Each province has also its own judicial system.
They were the king's lieutenants for judicial and administrative purposes and were established in the 12th century, either by Alexander I.
C. 41 to the judicial committee of the privy council.
The judicial authorities requested a rescript from the emperor Aurelian for the decision of the cause.
Lord Mansfield's great reputation rests chiefly on his judicial career.
Under all these three acts there is a final appeal to the judicial committee of the privy council.
Michel de Bourges was the counsel whose eloquent pleadings brought the suit for a judicial separation to a successful issue in 1836.'
Much that had been done by bishops, sine strepitu forensi et figura judicii, is now done in the course of regular judicial procedure.
All the public acts and judicial decisions of one province have full legal effect and authority in all the others.
St Ambrose and St Paulinus had even held high administrative and judicial offices.
A few years later, in 347, the council of Sardica, a council of practically the whole West save Africa, reversed Tyre and acquitted St Athanasius after a full judicial inquiry.
As a woman could not prove her case in the judicial combat, it was felt that the earlier practice gave her an unfair advantage.
A new judicial office was created in the name of the Company, to which Sir Elijah Impey was appointed, though he never consented to draw the additional salary offered to him.
A judicial system has been instituted to which natives as well as Europeans are amenable.
She could only remarry with judicial consent, when the judge was bound to inventory the deceased's estate and hand it over to her and her new husband in trust for the children.
A father could disinherit a son in early times without restriction, but the Code insisted upon judicial consent and that only for repeated unfilial conduct.
Certain types of dangerous individuals are relegated after serving a sentence in the ordinary convict prisons, and by administrative, not by judicial process, to special penal colonies known as domicilii coatti or forced residences.
The thirteen districts in their council nominated four caporioni, who acted in concert with a senator, appointed, like the podest of other cities, for supreme judicial functions.
With approved conduct, however, he may be absolutely released after twenty to twenty-five years in the settlement; and throughout that time, though possessing no civil rights, a quasi-judicial procedure controls all punishments inflicted upon him, and he is as secure of obtaining justice as if free.
Here it is used, in the limited sense defined by an American Court, as " the authority by which judicial officers take cognizance of and decide causes."
The theory, as expressed in legal phrase by St Cyprian in the 3rd century, was that the apostolic power of delegated sovereignty from the Lord, alike legislative and judicial, was held in joint-tenancy by the whole body of Catholic bishops.
It was thus practically a committee of the larger council, and assisted the king in his judicial work, its authority being as undefined as his own.
The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court of Appeals, the Circuit courts, such inferior courts as may be established, county courts, the powers and duties of which are, however, chiefly police and fiscal, and in justices of the peace.
The judicial powers of the county court are confined to probate, the appointment of executors, administrators and other personal representatives, and the settlement of their accounts, matters relating to apprentices and to contested elections for county and district officers.
Equity as thus described would correspond rather to the judicial discretion which modifies the administration of the law than to the antagonistic system which claims to supersede the law.
Mention may also be made of the Tribunal des Conflits, a special court whose function it is to decide which is the competent tribunal when an administration and a judicial court both claim or refuse to deal with a given case.
From this time the chief interest of his career lies in his judicial work, but he did not wholly dissever himself from politics.
The appeal is to the king in council, and is heard by the judicial committee of the privy council.
The judicial powers are vested in a high court and other federal courts, and the federal judges hold office for life or during good behaviour.
This measure focuses on all three branches of the government - executive, legislative, and judicial.
One and all they underwent the influences emanating Character from Paris; and in respe& to civil administration, of Napo- law, judicial procedure, education and public works, Ieon~s they all experienced great benefits, the results of which rule, never wholly disappeared.
All his work shows a judicial tone of mind, and is remarkable for the charm of its style.
Finance, commerce, the national armaments by sea and land, judicial procedure, church government, education, even art and science - everything, in short - emerged recast from his shaping hand.
He was made commander-in-chief of both the military and naval forces with supreme authority, and in his hands was placed the final appointment to all political and judicial posts and to vacant city magistracies.
The judges of the supreme court are elected biennially by tine General Assembly, and all the other judicial officers are elected by the people.
Subsequently he was transferred, perhaps through Cromwell's influence, to the service of the king, and in January 15 3 2 he was sent to Rome to obstruct the judicial proceedings against Henry in the papal curia.
Divorce is forbidden by the Roman Catholic Church, and only 839 judicial separations were obtained from the courts in 1902, more than half of the demands made having been abandoned.
It is more important to observe that under Joseph and his ministers or advisers, including the Frenchmen Roederer, Dumas, Miot de Melito and the Corsican Saliceti, great progress was made in abolishing feudal laws and customs, in reforming the judicial procedure and criminal laws on the model of the Code Napoleon, and in attempting the beginnings of elementary education.
The ordinary judicial system of France comprises two classes of courts: (I) civil and criminal, (2) special, including courts dealing only with purely commercial cases; in addition there are the administrative courts, including bodies, the Conseil dEtat and the Conseils de Prefecture, which dGal, in their judicial capacity, with cases coming under the droit administratif.
Police.Broadly, the police of France may be divided into two great branchesadministrative police (la police administrative) and judicial police (la police judic-iaire), the former having for its object the maintenance of order, and the latter charged with tracing out offenders, collecting the proofs, and delivering the presumed offenders to the tribunals charged by law with their trial and punishment.
The first was the appointment of a grand council with supreme judicial and financial functions P 7 ?
The mandamenti or administrative divisions no longer correspond to the judicial divisions (mandamenti giudiziarii) which in November 1891 were reduced from 1806 to 1535 by a law which provided that judicial reform should not modify existing administrative and electoral divisions.
It established that all Italian cabinets since 1880 had grossly neglected the state banks; that the two preceding cabinets had been aware of the irregularities committed by Tanlongo; that Tanlongo had heavily subsidized the press, paying as much as 20,000 for that purpose in 1888 alone; that a number of deputies, including several ex-ministers, had received from him loans of a considerable amount, which they had apparently made no effort to refund; that Giolitti had deceived the Chamber with regard to the state banks, and was open tosuspicion of having,after the arrest of Tanlongo, abstracted a number of documents from the latters papers before placing the remainder in the hands of the judicial authorities.
C.19 and its present successor the judicial committee of Privy Council (infra: Rep. Com.
The sheriff "was the king's representative in all matters judicial, military and financial in the shire.
Each has its own judicial system, and enacts laws relating to the administration of justice, the distribution and imposition of taxes, and all matters affecting the province.
Subdivisions may be, and often are, named according to the particular duties to which they are assigned, as la police politique, police des mceurs, police sanitaire, &c. The officers of the judicial police comprise the juge de paix (equivalent to the English police magistrate), the maire, the commissaire de police, the gendarmerie and, in rural districts, the gardes champtres and the gardes forestiers.
First there is the office or cabinet of the prefect for the general police (la police gnrale), with bureaus for various objects, such as the safety of the president of the republic, the regulation and order of public ceremonies, theatres, amusements and entertainments, &c.; secondly, the judicial police (la police judiciaire), with numerous bureaus also, in constant communication with the courts of judicature; thirdly, the administrative police (la police administrative) including bureaus, which superintend navigation, public carriages, animals, public health, &c. Concurrently with these divisions there is the municipal police, which comprises all the agents in enforcing police regulations in the streets or public thoroughfares, acting under the orders of a chief (chef de la police municipale) with a central bureau.