The judges are strictly supervised and appeal is allowed.
In case of dispute the judges dealt first with the contract.
Teachers, cops, girls, judges and fellow gangsters had all shared the frustration of not knowing Billie from Willie.
In order to relieve the circuit judges the legislature has established by special acts inferior courts, generally with criminal jurisdiction only, in nine counties of the state.
The judges are elected by employers and workmen of a certain standing.
The judges have appellate jurisdiction of cases civil and criminal coming up from the lower courts.
With the judges were associated a body of elders, who shared in the decision, but whose exact function is not yet clear.
The king's advisers now urged him to arrest Shaftesbury; he was seized on the 2nd of July 1681, and committed to the Tower, the judges refusing his petition to be tried or admitted to bail.
The judicial powers are vested in a high court and other federal courts, and the federal judges hold office for life or during good behaviour.
The judges' decision might, however, be appealed against.
Pending appeal, the appellant's see is not to be filled up. The judges appointed by the bishop of Rome to hear the appeal are to be from the neighbouring provinces.
It's just that courthouses and judges and all that legal stuff have bum memories.
The former moves in a world of "values," and judges things as they are related to our "fundamental self-feeling."
The former moves in a world of "values," and judges things as they are related to our "fundamental self-feeling."
But, in contrast with Congregationalism, when they elect and "call" a minister their action has to be sustained by the presbytery, which judges of his fitness for that particular sphere, of the measure of the congregation's unanimity, and of the adequacy of financial support.
The president, with the advice and consent of the senate, appoints judges, diplomatic agents, governors of territories, and officers of the army and navy above the rank of colonel.
The court consists of a president, one or more vice-presidents and a variable number of judges.
They decide, as in England, on facts only, leaving the application of the law to the judges.
But we must remember that his view of the law was concurred in by the great majority of the judges and lawyers of that time, and was supported by undoubted precedents.
See Holliday's Life (1797); Campbell's Chief Justices; Foss's Judges; Greville's Memoirs, passim; Horace Walpole's Letters; and other memoirs and works on the period.
Gezer and Taanach, for example, are said to have remained in the hands of Canaanites (Judges i.
The priesthood of Dan certainly traced its origin to Moses (Judges xvii.
The sanctuaries of Shiloh and Dan lasted until the deportation of Israel (Judges xviii.
Palestine, Judges iv.
He has command of the army and navy, and appoints federal ministers and judges.
The judges of the supreme court are elected biennially by tine General Assembly, and all the other judicial officers are elected by the people.
Sessions of the supreme court are held in each county once a year in addition to the general session which meets at some central place selected by the judges.
The court of chancery is held by the judges of the supreme court, the county by a supreme court judge with the aid of two associates elected by the people of the county.
The assistant judges, the sheriff and the state's attorney are elected annually by popular vote.
The county treasurer is elected by the assistant judges.
Propositions to establish the judiciary on a more permanent tenure were also voted down in 1814, 1822, 1857 and 1870, and the state still elects its judges for two years' terms. On its own suggestion, the council of censors was abolished in 1870 and the present method of amending the constitution was adopted.
But it is plain that, once convinced of the necessity for the king's execution, he was the chief instrument in overcoming all scruples among his judges, and in resisting the protests and appeals of the Scots.
The tribunal was composed, not of judges - for all unanimously refused to sit on it - but of fifty-two men drawn from among the king's enemies.
The judges and lawyers began to question the legality of his ordinances, and to doubt their competency to convict royalist prisoners of treason.
The so-called " contracts," including a great variety of deeds, conveyances, bonds, receipts, accounts and, most important of all, the actual legal decisions given by the judges in the law courts, exist in thousands.
The Code made known, in a vast number of cases, what that decision would be, and many cases of appeal to the king were sent back to the judges with orders to decide in accordance with it.
The more important cases, especially those involving life and death, were tried by a bench of judges.
The judges might be satisfied of its existence and terms by the evidence of the witnesses to it, and then issue an order that whenever found it should be given up. Contracts annulled were ordered to be broken.
The decision given was embodied in writing, sealed and witnessed by the judges, the elders, witnesses and a scribe.
The judges at Babylon seem to have formed a superior court to those of provincial towns, but a defendant might elect to answer the charge before the local court and refuse to plead at Babylon.
The judges of all kinds are very poorly paid.
Frederick placed judges of his own appointment, with the title of podest, in all the Lombard commu1ies; and this stretch of his authority, while it exacerbated his foes, forced even his friends to join their ranks against him.
His title was derived from that of Frederick Barharossas judges; but he had no dependence on the empire.
Where the faithful had had recourse to the bishop, no appeal was to be allowed, and the judges were to command execution of the episcopal decree.
in the West expressly provided that bishops were not to be permitted to be judges (that is, of course, in temporal causes), save by the consent of the parties.
If that prelate think the cause should be heard again, he is to appoint judges; if otherwise, the original judgment is to be confirmed.
Ecc. et Cler., excluded bishops from accusations before secular judges and commanded such accusations to be speedily brought before the tribunal of other bishops.
provides that a recent decree of the usurper John should be disregarded and that clerks whom he had brought before secular judges should be reserved for the episcopal jurisdictions," since it is not lawful to subject the ministers of the divine office to the arbitrament of temporal powers."
If the cause be ecclesiastical, the civil judges are to take no part in the inquiry.
The recursus ad principem, in some form or other of appeal or application to the sovereign or his lay judges, was at the end of the middle ages well known over western Europe.
This recourse in England sometimes took the form of the appeal to the king given by the Constitutions of Clarendon, just mentioned, and later by the acts of Henry VIII.; sometimes that of suing for writs of prohibition or mandamus, which were granted by the king's judges, either to restrain excess of jurisdiction, or to compel the spiritual judge to exercise jurisdiction in cases where it seemed to the temporal court that he was failing in his duty.
In Catalonia " Pragmatics," letters from the prince, issued to restrain jurisdiction assumed by ecclesiastical judges contrary to the customs of the principality.
But they could only be heard on the spot by judges delegate.
The king's judges then began to ask the ordinary the specific question whether A.
After the inconclusive proceedings at the realm-council of Merton (1236), when spiritual and temporal lords took opposite views, the king's judges went a step further and thenceforward submitted this particular question to a jury.
c. 17 provided that married laymen might be judges of the courts Christian if they were doctors of civil law, created in any university.
Canon 127 of 1603 provided that the judges must be learned in the civil and ecclesiastical laws and at least masters of arts or bachelors of laws.
By Scots act of 1707, c. 9, their powers were transferred to the judges of the court of session, who now constitute a " teind court " (Brodie-Innes, op. cit.
In 1831 the pope enacted that in all the dioceses of the then Pontifical States, the court of first instance for the criminal causes of ecclesiastics should consist of the ordinary and four other judges.
Causes could be evoked to the tsar himself, " when any partiality of the judges in any affair in which they themselves were interested was discovered" (ib.).
(3) That after the said limitation shall take effect as aforesaid, judges' commissions be made quamdiu se bene gesserint and their salaries ascertained and established; but upon,the address of both houses of parliament it may be lawful to remove them.
27 seq., Judges xviii.
The general assembly elects the five judges who compose the high court.
There are civil, commercial and criminal courts in Montevideo, a departmental court in each departmental capital, and a justice of the peace in each of 205 judicial districts into which the republic is divided, with sub-district courts under deputy judges in addition.
All the proceedings were conducted in writing, and the judges were not confronted with either the parties or the witnesses until they emerged to deliver judgment.
This secrecy, combined with the fact that the judges were very ill paid, led to universal bribery and corruption.
The judges were not so by profession; they were merely members of the official class (chinovniks), the prejudices and vices of which they shared.
p principles: the separation of the judicial and administrative functions, the independence of the judges and courts, the publicity of trials and oral procedure, the equality of all classes before the law.
Moreover, a democratic element was introduced by the adoption of the jury system and - so far as one order of tribunal was concerned - the election of judges.
The first of these, based on the English model, are the courts of the elected justices of the peace, with jurisdiction over petty causes, whether civil or criminal; the second, based on the French model, are the ordinary tribunals of nominated judges, sitting with or without a jury to hear important cases.
From the town The judge (ispravnik), who, in spite of the principle laid ordinary down in 1864, combines judicial and administrative functions, an appeal lies (as in the case of the justices of the peace) to an assembly of such judges; from these again there is an appeal to the district court (okrugniya sud), consisting of three judges; 4 from this to the court of appeal (sudebniya palata); while over this again is the senate, which, as the supreme court of cassation, can send a case for retrial for reason shown.
The confusion of the judicial and administrative functions was introduced again by the appointment of officials as judges.
The edict of emancipation abolished this jurisdiction, and set up instead in each volost a court particular to the peasants (volostnye sud), of which the judges and jury, themselves peasants, were elected by the assembly of the volost (volostnye skhod) each year.
The judges were, of course, wholly illiterate, and this tended to throw the ultimate power into the hands of the clerk (pisar) of the court, who was rarely above corruption.
Even when the visit to the Horde did not end so tragically, it involved a great deal of anxiety and expense, for the Mongol dignitaries had to be conciliated very liberally, and it was commonly believed that the judges were more influenced by the amount of the bribes than by the force of the arguments.
It created a Commerce Court (composed of five judges nominated by the president of the United States from the Federal circuit judges), transferred to it jurisdiction in cases instituted to enforce or set aside orders of the Inter-State Commerce Commission, and made the United States instead of the Commission a party in all such actions.
There is an imperial governor, having under him a native high chief assisted by a native council; and there are both German and native judges and magistrates.
19) which fought on high while the earthly armies of Israel, His people, contended below (Judges v.
The book of Judges with its " monotonous tempo - religious declension, oppression, repentance, peace," to which Wellhausen 4 refers as its ever-recurring cycle, makes us familiar with these alternating phases of action and reaction.
Israelite tribes by the rallying cry " the sword of Yahweh " (Judges vii.
Its importance is attested by Judges viii.
19; Judges xi.
" palm tree of Deborah " in Judges iv.
Moreover, we have frequent references to sacred springs, as that of sheba, `Enharod (`eyn-harod) (Judges vii.
also Judges 19, En-hakkore ['eyn-haggore']).
(which Budde, Moore and other critics consider to belong to the two sources of the narratives in Judges, viz.
the like epithet of " mother " applied to the prophetess Deborah, Judges v.
Crit, Commentary, Judges, Introd.
11 foll.; Judges xiii.
The judicial department consists of a supreme court with a chief justice and two associate justices, chosen for six years, and district courts, with judges chosen for four years.
This involves the view that the historical traditions are mainly due to two characteristic though very complicated recensions, one under the influence of the teaching of Deuteronomy (Joshua to Kings, see § 20), the other, of a more priestly character (akin to Leviticus), of somewhat later date (Genesis to Joshua, with traces in Judges to Kings, see § 23).
3 The book of Judges represents a period of unrest after the settlement of the people.
He himself held supreme sway over all Israel as the last of the " judges " until compelled to accede to the popular demand for a king.
This inquiry is further complicated by (c), where the history of Israel and Judah, as related in Judges and I Samuel, has caused endless perplexity.
Next, the Judaean compiler regularly finds in Israel's troubles the punishment for its schismatic idolatry; nor does he spare Judah, but judges its kings by a standard which agrees with the standpoint of Deuteronomy and is scarcely earlier than the end of the 7th century B.C. (§§ 16, 20).
6, 7, 19-22), and the days before the great overthrow of the northern power as described in Judges v.
20; also Judges v.
Hence it is noteworthy that the late editor of Judges has given the first place to Othniel, a Kenizzite, and therefore of Edomite affinity, though subsequently reckoned as a Judaean (Judg i.
The Whitehall conference of 1655 marks a change in the status of the Jews in England itself, for though no definite results emerged it was clearly defined by the judges that there was no legal obstacle to the return of the Jews.
Many Jews have filled professorial chairs at the universities, others have been judges, and in art, literature (there is a notable Jewish publication society), industry and commerce have rendered considerable services to national culture and prosperity.
The judges are chosen without regard to religious belief, and precautions have been taken to render them independent of political parties.
His appointing power is not very extensive, as nearly all officials, except judges, are elected by popular vote.
The judiciary consists of a supreme court of three judges, thirteen (1908) circuit courts, seven (1908) chancery courts, county courts and justice of thelpeace courts.
Under the constitution of 1890 the governor, with the consent of the senate, appoints supreme court judges for a term of nine years, and circuit and chancery judges for four years.
2 The constitution of 1832 abolished the property qualification for holding office and provided for the popular election of judges and state officials.
There is a supreme court consisting of a chief justice and four associates, elected by popular vote for eight years, and a superior or circuit court, composed of sixteen judges elected by the people in each of sixteen districts for a term of eight years.
The court decided, four judges dissenting, that North Carolina must pay the amount due or suffer her railway bonds to be seized and sold to satisfy the judgment (192 U.S. Reports, 286.
iii.) in the British Museum, often ascribed to the 10th or early 11th century, he judges from the form of the pallium and dalmatic to have been produced at the end of the 11th century " at earliest."
The danger of such an enterprise was diminished by the reluctance to violate the apartments of women and attack a sleeping foe, which appears also in Judges xvi.
The Saracens devastated it in the 8th century, but were driven out, and the island returned to the rule of kings, until they fell in the 10th century, their place being taken by four "judges" of the four provinces, Cagliari, Torres, Arborea and Gallura.
Milo was impeached; his guilt was clear, and his enemies took every means of intimidating his supporters and his judges.
The judges, in making their awards at the show held annually in December, at Islington, North London (since 1862), are instructed to decide according to quality of flesh, lightness of offal, age and early maturity, with no restrictions as to feeding, and thus to promote the primary aim of the club in encouraging the selection and breeding of the best and most useful animals for the production of meat, and testing their capabilities in respect of early maturity.
The judges at Lyons placed it fifteenth in order of merit among the sixteen essays sent in.
He names all the judges for criminal and civil cases, other than the juges de paix (magistrates) and the judges of the Cour de cassation, without having the power to discharge them."
Moreau's trial for treason promised to end with an acquittal; but the emperor brought severe pressure to bear on the judges (one of whom he dismissed), with the result that the general was declared guilty of participating in the royalist plot.
Certainly he needed her support during that campaign; but many good judges have inclined to the belief that the whole-hearted support of Poles and Lithuanians would have been of still greater value, and that the organization of their resources might well have occupied him during the winter of 1812-1813, and would have furnished him with a new and advanced base from which to strike at the heart of Russia in the early summer of 1813.
It was a scene of terror not only to the accused but to judges and to jury.
The judicial department in 1910 was composed of a supreme court of six judges, eight circuit courts.'
of three judges each, ten districts (some with sub-divisions) of the common pleas court, the superior court of Cincinnati, probate courts, courts of insolvency in Cuyahoga and Hamilton counties, juvenile courts (established in 1904), justice of the peace courts and municipal courts.
Under the constitution of 1802 judges were chosen by the legislature, but since 1851 they have been elected by direct popular vote - the judges of the supreme court being chosen at large.
The constitution provides that the terms of supreme and circuit judges shall be such even number of years not less than six as may be prescribed by the legislature - the statutory provision is six years - that of the judges of the common pleas six years, that of the probate judges four years, that of other judges such even number of years not exceeding six as may be prescribed by the legislature - the statutory provision is six years - and that of justices of the peace such even number of years not exceeding four as may be thus prescribed - the statutory provision is four years.
The Enabling Act was passed on the 30th of April 1802, the first state legislature met on the 1st of March 1803, the Territorial judges gave up their offices on the 15th of April 1803, and the Federal senators and representatives took their seats in Congress on the 17th of October 1803.
On East Rock is a monument to the Connecticut soldiers who fell in the War of Independence, the War of 1812, the Mexican War and the Civil War; on the West Rock is a cave, "Judges' Cave," in which the regicides William Goffe and Edward Whalley are said to have concealed themselves when sought for by royal officers in 1661.
Among those in the Peters's list which are wholly or substantially true are the following: "The judges shall determine controversies without a jury"; "Married persons must live together or be imprisoned"; "A wife shall be good evidence against her husband"; "No minister shall keep school"; "The selectmen, on finding children ignorant, may take them away from their parents and put them into better hands, at the expense of their parents."
Oldenbarneveldt perished on the scaffold, and the share which Maurice had in securing the illegal condemnation by a packed court of judges of the aged patriot must ever remain a stain upon his memory.
We owe to his pen curious remarks on English and Swiss customs, valuable notes on the remains of antique art in Rome, and a singularly striking portrait of Jerome of Prague as he appeared before the judges who condemned him to the stake.
Its most important feature, when compared with the previous constitution of 1868, is its provision for the choice of state officials other than the governor (who was previously chosen by election) by elections instead of by the governor's appointment, but the governor, who serves for four years and is not eligible for the next succeeding term, still appoints the circuit judges, the state' attorneys for each judicial circuit and the county commissioners; he may fill certain vacancies and may suspend, and with the Senate remove officers not liable to impeachment..
The three judges of the Supreme Court and the seven of the circuit court serve for six years, those of the county courts for four years, and justices of the peace (one for each justice district, of which the county commissioners must form at least two in each county) hold office for four years.
It is due to the memory of the judges of Lord Coke's time to say that, at any rate as regards contracts made in partibus transmarinis, the same rule appears to have been applied at least as early as 1544, the judges then holding that "for actions transitory abroad action may lie at common law."
As has been said, however, the contention of the common law judges prevailed, and the Admiralty Court (except for a temporary revival under Cromwell) sank into comparative Modern in si insignificance during the r th century.
There were other great judges; but Sir William Scott, afterwards Lord Stowell, is the most famous.
At first he protested against the erection of the Convention into a tribunal in these words: "The people has chosen you to be legislators; it has not appointed you as judges."
His eldest son John, born in 1734, was distinguished as an advocate, and appointed one of the judges of the Scottish court of session, with the title of Lord Dreghorn.
Under this code a Board of Education, consisting of 15 members appointed by the Common Pleas judges, took control.
The judge of the United States district court and the chief justice and associate justices of the supreme court are appointed by the President with the consent of the Senate, and the judges of the district courts by the governor with the consent of the Executive Council.
Whether it was derived from the Canaanites, who had similar festivals (Judges xxix.
It is probable that his fault was one of negligence only; but, distrusting the impartiality of the judges of the Somme, he fled to Paris, and on the 23rd of August 1793 was condemned in contumaciam to twenty years' imprisonment.
The judges of Amiens, however, pursued him with a warrant for his arrest, which took place in Brumaire of the year II.
The judges at that historic gathering were: Messrs J.
Sixty dogs were shown, and it was said that such a collection had not been seen together before; while so even was the quality that the judges had great difficulty in making their awards.
Among the most common causes of imprisonment was the practice adopted by judges and magistrates of tendering to Friends (particularly when no other charge could be proved against them) the Oaths of Supremacy and Allegiance (5 Eliz.
On the 28th of February 1546 Wishart was brought to trial in the cathedral before the cardinal and other judges, the regent declining to take any active part, and, being found guilty of heresy, was condemned to death and burnt.
After an exhortation to the judges of the earth to put away evil counsels and thus avoid death, the author declares that God has made no kingdom of death on the earth, but ungodly men have made a covenant with it: certain sceptics (probably both Gentile and Jewish) holding this life to be brief and without a future, give themselves up to sensuality and oppress the poor and the righteous; but God created man to be immortal (ii.
These Personal Liberty Laws forbade justices and judges to take cognizance of claims, extended the habeas corpus act and the privilege of jury trial to fugitives, and punished false testimony severely.
In 1852 even the judges of the supreme court were placed among the officers chosen by popular vote.
The five judges of the supreme court of the state are elected by the people for a term of twelve years.
Two chief courts of justice (audiencias) sat at Havana (after 1832) and Puerto Principe (1800-1853); appeals could go to Spain; below the audiencias were "alcaldes mayores " or district judges and ordinary " alcaldes " or local judges.
Each district has its court of law, where cases are tried by three official judges and two assessors, selected from the leading citizens.
The assessors vote equally with the judges, and three votes decide the verdict.
An appeal, on points of law alone, may be carried to the supreme court in Serajevo, and there tried by five judges without assessors.
As far as possible, the Turkish law was retained during the period of occupation; all cases between Moslems were settled in separate courts by Moslem judges, against whom there was an appeal to the supreme court, aided by assessors.
The highest dignitaries of the ecclesiastical class were at first the kazaskers, or military judges, of Europe and Asia; later the office of Sheikh-ul-Islam was created as the supreme authority in matters relating to the Church and the sacred law.
After the subjugation of the Yemen, the absorption of the holy places was also attempted, and in Suleiman's reign judges were appointed thither from Constantinople.
The rules regulating the Ulema were amended, a school for judges was founded, and the Sheikh-ul-Islam was charged with the duty of revising all judgments.
Once it is found at Bethel (Judges xx.
In England red vestments are worn at the mass (of the Holy Spirit) attended by the Roman Catholic judges and barristers at the opening of term, the so-called "Red Mass."
The judicial system of the republic consists of a supreme federal tribunal of fifteen judges in the national capital, and a district tribunal in the capital of each state, which forms a federal judicial district.
The judges are appointed for life and can be removed only by judicial sentence and impeachment.
solicitor-general of the republic. The judges and solicitor-general are appointed by the president with the approval of the senate, but the tribunal chooses its own presiding officers and secretaries and, nominally, is independent of executive control.
The military organization is provided with an elaborate code and systems of military courts, which culminate in a supreme military tribunal composed of 15 judges holding office for life, of which 8 are general army officers, 4 general naval officers and 3 civil judges.
The town council, which has its headquarters in the Municipal Buildings in the Royal Exchange, consists of fifty members, a lord provost, seven baffles, a dean of guild, a treasurer, a convener of trades, seven judges of police, and thirty-two councillors.
Stockdale sued the Commons' publisher, and was met by the plea of parliamentary privilege, to which, however, the judges did not give effect, on the ground that they were entitled to define the privileges of the Commons, and that publication of papers was not essential to the functions of parliament.
Foss, The Judges of England (1848-1864); W.
The provincial court, consisting of a judge president and three puisne judges, sits in Pietermaritzburg and has jurisdiction over all causes whether affecting natives or Europeans.
The judges also hold circuit courts at Durban and other places.
This native high court consists of a judge-president and two other judges, and sits in full court at Maritzburg not less than three months and at Eshowe not less than once in the year.
There is no jury in this tribunal and single judges may hold circuit courts.
The House of Magnates is composed as follows: princes of the royal house who have attained their majority (16 in 1904); hereditary peers who pay at least £250 a year land tax (237 in 1904); high dignitaries of the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches (42 in 1904); representatives of the Protestant confessions (13 in 1904); life peers appointed by the crown, not exceeding 50 in number, and life peers elected by the house itself (73 altogether in 1904); members ex officio consisting of state dignitaries and high judges (19 in 1904); and three delegates of Croatia-Slavonia.
The judicial authorities in Hungary are: (1) the district courts with single judges (458 in 1905); (2) the county courts with collegiate judgeships (76 in number); to these are attached 15 jury courts for press offences.
The cardinal de Rohan accepted the parlement of Paris as judges.
Princes are "God's lieutenants, God's presidents, God's officers, God's commissioners, God's judges.
Doctor Tresic-Pavicic, the DalmatianCroat deputy, was informed by one of the judges who examined him that over 5,000 had been imprisoned in Dalmatia, Istria and Carniola.
On his return to Rome he was brought to trial for his conduct and condemned, in spite of the efforts of Marcus Scaurus who, though formerly his legate and equally guilty, was one of the judges.
i sqq., Judges v., i Sam.
A local division of the Supreme Court, formerly known as the Witwatersrand high court (consisting of one or more judges of the Supreme Court) sits permanently at Johannesburg and has civil and criminal jurisdiction throughout the Rand.
This led to a strong protest from the judges of the high court, and eventually led to the dismissal of the chief justice, who had held that office for over twenty years, and during the whole of that time had been a loyal and patriotic friend to his country.
The best judges and the greatest masters of style in the best period of Roman literature were his chief admirers in ancient times.
By undue pressure he secured a decision of the judges, in the test case of Godden v.
The judges had been intimidated or corrupted, and the royal promise to protect the Establishment violated.
No competent judges have ever mistaken the importance of Voltaire's visit to England, and the influence it exercised on his future career.
Although Voltaire had neither the perfect versification of Racine nor the noble poetry of Corneille, he surpassed the latter certainly, and the former in the opinion of some not incompetent judges, in playing the difficult and artificial game of the French tragedy.
There remained, nevertheless, a tendency on the part of the clergy who used incense, or desired to do so, to revert to the position they occupied before the Lambeth hearing - that is, to insist on the ceremonial use of incense as a part of the Catholic practice of the Church of England which it is the duty of the clergy to maintain, notwithstanding the decisions of ecclesiastical judges or the opinions or archbishops to the contrary.
There are twelve sessions annually, under the Lord Mayor, aldermen and judges.
Other purely judicial officers are the judicial commissioner for Upper Burma, and the civil judges of Mandalay and Moulmein.
The commissioners of division are ex officio sessions judges in their several divisions, and also have civil powers, and powers as revenue officers.
The deputy commissioners perform the functions of district magistrates, district judges, collectors and registrars, besides the miscellaneous duties which fall to the principal district officer as representative of government.
His prose works include sermons, treatises on vices and on baptism, a penitential, capitularies and exhortations to bishops, priests and judges.
The judges of the Bremen courts are appointed by a committee of members of the senate, the Burgerschaft and the bench of judges.
It appears, therefore, that there survived in Palestine to late times a detached Hittite population, with which Hebrews sometimes intermarried (Judges iii.
It is at this Ghibel- time that the people of Florence first began to acquire influence, and while the countess presided at the courts of justice in the name of the Empire, she was assisted by a group of great feudal nobles, judges, lawyers, &c., who formed, as elsewhere in Tuscany, the boni homines or sapientes.
(2) A son of Jerubbaal or Gideon, by his Shechemite concubine (Judges viii.
(See, further, JEWS, JUDGES.) (S.
At such competitions or Schulsingen judges were appointed, the so-called Merker, whose duty it was to criticize the competitors and note their offences against the rules of the Tabulatur.
As the proper form of address "my lord" is used not only to those members of the nobility to whom the title "Lord" is applicable, and to bishops, but also to all judges of the High Court in England, and of the Scottish and Irish Superior Courts, and to lord mayors and lord provosts.
or judges, who wrote down for their own and others' g use the feudal usages with which they were familiar.
As if we who are judges of angels are not to give sentence on earthly things..
The dynasty accepted Judaism (c. 740), but there was equal tolerance for all, and each man was held amenable to the authorized code and to the official judges of his own faith.
Bliss; Foss, Lives of the Judges.
Sardinia continued to be governed by native "judges" who were like petty sovereigns, but were now subject to the sway of Pisa.
The judges who governed the island were always at strife, and, as some of them applied to Pisa and some to Genoa for assistance against one another, the Italian seas were once more stained with blood, and the war burst out again and again, down to 1259, when it terminated in the decisive victory of the Pisans and the consolidation of their supremacy in Sardinia.
The president, ministers of state and judges of the supreme court may be brought before this court.
The supreme court is established at the national capital and consists of I 1 judges and 2 " fiscals " or prosecutors.
The judges are selected by Congress from lists of nominees submitted by the executive.
The judges of the superior courts are chosen by the president from the list of nominees submitted by the supreme court.
The courts of first instance are established in the capitals of provinces and their judges are chosen by the superior courts of the districts in which they are located.
The country was then ruled by the judges of the Audiencia, and a formidable insurrection broke out, headed by Francisco Hernandez Giron, with the object of maintaining the right of the conquerors to exact forced service from the Indians.
In May 1 554 Giron defeated the army of the judges at Chuquinga, but he was hopelessly routed at Fucara on the 11th of October 1 554, captured, and on the 7th of December executed at Lima.
The viceroys were chief magistrates, but in legal matters they had to consult the Audiencia of judges, in finance the Tribunal de Cuentas, in other branches of administration the Juntas de Gobierno and de Guerra.
Savonarola's judges were chosen from his bitterest foes.
One of the new judges was a Venetian general of the Dominicans, the other a Spaniard.
2 It was also borne among others by the Danite whose history is given in Judges xvii.
no longer deals with idolatry, but with the corruption of society, and particularly of its leaders - the grasping aristocracy whose whole energies are concentrated on devouring the poor and depriving them of their little holdings, the unjust judges and priests who for gain wrest the law in favour of the rich, the hireling and gluttonous prophets who make war against every one "that putteth not into their mouth," but are ever ready with assurances of Yahweh's favour to their patrons, the wealthy and noble sinners that fatten on the flesh of the poor.
R.*) Micah, in the Bible, a man of the hill-country of Ephraim whose history enters into that of the foundation of the Israelite sanctuary at Dan (Judges xvii.
The seven judges of the supreme court and the district judges are elected by the General Assembly, the former during good behaviour, the latter for terms of three years.
For most of these, however, we have no authority but Lee's own impressions of style, &c.; and consequently, though the best qualified judges will in most cases agree that Defoe may very likely have written them, it cannot positively be stated that he did.
Probably they belonged chiefly to the Aramaean group of nationalities; the Bible mentions Hivites (Judges iii.
Judges are appointed by the governor, but sheikhs by the villages.
He has also an appellate jurisdiction of an analogous character, which he exercises through his provincial court, whilst his diocesan jurisdiction is exercised through his consistorial court, the judges of both courts being nominated by the archbishop. His ancient testamentary and matrimonial jurisdiction was transferred to the crown by the same statutes which divested the see of Canterbury of its jurisdiction in similar matters.
603, who gives a list of his printed speeches and letters; Foss, Lives of the Judges, vi.
One of the first measures to which he directed his attention was the withdrawal of the power of nominating juries from the judges, and the imparting, of a right of peremptory challenge to prisoners.
He was one of the packed court of judges who in 1619 condemned the aged statesman to death.
Some good judges attribute the peculiar and not unpleasing flavour of certain clarets of 1888 to means thus adopted to kill the phylloxera.
Six judges - a chancellor, a chief justice, and four associate justices - of whom there shall be at least one resident in each of the three counties, and not more than three shall belong to the same political party, are appointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate, for a term of twelve years.
As the "ring" could be destroyed only by removing the corrupt judges who were its tools, Tilden, after entering the Assembly in 1872 to promote the cause of reform, took a leading part in their impeachment.
The state judiciary consists of a supreme court of six judges and a district court of fifty-three judges, from one to four in each of twenty districts.
The supreme court has three sessions a year, while each district-court judge is directed to hold at least one session a year in each county of his district, and no two districtcourt judges may sit together on the same case.
In the time of Ezra the Jewish "magistrates and judges" among their ecclesiastico-civil functions have the right of pronouncing sentence whether it be unto death, or to "rooting out," or to confiscation of goods, or to imprisonment (Ezra vii.
Moses himself married into a Kenite family (Judges i.
29 with Judges i.
This sanctuary and camp of Israel held a high place in the national regard, and is often mentioned in Judges and Samuel.
The bishop of Rome, who enjoys a unique title, that of " pope," may annul the decrees of all other powers, since he judges all but is judged by none.
The emperor Frederick II.'s edicts and the so-called etablissements of St Louis provide that the civil officers should search out suspected heretics and deliver them to the ecclesiastical judges.
After the examination he assigned the case to the proper court, and presided over it during the trial, which took place in the open air, that the judges and the accuser might not be polluted by being brought under the same roof with the offender (Ant.
2 seq., Judges iii.
The institution of the Hebrew monarchy (c. moo B.C.) follows upon periods of Philistine oppression (Judges iii.
14); and the migration of the Danites is placed after Samson's conflicts with the Philistines (Judges xviii.
The references of the time of the Exodus, the Invasion and the " Judges " - whatever chronological scheme be adopted - must be taken in connexion with a careful examination of all the evidence.
16, 18, Judges i.
In the latter year he became .one of the judges of the supreme court of Canada.
The first state constitution gave the veto power to a council of revision composed of the governor, the chancellor and the judges of the supreme court, but since 1821 this power has been exercised by the governor alone; and in 1874 it was extended to separate items in appropriation bills.
But the new constitution of that year substituted a court of appeals for the court of errors, merged the court of chancery into the supreme court, established in each county a new county court composed of a single judge, and, taking the appointment of judges from the governor, gave the election of them to the people.
This court consists of a chief judge and six associate judges elected from the state at large for a term of fourteen years.
To expedite business, at the request of the court, the governor may designate not more than four justices of the supreme court to act temporarily as additional associate judges of the court of appeals.
The salary of the chief judge is $14,200, of the associate judges $13,700 a year.
The court of claims consists of three judges, one presiding, appointed by the governor for a term of six years.
The local judiciary includes the usual county and city judges, county surrogates and justices of the peace.
The further independence of judges became a leading issue in 1761 when the assembly insisted that they should be appointed during good behaviour, and refused to pay the salaries of those appointed during pleasure; but the home government met this refusal by ordering that they be paid out of the quit-rents.
30; Judges xiii.
1.15 Judges vi.
The supreme court consists of nine judges elected for a term of six years, one of those whose term next expires being chosen chief justice, and is divided into two departments.
The presence of at least three judges in each department is required, and the concurrence of at least three judges is necessary to a decision.
In case of a disagreement the case may be heard again in the same department, transferred to the other department, or to the court en banc. The chief justice or any four of his associates may at any time convene the court en banc, and if so convened at least five of the judges must be present, and the concurrence of at least five is necessary to a decision.
Judges of the superior courts (one or more for each county, or one for two or more counties jointly) are elected for a term of four years.
Circuit courts are also held by judges of the provincial court.
Many of the white farmers in this district, unlike their fellows dwelling farther north, were willing to accept British rule, and this fact induced Mr Justice Menzies, one of the judges of Cape Colony then on circuit at Colesberg, to cross the Orange and proclaim (October 1842) the country British territory, a proclamation disallowed by the governor, Sir George Napier, who, nevertheless, maintained that the emigrant farmers were still British subjects.
The praetor, who had the arrangement of all trials or private suits and the formal appointment of judges for them, referred the great majority of such cases for decision to a judge who was styled usually judex but sometimes arbiter.
Finally, he was condemned to degradation and decapitation; though one of the ten judges not only refused to sign the sentence, but remonstrated in private with the king against its injustice.
The supreme court consists of five judges chosen for six years - the term for the first judges elected under the constitution of 1889 was four years.
The legislature may, by a two-thirds' vote of each house, increase the number of circuits or the number of judges.
After the attempt of Bean - who was a hunchback, really insane - parliament passed a bill empowering judges to order whipping as a punishment for those who molested the queen; but somehow this salutary act was never enforced.
The details of this great change were embodied in a code of general rules prepared by a committee of judges, over which Lord Selborne for two years presided week by week, with unfaltering attention to the minutest detail.
The supreme court consists of three judges (minimum age thirty years), chosen by popular vote for six years.
The old tribunals where customary law was administered by ignorant satellites of the great, amid unspeakable corruption, have all been replaced by organized courts with qualified judges appointed from the Bangkok law school, and under the direct control of the ministry in all except the most outlying parts.
Yet if he judges too favourably the leaders of the national party in England on the eve of the Norman Conquest, that is a small matter to set against the insight which he exhibits in writing of Aratus, Sulla, Nicias, William the Conqueror, Thomas of Canterbury, Frederick the Second and many more.
The high quality of Freeman's work was acknowledged by all competent judges.
Justice for Europeans is administered by European judges, but, as with administration at large so in judicial matters, native chiefs have extensive powers in native affairs.
For native justice there are courts in the districts and regencies; residents act as police judges; provincial councils have judicial powers, and there are councils of priests with powers in matrimonial disputes, questions of succession, &c.
The same !year he engaged in a contest with the judges, and exhibited articles of complaint against them before the lords of the council; but these complaints were overruled.
But the earliest forms of Hebrew priesthocd are not Canaanite in character; the priest, as he appears in the older records of the time of the Judges, Eli at Shiloh, Jonathan in the private temple of Micah and at Dan, is much liker the sadin than the kahin.
3; images in Micah's temple, Judges xvii.
9; no doubt also money, a sin the Canaanite temple at Shechem, Judges ix.
8, 9, where for " judge," " judges," of A.
In the divided state of the nation, indeed, this sanctuary was hardly visited from beyond Mt Ephraim; and every man or tribe that cared to provide the necessary apparatus (ephod, teraphim, &c.) and hire a priest might have a temple and oracle of his own at which to consult Jehovah (Judges xvii., xviii.); but there was hardly another sanctuary of equal dignity.
18) could all be priests, a Levite - that is, a man of Moses' tribe - was already preferred for the office elsewhere than at Shiloh (Judges xvii.
13), and such a priest naturally handed down his place to his posterity (Judges xviii.
Their predominant and constant characteristic is a sober sagacity which instinctively judges aright and imperturbably realized its inspirations.
The characteristic marks of a Nazarite were unshorn locks and abstinence from wine (Judges xiii.
In the cases of Samuel and Samson the unshorn locks are a mark of consecration to God (Judges xiii.
In view of the apparent likelihood that the judges of the criminal division of the court of cassation - who formed the ordinary tribunal for such an appeal - would decide in favour of Dreyfus, it was thought that M.
Dupuy's new cabinet would be strong enough to reconcile public opinion to such a result; but, to the surprise of outside observers, it was no sooner discovered how the judges were likely to decide than M.
Exclusive of the city of Baltimore, the state is divided into seven judicial circuits, in each of which are elected for a term of fifteen years one chief judge and two associate judges, who at the time of their election must be members of the Maryland bar, between the ages of thirty and seventy, and must have been residents of the state for at least five years.
The seven chief judges so elected, together with one elected from the city of Baltimore, constitute the court of appeals, the governor with the advice and consent of the senate designating one of the eight as chief judge of that court.
The three judges elected in each circuit constitute the circuit court of each of the several counties in such circuit.
Three other judges are elected for four-year terms, in each county and in the city of Baltimore to constitute an orphans' court.
In general, each county has from three to seven commissioners - the number is fixed by county laws - elected on a general ticket of each county for a term of from two to six years, entrusted with the charge and control of property owned by the county, empowered to appoint constables, judges of elections, collectors of taxes, trustees of the poor, and road supervisors, to levy taxes, to revise taxable valuations of real property, and open or close public roads.
It has long been the official title of the judges of two of the English superior courts of common law, and it is now extended to all the judges in the supreme court of judicature - a judge in the High Court of Justice being styled Mr Justice, and in the court of appeal Lord Justice.
The " Prophets," consisting of eight books, divided into two groups :- (a) The " Former Prophets "; Joshua, Judges, Samuel; Kings.'
Sometimes, for instance, the excerpts from the older documents form long and complete narratives; in other cases (as in the account of the Flood) they consist of a number of short passages, taken alternately from two older narratives, and dovetailed together to make a continuous story; in the books of Judges and Kings the compiler has fitted together a series of older narratives in a framework supplied by himself; the Pentateuch and book of Joshua (which form a literary whole, and are now often spoken of together as the Hexateuch) have passed through more stages than the books just mentioned, and their literary structure is more complex.
Judges, Samuel and Kings.-The structure of these books is simpler than that of the Hexateuch.
They consist of a series of narratives, or groups of narratives, dealing with the lives of these three men, arranged by a compiler, who, however, unlike the compilers of Judges and Kings, rarely allows his own hand to appear.
The structure of the book of Kings resembles that of Judges.
The books of Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Samuel are proved much later than the times recorded in them by the numerous passages which speak of customs, conditions, &c., remaining " unto this day," and Judges in particular by xviii.
Pentateuch, Judges, Kings), and thus to give to these earlier sources an historical value higher than that which would be safely attributed to them as indistinguishable parts of a late compilation.
In the criticism of the Pentateuch his most influential and enduring contributions to criticism are his proof that Deuteronomy is a work of the 7th century B.C., and his insistence that the theory of the Mosaic origin of all the institutions described in the Pentateuch is incompatible with the history of Israel as described in the historical books, Judges, Samuel and Kings.
31) be added up, they will be found to amount to 410 years; to these must be added further, in order to gain the entire period from the Exodus to the foundation of the Temple, the 40 years in the wilderness, x years under Joshua and the elders (Judges ii.
This period might no doubt be reduced to 480 years by the supposition, in itself not improbable, that some of the judges were local and contemporaneous; the suggestion has also been made that, as is usual in Oriental chronologies, the years of foreign domination were not counted, the beginning of each judge's rule being reckoned, not from the victory which brought him into power, but from the death of his predecessor; we should in this case obtain for the period from the Exodus to the foundation of the Temple 440+x+y years,' which if 30 years be assigned con 1 Petrie, Hist.
In the years assigned to the different judges, also, the frequency of the number 40 (which certainly appears to have been regarded by the Hebrews as a round number) is suspicious.
24, 27), the first year of Jehu in Israel coincides similarly with the first year of Athaliah in Judah: there are thus in the history of the two kingdoms two fixed and certain synchronisms. Now, 3 Namely, 40 years in the wilderness; Joshua and the elders (Judges ii.
28), 40 years; Jephthah and five minor judges (x.
The " 300 years " of Judges xi.
by the argument that these represent the text which was approved by competent judges in the 4th century, and would be found to exist in earlier MSS.
The court of appeals is composed of from five to seven judges (seven in 1909), elected, one from each appellate district, for a term of eight years.
The governor may for any reasonable cause remove judges on the address of two-thirds of each house of the legislature.
Earlier in that year he had accompanied Protector Somerset on his Pinkie campaign, being one of the two "judges of the Marshalsea," i.e.
In the rich territory of Issachar, traversed by the great commercial highway from the Mediterranean and Egypt to Bethshean and the Jordan, were several important towns which remained in the hands of the Canaanites for some time (Judges 1.27), separating the tribe from Manasseh.
Although Issachar is mentioned as having taken some part in the war of freedom under Deborah (Judges v.
14 seq.), or the fact that the name of this tribe is omitted from the list given in Judges i.
The worship of the local sanctuaries did nothing to promote the sense of the religious unity of Israel; Yahweh in the age of the Judges ran no small risk of being divided into a number of local Baals, givers of natural good things each to his own locality.
Not because His providence is confined to Israel - it embraces all nations; not because He shows any favouritism to Israel - He judges all nations by the same strict rule.
On painted vases and sarcophagus bas-reliefs he frequently occurs with Aeacus and Rhadamanthus as judges of the under-world and in connexion with the Minotaur and Theseus.
He therefore issues the work to satisfy their desires, although, he states, it is manifest that it would have seen the light in a far more perfect state if his father could have put the finishing touches to it; and he mentions that, in the opinion of the best judges, his father possessed, among other most excellent gifts, in the highest degree the power of explaining the most difficult matters by a certain and easy method in the fewest possible words.
There may be cases where an inferior judges that what is commanded is sinful.
Ignatius says: "When it seems to me that I am commanded by my superior to do a thing against wconscience]] revolts as sinful and my superior judges otherwise, it is my duty to yield my doubts to him unless I am otherwise constrained by evident reasons.
concerning poverty should be changed; (2) that he will not directly nor indirectly procure election or promotion for himself to any prelacy or dignity in the Society; (3) that he will not accept or consent to his election to any dignity or prelacy outside the Society unless forced thereunto by obedience; (4) that if he knows of others doing these things he will denounce them to the superiors; (5) that if elected to a bishopric he will never refuse to hear such advice as the general may deign to send him and will follow it if he judges it is better than his own opinion.
The superior courts of law formed part of the palace, and there were tribunals in the principal cities, over each of which presided a supreme judge or cihuacoatl, who was irremovable, and whose criminal decisions not even the king might reverse; he appointed the lower judges and heard appeals from them; it is doubtful whether he judged in civil cases, but both kinds of suits were heard in the court below, by the tlacatecatl and his two associates, below whom were the ward-magistrates.
Lands were set apart for the maintenance of the judges, and indeed nothing gives a higher idea of the elaborate civilization of Mexico than this judicial system, which culminated in a general court and council of state presided over by the king.
He was invited to approve the candidates proposed for state governorships; in all law cases affecting the Government or political matters the judges asked his opinion; he drafted bills, and discussed their text with individual members and committees of congress.
Similarly, the state legislatures, as well as the judges and municipal officers, were actually or virtually selected by the state governors, who were practically agents of the president.
According to his own statement in De vetere testamento, written about loco, he had at that period translated the Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, Kings, Job, Esther, Judith and the Maccabees.
Dietrich, iElfric's most competent biographer (Niedner's, Zeitschrift fiir historische Theologie, 1855-1856), looks upon the Pentateuch, Joshua and Judges as a continuation of his Lives of Saints, including as they do in a series of narratives the Old Testament saints.
Genesis is but slightly abridged, but Job, Kings, Judges, Esther and Judith as well as the Maccabees are mere homilies epitomized from the corresponding Old Testament books.
The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, consisting of a chief justice and four associate justices elected by the people; six appeal courts, each with three judges, also elected by the people; and twenty-six courts of first instance, each consisting of one judge appointed by the president and two by the chief justice of the supreme court.
In other states the common law judges have also equity jurisdiction; and in four states New York, North Carolina, California and Idahothere has been a complete fusion of law and equity.
In colonial days the superior judges were appointed by the governors, except in Rhode Island and Connecticut, where the legislatures elected them.
Three of the original thirteen have their judges elected by the legislatures, and in five others, together with Maine and Mississippi among the newer states, they are appointed by the governor, subject to the approval of the executive council, the Senate, or (in Connecticut) the General Assembly.
Local judges are generally chosen by the voters of the district in which they hold court.
Originally the superior judges were in most states appointed for life and held office during good behaviour, but only three states now retain this system.
Eight to ten years is the average term of service; it is longer in New York (14), Maryland (15), and Pennsylvania (21), where alone superior judges are not re-eligible.
These three factorspopular election, limited terms and small salarieshave all tended to lower the character of the judiciary; and in not a few states the state judges are men of moderate abilities and limited learning, inferior (and sometimes conspicuously inferior) to the best of the men who practise before them.
The latter is in many states neither prompt nor certain, offenders frequently escaping through the excessive regard for technicalities even more than through the indulgence of juries and the occasional weakness of judges.
As a rule, one finds (I) a mayor, elected directly by the voters within the city, who is the head of the administration; (2) adminis- trative officers or boards, some directly elected by the city voters, others nominated by the mayor or chosen by the council; (3) a council or assembly, consisting sometimes of two, but more frequently of one chamber, elected directly by the city voters; and (4) judges, usually elected by the city voters, but sometimes appointed by the state.
Two Federal judges were many years ago thus deprived of office, impeachment being the only process by which a Federal judge can be removed.
The Supreme Court is created by the Constitution, and consisted in 1910 of nine judges, who are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Senate.
are removable only by impeachment, thus having a tenure even more secure than that of English judges.
A rule requiring the presence of six judges to pronounce a decision prevents the division of the court into two or more benches; and while this secures a thorough consideration of every case, it also retards the despatch of business.
Every case is discussed twice by the whole body, once to ascertain the view of the majority, which is then directed to be set forth in a written opinion; then again when the written opinion, prepared by one of the judges, is submitted for criticism and adoption by the court as its judgment.
The circuit courts consist of twenty-nine circuit judges, acting iji nine judicial circuits, while to each circuit there is also allotted one of the justices of the Supreme Court.
The judges of each circuit, acting with or without the justice of the Supreme Court for the circuit, constitute a circuit court of appeals, established to relieve the Supreme Court.
A customs court of five judges was created by an act of 1909 for the hearing of cases relating to the tariff.
Such prosecutions also put money into the pockets of the judges, and, if successful, into the public treasury.
of 1884 was a compromise, which, while subjecting Europeans to the jurisdiction of native district magistrates or sessions judges, reserved to them the right to demand trial by a jury of which at least half should be Europeans.
Judges are appointed for life by the Dominion parliament, and cannot be removed save by impeachment before that body, an elaborate process never attempted since federation, though more than once threatened.
The work of the live-stock branch is directed towards the improvement of the stock-raising industry, and is carried on through the agencies of expert teachers and stock judges, the systematic distribution of pure-bred breeding stock, the yearly testing of pure-bred dairy herds, the supervision of the accuracy of the registration of pure-bred animals and the nationalization of live-stock records.
This court is presided over by a chief justice, with five puisne judges, and has appellate civil and criminal jurisdiction for the Dominion.
The executive officials are elected for a term of two years, and the judges of the Supreme Court and of the court of appeals for six years, while those of the superior court and of the ordinaries and the justices of the peace are chosen every four years.
It was occupied in very early times, though the references in Judges xvii., xix., and Ruth' are of doubtful date.
The new court, if adopted, would hold regular and continuous sessions, consist of the same judges, and pay due heed to the precedents created by its prior decisions.
In the Constitutional Convention of 1787 he urged that the president and the Federal judges should be chosen by the national legislature, and preferably by the Senate alone, and that the president should be chosen for a term of seven years, and should be ineligible to succeed himself.
Thus, where the judges who try an election petition report that there has been treating, undue influence, or any illegal practice by the candidate or his election agent, but that it was trivial, unimportant and of a limited character, and contrary to the orders and without the sanction or connivance of the candidate or his election agent, and that the candidate and his election agent took all reasonable means for preventing corrupt and illegal practices, and that the election was otherwise free from such practices on their part, the election will not be avoided.
6 a under the suspicion of being prompted by party feeling, and by an act of 1868 the jurisdiction was finally transferred to judges of the High Court, notwithstanding the general unwillingness of the bench to accept a class of business which they feared might bring their integrity into dispute.
Section II of the act ordered, inter alia, that the trial of every election petition shall be conducted before a puisne judge of one of the common law courts at Westminster and Dublin; that the said courts shall each select a judge to be placed on the rota for the trial of election petitions; that the said judges shall try petitions standing for trial according to seniority or otherwise, as they may agree; that the trial shall take place in the county or borough to which the petition refers, unless the court should think it desirable to hold it elsewhere.
The rota of judges for g the trial of election petitions is also supplied by the king's bench division.
The trial now takes place before two judges instead of one; and, when necessary, the number of judges on the rota may be increased.
Both the judges who try a petition are to sign the certificates to be made to the speaker.
The report of the judges to the speaker is to contain particulars as to illegal practices similar to those previously required as to corrupt practices; and they are to report further whether any candidate has been guilty by his agents of an illegal practice, and whether certificates of indemnity have been given to persons reported guilty of corrupt or illegal practices.
The election judges appoint a number of barristers, not exceeding five, as commissioners to try such petitions.
The commissioner who tries a petition sends to the High Court a certificate of the result, together with reports as to corrupt and illegal practices, &c., similar to those made to the speaker by the judges who try a parliamentary election petition.
In the year of a presidential election the citizen may be called upon to vote at one time for all of the following: (1) National candidates - president and vice-president (indirectly through the electoral college) and members of the House of Representatives; (2) state candidates - governor, members of the state legislature, attorney-general, treasurer, &c.; (3) county candidates - sheriff, county judges, district attorney, &c.; (4) municipal or town candidates - mayor, aldermen, selectmen, &c. The number of persons actually voted for may therefore be ten or a dozen, or it may be many more.
See Brougham's Statesmen of the Reign of George III.; Foss's Judges; Campbell's Lives of Lord Chancellors.
Three of the four judges allowed the defence of the cardinal to be valid; but it was held that the papal rescript upon which he relied for his extraordinary powers as delegate was illegal under statute; and the lord chief justice decided that the plaintiff could not renounce his natural and civil liberty.
They chose their own priests and public office-bearers, and even their own judges.
At the council of Sardica (343) an attempt had been made to regulate the procedure in these appeals, by recognizing as the right of the pope the reversing of judgments, and the appointment of fresh judges.
was simply limited to defining the jurisdiction of the inquisitors with regard to magic. The bull merely authorized, in cases of sorcery, the procedure of the canonical inquisition, which was conducted exclusively by spiritual judges and differed entirely from that of the later witch-trials.
Kap..cipa, an arched chamber), in law, a word applied at one time to the English judges' chambers in Serjeants' Inn, as distinct from their bench in Westminster Hall.
It was afterwards applied to the judges' private room behind the court, and, hence, in the phrase in camera, to cases heard in private, i.e.
68, Mr Justice Denman held that he had power to hear the case in camera, but he afterwards stated that there was considerable doubt among the judges as to the power to hear cases in camera, even by consent, and the case was, by consent of the parties, finally proceeded with before the judge as arbitrator.
322); the judges are not bound to adopt the opinion of the experts (art.
The supreme court consists of seven judges elected by the voters of the state at large.
secured by the provision that each elector shall vote for one less than the number of judges to be chosen at each election.
This court was formerly very much overworked, but it was relieved by an act of the 24th of June 1895 establishing a superior court (now of seven judges) with appellate jurisdiction.
The judges of the common pleas are also judges of the courts of oyer and terminer, quarter sessions of the peace and general gaol delivery, and the orphans' courts, although there are separate orphans' courts in the counties (ten in 1909) having a population of more than one hundred and fifty thousand.
In the colonial period all judges were appointed by the governor during good behaviour.
The constitution of 1776 provided for terms of seven years, that of 1790 restored the life term, and that of 1838 fixed the terms for judges of the common pleas at ten years and judges of the supreme court at fifteen.
A constitutional amendment of 1850 provided that all judges should be elected by the people.?
1 The constitution of 1873 made provision for minority representation as follows: " Whenever two judges of the supreme court are At present supreme court judges serve for twenty-one years and are ineligible for re-election.
Superior court and common pleas judges serve for ten years, and justices of the peace for five.
Judges may be impeached for misdemeanour in office or they may be removed by the governor, with the consent of two-thirds of each house of the general assembly, for any reasonable cause which shall not be sufficient ground for impeachment.
The three commissioners and the three auditors in each county are chosen by the same limited vote process as the supreme-court judges, thus allowing a representation to the minority party.
It increased the number of senators and representatives, created the office of lieutenant-governor, substituted biennial for annual sessions of the legislature, introduced minority representation in the choice of the higher judiciary and of the county commissioners and auditors and provided (as had an amendment adopted in 1850) for the election of all judges by popular vote.
The tribunal of the Rota consists of ten judges called auditors (uditori), of whom the most senior is president with the title of dean.
It judges cases in which auditors of the Rota are concerned, such as personal objections, but especially objections (querelae) lodged against sentences of the Rota, with a view to their being annulled or revised (restitutio in integrum).
The Court of Chivalry was a court instituted by Edward III., of which the lord high constable and earl marshal of England were joint judges.
Little is known of the condition of the subject populations of the peninsula during the Arab occupation; but we are informed that the Christians were, sometimes at least, judged according to their own laws in separate tribunals presided over by Christian judges; 2 and the mere fact of the preservation of the name alcalde, an official whose functions corresponded so closely to those of the judex or defensor civitatis, is fitted to suggest that the old municipal fora, if much impaired, were not even then in all cases wholly destroyed.
This alliance between the two monarchs led to a 1 In Judges x.
3) the Sidonians are mentioned among the oppressors of Israel; but there is no record of any invasion of Israel by the Phoenicians, and the statement is due to the postexilic editor who introduced generalizations of ancient history into the book of Judges.
During Nebuchadrezzar's time, as we have seen, a republic took the place of the monarchy at Tyre, and the government was administered by a succession of suffetes (judges); they held office for short terms, and in one instance two ruled together for six years.
The entrance to the Stadium from the north-east corner of the Altis was a privileged one, reserved for the judges of the games, the competitors and the heralds.
The only mention of such differences in the Old Testament is in Judges xii.
But in Scotland the ordinary judges of the Inner and Outer Houses are called lords ordinary, the junior lord ordinary of the Outer House acts as lord ordinary of the bills, the second junior as lord ordinary on teinds, the third junior as lord ordinary on Exchequer causes.
The club was suppressed by the dominant "Caps," who also sought to ruin Sprengtporten financially by inciting his tenants in Finland to bring actions against him for alleged extortion, not in the ordinary courts but in the riksdag itself, where Sprengtporten's political adversaries would be his judges.
The country is divided into gaus or counties, under their counts, who are assisted by judges responsible for declaring the law.
The administration of justice is entrusted (1) to the high council (hooge rand) at the Hague, the supreme court of the whole kingdom, and the tribunal for all high government officials and for the members of the states-general; (2) to the five courts of justice established at Amsterdam, the Hague, Arnhem, Leeuwarden and 's Hertogenbosch; (3) to tribunals established in each arrondissement; (4) to cantonal judges appointed over a group of communes, whose jurisdiction is restricted to claims of small amount (under 200 guilders), and to breaches of police regulations, and who at the same time look after the interest of minors.
The whole proceedings were illegal, and the illegality was consummated by the prisoners being brought before a special tribunal of 24 judges, nearly all of whom were personal enemies of the accused.
4; Judges xi.
13, 26; Judges xi.
Jephthah, one of the Israelite "judges," delivered Gilead from Ammon, who resumed the attack under its king Nahash, only to be repulsed by Saul.
29) was that of Yahweh to Israel (see especially Judges xi.
Judges of appeal are appointed by the king for life from lists of eligible barristers prepared by the senate and the courts.
Judges can only be removed by the unanimous vote of their brother judges.
Full of reforming zeal, he issued ordinances against begging, extravagance and gambling; forbade judges to accept presents from suitors; built new courts of justice; prohibited the sale of offices, maintaining the financial equilibrium by reducing expenses; and, an almost revolutionary step, struck at the root of nepotism, in a bull of 1692 ordaining that thenceforth no pope should grant estates, offices or revenues to any relative.
James, through Bacon, who was then attorney-general, commanded the chief justice to delay judgment till he himself should discuss the question with the judges.
At Coke's request Bacon sent a letter containing the same command to each of the judges, and Coke then obtained their signatures to a paper declaring that the attorney-general's instructions were illegal, and that they were bound to proceed with the case.
Upon this all the judges fell on their knees, seeking pardon for the form of their letter; but Coke ventured to declare his continued belief in the loyalty of its substance, and when asked if he would in the future delay a case at the king's order, the only reply he would vouchsafe was that he would do what became him as a judge.
Woolrych, The Life of Sir Edward Coke (1826); Foss, Lives of the Judges; Campbell, Lives of the Chief Justices; also English Law.
The latest volumes were considered by all competent judges quite as important as their predecessors.
On the other hand, it follows Judges in the Septuagint, the Vulgate and the English version.
But although it was very natural that a later rearrangement should transfer Ruth from the Hagiographa to the historical books, and place it between Judges and Samuel, no motive can be suggested for the opposite change, and the presumption is that it found a place in the last part of the Jewish canon after the second (with the historical books) had been definitely closed.
7); it views the stormy period before the institution of the kingship through the softening atmosphere of time, which imparts to the scene a gentle sweetness very different from the harsher colours of the old narratives of the book of Judges.
The very designation of a period of Hebrew history as "the days of the judges" is based on the Deuteronomistic additions to the book of Judges (ii.
Like the stories appended to Judges (by a post-Deuteronomic hand) the book of Ruth connects itself with Bethlehem, the.
of Hebron as in Judges i., I Sam.
The Attic legend of Eleusis also represented him as one of the judges of the underworld.
The juries, both for answering the questions asked by the judges and for trying cases under the grand assize, were to be chosen by a committee of four knights, also elected by the suitors of each county court for that purpose.
The criminal chamber of the Landgericht is composed of five judges, and a majority of four is required for a conviction.
They are formed of three judges of the Landgericht and a jury of twelve; and a two-thirds majority is necessary to convict.
The first court of second instance is the Oberlandesgericht, which has an original jurisdiction in grave offences and is composed of seven judges.
The judges, numbering ninetytwo, are appointed by the emperor on the advice of the federal council (Bundesral)., This court exercises an appellate jurisdiction in civil cases remitted, for the decision of questions of law, by the inferior courts and also in all criminal cases referred to it.
It sits in four criminal and six civil senates, each consisting of seven judges, one of whom is the president.
The judges are styled Reichsgerichlsrale (counsellors of the imperial court).
An appeal lies from this to a second court of honor, consisting of the president, three judges of the Reichsgerichl and of three lawyers admitted to practice before that court.
The court-martial is, in every case, composed of the commander of the district as president, and four officers, assisted by a judge-advocate (Kriegsgerwhtsrat), who conducts the case and swears the judges and witnesses.
In the most serious class of cases, three officers and two judge-advocates are the judges.
Lutherans sat among the judges Adminis- of the Reic/sskammergericht, and the Aulic Council, or trave, Hofrat, established by Maximilian I.
Many officials refused to obey; the judges remained loyal to the constitution; and when attempts were made to solve the difficulty by the army, the officers instructed to act resigned in a body.
It lay inland and off the main line of traffic. Though included by the Israelites within the limits of the tribe of Judah, and mentioned in Judges xix.
The Corwin or "Witch" house, so called from a tradition that Jonathan Corwin, one of the judges in the witchcraft trials, held preliminary examinations of witches here, is said to have been the property of Roger Williams. The Pickering house, built before 1660, was the homestead of Timothy Pickering and of other members of that family.
(5) A court of arbitration to be established for the settlement of differences between the two states, Hungary selecting four Austrian and Austria four Hungarian judges, the presidency of the court being decided by lot, and each government being represented before the court by its own delegates.
The land was full of disorder, and the praetors shrank from enforcing the law against offenders, many of whom, as Roman knights, might be their own judges.
Under the provisions of the charter of 1908 the people elect a mayor, city treasurer, city comptroller, and judges of the municipal court, each for a term of two years.
In Macedonia the native chiefs had been attracted by the rich Hellenic life at any rate from the beginning of the 5th century, when Alexander I., surnamed " Phil-hellen," persuaded the judges at Olympia that the Temenid house was of good Argive descent (Hdt.
These courts have both foreign and Egyptian judgesthe foreign judges forming the majority of the bench.
Besides their judicial duties, the courts practically exercise legislative functions, as no important law can be made applicable to Europeans without the consent of the powers, and the powers are mainly guided by the opinions of the judges of the Mixed Courts.
At the same time the penal code was thoroughly revised, so that the Egyptian judges were for the first time provided with a sound working code (Ibid.
The native courts have both native and foreign judges.
There are courts of summary jurisdiction presided over by one judge, central tribunals (or courts of first instance) with three judges, and a court of appeal at Cairo.
To meet the demand for better qualified judges for the Moslem courts a training college for cadis was established in 1907.
(~) Ayyub-ite Period.Saladin by the advice of his chief Nureddin cashiefed the Fatimite judges and took steps to encourage the study of orthodox theology and jurisprudence in Egypt by the foundation of colleges and chairs.
He was the first sultan who acknowledged the equal authority of the four schools of law, and appointed judges belonging to each in Egypt and Syria; he was thus able to, get his measures approved by one school when condemned by another.
The existing procedure was simplified and accelerated; the working of the courts was greatly improved by a carefully organized system of inspection and control; the incompetent judges were eliminated and replaced by men of better education and higher moral character; and for the future supply of wellqualified judges, barristers, and law officials, an excellent school of law was established.
There are 126 such local judges, each of whom deals with all kinds of cases arising in his district, and is also at the head of the police.
The visit of Jethro to Moses and the appointment of judges.
The history of Exodus in its original form doubtless concluded with the visit of Moses' father-in-law and the appointment of judges (ch.
He disliked the formalities of the law, and in one instance, "the miller Arnold case," in connexion with which he thought injustice had been done to a poor man, he dismissed the judges, condemned them to a year's fortress arrest, and compelled them to make good out of their own pockets the loss sustained by their supposed victim - not a wise proceeding, but one springing from a generous motive.
As regards the jus vetus, therefore, the judges and practitioners of Justinian's time had two terrible difficulties to contend with - first, the bulk of the law, which made it impossible for any one to be sure that he possessed anything like the whole of the authorities bearing on the point in question, so that he was always liable to find his opponent quoting against him some authority for which he could not be prepared; and, secondly, the uncertainty of the law, there being a great many important points on which differing opinions of equal legal validity might be cited, so that the practising counsel could not advise, nor the judge decide, with any confidence that he was right, or that a superior court would uphold his view.
The Federal Attorney-General, his assistant and the 88 U.S. district attorneys were flooded with silly complaints and beset by unofficial disloyalty hunters and amateur detectives, but kept their heads in most cases remarkably well, as did most of the judges.
4 In Egypt before the time of Said Pasha (1854-1863) the local judges were appointed by the chief cadi of Cairo, who is sent from Constantinople.
All this gives the judges great private and political influence.
Peck, led an unsuccessful movement to increase the number of Supreme Court judges and to relieve them of their circuit duties, and succeeded in defeating an attempt to repeal the twenty-fifth section of the Judiciary Act of 1789, which gave the Supreme Court appellate jurisdiction by writ of error to the state courts in cases where federal laws and treaties are in question.
This uncertainty had been brought about by the conflicting opinions of the jurists of the 6th century as to the proper interpretation to be given to the legislation of the emperor Justinian, from which had resulted a system of teaching which had deprived that legislation of all authority, and the imperial judges at last were at a loss to know by what rules of law they were to regulate their decisions.
The king and council were proclaimed judges in all cases; preachers were to submit to their judicature when accused of political offences, a standing cause of strife.
Reeve's edition of the Swedish Embassy; Foss's Judges of England; Eng.
Moreover, Morris began at this time to write poetry, and many of his first pieces, afterwards destroyed, were held by sound judges to be equal to anything he ever did.
The plan provided for a Federal judiciary, the judges to be appointed by the national legislature, to hold office during good behaviour, and to have jurisdiction over cases in admiralty and cases in which foreigners or citizens of different states were parties.
of the duties of circuit judges, and advocated a Federal code;: in 1791 he considered Hamilton's scheme for a national bank unconstitutional; and in 1792-93, in the case Chisolm v.
The judiciary consists of a supreme court of 7 members elected for a term of 9 years; a circuit court of 54 judges, 3 for each of 18 judicial districts, elected for 6 years; and four appellate courts - one for Cook county (which has also a "branch appellate court," both the court and the branch court being presided over by three circuit judges appointed by the Supreme Court) and three other districts, each with three judges appointed in the same way.
The Virginia House of Delegates, in 1778, extended the civil jurisdiction of Virginia to the north-west, and appointed Captain John Todd (1750-1782), of Kentucky, governor of the entire territory north of the Ohio, organized as "The County of Illinois"; the judges of the courts at Cahokia, Kaskaskia, and Vincennes, who had been appointed under the British administration, were now chosen by election; but this government was confined to the old French settlements and was entirely inefficient.
Under the guidance of Judges John Jay, Marshall, and Joseph Story, the judiciary from 1790 to 1835 had followed the Federalist loose construction methods of interpreting the constitution.
Five of the seven judges in 1837 were his appointees, and the majority of them were Southerners who had been educated under Democratic influences at a time when the slavery controversy was forcing the party to return to its original strict construction views.
He quickens, and He judges.
As Son of Man He judges man.
Biblical tradition quite plausibly represents a mighty invasion of tribes who had come from Southern Palestine and Northern Arabia (Elath, Ezion-geber) - but primarily from Egypt - and, after a series of national " judges," established the kingship.k; But no place can be found for this conquest, as it is described, either before the "Amarna " age (the date, following i Kings vi.
Smith's large series including " Bible," " David," " Decalogue," " Judges," " Kings."
THE BOOK OF JUDGES, in the Bible.
This is very clearly the case in the book of Judges.
5); (2) the history of the several judges (ii.
i are from the hand of the last editor, who desired to make the whole book of Judges, including ch.
It is in general agreement with the spirit as also with the language of Deuteronomy, and on this account this section may be conveniently called "the Deuteronomic Book of Judges."
The sources of the narrative are obviously older than the theological exposition of its lessons, and herein lies the value and interest of Judges.
To the unity of religious pragmatism in the main stock of the book of Judges corresponds a unity of chronological scheme.
The "judges," in spite of the fact that most of them had clearly no more than a local influence, are all represented as successive rulers in Israel, and the history is dated by the years of each judgeship and those of the intervening periods of oppression.
The case, however, is exceptional; the stories of the other great "judges" were not rewritten or to any great extent revised by the Deuteronomic redactor, and his hand appears chiefly in the framework.'
After a brief notice of two "minor judges" (see below), follows the story of Jephthah.
Grouped among these narratives are the five so-called "minor judges" (x.
3 To the same post-exilic hand may also be ascribed the introduction of the "minor judges" (so several critics), and smaller additions here and there (ch.
Historical Value.-The book of Judges consists of a number of narratives collected by Deuteronomic editors; to the same circles are due accounts of the invasions of Palestine and settlement in Joshua, and of the foundation of the monarchy in I Samuel.
On the other hand, the belief that the monarchy had been preceded by national "judges" may have led to the formation of the collection.
As an historical source, therefore, the value of Judges will depend largely upon the question whether the Deuteronomic editor (about 600 B.C. at the earliest) would have access to trustworthy documents relating to a period some six or seven centuries previously.
Moreover, Jefferson's ideals were high; his reasons for changes were in general excellent; he at least so far resisted the great pressure for office - producing by his resistance dissatisfaction within his party - as not to have lowered, apparently, the personnel of the service; and there were no such blots on his administration as President Adams's "midnight judges."
Bengal (including Eastern Bengal and Assam), Madras, Bombay and the old North-Western Provinces each has a high court, established by charter under an act of parliament, with judges appointed by the crown.
Below these courts come district and sessions judges, who perform the ordinary judicial work of the country, civil and criminal.
The subordinate courts throughout India are almost entirely manned by native judges, who sit also on the bench in each of the High Courts.
Recourse has been had to a regulation of the year 1818, by which persons may be imprisoned or " deported " without reason assigned; and three acts of the legislature have been passed for dealing more directly with the prevalent classes of crime: (1) an Explosives Act, containing provisions similar to those in force in England; (2) a Prevention of Seditious Meetings Act, which can only be applied specially by proclamation; and (3) a Criminal Law Amendment Act, of which the two chief provisions are - a magisterial inquiry in private (similar to the Scotch procedure) and a trial before three judges of the High Court without a jury.
A supreme court of civil and criminal justice was established in 1831 under a chief judge and three puisne judges.
But that Petra itself is mentioned in the Old Testament cannot be affirmed with certainty; for though Petra is usually identified with Sela` 2 which also means " a rock," the reference in Judges i.
Moore, Judges, p. 55 seq., Oxford Hebr.
Penal justice is administered by Italian judges only.
The judges of the courts of first instance are appointed by the governor with the consent of the Philippine Commission.
On Sunday, the 11th of May 1729, when going out to preach before the judges at Serjeants' Inn, he was seized with a sudden illness, which caused his death on the Saturday following (May 17, 1729).
The earliest object sought in imprisonment was to secure the person of the accused to ensure his appearance before his judges for trial, and after conviction to produce him Early to take his punishment.
The royal courts refused to entertain suits of villeins against their lords, although there was a good deal of vacillation before this position was definitely taken up. Bracton still speaks in his treatise of the possibility for the courts to interfere against intolerable cruelty on the part of the lord involving the destruction of the villein's waynage, that is, of his ploughteam, and in the Notebook of Bracton there are a couple of cases which prove that r3th-century judges occasionally allowed themselves to entertain actions by persons holding in villenage against their lords.
Bracton fits his definition of villenage into the Romanesque scheme of Azo's Summa of the Institutes, and the judges of the royal courts made sweeping inferences from this general position.
The local monarchy of the manorial lords was fast giving way to a central power which maintained its laws, the circuits of its judges, the fiscal claims of its exchequer, the police interference of its civil officers all through the country, and, by prevailing over the franchises of manorial lords, gave shape to a vast dominion of legal equality and legal protection, in which the forces of commercial exchange, of contract, of social intercourse, found a ready and welcome sphere of action.
It is a fact of first-rate magnitude that in the 15th century customary relations on one hand, the power of government on the other, ripened, as it were, to that extent that the judges of the king began to take cognizance of the relations of the peasants to their lords.
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