was kept in full vigour by the missi dominici, who regularly reported or reformed any abuses of adniinistration, and by the courts, military, judicial or political, which brought to Charlemagne the strength of the wealth of his subjects, carrying his commands and his ideas to the farthest, limits of the Empire.
The parlement still kept up the same extra-judicial pretensions; but beyond its judicial functions it acted merely as a kind of towncrier to the monarchy, charged with making known the kings edicts.
In February 1835 he was elected public prosecutor of the first judicial circuit, the most important at that time in Illinois; in 1835 he was one of several Democrats in Morgan county to favour a state Democratic convention to elect delegates to the national convention of 1836 - an important move toward party regularity; in December 1836 he became a member of the state legislature.
The judicial system is the same as that of France, there being a court of first instance and a juge de paix.
He did something to found the judicial and administrative unity of the country.
The Sudan judicial codes, based in part on those of India and in part on the principles of English law and of Egyptian commercial law, provide for the recognition of " customary law " so far as applicable and " not repugnant to good conscience."
From the decision of the judges an appeal lies to the legal secretary of the government, in his capacity of judicial commissioner.
For long ages astronomy and astrology (which might be called astromancy, on the same principle as "chiromancy") were identified; and a distinction is made between "natural astrology," which predicts the motions of the heavenly bodies, eclipses, &c., and "judicial astrology," which studies the influence of the stars on human destiny.
The system was taken up almost bodily by the Arab astronomers, it was embodied in the Kabbalistic lore of Jews and Christians, and through these and other channels came to be the substance of the astrology of the middle ages, forming, as already pointed out, under the designation of "judicial astrology," a pseudo-science which was placed on a perfect footing of equality with "natural astrology" or the more genuine science of the study of the motions and phenomena of the heavenly bodies.
Judicial astrology, as a form of divination, is a concomitant of natural astrology, in its purer astronomical aspect, but mingled with what is now considered an unscientific and superstitious view of world-forces.
He was intended for the diplomatic service, but spent some months at Aix-la-Chapelle in administrative work, and then was transferred to Potsdam and the judicial side.
Regardless of this provision, however, the civil code denies the right of an appeal from an inferior court in cases that have been tried by a jury, and in which the amount claimed does not exceed $20, and the courts have decided that this denial is not in conflict with the constitution; but in at least one instance an appeal was allowed because of the constitutional guaranty, and that guaranty has doubtless had much influence on judicial legislation.
Early in the reign of Henry II., however, he is found acting as a clerk in the king's court, probably under Thomas Becket, and he was one of the officials who assisted Henry in carrying out his great judicial and financial reforms. In 1162, or 1163, he was appointed archdeacon of Poitiers, but he passed most of his time in England, although in the next two or three years he visited Pope Alexander III.
A general peace (Landfrieden), which became the basis of all such peaces in the future, was sworn to; a new office, that of imperial justiciar, was created, and a permanent judicial record was first instituted.
The condemnation of Oldenbarneveldt was carried out with Maurice's consent and approval, and he cannot be acquitted of a prominent share in what posterity has pronounced to be a judicial murder.
Purchas, 1870) to be legal "as a protection to the head when needed," but this decision was reversed on appeal by the judicial committee of the privy council (Hebbert v.
It powers were not clearly defined; there was also no separation of the executive, legislative and judicial functions, and the authority of the governor was limited to that of a presiding officer.
The religious test for citizenship was continued (except in the case of six citizens of Milford), and in 1644 the general court decided that the "judicial laws of God as they were declared by Moses " should constitute a rule for all courts " till they be branched out into particulars hereafter."
But the development of manufactures, the discontent of nonconforming religious sects with the establishment, and the confusion of the executive, legislative and judicial branches of the government in the existing constitution opened the way for a political revolution.
The election of the governor, members of the General Assembly and congressmen is held biennially, in even numbered years, on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, but the election of judicial and county officers is held on the first Thursday in August.
Its judicial business is principally the probate of wills and matters relating to the administration of estates.
This committee elected from its members a committee of five in whom executive and judicial powers were lodged.
Meanwhile North Carolina repealed the act of cession and created the western counties into a new judicial district.
More often than not, however, the judicial activism of the ECJ has been a force for good.
Any person aggrieved by the SCI may apply to the High Court for a judicial review of the decision to adopt the SCI.
These are permanent judicial appointments made by the Lord Chancellor.
Litigation through judicial review is a relatively blunt instrument.
This book aims to assess the subject matter jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court and to explore the borderlines of judicial interpretation.
Boundary categories include civil, judicial and ecclesiastical with some overlap.
We cannot have pharmacists who act like this. ' ' Top of page DoH hoping for judicial review to settle clothier?
Once again, in God's design for mankind, the State has the responsibility for the judicial death penalty, not the family.
In November 2001 a judicial review ruled that creating cloned human embryos lay outwith the strict definition of embryos in the Act.
There are useful judicial dicta as to what constitutes substance and what constitutes procedure.
We have not been asked to review critically the quantum of the orders or the exercise of the judicial discretion.
Graham, the more deliberately judicial for the stirring emotions he felt, asked if there had been any fighting.
This is a piece of bad news for the government which may at least serve to restore some public faith in the judicial system.
Most of the parole procedure is determined by the desire of the judicial system to provide finality to cases.
First Judicial Review Attempt " We have lost a battle, but the war against electoral fraud continues " - John Hemming.
Their administrative function was replaced by county councils, established in 1889, but their judicial function was not abolished until 1971.
Earlier this year we put forward a detailed scheme, involving a pre-trial judicial hearing, which would enable that to happen.
Reach up to the average consumer's clicking on a. For clients by to advance the part to cohen's quot judicial hellhole.
We have no hesitancy in holding that the killing of members of the population in reprisal without judicial sanction is itself unlawful.
Early next year, the Supreme Court will hear the case in a potentially historic clash between presidential authority and judicial oversight.
However, membership is not compulsory and a judicial office holder may opt out of the scheme.
The office of Lord Chancellor protected judicial independence for centuries.
Blair's immediate concession of a judicial inquiry was bowing to the inevitable.
The process is not judicial and the government can choose not to accept the recommendations.
Most used total detections which include administrative detections, while others counted just judicial disposals.
I expect much of our work in the coming months to focus on making the judicial role better suited to a more diverse judiciary.
The judicial attacks on this year's prize laureate Orhan Pamuk in Turkey are a dramatic example of the political significance of the book.
Neither is it proposed that justices ' clerks ought to take the judicial oath.
The orders would be subject to some judicial oversight.
In the discharge or that responsibility it exercises the full plenitude of judicial power.
Hitherto, the categories of class claims have developed largely as a matter of judicial precedent.
Judicial Review If the above fails, a newspaper or broadcaster can initiate proceedings to challenge a court decision.
The said list shall contain the objections in the amounts, the violation of laws and request for initiating respective judicial proceedings.
Some of the recent judicial pronouncements cited in this book would have been unthinkable ten years ago.
We have recently won a landmark Judicial Review challenging the crown prosecution services decision not to prosecute his employers for corporate manslaughter.
They were unsuccessful at trial, and on appeal, and received a judicial rebuke.
If that fails then the only ultimate recourse would be to Judicial Review in the High Court.
There is no legal appeal against the decision, although the proceedings may be subject to judicial review.
From the Human Rights Act to Hutton to the new supreme court, we are seeing growing judicial scrutiny of the government.
Petition - the document by which a divorce or judicial separation is applied for.
Perjury A lawfully sworn witness in judicial proceedings deliberately giving false evidence.
The development of judicial and police cooperation is essential to effectively combat transnational organized crime.
Over and above the authority delegated to the ordinary councils or courts, a reserve of judicial power was believed to reside in the king, which was invoked as of grace by the suitors who could not obtain relief from any inferior tribunal.
To the chancellor, as already the head of the judicial system, these petitions were referred, although he was not at first the only officer through whom the prerogative of grace was administered.
In all matters the magistrates were obliged to act according to their direction, and in some towns they heard cases of appeal against judicial sentences passed by the magistrate.
The weak point in the system is that episcopal superintendence being exercised in every case by a plurality of individuals there is no one, moderator or senior member, whose special duty it is to take initial action when the unpleasant work of judicial investigation or ecclesiastical discipline becomes necessary.
In May 1899 the minister of justice stated in the chamber of deputies that the machinery of the courts in the country was antiquated, unwieldy and incapable of performing its duties; that 50,000 cases were then waiting decision in the minor courts, and Io,000 in the federal division; and that a reconstruction of the judiciary and the judicial system had become necessary.
The council of state is the highest administrative tribunal, and includes a special Section du contentieux to deal with judicial work of this nature.
This measure, which placed the whole powers of the state - executive, legislative, military and judicial - in the hands of one irresponsible and permanent chamber, "the horridest arbitrariness that ever was exercised in the world," Cromwell and the army determined to resist at all costs.
It is true that centuries of law-abiding and litigious habitude had accumulated in the temple archives of each city vast stores of precedent in ancient deeds and the records of judicial decisions, and that intercourse had assimilated city custom.
She might bring an action against him for cruelty and neglect and, if she proved her case, obtain a judicial separation, taking with her her dowry.
Matthias was the elect of the Hungarian people, gratefully mindful of his father's services to the state and inimical to all foreign candidates; and though an influential section of the magnates, headed by the palatine Laszlo Garai and the voivode of Transylvania, Miklos Ujlaki, who had been concerned in the judicial murder of Matthias's brother Laszlo, and hated the Hunyadis as semi-foreign upstarts, were fiercely opposed to Matthias's election, they were not strong enough to resist the manifest wish of the nation, supported as it was by Matthias's uncle Mihaly Szilagyi at the head of 15,000 veterans.
The Roman court of cassation is the highest, and in both penal and civil matters has a right to decide questions of law and disputes between the lower judicial authorities, and is the only one which has jurisdiction in penal cases, while sharing with the others the right to revise civil cases.
As the Church in the earliest ages had executive and legislative power in its own spiritual sphere, so also it had " judicial officers," " taking cognizance of and deciding causes."
In the East, Constantinople, from its principality, acquired special administrative pre-eminence, naturally followed, as in the case of " old Rome," by judicial pre-eminence.
This clause established the independence of the judicial bench.
The department is within the judicial circumscription of the appeal court of Lyons and the educational circumscription (academie) of Lyons.
It is the supreme court of cassation (see Judicial System, below); an audit office, a high court of justice for all political offences; one of its departments fulfils the functions of a heralds' college.
Though the young emperor was of too phlegmatic a temperament to be carried away by the prevailing excitement and of too practical a turn of mind to adopt wholesale the doctrinaire theories of his selfconstituted, irresponsible advisers, he recognized that great administrative and economic changes were required, and after a short period of hesitation he entered on a series of drastic reforms, of which the most important were the emancipation of the serfs, the thorough reorganization of the judicial administration and the development of local self-government.
The privileges conferred by the Organic Statute were confirmed; the cumbersome and extravagant judicial and administrative systems were maintained; the judges were declared independent of the executive, and an Assembly composed of forty-nine Christian and thirty-one Mussulman deputies took the place of the former general council.
In such matters as appointments to the judicial bench, indeed, his studied impartiality offended both parties; but on the whole his administration was a marked success, and the cessation of the chronic state of disturbance in the island justified the powers in preparing for the withdrawal of their troops.
His refusal to countenance torture as an instrument of judicial investigation, on the ground that "confessions so extorted give no sure criteria for forming a judgment," showed him to be more humane as well as more enlightened than the majority of his council, which had defended the contrary opinion.
These principles, with the addition of that of fair rents settled by judicial means, were gradually established by the Land Acts of 1870 and subsequent years, and the whole system was remodelled by the Land Purchase Acts (see Ireland).
He had already been raised to the office of quaestor, which at that time was a sort of ministry of law and justice, its holder being the assessor of the emperor and his organ for judicial purposes, something like the English lord chancellor of the later middle.
On the ist of January 1897 he was appointed president of the newly created judicial commission at Budapest, and for the next few years held aloof from politics, even under the ex-lex government of Fejervary.
See his Writings, Political, Judicial and Literary (3 vols., Boston, 1852), edited by Nahum Capen; and an article in the New England Magazine, new series, xxxvii.
Wood was prosecuted eventually for insinuations against the judicial integrity of the earl of Clarendon.
Lastly, we possess a judicial text in 48 paragraphs, which bears the title of Notitia vel commemoratio de illa ewa (law), quae se ad Amorem habet.
Tolman, History of Higher Education in Rhode Island (Washington, 18 94); Henry Phillips, Jr., Historical Sketches of the Paper Currency of the American Colonies (2 vols., Roxbury, Mass., 1865-1866); Thomas Durfee, Gleanings from the Judicial History of Rhode Island (Providence, 1883); and the works of Field, Richman and Mowry (see History, Bibliography).
The first league, moreover, in its later period affords the first example in recorded history of self-conscious imperialism in which the subordinate units enjoyed a specified local autonomy with an organized system, financial, military and judicial.
It was proved in the course of the long argument in this case that the archbishop of Canterbury had undoubtedly exercised such independent power of visitation both before and after the Reformation; and it was on this precedent that in 1888 the judicial committee of the privy council mainly relied in deciding that the archbishop had the right to cite before him the bishop of Lincoln (Dr Edward King), who was accused of certain irregular ritual practices.
It practically exercised the judicial functions of the Sanhedrin (see Jews, § 40 ad fin.).
As in the case of the similar power of the Federal judges, this is founded on no special commission, but arises out of the ordinary judicial function of expounding the law and discriminating between the fundamental law and laws of inferior authority (see post, 25).
The only bright pages in the dark chapter of Alexander's popedom are his efforts on behalf of the Turkish War (1499-1502), his activity for the diffusion of Christianity in America, and his judicial awards (May 3-4, 1 493) on the question of the colonial empires of Spain and Portugal, by which he avoided a bloody war.
The attempts to suppress these, the harsh measures taken against those who attended them or connived at them, or refused to give information against them, the military violence and the judicial severities, the confiscations, imprisonments, tortures, expatriations, all make up a dreadful narrative..
Bartolus left behind him a great reputation, and many writers have sought to explain the fact by attributing to him the introduction of the dialectical method of teaching law; but this method had been employed by Odofredus, a pupil of Accursius, in the previous century, and the successors of Odofredus had abused it to an extent which has rendered their writings in many instances unprofitable to read, the subject matter being overlaid with dialectical forms. It was the merit of Bartolus, on the other hand, that he employed the dialectical method with advantage as a teacher, and discountenanced the abuse of it; but his great reputation was more probably owing to the circumstance that he revived the exegetical system of teaching law (which had been neglected since the ascendancy of Accursius) in a spirit which gave it new life, whilst he imparted to his teaching a practical interest, from the judicial experience which he had acquired while acting as assessor to the courts at Todi and at Pisa before he undertook the duties of a professorial chair.
However, Unison has dropped plan for a judicial review of the sell-off decision after being advised the action had little chance of success.
We have well matured financial and securities market and time-tested judicial systems.
His party advocated judicial restraint in the courts and a strict adherence to the constitution.
Kennedy emphasized the need for courts to exercise judicial restraint when deciding civil issues.
Judicial restraint is a theory of how judges are to interpret laws.
Courts that follow these procedures are exercising a judicial theory called judicial restraint.
The controversy between judicial activism and judicial restraint is still heavily debated.
During this time, a notice of the application for a change of name and the date of the hearing will be published once each week in a general circulation newspaper within the judicial district.
The judicial system also uses drug screening on occasion to test those who are on probation after taking part in some sort of unlawful offense.
While Hilton was released from jail, she was not completely let off the judicial hook.
Students examine the American criminal justice system and learn how to study the American judicial system in all of its facets, including various legal, organizational, and managerial considerations.
Go to The Job Page for job listings by the Judicial, Legislative and Executive branches.
For the Judicial Branch, you have opportunities in the Federal Judicial Center, the U.S. Sentencing Commission and the U.S. Courts.
The importance of community service has long been recognized by the American judicial system, which has been assigning work projects to law-breakers for generations.
It is truly within their nature to be fair and judicial.
All his work shows a judicial tone of mind, and is remarkable for the charm of its style.
The first was the appointment of a grand council with supreme judicial and financial functions P 7 ?
This measure focuses on all three branches of the government - executive, legislative, and judicial.
Certain types of dangerous individuals are relegated after serving a sentence in the ordinary convict prisons, and by administrative, not by judicial process, to special penal colonies known as domicilii coatti or forced residences.
The thirteen districts in their council nominated four caporioni, who acted in concert with a senator, appointed, like the podest of other cities, for supreme judicial functions.
Here it is used, in the limited sense defined by an American Court, as " the authority by which judicial officers take cognizance of and decide causes."
See Judicial System, below.
In this connexion, reference should be made to the Anti-Trust Act of 1890, which, by its judicial interpretation, has been held to include railways and to forbid rate agreements between competing carriers.
This year also he found a congenial occupation in editing Bentham's Rationale of Judicial Evidence.
The judicial department in 1910 was composed of a supreme court of six judges, eight circuit courts.'
Its most important feature, when compared with the previous constitution of 1868, is its provision for the choice of state officials other than the governor (who was previously chosen by election) by elections instead of by the governor's appointment, but the governor, who serves for four years and is not eligible for the next succeeding term, still appoints the circuit judges, the state' attorneys for each judicial circuit and the county commissioners; he may fill certain vacancies and may suspend, and with the Senate remove officers not liable to impeachment..
Assisted no doubt by their judicial control, the Eupatridae also tended to become sole owners of the land, reducing the original freeholders or tenants to the position of serfs.
In his own kingdom Charles took some steps to reform the financial and judicial administration and so to increase his revenue; but he was soon occupied once more with foreign entanglements, and in July 1362, in alliance with Peter the Cruel, king of Castile, he invaded Aragon, deserting his new ally soon afterwards for Peter IV., king of Aragon.
Nominally a free Greek city, Alexandria retained its senate to Roman times; and indeed the judicial functions of that body were restored by Septimius Severus, after temporary abolition by Augustus.
During the republic and the empire he filled successively judicial offices at Louviers, Rouen and Evreux.
A provisional code of judicial procedure, prepared by Edward Livingston, was in effect in 1805 to 1825.
The judicial system was much improved, a better grade of officials became the rule, many French Creoles were appointed to office, intermarriages of French and Spanish and even English were encouraged by the highest officials, and in general a liberal and conciliatory policy was followed, which made Louisiana under Spanish rule quiet and prosperous.
The introduction of English law, and the changes made in the judicial and legal systems of Louisiana after 1804 have already been described.
The character of this body was altered in 1890, and in 1898, in which latter year its functions were reduced to the essentially judicial.
The preliminaries of the elections of December 1905 and March 1906 being marked by frauds and injustice, the Liberals deserted the polls at those elections, and instead of appealing to judicial tribunals controlled by the Moderates, issued a manifesto of revolution on the 28th of July 1906.1 This insurrection rapidly assumed large proportions.
All these officials unite in their own persons the judicial and executive functions, under the " Law of the Vilayets," which made its appearance in 1861, and purported, and was really intended by its framers, to confer on the provinces a large measure of self-government, in which both Mussulmans and non-Mussulmans should take part.
After the promulgation of the reforms, the judicial duties of the Imperial Divan, which with other functions also exercised those of a kind of supreme court of appeal, were transferred to the Sheikh-ul-Islam.
English officers were engaged to reform the gendarmerie, and judicial inspectors of foreign nationality were to travel through the country to redress abuses.
The resident superior is assisted by the protectorate council, consisting of heads of French administrative departments (chief of the judicial service, of public works, &c.) and one native "notable," and the royal orders must receive its sanction before they can be executed.
The judicial department comprises a supreme court consisting of a chief justice and (since 1881) four associate justices elected for terms of six years, and lower courts consisting of district courts with original jurisdiction in civil cases in law and equity, and in criminal cases upon indictments by grand juries; justices' courts, in which the amount in litigation cannot exceed $ioo, or the punishment cannot exceed three months' imprisonment or a fine of $loo; and of municipal and probate courts with the usual jurisdictions.
As chairman of the judiciary committee, he brought forward a number of measures for the improvement of judicial procedure, and in May 1826 joined with Benton in presenting a report on executive patronage.
The administration is in the hands of a council of chiefs which exercises legislative, executive and, to some extent, judicial functions.
Although acknowledged as the county town of Pembrokeshire, Pembroke was superseded by Haverfordwest as the judicial and administrative centre of the shire on account of the more convenient position of the latter place.
Arbitration differs from Mediation in so far as it is a judicial act, whereas Mediation involves no decision, but merely advice and suggestions to those who invoke its aid.
His essential functions were judicial and executive, and in documents he is often described as the king's agent (agens publicus) or royal judge (judex publicus or fiscalis).
He also retained a third of the fines which he imposed in his judicial capacity.
The states are subdivided into cornarcas, or judicial districts, and into municipios, or townships, which is the smallest autonomous division.
The supreme powers of the nation are vested in three partially independent branches of government - executive, legislative, and judicial - represented by the president and his cabinet, a national congress of two chambers, and a supreme tribunal.
The states are forbidden, likewise, to tax federal property, to tax inter-state commerce, to impose duties of their own on foreign imports, or to resist the execution of judicial sentences originating in other states.
The judicial system of the republic consists of a supreme federal tribunal of fifteen judges in the national capital, and a district tribunal in the capital of each state, which forms a federal judicial district.
The judges are appointed for life and can be removed only by judicial sentence and impeachment.
Limited judicial powers are exercised by chiefs of police, and by certain department commissions, or boards, of an executive character.
The judicial and financial functions in each province were vested in the Ouvidor, whose authority in the college of finance was second only to that of the governor.
As early as 1618 a code of laws for the regulation of the mining industry had been drawn up by Philip III., the executive and judicial functions in the mining districts being vested in a provedor, and the fiscal in a treasurer, who received the royal fifths and superintended the weighing of all the gold, rendering a yearly account of all discoveries and produce.
The judicial power is independent of the administrative power.
The same centralizing tendency was shown in the administrative and judicial reforms taken in hand by the diet of 1722.
It has its council of notables, forming a sort of oligarchy which, through the medium of a mayor and two subordinates, directs the interior affairs of the community - policing, recruiting, the assignment and collection of taxes, &c. - and has judicial power in less important suits and crimes.
More serious cases come within the purview of the an-sat, a judicial auxiliary of the governor.
The judicial power is vested in a supreme federal court, called the Corte Federal y de Casacion, and such subordinate tribunals as may be created by law.
As the laws and procedure are uniform throughout the republic and all decrees and findings have legal effect everywhere, the state judicial organizations may be considered as taking the place of district federal courts, although the constitution does not declare them so.
The judicial organization of the states includes in each a supreme court of three members, a superior court, courts of first instance, district courts and municipal courts.
Crispi was compelled to resign office, although the judicial authorities upheld the invalidity of his early marriage, contracted at Malta in 1853, and ratified his subsequent union with Signora Barbagallo.
The ensuing Rudini cabinet lent itself to Cavallotti's campaign, and at the end of 1897 the judicial authorities applied to the chamber for permission to prosecute Crispi for embezzlement.
Volumes and almost libraries have been written on the Calas affair, and we can but refer here to the only less famous cases of Sirven (very similar to that of Calas, though no judicial murder was actually committed), Espinasse (who had been sentenced to the galleys for harbouring a Protestant minister), Lally (the son of the unjustly treated but not blameless Irish-French commander in India), D'Etalonde (the companion of La Barre), Montbailli and others.
Thus the Lord Mayor and aldermen possess judicial authority, and the police of London are divided into two separate bodies, the Metropolitan and the City Police (see PoLicE).
For judicial purposes Westminster was merged with the county of London in 1889, and the Liberty of the Tower was abolished in 1894.
Other purely judicial officers are the judicial commissioner for Upper Burma, and the civil judges of Mandalay and Moulmein.
The scale of judicial fines is given in the denarius (" which makes so many solidi"), and it is known that the monetary system of the solidus did not appear until the Merovingian period.
In the Ripuarian Law a certain importance attaches to written deeds; the clergy are protected by a higher wer gild- 600 solidi for a priest, and 900 for a bishop; on the other hand, more space is given to the cojuratores (sworn witnesses); and we note the appearance of the judicial duel, which is not mentioned in the Salic Law.
Savonarola also proposed a court of appeal for criminal and political crimes tried by the Otto di guardia e balia; this too was agreed to, but the right of appeal was to be, not to a court as Savonarola suggested, but to the Greater Council, a fact which led to grave abuses, as judicial appeals became subject to party passions.
The most important public function whose transformation into a private possession was assisted by the growth of the immunity was the judicial.
The transfer of the judicial process, and of the financial and administrative sides of the government as well, into private possession, was not, however, accomplished entirely by the road of the immunity.
His right to exact military, financial and judicial duties for the state he had used to force men to become his dependants, and then he had stood between them and the state, freeing them from burdens which he threw with increased weight upon those who still stood outside his personal protection.
The early German governments whose chief functions, military, judicial, financial, legislative, were carried on by the freemen of the nation because they were members of the body politic, and were performed as duties owed to the community for its defence and sustenance, no longer existed.
It contains also the highest judicial, financial, military and administrative official authorities of Austria, and is the see of a Roman Catholic archbishop. Vienna enjoys autonomy for communal affairs, but is under the control of the governor and the Diet of Lower Austria, while the election of the chief burgomaster requires the sanction of the sovereign, advised by the prime minister.
The government is divided into three independent branches, legislative, executive and judicial, of which through force of circumstances the executive has become the dominating power.
No member of the executive branch of the government (president, cabinet minister, prefect, sub-prefect, or governor) can be elected to either chamber, nor can any judge or " fiscal " of the supreme court, nor any member of the ecclesiastical hierarchy from his diocese, province or parish, nor any judge or " fiscal " of superior and first-instance courts from their judicial districts, nor any military officer from the district where he holds a military appointment at the time of election.
The Samaritans, who otherwise shared the scruples of the Jews about the utterance of the name, seem to have used it in judicial oaths to the scandal of the rabbis.4 The early Christian scholars, who inquired what was the true name of the God of the Old Testament, had therefore no great difficulty in getting the information they sought.
Mainz is the seat of the administrative and judicial authorities of the province of Rhein-Hessen, and also of a Roman Catholic bishop.
At the head of the judicial system is the supreme court (1747), divided since 1893 into an appellate division and a common pleas division, with final revisory and appellate jurisdiction upon all questions of law and equity.
The town (or township) is the unit of local government, the county being recognized only for judicial purposes and to a certain extent in the appointment by central administrative boards.
While a comparison of his expositions of the Pauline and Johannine Christologies with the earlier Unitarian exegesis in which he had been trained shows how wide is the interval, the work does not represent a mind that had throughout its history lived and worked in the delicate and judicial investigations he here tried to conduct.
His work, which appeared in three parts, entitled respectively History of the Rise of the Huguenots of France (2 vols., 1879), The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre (2 vols., 1886), and The Huguenots and the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (2 vols., 1895), is characterized by painstaking thoroughness, by a judicial temper, and by scholarship of a high order.
The judicial committee of the privy council, as the last court of appeal, has on several occasions pronounced judgments by which the scope of the act has been confined to its narrowest legal effect.
Heresy or no heresy, in the last resort, like all other ecclesiastical questions, is decided by the judicial committee of the council.
This piece was played after the fall of the Terror, but the fratricide of Timoleon became the text for insinuations to the effect that by his silence Joseph de Chenier had connived at the judicial murder of Andre, whom Joseph's enemies alluded to as Abel.
There was also a lord warden, who was usually a nobleman and performed no judicial functions.
In judicial impartiality Parkman may be compared with Gardiner, and for accuracy of learning with Stubbs.
His view of constitutional history was that it should contain only so much of the political and general history of the time as bears directly on specific changes in the organization of the state, including therein judicial as well as ecclesiastical institutions.
One of the peculiarities of the government was that in addition to the regular executive, legislative and judicial departments there was a privy council without whose approval the governor's power was little more than nominal.
The early poems of the cycle sometimes contain curious information on the Frankish methods in war, in council and in judicial procedure, which had no parallels in contemporary institutions.
At the beginning of the 13th century there existed a tour des pairs which exercised judicial functions and dated possibly from the 11th century, but their prerogatives at the beginning of the 14th century appear to have been mainly ceremonial and decorative.
The judicial system, revised by a constitutional amendment of 1891, consists of a supreme court of three members, elected for a term of six years, with civil jurisdiction only, largely appellate; a court of criminal appeals, of three members, elected for six years, with appellate jurisdiction in criminal cases; courts of civil appeals (number determined by the legislature) of three members each, elected for six years; district courts, each with one judge, elected for four years, with original jurisdiction in the more important civil and criminal (felony) cases and a limited appellate jurisdiction; county and justice of the peace courts with original jurisdiction in misdemeanours and petty civil cases.
Iowa, having separated from Wisconsin in 1838 on account of lack of courts for judicial relief, the question of applying for admission into the Union as.
It is noteworthy that the word av6.9E1.ta had fallen into disuse about the beginning of the 4th century, and that, throughout the same period, no instance of the judicial use of the phrase rapaSovvat T(i) larava can be found.
The constitutional changes of Diocletian and Constantine extended still further the power of the praefect, in whom, after the disbanding of the guards and the removal from Rome of the highest officials, the whole military, administrative and judicial powers were centred.
Under the republic judicial praefects (praefecti jure dicendo) were sent annually from Rome as deputies of the praetors to administer justice in certain towns of the Italian allies.
Courts of justice, however, do not grant reprieves by way of dispensation from the penalties of the law, which is not for the judicial department, but for temporary purposes, e.g.
From the point of view of purely judicial administration, Anjou was subject to the parlement of Paris; Angers was the seat of a presidial court, of which the jurisdiction comprised the senechaussees of Angers, Saumur, Beauge, Beaufort and the duchy of Richelieu; there were besides presidial courts at Château-Gontier and La Fleche.
The Eumenides of Aeschylus is a glorification of the institution, though for obvious reasons it is there represented as an essentially judicial body.
The bishop, or count, on whose lands the peace was violated was vested with judicial power, and was directed, in case he was himself unable to execute sentence, to summon to his assistance the laymen and even the clerics of the diocese, all of whom were required to take a solemn oath to observe and enforce the peace.
The great monument of his episcopate is the eleven famous charges in which he from time to time reviewed the position of the English Church with reference to whatever might be the most pressing question of the day - addresses at once judicial and statesmanlike, full of charitable wisdom and massive sense.
The highest judicial court in the state is not, as in most states of the Union, the supreme court, but the court of appeals.
This board of charities consists of one member from each of the nine judicial districts and three additional members from the City of New York, all appointed by the governor with the consent of the Senate for a term of eight years.
The regents of the University are chosen by the legislature, one retiring each year; and an act of 1909 requires that their number shall at all times be three more than the number of judicial districts..
The town (pop. 5000, including about 100 Europeans) is the seat of the customs administration and of the judicial department, and is the largest centre for the trade of the colony.
The establishment of a supreme court also occupied the attention of Sir John, who had a strong sense of the necessity of maintaining the purity and dignity of the judicial office.
For judicial purposes the province is divided into twenty-four divisions, in each of which is a resident magistrate, who has limited civil and criminal jurisdiction.
He believed that international controversies would ultimately be settled by judicial procedure, and in the Russo-Japanese War and the establishment of the Hague Court he took an active part in promoting the judicial settlement of disputes between nations.
Judicial References have been long known to the law of Scotland.
When an action is in court the parties may at any stage withdraw it from judicial determination, and refer it to arbitration.
A judicial reference falls like the other by the elapse of a year; and the court cannot review the award on the ground of miscarriage.
The procedure was gratuitous and voluntary; and the functions of the arbitrator were not judicial; he merely recorded the arrangement arrived at, or the refusal of conciliation.
The judicial department consists of the supreme court, circuit courts, county courts, justices of the peace, and police Sioux Falls, 12,283; Lead, 8052; Aberdeen, 5841; Mitchell, 5719; Watertown, 5164;5164; Deadwood, 4364; Yankton, 4189; Huron, 3783;3783; Brookings, 3265.
He studied law, and after holding some minor judicial offices, was minister to New Granada in 1853.
In 1872 he undertook the defence of his friend Lord Chancellor Hatherley, when attacked for his appointment of Sir Robert Collier to the judicial committee of the Privy Council, and, by a line of argument more ingenious than convincing, secured a majority for the government.
During his brief reign at Naples, Joseph effected many improvements; he abolished the relics of feudalism, reformed the monastic orders, reorganized the judicial, financial and educational systems, and initiated several public works.
The judicial department consists of the supreme court, district courts, county courts, municipal courts, and justices of the peace.
For each judicial district (the tenth district was created in 2907) there is one district judge, elected for four years; the district courts have original jurisdiction (except in probate matters) and certain appellate jurisdiction.
A large portion of the work of the foreign consuls, especially the British, was consequently judicial, and in 1901 the office of judge.
In 1906 a bill was passed somewhat modifying the existing status of the classes above mentioned, and especially directing new ordinances with regard to the judicial treatment of Christian natives.
A general judicial revision being also in contemplation, this bill did not immediately come into force.
Justice for Europeans is administered by European judges, but, as with administration at large so in judicial matters, native chiefs have extensive powers in native affairs.
For native justice there are courts in the districts and regencies; residents act as police judges; provincial councils have judicial powers, and there are councils of priests with powers in matrimonial disputes, questions of succession, &c.
But Count Amadeus of Savoy not merely seized (1287) the castle built by the bishops (about 1219) on the Ile, but also (1288) the office of vicedominus [vidomne], the official through whom the bishop exercised his minor judicial rights.
He therefore claimed in both spheres the supreme administrative, legislative and judicial authority.