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judaism

judaism

judaism Sentence Examples

  • So Judaism survived once more the destruction of its central sanctuary.

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  • Modern reform in Judaism is parting to some extent from this conception, but it still holds good even among the liberals.

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  • Modern reform in Judaism is parting to some extent from this conception, but it still holds good even among the liberals.

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  • Again, although some may have desired a self-contained community opposed to the heathen neighbours of Jerusalem, the story of Jonah implicitly contends against the attempt of Judaism to close its doors.

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  • This supreme official, who was destined ultimately to take the place of the king in the church-nation of post-exilian Judaism, is mentioned for the first time in Zech.

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  • All the religious rites of Judaism were proscribed and the neighbouring Greek cities were requested to enforce the prohibition upon their Jewish citizens.

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  • In the country-side of Judaea, Judaism - and no longer Hellenism - was propagated by force.

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  • Finally (c), in the so-called " post-exilic " period, religion and life were reorganized under the influence of a new spirit; relations with Samaria were broken off, and Judaism took its definite character, perhaps about the middle or close of the 5th century.

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  • (b) Eschatology in the Judaism of the Greek period began to assume a new form.

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  • It suggests in every deed a personal but limited God, or a number of Gods - " Religions of spiritual Individuality," including, along with " Judaism," the anthropomorphic religions of Greece and Rome.

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  • The characteristic of the 18th and 19th centuries is the endeavour, connected with the name of Moses Mendelssohn, to bring Judaism more into relation with external learning, and in using the Hebrew language to purify tend- and develop it in accordance with the biblical standard.

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  • It contains in fact the history itself in two forms: (a) from the creation of man to the fall of Judah (Genesis-2 Kings), which is supplemented and continued further - (b) to the foundation of Judaism in the 5th century B.C. (Chronicles - Ezra-Nehemiah).

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  • A common ground for Judaism and Samaritanism is obvious, and it is in this obscure age that it is to be sought.

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  • It contains in fact the history itself in two forms: (a) from the creation of man to the fall of Judah (Genesis-2 Kings), which is supplemented and continued further - (b) to the foundation of Judaism in the 5th century B.C. (Chronicles - Ezra-Nehemiah).

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  • As Graetz says: "To Jeremiah and Mar Samuel Judaism owes the possibility of existence in a foreign country."

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  • This development of Judaism was eminently to the mind of the rulers; and Herod did much to encourage it.

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  • The course of human history is regarded by those writers who are most concerned to refute Judaism as a progressive divine education.

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  • The Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis, that the hierarchical law in its complete form in the Pentateuch stands at the close and not at the beginning of biblical history, that this mature Judaism was the fruit of the 5th century B.C. and not a divinely appointed institution at the exodus (nearly ten centuries previously), has won the recognition of almost all Old Testament scholars.

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  • In later Judaism Sammael is the equivalent of Satan.

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  • For Hinduism and later Judaism we possess a wealth of material on which to base a comparative study of the forms of sacrifice; a form of this - animal sacrifice in the Vedas - has been analysed by MM.

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  • The present outlook was hopeless, but in the enlarged horizon of time as well as space the thoughts of some of the most spiritual minds in Judaism were directed to the transcendent and ultimate.

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  • He also published works on the Last Days of the Life of Jesus, on Judaism in the Time of Christ, on John of Damascus (1879) and an Examination of the Vatican Dogma in the Light of Patristic Exegesis of the New Testament.

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  • Individual Geonim produced valuable works (of which later), but what is perhaps most important from the point of view of the development of Judaism is the literature of their Responsa or answers to questions, chiefly on halakhic matters, addressed to them from various countries.

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  • In the Geonic period there came into prominence the sect of the Karaites (Bene migra, " followers of the Scripture", the Protestants of Judaism, who rejected rabbinical authority, basing their doctrine and practice exclusively on The g P Y ICaraltes.

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  • 9, ro, that God would visit the sins of the fathers upon the children, and it lived on in later Judaism under exaggerated forms. The hopes of the individual Jew were based on the piety of holy ancestors.

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  • But in Judaism monotheistic conceptions reigned supreme, and the Satan of Jewish belief as opposed to God stops short of the dualism of Persian religion.

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  • Their history may be divided into three great periods: (1) That covered by the Old Testament to the foundation of Judaism in the Persian age, (2) that of the Greek and Roman domination to the destruction of Jerusalem, and (3) that of the Diaspora or Dispersion to the present day.

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  • Individual Geonim produced valuable works (of which later), but what is perhaps most important from the point of view of the development of Judaism is the literature of their Responsa or answers to questions, chiefly on halakhic matters, addressed to them from various countries.

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  • (3) The phenomena might be explained solely on the basis of Judaism (von Soden, Peake).

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  • of Portugal to set up the Inquisition in Goa to repress Judaism, but the tribunal was not set up until 1560.

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  • The prominence of Jerusalem, the centre of post-exilic Judaism, necessarily invited reflection.

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  • It is essentially the path which may be summed up in the word Judaism, though, as will be shown in the sequel, Judaism came to include many other factors.

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  • The statement, however, remains virtually true, since Judaism is mainly constituted by the body of legal precepts called the Torah, and, moreover, by the postexilian Torah.

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  • 8, 6) has been carried back to the earliest ages; yet the present period, after the age of rival kingdoms, Judah and Israel, and before the foundation of Judaism, is that in which the historical background for the inclusion of Judah among the " sons " of Israel is equally suitable (§§ 5, 20, end).

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  • They look back from the age when half-suppressed hostility with Samaria had broken out, and when an exclusive Judaism had been formed.

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  • Upon this blank period before the foundation of Judaism (§§ 21, 23) much light is also thrown by another body of evidence.

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  • " It was a necessity that Judaism should incrust itself in this manner; without those hard and ossified forms the preservation of its essential elements would have proved impossible.

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  • The work represented in Nehemiah and Ezra, and put into action by the supporters of an exclusive Judaism, certainly won the day, and their hands have left their impress upon the historical traditions.

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  • Abrahams, Judaism (1907).

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  • He conciliated his subjects by his deference to the observances of Judaism, and - the case is probably typical of his policy - he joined in protesting, when Pilate set up a votive shield in the palace of Herod within the sacred city.

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  • The great world (as we know it) took small note of Judaism even when Jews converted its women to their faith; but now the Jews as a nation refused to bow before the present god of the civilized world.

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  • The great world (as we know it) took small note of Judaism even when Jews converted its women to their faith; but now the Jews as a nation refused to bow before the present god of the civilized world.

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  • After the capture of Rome by the Italian troops in 1870 Edgar Mortara had the opportunity of reverting to Judaism, but he refused to do so, and not long afterwards became an Augustinian.

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  • Ramsay, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, and Church in the Roman Empire), but also to the Judaism of the Diaspora.

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  • Even the worship of angels, not only as mediators of revelation and visions, but also as cosmical beings, is a wellknown fact in late Judaism (Apoc. Bar.

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  • He established an extraordinary reputation; his personality had a winning attractiveness; and he founded a school of mystics who powerfully affected Judaism after the master's death.

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  • While the schools of Babylonia were flourishing as the religious head of Judaism, the West, and especially Spain under Moorish rule, was becoming the home of Jewish scholarship. On the breaking of the schools many of the fugitives fled o- g up Y g?

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  • There can be little 1 We shall have to note the emergence of the doctrine of the resurrection of the righteous in later Judaism, which is obviously a fresh contribution of permanent value to Hebrew doctrine.

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  • His whole kingdom was to be unified; Judaism was an eccentricity and as such doomed to extinction.

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  • This prosperity and the apparent security of Judaism led to a breach between Hyrcanus and his spiritual directors, the Pharisees.

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  • He established an extraordinary reputation; his personality had a winning attractiveness; and he founded a school of mystics who powerfully affected Judaism after the master's death.

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  • For he maintained that Judaism was less a "divine need, than a revealed life."

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  • If we resort solely to Judaism for explanation, it must be a Judaism of the Diaspora type.

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  • Towards the end of Herod's life two rabbis attempted to uphold by physical force the cardinal dogma of Judaism, which prohibited the use of images.

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  • the father of Judaism."

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  • But despite this, Mendelssohn's theory was found to be a strengthening bond in Judaism.

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  • He was twenty at the time of his conversion to Judaism.

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  • But these years were momentous for Judaism.

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  • The emergence of Satan as a definite supernatural personality, the head or prince of the world of evil spirits, is entirely a phenomenon of post-exilian Judaism.

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  • Weber's Jiidische Theologie is a useful compendium of the theology of later Judaism.

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  • He rightly insisted on the facilities of communication created by the Roman empire, but did not emphasize the diffusion of Judaism.

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  • of that small district which, with Jerusalem as its capital, became the centre of Judaism.

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  • Such was the religious environment of the ancient city which was destined to become the centre of Judaism.

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  • With Nehemiah and Ezra we enter upon the era in which a new impulse gave to Jewish life and thought that form which became the characteristic orthodox Judaism.

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  • Thus Jason stripped the high-priesthood of its sacred character and did what he could to stamp out Judaism.

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  • His great achievement was the conquest of a part of Ituraea, which he added to Judaea and whose inhabitants he compelled to accept Judaism.

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  • Malichus also, the murderer or reputed murderer of Antipater, appears to have been a partisan of Hyrcanus, who had a zeal for Judaism.

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  • Hillel also inculcated the duty of making converts to Judaism.

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  • Proselytes to Judaism were condemned either to death or to forfeiture of their property.

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  • Pharisaic Judaism, put to the severest test to which a religious system has ever been subject, showed itself able to control and idealize life in all its phases.

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  • The laws concerning the Jews had a repressive and preventive object: the repression of Judaism and the prevention of inroads of Jewish influences into the state religion.

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  • Yet Judaism under Roman Christian law was a lawful religion (religio licita), Valentinian I.

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  • Judaism in Babylonia.

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  • Judaism in Islam.

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  • But though this defensive zeal led to active persecution, still in theory Judaism was a tolerated religion wherever the Church had sway, and many papal bulls of a friendly character were issued throughout the middle ages (Scherer, p. 32 seq.).

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  • Mahommedan Babylonia (Persia) was the home of the gaonate, the central authority of religious Judaism, whose power transcended that of the secular exilarchate, for it influenced the synagogue far and wide, while the exilarchate was local.

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  • But by the 10th century Judaism had received from Islam something more than persecution.

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  • This ordinance may be regarded as the beginning of the Synodal government of Judaism, which was a marked feature of medieval life in the synagogues of northern and central Europe from the 12th century.

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  • If Maimonides represented Judaism on its rational side, Rashi was the expression of its traditions.

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  • French Judaism was thus in a sense more human if less humane than the Spanish variety; the latter produced thinkers, statesmen, poets and scientists; the former, men with whom the Talmud was a passion, men of robuster because of more naïve and concentrated piety.

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  • In Spain and North Africa persecution created that strange and significant phenomenon Maranism or crypto-Judaism, a public acceptance of Islam or Christianity combined with a private fidelity to the rites of Judaism.

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  • If in more recent times progress in Judaism has implied more or less of revolt against the rigors and fetters of Qaro's code, yet for 250 years it was a powerful safeguard against demoralization and stagnation.

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  • A new school of scientific study of Judaism emerged, to be dignified by the names of Leopold Zunz, H.

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  • Within Judaism itself two parties were formed, the Liberals and the Conservatives, and as time went on these tendencies definitely organized themselves.

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  • At the present time orthodox Judaism is also again acquiring its due position and the Jewish theological seminary of America was founded for this purpose.

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  • In Germany Jews are still rarely admitted to the rank of officers in the army, university posts are very difficult of access, Judaism and its doctrines are denounced in medieval language, and a tone of hostility prevails in many public utterances.

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  • In Philo, Alexandrian Judaism had already seized upon Plato as " the Attic Moses," and done its best to combine his speculations with the teaching of his Jewish prototype.

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  • Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to Judaism.

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  • Two of the greatest religions of the world, Christianity and Islam, are Semitic in origin, as well as Judaism.

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  • His zeal, private and public, for Judaism is celebrated by Josephus and the rabbis; and the narrative of Acts xii.

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  • He sentenced to death his own cousin and nephew by marriage, Flavius Clemens, whose wife he banished for her supposed leaning towards Judaism (Christianity).

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  • Alexandria had been, since the days of the Ptolemies, a centre for the interchange of ideas between East and West - between Egypt, Syria, Greece and Italy; and, as it had furnished Judaism with an Hellenic philosophy, so it also brought about the alliance of Christianity with Greek philosophy.

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  • But it is equally plain that the Ophite nucleus has from time to time received very numerous and often curiously perverted accretions from Babylonian Judaism, Oriental Christianity and Parsism, exhibiting a striking example of religious syncretism.

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  • His conversion apparently took place at Ephesus; there, at any rate, he places his decisive interview with the old man, and there he had those discussions with Jews and converts to Judaism, the results of which he in later years set down in his Dialogue.

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  • Here, where he had to deal with the Judaism that believed in a Messiah, he was far better able to do justice to Christianity as a revelation; and so we find that the arguments of this work are much more completely in harmony with primitive Christian theology than those of the Apology.

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  • Its medieval importance as an intermediary of trade between Europe and the East was greatly impaired by the opening of the Red Sea route, and finally abolished by the Suez Canal; and Syria is at present important mainly for the sentimental reason that it contains the holiest places of Judaism and Christianity, and for the strategic reason that it lies on the flank of the greatest traderoute of the eastern hemisphere.

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  • He refused to base Judaism on speculative philosophy alone; there was a deep emotional side to his thought.

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  • Thus he based Judaism on love, not on knowledge; love was the bond between God and man, and man's fundamental duty was love as expressed in obedience to God's will.

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  • The Maccabean dynasty had now reached the zenith of its prosperity, and in its reigning representative, who alone in the history of Judaism possessed the triple offices of prophet, priest and king, the Pharisaic party had come to recognize the actual Messiah.

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  • When we contrast the expectations of the original writer and the actual events that followed, it would seem that the chief value of his work would consist in the light that it throws on this obscure and temporary revolution in the Messianic expectations of Judaism towards the close of the 2nd century.

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  • 2 The Kabbalah itself is but an extreme and remarkable development of certain forms of thought which had never been absent from Judaism; it is bound up with earlier tendencies to mysticism, with man's inherent striving to enter into communion with the Deity.

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  • 6 The appearance of the Kabbalah and of other forms of mysticism in Judaism may seem contrary to ordinary and narrow conceptions of orthodox Jewish legalism.

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  • Schechter, Studies in Judaism (London, 1896), pp. 2-55.

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  • xvii.; Judaism (1907), ch.

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  • Though he failed to rise to real distinction he earned a place by his criticism of the Talmud among those who prepared the way for the new learning in Judaism.

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  • He became best known, however, as the interpreter of Judaism to the Christian world.

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  • WISDOM LITERATURE, the name applied to the body of Old Testament and Apocryphal writings that contain the philosophical thought of the later pre-Christian Judaism.

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  • The seat of the exilarch or resh galutha was transferred from Pumbedita(Pumbeditha or Pombeditha) inBabylonia to Bagdad, which thus became the capital of oriental Judaism; from then to the present day the Jews have played no mean part in Bagdad.

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  • It was originally so used of converts to Judaism, but any one who sets out to convert others to his own opinions is said to " proselytize."

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  • At various periods there were proselytes to Judaism.

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  • The .Maccabaeans used compulsion in some cases, but Judaism in the Diaspora was a missionary religion in the less militant sense.

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  • 15 supports the view that proselytes were actively sought by the Pharisees, and the famous Didache was probably in the first instance a manual for instructing proselytes in the principles of Judaism.

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  • Again, many who had become converts to Judaism afterwards joined the new Christian communities.

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  • (In 1222 a Christian deacon was executed at Oxford for his apostasy to Judaism: Matthew Paris, ed.

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  • 5, &c.), was that Judaism was not necessary for salvation, for " the pious of all nations have a share in the world to come " (Tosephta, Sanh.

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  • Yet willing proselytes to Judaism are still freely received, provided that their bona fides are proven.

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  • Most cases of conversion to Judaism at the present time are for purposes of marriage, and female proselytes are more numerous than male.

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  • Schechter's Studies in Judaism (London, 1896).

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  • He was associated with the promoters of the New Learning within Judaism, and wrote on the history of the Kabbala.

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  • He published some 200 sermons, in most of which are displayed unobtrusive learning, fresh application of old sayings, and a high conception of Judaism and its claims. Jellinek was a powerful apologist and an accomplished homilist, at once profound and ingenious.

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  • We shall therefore enter at once on a short account of the origin of this literature in Judaism, of its adoption by early Christianity, of the various meanings which the term " apocryphal " assumed in the course of its history, and having so done we shall proceed to classify and deal with the books that belong to this literature.

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  • Certain circles in Judaism, as the Essenes in Palestine (Josephus, B.J.

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  • Thus though it insisted on the exclusive canonicity of the 24 books, it claimed the possession of are oral law handed down from ivloses, and just as the apocryphal books overshadowed in certain instances the canonical scriptures, so often the oral law displaced the written in the regard of Judaism.

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  • But as Christianity took its origin from Judaism, it is not unnatural that a large body of Jewish ideas was incorporated in the system of Christian thought.

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  • Now the current religious literature of Judaism outside the canon was composed of apocryphal books, the bulk of which bore an apocalyptic character, and dealt with the coming of the Messianic kingdom.

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  • Christianity, moreover, moved by the same apocalyptic tendency as Judaism, gave birth to new Christian apocryphs, though, in the case of most of them, the subject matter was to a large extent traditional and derived from Jewish sources.

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  • While the characteristic features of apocalyptic literature were derived from Judaism, those of Gnosticism sprang partly from Greek philosophy, partly from oriental religions.

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  • 45, 50 that Joseph married the daughter of a heathen priest naturally gave offence to later Judaism, and gave rise to the fiction that Asenath was really the daughter of Shechem and Dinah, and only the foster-daughter of Potipherah (Targ.-Jon.

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  • The extant fragments contain sayings of Jesus, and warnings against Judaism and Polytheism.

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  • - The special object of this epistle was to guard its readers against the danger of relapsing into Judaism.

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  • A precocious student of the Law, he made trial of the three sects of Judaism - Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes - before he reached the age of nineteen.

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  • Now the rise of the problems of individual faith is the mark of the age that followed Jeremiah, while the confident assertion of national righteousness under misfortune is a characteristic mark of pious Judaism after Ezra, in the period of the law but not earlier.

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  • 22: " Yea, for thy sake are we killed all the day long," &c. On the other hand, not only is the atmosphere of the second collection of psalms as a whole the atmosphere of godly Judaism in the 2nd century B.C., but it may fairly be claimed that this collection contains many psalms which may naturally be interpreted in the light of the history of that period, of which no satisfactory explanation (in their details) can be given if they are assigned to any other time.

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  • And it is not too much to say that that view - which to some extent appears in the historical psalms of the Ehohistic Psalter - implies absolute incapacity to understand the difference between old Israel and later Judaism, and makes almost anything possible in the way of the ascription of comparatively modern pieces to ancient authors.

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  • Rank has accounted for much, and ceremonial dress - the apparel Romans, naturally left its mark, and there have been ages of increasing luxury followed by periods of reaction, with a general levelling and nationalization on religious grounds (Judaism, Islam).

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  • The Apocalyptic literature of Judaism and Christianity embraces a considerable period, from the centuries following the exile down to the close of the middle ages.

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  • In the present survey we shall limit ourselves to the great formative periods in this literature - in Judaism to 200 B.C. t0 A.D.

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  • 50.) Here we have essentially a dualistic principle, which, though it can largely be accounted for by the interaction of certain inner tendencies and outward sorrowful experience on the part of Judaism, may ultimately be derived from Mazdean influences.

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  • But though Christianity was in spirit the descendant of ancient Jewish prophecy, it was no less truly the child of that Judaism which had expressed its highest aspirations and ideals in pseudepigraphic and apocalyptic literature.

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  • It was Christianity that preserved Jewish apocalyptic, when it was abandoned by Judaism as it sank into Rabbinism, and gave it a Christian character either by a forcible exegesis or by a systematic process of interpolation.

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  • Rather under the influence of the great formative Christian conceptions he parted gradually with the eschatology he had inherited from Judaism, and entered on a progressive development, in the course of which the heterogeneous elements were for the most part silently dropped.

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  • When Manasseh ben Israel in 1655 petitioned for the return of the Jews who had been expelled by Edward I., Carvajal took part in the agitation and boldly avowed his Judaism.

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  • In Jabneh (Jamnia), where during the siege of Jerusalem the scribes of the school of Hillel had taken refuge by permission of Vespasian, a new centre of Judaism arose under the leadership of the aged Johanan ben Zakkai, a school whose members inherited the authority of the Sanhedrin of Jerusalem.

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  • became Johanan ben Zakkai's successor, and rendered immense service in the strengthening and reintegration of Judaism, which had been deprived of its former basis by the destruction of the Temple and by the entire loss of its political autonomy.

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  • He put an end to the division which had arisen between the spiritual leaders of Palestinian Judaism by the separation of the scribes into the two schools called respectively after Hillel and Shammai, and took care to enforce his own authority as the president of the chief legal assembly of Judaism with energy and often with severity.

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  • In Rome, as at home, Gamaliel often had occasion to defend Judaism in polemical discussions with pagans, and also with professed Christians.

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  • In the Theodosian Code the various crimes which are accounted sacrilege include - apostasy, heresy, schism, Judaism, paganism, attempts against the immunity of churches and clergy or privileges of church courts, the desecration of sacraments, &c. and even Sunday.

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  • The picture, too, which it gives of the danger lest the Christianity of its readers should be unduly Judaic in feeling and practice, suits well the experiences of a writer living in Alexandria, where Judaism was immensely strong.

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  • Further, he shows an "astonishing familiarity with the Jewish rites," in the opinion of a modern Jew (Kohler in the Jewish Encycl.); so much so, that the latter agrees with another Jewish scholar in saying that "the writer seems to have been a converted Jew, whose fanatic zeal rendered him a bitter opponent of Judaism within the Christian Church."

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  • These opinions must overrule the view of some Christian scholars that the writer often blunders in Jewish matters, the fact being that his knowledge is derived from the Judaism of Alexandria' rather than Palestine.

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  • It is enough, and more in keeping with the thought as a whole, to regard him as having been in close contact with Judaism, possibly as a proselyte.

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  • He now uses his knowledge to warn his readers, with intense passion, against all compromise between Judaism and the Gospel.

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  • The Himyarites were, however, still active, and after a struggle succeeded in establishing a Jewish Sabaean kingdom, having previously accepted Judaism as their religion.

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  • The struggle between them and the Abyssinians now became one of Judaism against Christianity.

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  • At this point the letter suddenly swerves' into a passionate warning against some errorists of Judaism (iii.

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  • The dynasty accepted Judaism (c. 740), but there was equal tolerance for all, and each man was held amenable to the authorized code and to the official judges of his own faith.

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  • In keeping with this denial of a Jewish nationality, Wise believed in national varieties of Judaism, and strove to harmonize the synagogue with local circumstances and sympathies.

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  • Philipson, The Reform Movement in Judaism (1907).

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  • The doctrine of emanation is thus to be distinguished from the cosmogonic theory of Judaism and Christianity, which explains human existence as due to a single creative act of a moral agent.

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  • The God of Judaism and Christianity is essentially a person in close personal relation to his creatures; emanation is the denial of personality both for God and for man.

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  • Essenism from the standpoint of Judaism was heterodox in two respects, the abandonment of animal sacrifices and the adoration of the sun.

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  • The main features of this section have been borrowed from Judaism.

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  • Moreover, the expectation that the saints would rise to share in the blessedness of this kingdom is also found in Judaism, 4 Ezra vii.

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  • Yet, on the other hand, our author's attitude to the world reflects the temper of Judaism rather than that of Christianity.

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  • The chief ground for resorting to pseudonymous authorship in Judaism was that the belief in prophecy was lost among the people.

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  • By later Judaism, which fixed its attention chiefly on the altar scene, he was regarded as the pattern and prototype of all martyrs.

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  • As a student he distinguished himself in philosophy and in philology, and at the close of his course wrote on the relations of Judaism and Mahommedanism a prize essay which was afterwards published in 1833 under the title Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judentum aufgenommen?

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  • Judaism and Islam, Madras, 1898).

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  • From 1838 to 1863 he lived in Breslau, where he organized the reform movement in Judaism and wrote some of his most important works, including Lehrand Lesebuch zur Sprache der Mischna (1845), Studien from Maimonides (1850), translation into German of the poems of Juda ha-Levi (1851), and Urschrift and Obersetzungen der Bibel in ihrer Abhangigkeit von der innern Entwickelung des Judentums (1857).

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  • The lastnamed work attracted little attention at the time, but now enjoys a great reputation as a new departure in the methods of studying the records of Judaism.

    0
    0
  • The Urschrift was followed by a more exhaustive handling of one of its topics in Die Sadducder and Pharisder (1863), and by a more thorough application of its leading principles in an elaborate history of Judaism (Das Judentum and seine Geschichte) in 1865-1871.

    0
    0
  • Chorin was thus regarded as a leader of the newer Judaism.

    0
    0
  • The Congregationalism of the Apostolic Church was, to begin with, part of its heritage from Judaism.

    0
    0
  • 28), the New Testament knows none in the local church superior to elders, the ruling order in Judaism also.

    0
    0
  • Islam, Judaism, Christianity, and in allied religions, such as Zoroastrianism.

    0
    0
  • above), but they belong to a different order of thought from the angels of Judaism and of Christian doctrine; and the passage in no way suggests that the bne Elohim suffered any loss of status through their act.

    0
    0
  • He unexpectedly gained the accession of many Jews by race who were indifferent to the religious aspect of Judaism, but he quite failed to convince the leaders of Jewish thought, who from first to last remained (with such conspicuous exceptions as Nordau and Zangwill) deaf to his pleading.

    0
    0
  • He had no profound insight into the problem of Judaism, and there was no lasting validity in his view that the problem - the thousands of years' old mystery - could be solved by a retrogression to local nationality.

    0
    0
  • Not only do the many intimate y y references to Egyptian history and customs support this position, but it is clear that the Jews of Celsus are not Western or Roman Jews, but belong to the Orient, and especially to that circle of Judaism which had received and assimilated the idea of the Logos.

    0
    0
  • The inland gods lost importance with the failure of the overland trade, and Judaism and Christianity seem for a time to have contended for the mastery in South Arabia.

    0
    0
  • Schecter, Studies in Judaism, series ii.

    0
    0
  • He was the founder of what has been termed the "science of Judaism," the critical investigation of Jewish literature, hymnology and ritual.

    0
    0
  • The ideals of this Verein were not destined to bear religious fruit, but the "science of Judaism" survived.

    0
    0
  • He influenced Judaism from the study rather than from the pulpit.

    0
    0
  • In later Judaism, especially from about ioo B.C., great stress was laid on the Day of Atonement, and it is now the most important religious function of the Jews.

    0
    0
  • Later Judaism emphasized the idea of vicarious atonement for Israel through the sufferings of the righteous, especially the martyrs; but it is very doubtful whether the idea of the atonement through the death of the Messiah is a pre-Christian Jewish doctrine."

    0
    0
  • It was with the sense of this responsibility that they gathered again in Jerusalem, the political and religious metropolis of Judaism.

    0
    0
  • Many of the latter had already come under the influence of Judaism, and were more or less completely in sympathy with Jewish religious principles.

    0
    0
  • This conception, which came over from Judaism, controlled all the life of the early Christians both individual and social.

    0
    0
  • In any case the interesting point is that these returned Jews, instead of being liberalized by their residence abroad, were more tenacious of Judaism and more bitter against Stephen than those who had never left Judaea.

    0
    0
  • Moreover, the important body of apocalyptical and pseudepigraphical literature, with all its links between Christianity and Judaism, fell into disfavour on both sides.

    0
    0
  • Shechter, Studies in Judaism, pp. 297 sqq.; ibid.

    0
    0
  • Did they know the Oriental religions, Judaism and Christianity in particular?

    0
    0
  • an acquaintance with Judaism and Christianity.

    0
    0
  • He also published a slight sketch of Jewish history,, and especially of the growth of the Talmud, entitled the Genius of Judaism (1833).

    0
    0
  • Towards the close of the 3rd century two great religions stood opposed to one another in western Europe, one wholly Iranian, namely Mithraism, the other of Jewish origin, but not without Iranian elements, part and parcel probably of, the Judaism which gave it birth, namely Christianity.

    0
    0
  • There can be no doubt that in the form in which Mani became acquainted with it Christianity had been disengaged and liberated from the womb of Judaism which gave it birth.

    0
    0
  • As regards Mani himself, it is safest to assume that he held both Judaism and Catholic Christianity to be entirely false religions.

    0
    0
  • The religion which had proceeded from the historical Jesus he repudiated together with its founder, and Catholicism as well as Judaism he looked upon as a religion of the devil.

    0
    0
  • He took from it the moral teaching of the Sermon on the Mount, and a criticism of the Old Testament and of Judaism so far as he required it.

    0
    0
  • The works of Tertullian, on the chronology of which a great deal has been written, and which for the most part do not admit of being dated with perfect certainty, fall into three classes - the apologetic, defending Christianity against paganism and Judaism; the polemical dogmatic, refuting heresies and heretics; and the ascetic or practical, dealing with points of morality and church discipline.

    0
    0
  • These books contain the great national epic of Judaism relating the deliverance of the people from bondage in Egypt, the overthrow of the pursuing Pharaoh and his army, the divinely guided wanderings through the wilderness and the final entry into the promised land.

    0
    0
  • Developments associated with the Deuteronomic reform and the reorganization of Judaism in post-exilic days can be unmistakably recognized, and it would be unsafe to assume that other vicissitudes have not also left their mark.

    0
    0
  • All such passages are frequently called Messianic; but the term is more properly reserved as the specific designation of one particular branch of the Hebrew hope of salvation, which, becoming prominent in post-canonical Judaism, used the name of the Messiah as a technical term (which it never is in the Old Testament), and exercised a great influence on New Testament thought - the term" the Christ "(6 xpccrros) being itself nothing more than the translation of" the Messiah."

    0
    0
  • Amidst the last convulsions of political Judaism a new spiritual conception of the kingdom of God, of salvation, and of the Saviour of God's anointing, had shaped itself through the preaching, the death, and the resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth.

    0
    0
  • Slouschz, "was the first Jewish scholar who views Judaism, not as a distinct and independent entity, but as a part of the whole of civilization."

    0
    0
  • Schechter, Studies in Judaism (1896), pp. 56 seq.; N.

    0
    0
  • From all the lower levels where superstition and cruelty reign, from the depths of fear inspired by fetichism, we look on to the higher level of Judaism as the progressive religion of the old world.

    0
    0
  • Achior now publicly professes Judaism, and at the instance of Judith the Israelites make a sudden victorious onslaught on the enemy.

    0
    0
  • Such was the general situation of the readers of this epistle, men who rested partly on the Gospel and partly on Judaism.

    0
    0
  • 1) from effective faith in the Gospel, as being mainly future in its application, while Judaism was a very present, concrete, and impressive system of religious aids - to which also their sacred scriptures gave constant witness.

    0
    0
  • The following plan of the epistle may help to make apparent the writer's theory of Christianity as distinct from Judaism, which is related to it as "shadow" to reality: Thesis: The finality of the form of religion mediated in God's Son, i.

    0
    0
  • practical disuse of the distinctively Christian means of grace, as compared with those recognized by Judaism, and such conformity to the latter as would make the reproach of the Cross to cease (xiii.

    0
    0
  • But the practical surrender of what was distinctive in their new faith meant a theoretic surrender of the value once placed on that element,when it was matter of a living religious experience far in advance of what Judaism had given them (vi.

    0
    0
  • There is no use, religiously, in falling back upon the old forms, in order to avoid the social penalties of a sectarian position within Judaism, when the secret of religious "perfection" or maturity (vi.

    0
    0
  • 13 f.) is to leave Judaism, and adopt a frankly Christian standing, on the same footing with their non-Jewish brethren in the local church.

    0
    0
  • Though their prevailing tendency was practical, and the tenets of the society were kept a profound secret, it is perfectly clear from the concurrent testimony of Philo and Josephus that they cultivated a kind of speculation, which not only accounts for their spiritual asceticism, but indicates a great deviation from the normal development of Judaism, and a profound sympathy with Greek philosophy, and probably also with Oriental ideas.

    0
    0
  • On the one hand, indeed, they held tenaciously by the traditional Judaism: blasphemy against their lawgiver was punished with death, the sacred books were preserved and read with great reverence, though not without an allegorical interpretation, and the Sabbath was most scrupulously observed.

    0
    0
  • In their speculative hints respecting the soul and a future state, we find another important deviation from Judaism, and the explanation of their asceticism.

    0
    0
  • The fact that they copied the form in which the heathen revelations were conveyed (Greek hexameter verses) and the Homeric language is evidence of a degree of external Hellenization, which is an important fact in the history of post-exilic Judaism.

    0
    0
  • It is in the apocryphal and apocalyptic literature of Judaism that the fullest development of eschatology can be traced.

    0
    0
  • In later Judaism it was the purgatory of faithless Jews, who at last reached Paradise, but it.

    0
    0
  • The eschatology of the New Testament attaches itself not only to that of the Old Testament but also to that of contemporary Judaism, but it avoids the extravagances of the latter.

    0
    0
  • Charles, A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life in Israel, in Judaism, and in Christianity (1899); L.

    0
    0
  • 8), it must be admitted that the teaching of Jesus, in the emphasis which it laid on the Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man, was bound sooner or later to break away from the trammels of Judaism, and assert itself in the form of Christian missions.

    0
    0
  • But the obscure historical background of the references makes it uncertain whether the exclusiveness of orthodox Judaism (Neh.

    0
    0
  • Philipson's History of the Reform Movement in Judaism (London, 1906).

    0
    0
  • Thus, not only do we have a beautiful portrait of a woman of Moabite origin, but she becomes the ancestress of David himself, and in the days of these measures the charming and simple story would inevitably suggest the question whether the exclusiveness of Judaism could not be carried too far.

    0
    0
  • The members of the Church were somewhat shocked at the reception of a Gentile: their view apparently was that the only road to Christianity was through Judaism.

    0
    0
  • and foe of Judaism, whose criticism was answered by Josephus, appears in this character both in Homilies and Recognitions, though mainly in the former (iv.

    0
    0
  • A second protagonist of error, this time of Gentile philosophic criticism directed against fundamental Judaism, is Apion, the notorious anti-Jewish Alexandrine grammarian of Peter's day; while the role of upholder of astrological fatalism (Genesis) is played by Faustus, father of Clement, with whom Peter and Clement debate at Laodicea.

    0
    0
  • The Essenes, while clinging to what they held to be original Mosaism, yet conceived and practised their ancestral faith in ways which showed distinct traces of syncretism, or the operation of influences foreign to Judaism proper.

    0
    0
  • They thus occupied an ambiguous position on the borders of Judaism.

    0
    0
  • So long, however, as we have no closer acquaintance with Arab Judaism and Christianity, we must always reckon with the possibility that many of these mistakes were due to adherents of these religions who were his authorities, or were a naïve reproduction of versions already widely accepted by his contemporaries.

    0
    0
  • For a brief period at the end of the XVIIIth Dynasty a real monotheism, as exclusive as that of Judaism or of Islam, was adopted as the state religion of Egypt.

    0
    0
  • His descendants remained, with few exceptions, at the head of Judaism in Palestine until the beginning of the 5th century, two of them, his grandson Gamaliel I.

    0
    0
  • The name of Hermes seems during the 3rd and following centuries to have been regarded as a convenient pseudonym to place at the head of the numerous syncretistic writings in which it was sought to combine Neo-Platonic philosophy, Philonic Judaism and cabalistic theosophy, and so provide the world with some acceptable substitute for the Christianity which had even at that time begun to give indications of the ascendancy it was destined afterwards to attain.

    0
    0
  • 2) "to represent the success of the Pauline gospel outside Judaism."

    0
    0
  • It is present quite unaltered in certain passages, specifically traceable to Judaism, e.g.

    0
    0
  • In this process of transformation of the idea, which has become of importance for the history of the world, is revealed probably the genius of Paul, or at any rate, that of the young Christianity which was breaking its ties with Judaism and establishing itself in the world of the Roman empire.

    0
    0
  • ad Gaium, § 30), and the town is principally famous as having been the seat of the Sanhedrin and the religious centre of Judaism from A.D.

    0
    0
  • lengthy historical and religious development in the establishment of Judaism and its inveterate rival Samaritanism.

    0
    0
  • These centuries represent an age which the Jewish historians have partly ignored (as regards Samaria) and partly obscured (as regards the return from exile and the reconstruction of Judah); but since this age stands at the head of an historical development which leads on to Christianity and Rabbinical Judaism, it is necessary to turn from Palestine as a land in order to notice more particularly certain features of the Old Testament upon which the foregoing evidence directly bears.

    0
    0
  • Temples, shrines and holy places were no novelty in Palestine, and the in- Jerusalem auguration of the great centre of Judaism is ascribed to Solomon the son of the great conqueror David.

    0
    0
  • To reinterpret all these features as mere symbols, the lumber of ancient days, is to avoid the problem of their introduction into the Temple, and to assume an advance of popular thought which is not confirmed by the retention and fresh developments of the old ideas both in the pseudepigraphical literature and in the literature of Rabbinical Judaism.'

    0
    0
  • Although the national God was at once a transcendent ruler of the universe and also near at hand to man, the unconscious religious feeling found an outlet, not only in the splendid worship at Jerusalem, but in the more immediate intercessors, divine agencies, and the like; and when Judaism left its native soil the local supernatural beings revived - as characteristically as when the old placenames threw off their Greek dress - and they still survive, under a veneer of Mahommedanism, as the modern representatives of the Baals of the distant past.'

    0
    0
  • With the removal of Judaism from Palestine and internal social changes the archaic primitive law reappeared, now influenced, however, by Mahommedan legislation.

    0
    0
  • " Canonical " history, legislation and religion assumed their present forms, and, while the earlier stages can cnly incompletely be traced, the book stands at the head of subsequent literature, paving the way for Christianity and Rabbinical Judaism, and influencing the growth of Mahommedanism.

    0
    0
  • The practice of Judaism was prohibited by a royal edict (r Macc. i.

    0
    0
  • By this time (103 B.C.) it was clear that the Hasmonaeans were - from the point of view of a purist - practically indistinguishable from the Hellenizers whom Judas had opposed so keenly, except that they did not abandon the formal observances of Judaism, and even enforced them upon foreigners.

    0
    0
  • In spite of his quarrel with the Pharisees, he seems to have offered the cities he conquered the choice between Judaism and destruction (Jos.

    0
    0
  • Shefa `Amr (Shafram), Sha`arah (Shaaraim) and especially Tubariya (Tiberias) became centres of this learning: and the remains of synagogues of the 2nd or 3rd century which still exist in Galilee attest the strength of Judaism in that district during the years following the abortive attempt of Bar-Cochebas.

    0
    0
  • Baur's whole theory indeed starts with the supposition that Christianity was gradually developed out of Judaism.

    0
    0
  • Paul, on the other hand, represented a breach with Judaism, the Temple, and the Law.

    0
    0
  • More properly perhaps we might consider the Greek and Roman civilization as the permanent element - so that the relationship to it was not different from the relationship to Judaism - in part it was denied, in part it was of purpose accepted, in still larger part unconsciously the Greek-Roman converts took over with them the presuppositions of their older world view - and thus formed the moulds into which the Christian truth was run.

    0
    0
  • His career is understood only in the light of his relations to Judaism (see Hebrew Religion).

    0
    0
  • These are the universality of the Gospel, the jealousy of national Judaism, and the Divine initiative manifest in the gradual stages by which men of Jewish birth were led to recognize the Divine will in the setting aside of national restrictions, alien to the universal destiny of the Church.

    0
    0
  • Among the features of the occasion which suggested the need of such an appeal was doubtless the existence of persecution by the Roman authorites, perhaps largely at the instigation of local Judaism.

    0
    0
  • The Acts of the Apostles is in fact an Apology for the Church as distinct from Judaism, the breach with which is accordingly traced with great fulness and care.

    0
    0
  • In the small space of seven chapters he pursues all these lines and tries also to connect them together, at the same time preparing and sketching the great transition of the Gospel from Judaism to the Greek world.

    0
    0
  • io); yet for Jews it might continue for the time (pending the Parousia) to be seemly and expedient, especially for the sake of non-believing Judaism.

    0
    0
  • It is not easy to decide as to his exact attitude towards Judaism.

    0
    0
  • Most authorities believe that he was a Gnostic; but while it is certain that he was not a Christian, it is possible that he was simply a Sadducee, and thus an opponent not of Judaism but of Pharisaism.

    0
    0
  • 2 In early Judaism, chastity was indeed enjoined upon the priests at certain solemn seasons; but there was no attempt to enforce celibacy upon the sacerdotal caste.

    0
    0
  • " addition ") and the Midrashim, and since all these, together with the Targumim, represent the orthodox Rabbinical literature connecting the Old Testament with medieval and modern Judaism, the reader should also consult the articles Jews (parts ii.

    0
    0
  • Schechter, Studies in Judaism (London, 1896), ch.

    0
    0
  • It is possible, therefore, that written works were in circulation among the learned, and that these contained varying interpretations which were likely to injure efforts to maintain a uniform Judaism.

    0
    0
  • With Rabbi Aqiba (q.v.) and the synods of Jamnia (about 90 and 118 A.D.) a definite epoch in Judaism begins.

    0
    0
  • The " canonical " Mishnah and Gemara were now the objects of study, and the scattered Jews appealed to the central bodies of Judaism in Babylonia for information and guidance.

    0
    0
  • Ordinary estimates of the Talmud are often influenced by the attitude of Christianity to Judaism and Jewish legalism, and by the preponderating interest which has been taken in the religious-legal side of the Rabbinical writings.

    0
    0
  • At each step disintegration was arrested, but not Jewish genius; and the domination of the Law in Judaism did not as a matter of fact have the petrifying results which might have been anticipated.

    0
    0
  • the Babylonian Rab) are famous for their ethical teaching, and for their share in popular exposition; one of the best ethical systems of medieval Judaism (by Bahya ibn Pekuda) is founded upon the Talmud; the last exponent of Rabbinical legalism, Joseph Caro, was at the same time a mystic and a pietist; and the combination of the poetical with the legal temperament is frequent.

    0
    0
  • On the other hand, Judaism has never been without its heroes, martyrs or saints, and the fact that it still lives is sufficient to prove that the mechanical legalism of the Talmud has not hindered the growth of Jewish religion.

    0
    0
  • Similar or related forms of interpretation and teaching are found in the Talmud, in Hellenistic Judaism, in the New Testament, in early Church Fathers and in Syriac writers.

    0
    0
  • But it is uncertain how far the doctrines of Judaism were influenced by Christianity, and it is even disputed whether the Talmud and Midrashim may be used to estimate Jewish thought 1 There are many details in the Talmud which cannot be dated; if some are obviously contemporary, others find parallels in Ancient Babylonia, for example in the code of Hammurabi.

    0
    0
  • Moreover, in endeavouring to sketch the theology of early Judaism it has been easy to find in the heterogeneous and conflicting ideas a system which agreed with preconceived views, and to reject as late or exceptional whatever told against them.

    0
    0
  • At all events, if these writings have many old elements and may be used to illustrate the background of the New Testament, they illustrate not only the excessive legalism and ritualism against which early Christianity contended, but also the more spiritual and ethical side of Judaism.

    0
    0
  • They touch, on the one hand, the absolute originality of Christianity and its attitude to Jewish legalism, and, on the other, the true place of the pseudepigrapha in Jewish thought and the antiquity of the Judaism which dominates the Talmud.

    0
    0
  • They do not, however, exclude the possibility that by the side of the scholasticism of the early Jewish academical circles was the more popular thought which, forming a link between Jews and Christians, ultimately fell into neglect as Judaism and Christianity formulated their theologies.

    0
    0
  • Toy, Judaism and Christianity (London, 1890; with Schechter's essay in his Studies [1896], pp. 28 3-3 0 5); H.

    0
    0
  • In the weakening of that authority which had been ascribed almost unanimously to the Talmud, and invariably to the Old Testament, a new and greater strain has been laid upon Judaism to reinterpret its spirit once more to answer the diverse wants of its adherents.

    0
    0
  • This is part of that larger and pressing psychological problem of adjusting the " authority " ascribed to past writings to that of the collective human experience; it does not confront Judaism alone, and it must suffice to refer to the writings of " Reformed Judaism "; see, e.g.

    0
    0
  • Montefiore, Liberal Judaism (London, 1903); Truth in Religion (1906); I.

    0
    0
  • Abrahams, Judaism (1907), and the essays of S.

    0
    0
  • 2 Historians have usually recognized only three monotheistic religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

    0
    0
  • theism of Judaism was subject to serious qualifications.

    0
    0
  • Judaism, Stoicism, and modern philosophy of the type of Kant);

    0
    0
  • This had the obvious advantage of lifting two great families into prominence, the Semitic and the IndoGermanic. The Semitic peoples were closely bound together by common types of thought and civilization, and produced three of the leading religions of the world, Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

    0
    0
  • Judaism and Brahmanism both passed beyond the confines of race.

    0
    0
  • National Nomistic (nomothetic) Religious Communions (Taoism and Confucianism,Brahmanism, Jainism, Mazdeism, Mosaism and Judaism, the two last already passing into 2).

    0
    0
  • Mexicans and Peruvians, Arcadians, Chinese, Egyptians,: Hindus, Persians, Germans, Romans, with the Greek religion in the highest rank; (3) Religions of Redemption (Judaism forming the transition from the second group), Buddhism in the sense of world negation, and, positively, Christianity.

    0
    0
  • His father being a convert to Christianity, Uriel was brought up in the Roman Catholic faith, and strictly observed the rites of the church till the course of his inquiries led him, after much painful doubt, to abandon the religion of his youth for Judaism.

    0
    0
  • In this brief work Acosta declares his opposition both to Christianity and Judaism, though he speaks with the more bitterness of the latter religion.

    0
    0
  • In the Avesta all these recur ad nauseam, so much so that the primitive spirit of the religion is stifled beneath them, as the doctrine of the ancient prophets was stifled in Judaism and the Talmud.

    0
    0
  • Darius allowed the restoration of the Temple; and Artaxerxes I., by the protection accorded to Ezra and Nehemiah, made the foundation of Judaism possible (see JEws: ~ 19 sqq.).

    0
    0
  • These traits are most clearly marked in Judaism; but, after the Achaemenid period, they are common to all Oriental creeds, though our information as to most is scanty in the extreme, In this competition of religions that of Iran played a most spirited part.

    0
    0
  • In contrast with Judaism, Zoroastrianism did not enter the lists against all gods save its own, but found no difficulty in recognizing them as subordinate powershelpers and servants of Ahuramazda.

    0
    0
  • tance far greater than previously; henceforward, the great commandment of Zoroastrianism, as of Judaism, is to combat the heresie1

    0
    0
  • Overpowered by the majesty and novelty of the Christian message of salvation, too conscientious to rest satisfied with the ordinary attempts at the solution of difficulties, while prevented by the limitations of his time from reaching an historical insight into the relation of Christianity to the Old Testament and to Judaism, he believed that he expressed Paul's view by the 1 Esnik's presentation of the Marcionite system is a late production, and contains many speculations that cannot be charged upon Marcion himself.

    0
    0
  • She also wrote, in defence of her faith and its professors, The Spirit of Judaism (1842) and other works.

    0
    0
  • In Stoicism, for the moment, the two conceptions are united, soon, however, to diverge - the medical conception to receive its final development under Galen, while the philosophical conception, passing over to Philo and others, was shaped and modified at Alexandria under the influence of Judaism, whence it played a great part in the developments of Jewish and Christian theology.

    0
    0
  • After three years' tenure of office Jason was supplanted by the Benjamite Menelaus, who disowned Judaism entirely.

    0
    0
  • But Antiochus had miscalculated, and by his extreme measures unwittingly saved Judaism from its internal foes.

    0
    0
  • How far it had any similar use in Judaism in Christ's day is uncertain; but in the 4th century A.D., at any rate, it denoted responsible envoys from the central Jewish authority, especially for the collection of religious funds.

    0
    0
  • Judaism Rutilius could assail without wounding either pagans or Christians, but he intimates, not obscurely, that he hates it chiefly as the evil root whence the rank plant of Christianity had sprung.

    0
    0
  • The object of our author was the defence and exposition of Judaism from the Pharisaic standpoint of the 2nd century B.C. against the disintegrating effects of Hellenism.

    0
    0
  • In his elaborate defence of Judaism our author glorifies circumcision and the sabbath, the bulwarks of Judaism, as heavenly ordinances, the sphere of which was so far extended as to embrace Israel on earth.

    0
    0
  • Our author next defends Judaism by his glorification of Israel.

    0
    0
  • Christianity is founded on Judaism; its main prop is the argument from the fulfilment of prophecy.

    0
    0
  • Certainly what Paul has in mind throughout the epistle is not a Judaizing tendency among the Jewish Christians at Rome, but the general and perplexing question of Judaism in relation to the new faith.

    0
    0
  • - Teaching is preserved in this Gospel which would have peculiar interest and be specially required in the home of Judaism.

    0
    0
  • According to all the authorities, the essential qualification for the title is the denial of certain beliefs which the Pharisees held to be implicitly contained in Scripture, and therefore necessarily part of Judaism as soon as they were formulated.

    0
    0
  • Idolatry is plainly incompatible with the law of Moses: so were Greek caps; but the Jews who conformed to Hellenism in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes acquired much that was conserved and utilized in that great attempt to convert the Greek world to Judaism, whose best monument is the works of Philo.

    0
    0
  • They were men of the world, and men of this world, and, so far as they still professed and practised Judaism, they preferred to repudiate the additions for which they felt no need, but which had entered into the faith of their fathers.

    0
    0
  • The Pharisees, who pruned and fed the tree of Judaism so that it might bear fruit for the healing of the Nation - and the nations in the latter days - gave them the opportunity of posing as the champions of the primitive standards.

    0
    0
  • The Sadducees were as little loyal to the Judaism of Jerusalem as the Samaritans - and they were less sincere and less interested in religion.

    0
    0
  • His idealistic scheme of history, which makes religion the keynote of progress, and describes the function of each - Judaism to typify duty, Confucianism order, Mahommedanism justice, Buddhism patience, and Christianity love - does not account for the facts of the history enacted by the devotees.

    0
    0
  • Paul being thus identified with Simon, it was argued that Simon's visit to Rome had no other basis than Paul's presence there, and, further, that the tradition of Peter's residence in Rome rests on the assumed necessity of his resisting the arch-enemy of Judaism there as elsewhere.

    0
    0
  • 22), and spoken of by the pseudo-Tertullian as a heretic from Judaism, not from Christianity, " who first dared to reject the prophets as not having spoken in the Holy Ghost."

    0
    0
  • To imagine it current in pre-Pauline Judaism is to misconceive the spirit of the synagogue.

    0
    0
  • Neither the attachment to the religious forms of Judaism, which we are informed was characteristic of James, nor that personal relation to the Lord which gave him his supreme distinction are indicated by so much as a single word.

    0
    0
  • - In the later Judaism the earlier anthropomorphic conception of God and with it the sense of the divine nearness had been succeeded by a belief which placed God at a remote distance, severed from man and the world by a deep chasm.

    0
    0
  • Philo was thus able to make the Logos theory a bridge between Judaism and Greek philosophy.

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    0
  • The author's task indeed was somewhat akin to that of Philo, "to transplant into the world of Hellenic culture a revelation originally given through Judaism."

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  • So Epictetus remarks that he only really understands Judaism who knows " the baptized Jew " - (TOP 1 3€ aµpE'ov).

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  • Baptism was long before the advent of Jesus imposed on proselytes, and existed inside Judaism itself.

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  • Schechter, Studies in Judaism, first series, pp. 120 seq.; Graetz, History of the Jews (English translation vol.

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  • His recoil from Judaism is all the more intense because of St Paul.

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  • the special intellectual presuppositions which he continues to share with Judaism.

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  • Harnack, Hellenistic Judaism had worked out the principles of a theology which simply passed on into the Greek-speaking Christian Church.

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  • All Isaac D'Israeli's children were born into the Jewish communion, in which, however, they were not to grow up. It is a reasonable inference from Isaac's character that he was never at ease in the ritual of Judaism.

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  • One of Isaac D'Israeli's reasons for quitting the tents of his people was that rabbinical Judaism, with its unyielding laws and fettering ceremonies, "cuts off the Jews from the great family of mankind."

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  • Little did he know, when therefore he cut off the D'Israeli family from Judaism, what great things he was doing for one small member of it.

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  • Taking the worldly view alone, of course, most fortunate for his aspirations in youth was his withdrawal from Judaism in childhood.

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  • That it was fully sanctioned by his intellect at maturity is evident; but the vindication of unbiased choice would not have been readily accepted had Disraeli abandoned Judaism of his own will at the pushing Vivian Grey period or after.

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  • And though a mind like Disraeli's might work to satisfaction with Christianity as "completed Judaism," it could but dwell on a breach of continuity which means so much to Jews and which he was never allowed to forget amongst Christians.

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  • As the graduation of these sanctions naturally became more minute, a correspondingly detailed classification of offences was rendered necessary, and thus a system of ecclesiastical jurisprudence was gradually produced, somewhat analogous to that of Judaism.

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  • It must not, of course, be supposed that the need of something more than mere fulfilment of external duty was ignored even by the later Judaism.

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  • So far, however, there is no ethical difference between Christian faith and that of Judaism, or its later imitation, Mahommedanism; except that the personal affection of loyal trust is peculiarly stirred by the blending of human and divine natures in Christ, and the rule of duty impressively taught by the manifestation of his perfect life.

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  • In Judaism, as in other, especially Oriental, religions, the natural dislike of material defilement has been elevated into a religious sentiment, and made to support a complicated system of quasi-sanitary abstinences and ceremonial purifications; then, as the ethical element predominated in the Jewish religion, a moral symbolism was felt to reside in the ceremonial code, and thus aversion to impurity came to be a common form of the ethico-religious sentiment.

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  • the importance of which has caused it to usurp, in modern languages, the general name of " charity " - it ought to be observed that Christianity merely universalized a duty which has always been inculcated by Judaism, within the limits of the chosen people.

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  • 4), there are elements in D which go far to explain the intense exclusiveness and the religious intolerance characteristic of Judaism.

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  • Nevertheless, though one cannot look to Genesis for the history of the early part of the second millennium B.C., the study of what was thought of the past, proves in this, as in many other cases, to be more instructive than the facts of the past, and it is distinctly more important for the biblical student and the theologian to understand the thought of the ages immediately preceding the foundation of Judaism in the 5th century B.C. than the actual history of many centuries earlier.

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  • Judaism as it was established in or about the 5th century B.C. It goes back to traditions of the most varied character, whose tone was originally more in accord with earlier religion and thought.

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  • The development of the conception continued in later Judaism, which was probably more strongly influenced by Persian dualism.

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  • The representation of the remote past in Samuel must be viewed, therefore, in the light of that age when, after a series of vital internal and external vicissitudes in Judah and Benjamin, Judaism established itself in opposition to rival sects and renounced the Samaritans who had inherited the traditions of their land.

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  • It is also tolerably certain that, if for no other reasons besides the Judaism, obscurity, and poverty of the early converts to Christianity, the works of art seen in their meeting-houses cannot at first have been numerous.

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  • 97 f.) broke new ground by suggesting in 1899 that the writer was Isaac, a converted Jew, writer of a tract on the Trinity and Incarnation, who was exiled to Spain in 378-380 and then relapsed to Judaism, but he afterwards abandoned this theory of the authorship in favour of Decimus Hilarianus Hilarius, proconsul of Africa in 377.

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  • They condemned marriage (save, perhaps, first marriages), the eating of meat, baptism of children, veneration of saints, fasting, prayers for the dead and belief in purgatory, denied transubstantiation, declared the Catholic priesthood worthless, and considered the whole church of their time corrupted by the "negotia saecularia" which absorbed all 1 One result is their inability to form a true theory of Judaism and of the Old Testament in relation to the Gospel, a matter of great moment for them and for their successors.

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    0
  • Through his disciples Asher ben Yelliel and Mordecai ben Hillel, Meir exercised much influence on subsequent developments of Judaism.

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    0
  • In Judaism - unless we should refer to the prophets' polemic against images a reaction is due to the introduction of the codified law.

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  • Still, amid all this, the God of Judaism remains a personal, almost a limited, being.

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  • Rabbi Tony Bayfield, Head of The Movement for Reform Judaism, said: " I am utterly appalled.

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  • Within Talmudic Judaism one can find the ascetic and as well as the ecstatic celebration of life.

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  • atone priest in Judaism stands between God and man, atoning the sins of the latter with sacrifices.

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  • The supposed benevolence of the Persian kings to Judaism depends purely on the bible itself.

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  • Persian religion was manifestly dualistic, but Judaism is not.

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  • exorciseer-testamental Judaism, Solomon's wisdom was believed to include the wisdom to cure diseases, and even exorcize demons.

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  • Judaism affirms the inherent goodness of the world and its people as creations of G-d.

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  • Deines draws on the designations within the pages of the New Testament to define Pharisaism as allegiance to Judaism in its 'best form ' .

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  • prophecycentury Christianity was simply a revival of the Judaism which began with the messianic prophesy.

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  • Perhaps the gospel writer is telling us that Jesus's mother was a gentile proselyte of Judaism.

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  • Working as teams of thee begin with a quick fire quiz of ten questions all based on Judaism.

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  • Rabbinic Judaism.

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  • Thus, Muhammad's tone and language against Christianity (and Judaism) become shrill.

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  • This statement about G-d's saving covenant is quite specific to Judaism.

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  • This was an original contribution to the history of the Jews and Judaism in the time of Christ, and has been much used by later writers on the subject (e.g.

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  • He also published works on the Last Days of the Life of Jesus, on Judaism in the Time of Christ, on John of Damascus (1879) and an Examination of the Vatican Dogma in the Light of Patristic Exegesis of the New Testament.

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    0
  • As Graetz says: "To Jeremiah and Mar Samuel Judaism owes the possibility of existence in a foreign country."

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  • After the capture of Rome by the Italian troops in 1870 Edgar Mortara had the opportunity of reverting to Judaism, but he refused to do so, and not long afterwards became an Augustinian.

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  • the father of Judaism."

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  • So far, Mendelssohn had devoted his talents to philosophy and criticism; now, however, an incident turned the current of his life in the direction of the cause of Judaism.

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  • The excitement caused by these proceedings led Mendelssohn to publish his most important contribution to the problems connected with the position of Judaism in relation to the general life.

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  • But despite this, Mendelssohn's theory was found to be a strengthening bond in Judaism.

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    0
  • For he maintained that Judaism was less a "divine need, than a revealed life."

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  • Hence, it is impossible at present to trace the earlier steps which led to the grand hierarchy of post-exilic Judaism.

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  • But it is just to remember that without the stern discipline of the law the community of the second temple could hardly have escaped dissolution, and that Judaism alone preserved for Christianity the hard-won achievements of the prophets.3 4.

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  • p. 763; cp. id., Studies in Judaism, pp. 296 sqq.).

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  • Charles, A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life in Israel, in Judaism and in Christianity (1899); E.

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  • He wrote The Religion of Israel (1882); Quotations from the Old Testament in the New Testament (1884); Judaism and Christianity (1890); and the Book of Proverbs (1899) in the "International Critical Commentary"; and edited a translation of Erdmann's commentary on Samuel (1877) in Lange's commentaries; Murray's Origin of the Psalms (1880); and, in Haupt's Sacred Books of the Old Testament, the Book of Ezekiel (Hebrew text and English version, 1899).

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  • It suggests in every deed a personal but limited God, or a number of Gods - " Religions of spiritual Individuality," including, along with " Judaism," the anthropomorphic religions of Greece and Rome.

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  • The course of human history is regarded by those writers who are most concerned to refute Judaism as a progressive divine education.

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  • Ramsay, Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, and Church in the Roman Empire), but also to the Judaism of the Diaspora.

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  • (3) The phenomena might be explained solely on the basis of Judaism (von Soden, Peake).

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  • Even the worship of angels, not only as mediators of revelation and visions, but also as cosmical beings, is a wellknown fact in late Judaism (Apoc. Bar.

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  • If we resort solely to Judaism for explanation, it must be a Judaism of the Diaspora type.

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  • But these years were momentous for Judaism.

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  • Schecher, Studies in Judaism, second series, pp. 251,seq.; Jewish Encyclopedia, viii.

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  • In the Geonic period there came into prominence the sect of the Karaites (Bene migra, " followers of the Scripture", the Protestants of Judaism, who rejected rabbinical authority, basing their doctrine and practice exclusively on The g P Y ICaraltes.

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  • While the schools of Babylonia were flourishing as the religious head of Judaism, the West, and especially Spain under Moorish rule, was becoming the home of Jewish scholarship. On the breaking of the schools many of the fugitives fled o- g up Y g?

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  • The endeavour to bring Judaism into relation with the modern world and to change the current impressions about Jews by making their teaching accessible to the rest of the world, is connected chiefly with the names of Z.

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  • of Portugal to set up the Inquisition in Goa to repress Judaism, but the tribunal was not set up until 1560.

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  • For Hinduism and later Judaism we possess a wealth of material on which to base a comparative study of the forms of sacrifice; a form of this - animal sacrifice in the Vedas - has been analysed by MM.

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  • For Greece and Rome, where the instructions as to ritual were not embodied in the elaborate codes handed down in Hinduism or Judaism, our material is far less complete.

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  • The characteristic of the 18th and 19th centuries is the endeavour, connected with the name of Moses Mendelssohn, to bring Judaism more into relation with external learning, and in using the Hebrew language to purify tend- and develop it in accordance with the biblical standard.

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  • 9, ro, that God would visit the sins of the fathers upon the children, and it lived on in later Judaism under exaggerated forms. The hopes of the individual Jew were based on the piety of holy ancestors.

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  • It is essentially the path which may be summed up in the word Judaism, though, as will be shown in the sequel, Judaism came to include many other factors.

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  • The statement, however, remains virtually true, since Judaism is mainly constituted by the body of legal precepts called the Torah, and, moreover, by the postexilian Torah.

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  • This supreme official, who was destined ultimately to take the place of the king in the church-nation of post-exilian Judaism, is mentioned for the first time in Zech.

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  • There can be little 1 We shall have to note the emergence of the doctrine of the resurrection of the righteous in later Judaism, which is obviously a fresh contribution of permanent value to Hebrew doctrine.

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  • (b) Eschatology in the Judaism of the Greek period began to assume a new form.

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  • The present outlook was hopeless, but in the enlarged horizon of time as well as space the thoughts of some of the most spiritual minds in Judaism were directed to the transcendent and ultimate.

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  • The emergence of Satan as a definite supernatural personality, the head or prince of the world of evil spirits, is entirely a phenomenon of post-exilian Judaism.

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  • But in Judaism monotheistic conceptions reigned supreme, and the Satan of Jewish belief as opposed to God stops short of the dualism of Persian religion.

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  • In later Judaism Sammael is the equivalent of Satan.

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  • Probably the transcendent nature of the deity in the Judaism of this later period made the interposition of mediating spirits an intellectual necessity (cf.

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  • On the history of Judaism till the time of Christ, Schiirer's Geschichte des jiidischen Volkes im Zeitalter Christi (3rd ed.), vol.

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  • Weber's Jiidische Theologie is a useful compendium of the theology of later Judaism.

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  • He rightly insisted on the facilities of communication created by the Roman empire, but did not emphasize the diffusion of Judaism.

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  • Their history may be divided into three great periods: (1) That covered by the Old Testament to the foundation of Judaism in the Persian age, (2) that of the Greek and Roman domination to the destruction of Jerusalem, and (3) that of the Diaspora or Dispersion to the present day.

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  • Finally (c), in the so-called " post-exilic " period, religion and life were reorganized under the influence of a new spirit; relations with Samaria were broken off, and Judaism took its definite character, perhaps about the middle or close of the 5th century.

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  • of that small district which, with Jerusalem as its capital, became the centre of Judaism.

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  • The prominence of Jerusalem, the centre of post-exilic Judaism, necessarily invited reflection.

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  • Such was the religious environment of the ancient city which was destined to become the centre of Judaism.

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  • 8, 6) has been carried back to the earliest ages; yet the present period, after the age of rival kingdoms, Judah and Israel, and before the foundation of Judaism, is that in which the historical background for the inclusion of Judah among the " sons " of Israel is equally suitable (§§ 5, 20, end).

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  • They look back from the age when half-suppressed hostility with Samaria had broken out, and when an exclusive Judaism had been formed.

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  • A common ground for Judaism and Samaritanism is obvious, and it is in this obscure age that it is to be sought.

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  • Upon this blank period before the foundation of Judaism (§§ 21, 23) much light is also thrown by another body of evidence.

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  • With Nehemiah and Ezra we enter upon the era in which a new impulse gave to Jewish life and thought that form which became the characteristic orthodox Judaism.

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  • The Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis, that the hierarchical law in its complete form in the Pentateuch stands at the close and not at the beginning of biblical history, that this mature Judaism was the fruit of the 5th century B.C. and not a divinely appointed institution at the exodus (nearly ten centuries previously), has won the recognition of almost all Old Testament scholars.

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  • " It was a necessity that Judaism should incrust itself in this manner; without those hard and ossified forms the preservation of its essential elements would have proved impossible.

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  • The work represented in Nehemiah and Ezra, and put into action by the supporters of an exclusive Judaism, certainly won the day, and their hands have left their impress upon the historical traditions.

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  • Again, although some may have desired a self-contained community opposed to the heathen neighbours of Jerusalem, the story of Jonah implicitly contends against the attempt of Judaism to close its doors.

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  • The conflicting tendencies were incompatible, but Judaism retained the 2 See Hebrew Religion, § 8 seq., and the relevant portions of the histories of Israel.

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  • Many features gain in significance as the account of the Exodus, the foundation of Israel, is read in the light of the age when, after the advent of a new element from Babylonia, the Pentateuch assumed its present shape; it must suffice to mention the supremacy of the Aaronite priests and the glorification of uncompromising 1 An instructive account of Judaism in the early post-exilic age on critical lines (from the Jewish standpoint) is given by C. G.

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  • Abrahams, Judaism (1907).

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  • Once translated into Greek, the Scriptures became a bond of union for the Jews of the dispersion and were at least capable of being used as an instrument for the conversion of the world to Judaism.

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  • Thus Jason stripped the high-priesthood of its sacred character and did what he could to stamp out Judaism.

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  • His whole kingdom was to be unified; Judaism was an eccentricity and as such doomed to extinction.

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  • All the religious rites of Judaism were proscribed and the neighbouring Greek cities were requested to enforce the prohibition upon their Jewish citizens.

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  • But the transgression is enough to explain the disfavour into which the Maccabees seem to fall in the judgment of later Judaism, as, in that judgment, it is enough to account for the instability of their dynasty.

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  • In the country-side of Judaea, Judaism - and no longer Hellenism - was propagated by force.

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  • So " the Pious " achieved the object for which presumably they took up arms. The re-establishment of Judaism, which alone of current religions was intolerant of a rival, seems to have excited the jealousy of their neighbours who had embraced the Greek way of life.

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  • This prosperity and the apparent security of Judaism led to a breach between Hyrcanus and his spiritual directors, the Pharisees.

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  • This verdict suggests that the Sadducees, with whom he allied himself, had learned to affect some show of Judaism in Judaea.

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  • His great achievement was the conquest of a part of Ituraea, which he added to Judaea and whose inhabitants he compelled to accept Judaism.

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  • Malichus also, the murderer or reputed murderer of Antipater, appears to have been a partisan of Hyrcanus, who had a zeal for Judaism.

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  • This development of Judaism was eminently to the mind of the rulers; and Herod did much to encourage it.

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  • Hillel also inculcated the duty of making converts to Judaism.

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  • Towards the end of Herod's life two rabbis attempted to uphold by physical force the cardinal dogma of Judaism, which prohibited the use of images.

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  • He conciliated his subjects by his deference to the observances of Judaism, and - the case is probably typical of his policy - he joined in protesting, when Pilate set up a votive shield in the palace of Herod within the sacred city.

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  • Under the second procurator Tiberius Alexander, an apostate Jew of Alexandria, nephew of Philo, the Jews suffered from a great famine and were relieved by the queen of Adiabene, a proselyte to Judaism, who purchased corn from Egypt.

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  • His sister Drusilla had broken the Law by her marriage with Felix; and his own notorious relations with his sister Berenice, and his coins which bore the images of the emperors, were an open affront to the conscience of Judaism.

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  • So Judaism survived once more the destruction of its central sanctuary.

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  • Proselytes to Judaism were condemned either to death or to forfeiture of their property.

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  • Pharisaic Judaism, put to the severest test to which a religious system has ever been subject, showed itself able to control and idealize life in all its phases.

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    0
  • The laws concerning the Jews had a repressive and preventive object: the repression of Judaism and the prevention of inroads of Jewish influences into the state religion.

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  • Yet Judaism under Roman Christian law was a lawful religion (religio licita), Valentinian I.

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  • Judaism in Babylonia.

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  • Judaism in Islam.

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  • But though this defensive zeal led to active persecution, still in theory Judaism was a tolerated religion wherever the Church had sway, and many papal bulls of a friendly character were issued throughout the middle ages (Scherer, p. 32 seq.).

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  • Mahommedan B abylonia (Persia) was the home of the gaonate (see Gaon), the central authority of religious Judaism, whose power transcended that of the secular exilarchate, for it influenced the synagogue far and wide, while the exilarchate was local.

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  • But by the 10th century Judaism had received from Islam something more than persecution.

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  • This ordinance may be regarded as the beginning of the Synodal government of Judaism, which was a marked feature of medieval life in the synagogues of northern and central Europe from the 12th century.

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  • If Maimonides represented Judaism on its rational side, Rashi was the expression of its traditions.

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  • French Judaism was thus in a sense more human if less humane than the Spanish variety; the latter produced thinkers, statesmen, poets and scientists; the former, men with whom the Talmud was a passion, men of robuster because of more naïve and concentrated piety.

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  • In Spain and North Africa persecution created that strange and significant phenomenon Maranism or crypto-Judaism, a public acceptance of Islam or Christianity combined with a private fidelity to the rites of Judaism.

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  • For Judaism had organized itself; the Shulhan aruch of Joseph Qaro, printed in 1564 within a decade of its completion, though not accepted without demur, was nevertheless widely admitted as the code of Jewish life.

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  • If in more recent times progress in Judaism has implied more or less of revolt against the rigors and fetters of Qaro's code, yet for 250 years it was a powerful safeguard against demoralization and stagnation.

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  • A new school of scientific study of Judaism emerged, to be dignified by the names of Leopold Zunz, H.

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  • On the other hand Mendelssohn by his pragmatic conception of religion (specially in his Jerusalem) weakened the belief of certain minds in the absolute truth of Judaism, and thus his own grandchildren (including the famous musician Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy) as well as later Heine, Borne, Gans and Neander, embraced Christianity.

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  • Within Judaism itself two parties were formed, the Liberals and the Conservatives, and as time went on these tendencies definitely organized themselves.

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  • At the present time orthodox Judaism is also again acquiring its due position and the Jewish theological seminary of America was founded for this purpose.

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  • In Germany Jews are still rarely admitted to the rank of officers in the army, university posts are very difficult of access, Judaism and its doctrines are denounced in medieval language, and a tone of hostility prevails in many public utterances.

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  • In Philo, Alexandrian Judaism had already seized upon Plato as " the Attic Moses," and done its best to combine his speculations with the teaching of his Jewish prototype.

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  • Philo's God is described in terms of absolute transcendency; his doctrine of the Logos or Divine Sophia is a theistical transformation of the Platonic world of ideas; his allegorical interpretation of the Old Testament represents the spiritualistic dissolution of historical Judaism.

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  • Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to Judaism.

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  • Not only the great religions of the world - Buddhism, Christianity, Islam - but those of secondary importance, such as Judaism, Parseeism, Taoism, are all Asiatic. No European race left to itself has developed anything more than an unsystematic paganism.

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    0
  • Two of the greatest religions of the world, Christianity and Islam, are Semitic in origin, as well as Judaism.

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  • His zeal, private and public, for Judaism is celebrated by Josephus and the rabbis; and the narrative of Acts xii.

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  • He sentenced to death his own cousin and nephew by marriage, Flavius Clemens, whose wife he banished for her supposed leaning towards Judaism (Christianity).

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  • It was a measure of a very different kind when, a year or two later (after 168), Antiochus tried to suppress the practices of Judaism by force, and it was this which provoked the Maccabaean rebellion (see Maccabees).

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  • Alexandria had been, since the days of the Ptolemies, a centre for the interchange of ideas between East and West - between Egypt, Syria, Greece and Italy; and, as it had furnished Judaism with an Hellenic philosophy, so it also brought about the alliance of Christianity with Greek philosophy.

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  • But it is equally plain that the Ophite nucleus has from time to time received very numerous and often curiously perverted accretions from Babylonian Judaism, Oriental Christianity and Parsism, exhibiting a striking example of religious syncretism.

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  • Indeed, as has been seen, they appropriate the entire personale of the Bible from Adam, Seth, Abel, Enos and Pharaoh to Jesus and John, a phenomenon which bears witness to the close relations of the Mandaean doctrine both with Judaism and Christianity - not the less close because they were relations of hostility.

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  • His conversion apparently took place at Ephesus; there, at any rate, he places his decisive interview with the old man, and there he had those discussions with Jews and converts to Judaism, the results of which he in later years set down in his Dialogue.

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  • Here, where he had to deal with the Judaism that believed in a Messiah, he was far better able to do justice to Christianity as a revelation; and so we find that the arguments of this work are much more completely in harmony with primitive Christian theology than those of the Apology.

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  • Its medieval importance as an intermediary of trade between Europe and the East was greatly impaired by the opening of the Red Sea route, and finally abolished by the Suez Canal; and Syria is at present important mainly for the sentimental reason that it contains the holiest places of Judaism and Christianity, and for the strategic reason that it lies on the flank of the greatest traderoute of the eastern hemisphere.

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  • He refused to base Judaism on speculative philosophy alone; there was a deep emotional side to his thought.

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  • Thus he based Judaism on love, not on knowledge; love was the bond between God and man, and man's fundamental duty was love as expressed in obedience to God's will.

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  • The Maccabean dynasty had now reached the zenith of its prosperity, and in its reigning representative, who alone in the history of Judaism possessed the triple offices of prophet, priest and king, the Pharisaic party had come to recognize the actual Messiah.

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  • When we contrast the expectations of the original writer and the actual events that followed, it would seem that the chief value of his work would consist in the light that it throws on this obscure and temporary revolution in the Messianic expectations of Judaism towards the close of the 2nd century.

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  • 2 The Kabbalah itself is but an extreme and remarkable development of certain forms of thought which had never been absent from Judaism; it is bound up with earlier tendencies to mysticism, with man's inherent striving to enter into communion with the Deity.

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  • 6 The appearance of the Kabbalah and of other forms of mysticism in Judaism may seem contrary to ordinary and narrow conceptions of orthodox Jewish legalism.

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  • Schechter, Studies in Judaism (London, 1896), pp. 2-55.

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  • xvii.; Judaism (1907), ch.

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  • Though he failed to rise to real distinction he earned a place by his criticism of the Talmud among those who prepared the way for the new learning in Judaism.

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  • He became best known, however, as the interpreter of Judaism to the Christian world.

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  • WISDOM LITERATURE, the name applied to the body of Old Testament and Apocryphal writings that contain the philosophical thought of the later pre-Christian Judaism.

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  • The seat of the exilarch or resh galutha was transferred from Pumbedita(Pumbeditha or Pombeditha) inBabylonia to Bagdad, which thus became the capital of oriental Judaism; from then to the present day the Jews have played no mean part in Bagdad.

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  • It was originally so used of converts to Judaism, but any one who sets out to convert others to his own opinions is said to " proselytize."

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  • The Hebrew word later came to mean what we now understand by proselyte, a term which appears in the sense of convert to Judaism in the New Testament (Matt.

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  • The Rabbinic law recognized two classes: (a) the full proselyte, the stranger of righteousness (ger sedeq), who was admitted after circumcision, baptism and the offering of a sacrifice (after the destruction of the Temple the first two ceremonies were alone possible); and (b) the limited proselyte, the resident alien (ger toshab) or proselyte of the gate (ger ha-sha'ar), who, without accepting Judaism, renounced idolatry and accepted Jewish jurisdiction, thereby acquiring limited citizenship in Palestine.

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  • At various periods there were proselytes to Judaism.

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  • The .Maccabaeans used compulsion in some cases, but Judaism in the Diaspora was a missionary religion in the less militant sense.

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  • 15 supports the view that proselytes were actively sought by the Pharisees, and the famous Didache was probably in the first instance a manual for instructing proselytes in the principles of Judaism.

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  • Again, many who had become converts to Judaism afterwards joined the new Christian communities.

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  • (In 1222 a Christian deacon was executed at Oxford for his apostasy to Judaism: Matthew Paris, ed.

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  • 71.) Again, the pragmatic theory of Judaism, enunciated in Talmudic times, and raised almost to the dignity of a dogma by Maimonides (On Repentance, iii.

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  • 5, &c.), was that Judaism was not necessary for salvation, for " the pious of all nations have a share in the world to come " (Tosephta, Sanh.

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