That Israel was the stronger may be suggested by the acquiescence of Judah in the new situation.
He made raids on the territory of Judah (2 Chron.
Two tribes only, Judah and Benjamin, with the descendants of Levi, remained faithful to Rehoboam, the son of Solomon.
Two tribes only, Judah and Benjamin, with the descendants of Levi, remained faithful to Rehoboam, the son of Solomon.
4 ff.) gives the duration of the national punishment in loose chronological reckoning: 40 years (a round number) for Judah, and 150 more (according to the corrected text) for Israel, the starting-point, probably, being the year 722, the date of the capture of Samaria; the procedure described in v.
20, 22), Edom was a dependency of Judah, ruled by a viceroy (i Kings xxii..
The men of Judah and Benjamin did not succeed in getting full possession of the place, and the Jebusites still held it when David became king of Israel.
Joash, king of Israel, captured the city from Amaziah, king of Judah, and destroyed part of the fortifications, but these were rebuilt by Uzziah, the son of Amaziah, who did much to restore the city to its original prosperity.
In the reign of Hezekiah, the kingdom of Judah became tributary to the Assyrians, who attempted the capture of Jerusalem.
The traditions would seem to point to the institution of new principles in the religion of Yahweh, and would associate with it not merely Moses but those foreign elements which are subsequently found in Israel and Judah.
Judah suffered also, and it is not until a century later that any important literary activity is again manifested.
By this time the collection of halakhic material had become very large and various, and after several attempts had been made to reduce it to uniformity, a code of oral tradition was finally drawn up in the and century by Judah ha-Nasi, called Rabbi par excellence.
Europe, Judah Hadassi composed his Eshkol ha-Kopher, a great theological compendium in the form of a commentary on the Decalogue.
Africa were in close relation with those of Spain, and as early as the beginning of the 9th century Judah ben Quraish of Tahort had composed his Risalah (letter) to the Jews of Fez on grammatical subjects from a comparative point of view, and a dictionary now lost.
Among these was Judah IJayyuj of Cordova, the father of modern Hebrew grammar, who first established the principle of tri-literal roots.
The man, however, who shares with Ibn Gabirol the first place in Jewish poetry is Judah Ha-levi, of Toledo, who died in Jerusalem about 1140.
1141 at Lucena), a friend of Judah Ha-levi and of Moses ben Ezra, wrote Responsa and IIiddushin (annotations) on parts of the Talmud.
Somewhat earlier in the 13th century lived Judah al-IIarizi, who belongs in spirit to the time of Ibn Gabirol and Judah ha-levi.
The first of them, Judah ibn Tibbon, translated works of Bahya ibn Paqudah, Judah ha-levi, Seadiah, Abu'lwalid and Ibn Gabirol, besides writing works of his own.
7 as belonging to a clan of Judah.
The religion of the Hebrew race - properly the Jews - now enters on a new stage, for it should be observed that it was Amos, Isaiah and Micah - prophets of Judah - who laid the actual foundations.
The latter half of the 8th century, which witnessed a rapid succession of reigns in the northern kingdom accompanied by dismemberment of its territory and final overthrow, witnessed also the humiliating vassalage and religious decline of the kingdom of Judah.
Though Yahweh's chastisements on Ephraim and Judah would continue to fall till scarcely a remnant was left (Isa.
It contains in fact the history itself in two forms: (a) from the creation of man to the fall of Judah (Genesis-2 Kings), which is supplemented and continued further - (b) to the foundation of Judaism in the 5th century B.C. (Chronicles - Ezra-Nehemiah).
(a) The first, that of the two rival kingdoms: Israel (Ephraim or Samaria) in the northern half of Palestine, and Judah in the south.
In addition to this it should be noticed that the term " Jew " (originally Yehudi), in spite of its wider application, means properly " man of Judah," i.e.
The traditions which prevailed among the Hebrews concerning their origin belong to a time when Judah and Israel were regarded as a unit.
Twelve divisions or tribes, of which Judah was one, held together by a traditional sentiment, were traced back to the sons of Jacob (otherwise known as Israel), the son of Isaac and grandson of Abraham.
The best historical narratives belong to Israel and Gilead; Judah scarcely appears, and in a relatively old poetical account of a great fight of the united tribes against a northern adversary lies outside the writer's horizon or interest (Judg.
At all events the first of a series of annalistic notices of the kings of Israel ascribes to Saul conquests over the surrounding peoples to an extent which implies that the district of Judah formed part of his kingdom (I Sam.
Both Israel and Judah had their own annals, brief excerpts from which appear in the books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles, and they are supplemented by fuller narratives of distinct and more popular origin.
The Monarchy of Judah.
- Certain traditions of Judah and Jerusalem appear to have looked back upon a movement from the south, traces of which underlie the present account of the " exodus."
Caleb alone had distinguished himself by his fearlessness, and the clan Caleb drove them out from Hebron in south Judah (Josh.
Judah and Israel dwelt at ease, or held the superior position of military officials, while the earlier inhabitants of the land were put to forced labour.
The accession of Solomon had not been without bloodshed, and Judah, together with David's old general Joab and his faithful priest Abiathar, were opposed to the son of a woman who had been the wife of a Hittite warrior.
These words were calculated to inflame a people whom history proves to have been haughty and high-spirited, and the great Israel renounced its union with the small district of Judah.
Jeroboam, once one of Solomon's officers, became king over the north, and thus the history of the divided monarchy begins (about 930 B.C.) with the Israelite power on both sides of the Jordan and with Judah extending southwards from a point a few miles north of Jerusalem.
- Biblical history previous to the separation of Judah and Israel holds a prominent place in current ideas, since over two-fifths of the entire Old Testament deals with these early ages.
This inquiry is further complicated by (c), where the history of Israel and Judah, as related in Judges and I Samuel, has caused endless perplexity.
The traditions of the Ephraimite Joshua and of Saul the first king of (north) Israel virtually treat Judah as part of Israel and are related to the underlying representations in (a).
The Rival Kingdoms. - The Palestine of the Hebrews was but part of a great area breathing the same atmosphere, and there was little to distinguish Judah from Israel except when they were distinct political entities.
The history of the two kingdoms is contained in Kings and the later and relatively less trustworthy Chronicles, which deals with Judah alone.
Next, the Judaean compiler regularly finds in Israel's troubles the punishment for its schismatic idolatry; nor does he spare Judah, but judges its kings by a standard which agrees with the standpoint of Deuteronomy and is scarcely earlier than the end of the 7th century B.C. (§§ 16, 20).
Judah had natural connexions with Edom and southern Palestine; Israel was more closely associated with Gilead and the Aramaeans of the north.
However, Baasha at length seized Ramah about five miles north of Jerusalem, and the very existence of Judah was threatened.
Meanwhile the Israelite army was again besieging the Philistines at Gibbethon, and the recurrence of these conflicts points to a critical situation in a Danite locality in which Judah itself (although ignored by the writers), must have been vitally concerned.
A massacre ensued in which the royal families of Israel and Judah perished.
The descendants of the detested Phoenician marriage were rooted out, and unless the close intercourse between Israel and Judah had been suddenly broken, it would be supposed that the new king at least laid claim to the south.
Damascus, Israel and Judah.
With these perplexing data the position of Judah is inextricably involved.
Moreover, the account of the joint undertaking by Judah (under Jehoshaphat) and Israel against Syria at Ramoth-Gilead at the time of Ahab's death, and again (under Ahaziah) when Jehoram was wounded, shortly before the accession of Jehu, are historical doublets, and they can hardly be harmonized either with the known events of 854 and 842 or with the course of the intervening years.
point clearly to the very close union of Israel and Judah at this period, a union which is apt to be obscured by the fact that the annalistic summaries of each kingdom are mainly independent.
Moreover, of the various accounts of the massacre of the princes of Judah, the Judaean ascribes it not to Jehu and the reforming party (2 Kings x.
It is a new source which is here suddenly introduced, belonging apparently to a history of the Temple; it throws no light upon the relations between Judah with its priests and Israel with its prophets, the circumstances of the regency under the priest Jehoiada are ignored, and the Temple reforms occupy the first place in the compiler's interest.
Jehoash, it is said, turned away from Yahweh after the death of Jehoiada and gave heed to the Judaean nobles, " wrath came upon Judah and Jerusalem for their guilt," prophets were sent to bring them back but they turned a deaf ear.
Soon after, a small band of Syrians entered Judah, destroyed its.
But the absence of Judah is surprising.
Both Jehoash (of Judah) and his son Amaziah left behind them a great name; and the latter was comparable only to David (2 Kings xiv.
The result was the route of Judah, the capture of Amaziah, the destruction of the northern wall of Jerusalem, the sacking of the temple and palace, and the removal of hostages to Samaria (2 Kings xiv.
So, on the one hand, the year of the disaster sees the death of the Israelite king, and Amaziah survives for fifteen years, while, on the other, twenty-seven years elapse between the battle and the accession of Uzziah, the next king of Judah.'
The importance of the historical questions regarding relations between Damascus, Israel and Judah is clear.
5 The defeat of Ben-hadad by the king of 3 It is possible that Hadad-nirari's inscription refers to conditions in the latter part of his reign (812-783 B.C.), when Judah apparently was no longer independent and when Jeroboam II.
Moab was probably tributary; the position of Judah and Edom is involved with the chronological problems. According to the Judaean annals, the " people of Judah " set Azariah (Uzziah) upon his father's throne; and to his long reign of fifty-two years are ascribed conquests over Philistia and Edom, the fortification of Jerusalem and the reorganization of the army.
All that can be recognized from the biblical records, however, is the period of internal prosperity which Israel and Judah enjoyed under Jeroboam and Uzziah (qq.v.) respectively.
The northern kingdom at the height of its power included Judah, it extended its territory east of the Jordan towards the north and the south, and maintained close relations with Phoenicia and the Aramaean states.
An original close connexion is felt with the east of the Jordan and with Gilead; stories of invasion and conquest express themselves in varied forms. In so far as internal wealth and luxury presuppose the control of the traderoutes, periodical alliances are implied in which Judah, willingly or unwillingly, was included.
The extension of the term " Judah " (cf.
It is possible that tradition is right in supposing that " Judah went down from his brethren " (Gen.
It is at least probable that when Israel was supreme an independent Judah would centre around a more southerly site than Jerusalem.
The Hebrews of Israel and Judah were, political history apart, men of the same general stamp, with the same cult and custom; for the study of religion and social usages, therefore, they can be treated as a single people.
Judah was probably holding aloof.
It is suggestive to find Judah the centre of attack.'
' Perhaps Judah had come to an understanding with Tiglathpileser (H.
The disorganized state of Egypt and the uncertain allegiance of the desert tribes left Judah without direct aid; on the other hand, opposition to Assyria among the conflicting interests of Palestine and Syria was rarely unanimous.
Assyrian officers were placed in the land and Judah thus gained its deliverance at the expense of Israel.
A number of petty peoples, of whom little definite is known, fringed Palestine from the south of Judah and the Delta to the Syrian desert.
Although no evidence is at hand, it is probable that Ahaz of Judah rendered service to Assyria by keeping the allies in check; possible, also, that the former enemies of Jerusalem had now been induced to turn against Samaria.
Judah and Assyria.
In both Judah and Philistia the anti-Assyrian party was not without opposition, and those who adhered or favoured adherence to the great power were justified by the result.
The small kings who had remained faithful were rewarded by an extension of their territories, and Ashdod, Ekron and Gaza were enriched at Judah's expense.
It is uncertain whether Sennacherib invaded Judah again shortly before his death, never,- theless the land was practically under the control of Assyria.
If Judah was compelled to take part in the Assyrian campaigns against Egypt, Arabia (the Syrian desert) and Tyre, this would only be in accordance with a vassal's duty.
2), there is just a possibility that Judah made some attempt to gain independence.
The fall of Samaria, Sennacherib's devastation of Judah, and the growth of Jerusalem as the capital, had tended to raise the position of the Temple, although Israel itself, as also Judah, had famous sanctuaries of its own.
If Israel could appear to be better than Judah (iii.
Cheyne, Decline and Fall of Judah (1908), p. 13, with references.
It was perhaps after this that an inroad of Scythians (q.v.) occurred (c. 626 B.C.); if it did not actually touch Judah, the advent of the people of the north appears to have caused great alarm (Jer.
The book of Kings gives the standpoint of a later Judaean writer, but Josiah's authority over a much larger area than Judah alone is suggested by xxiii.
But the relations between Egypt and Judah were not broken off.
Throughout these stormy years the prophet Jeremiah (q.v.) had realized that Judah's only hope lay in submission to Babylonia.
The period under review, with its relations between Judah and Egypt, can be illustrated by prophecies ascribed to a similar situation in the time of Hezekiah.
The agriculturists and herdsmen who had been left in Palestine formed, as always, the staple population, and it is impossible to imagine either Judah or Israel as denuded of its inhabitants.
It is possible that some had escaped by taking timely refuge among their brethren in Judah; indeed, if national tradition availed, there were doubtless times when Judah cast its eye upon the land with which it had been so intimately connected.
It would certainly be unwise to draw a sharp boundary line between the two districts; kings of Judah could be tempted to restore the kingdom of their traditional founder, or Assyria might be complaisant towards a faithful Judaean vassal.
But Israel after the fall of Samaria is artificially excluded from the Judaean horizon, and lies as a foreign land, although Judah itself had suffered from the intrusion of foreigners in the preceding centuries of war and turmoil, and strangers had settled in her midst, had formed part of the royal guard, or had even served as janissaries (§ 15, end).
To the prophets the religious position was lower in Judah than in Samaria, whose iniquities were less grievous (Jer.
In Israel as in Judah the political disasters not only meant a shifting of population, they also brought into prominence the old popular and non-official religion, the character of which is not to be condemned because of the attitude of lofty prophets in advance of their age.
It is a gratuitous assumption that the history of (north) Israel ceased with the fall of Samaria or that Judah then took over Israelite literature and inherited the old Israelite spirit: the question of the preservation of earlier writings is of historical importance.
But the history which the Judaean writers have handed down is influenced by the later hostility between Judah and Samaria.
8, 6) has been carried back to the earliest ages; yet the present period, after the age of rival kingdoms, Judah and Israel, and before the foundation of Judaism, is that in which the historical background for the inclusion of Judah among the " sons " of Israel is equally suitable (§§ 5, 20, end).
An outburst of Jewish religious feeling is dated in the second year of Darius (520), but whether Judah was making a bold bid for independence or had received special favour for abstaining from the above revolts, external evidence alone can decide.
44 8 -447), independent evidence for the position of Judah is needed, since a catastrophe apparently befell the unfortunate state before Nehemiah appears upon the scene.
The Restoration of Judah.
Babylonia was politically unsettled, the representative of the Davidic dynasty had descendants; if Babylon was assured of the allegiance of Judah further acts of clemency may well have followed.
Consequently, although small bodies of individuals no doubt came back to Judah from time to time, and some special mark of favour may have been shown by Cyrus, the opinion has gained ground since the early arguments of E.
It shows a strong nationalist feeling which is not restricted to Judah alone, but comprises a greater Israel from Kadesh in Naphtali in the north to Hebron in the south, and even extends beyond the Jordan.
14-26), and the evidence for the conclusion that traditions originally of (north) Israelite interest were taken over and adapted to the later standpoint of Judah and Jerusalem (viz.
represent a Judah composed mainly of groups which had moved up from the south (Hebron) to the vicinity of Jerusalem.
Against the former is the fact that although certain groups are ultimately found in Judah (Judg.
See, for Cheyne's view, his Decline and Fall of Judah:'Introduction (1908).
the history of the northern monarchy), it is obvious that, apart from indigenous Judaean tradition, the southern groups which were ultimately enrolled in Judah would possess their own stock of oral and written lore.
Although Judah was always closely connected with the south, these " southern " features (once clearly more extensive and complete) are found in the Deuteronomic and priestly compilations, and their presence in the historical records can hardly be severed from the prominence of " southern " families in the vicinity of Jerusalem, some time after the fall of Jerusalem.
For the prominence of the " southern " element in Judah see E.
historical criticism is faced with the established literary conclusions which, it should be noticed, place the Deuteronomic and priestly compilations posterior to the great changes at and after the fall of the northern monarchy, and, to some extent, contemporary with the equally serious changes in Judah.
It was insinuated that Nehemiah had his prophets to proclaim that Judah had again its own king; it was even suggested that he was intending to rebel against Persia!
Nevertheless the undaunted Judaean pressed on unmoved by the threatening letters which were sent around, and succeeded in completing the walls within fifty-two days.2 In the next place, Nehemiah appears as governor of the small district of Judah and Benjamin.
22), Bagohi (Bagoas), governor of Judah, and Delaiah and Shelemiah sons of Sanballat (408-407 B.C.) They ignore any strained relations between Samaria and Judah, and Delaiah and Bagohi unite in granting permission to the Jewish colony to rebuild their place of worship. If this fixes the date of Sanballat and Nehemiah in the time of the first Artaxerxes, the probability of confusion in the later written sources is enhanced by the recurrence of identical names of kings, priests, &c., in the history.
end), a people with whom Judah, as the genealogies show, had once been intimately connected.
The unfriendliness of the " brother " people, which added so much to the bitterness of Judah, although associated with the events of 586 (so especially 1 Esdras iv.
The tradition that Edomites burned the Temple and occupied part of Judah (ib.
Moreover, the late compiler of I Chronicles distinguishes a Judah composed almost wholly of " southern " groups (1 Chron.
It is from this narrower standpoint of an exclusive and confined Judah (and Benjamin) that the traditions as incorporated in the late recensions gain fresh force, and in Israel's renunciation of the Judaean yoke the later hostility between the two may be read between the lines.
Judah was now a religious community whose representative was the high priest of Jerusalem.
Whatever the predominant party might think of foreign marriages, the tradition of the half-Moabite origin of David serves, in the beautiful idyll of Ruth (q.v.), to suggest the debt which Judah and Jerusalem owed to one at least of its neighbours.
- Thus the Old Testament, the history of the Jews during the first great period, describes the relation of the Hebrews to surrounding peoples, the superiority of Judah over the faithless (north) Israelite tribes, and the reorganization of the Jewish community in and around Jerusalem at the arrival of Ezra with the Book of the Law.
Bacchides and Alcimus returned meanwhile into the land of Judah; at Elasa " Judas fell and the rest fled " (i Macc. ix.
Some traditions regarded the last king of Davidic descent (Jehoiachin) as the first exilarch, and all the later holders of the dignity claimed to be scions of the royal house of Judah.
DAVID (a Hebrew name meaning probably beloved 1), in the Bible, the son of Jesse, king of Judah and Israel, and founder of the royal Judaean dynasty at Jerusalem.
He returned to the wilds of Judah, and was joined at Adullam 5 by his father's house and by a small band of outlaws, of which he became the head.
But the town of Adullam, which has not been identified with any certainty, lay in the low country of Judah (Josh.
of Ashdod), but rather to the south of Judah (Josh.
Here he occupied himself in chastening the Amalekites and other robber tribes who made raids on Judah and the Philistines without distinction (xxvii.).
If this were an attempt to steer a middle course his true actions could not have been kept secret long, and as it is implied that the Philistines subsequently acquiesced in David's sovereignty in Hebron, it is not easy to see what interest they had in embroiling him with the men of Judah.
He was no longer an outlaw with a band of wandering companions, but a petty chieftain, head of a small colony of men, allied with families of Caleb and Jezreel (in Judah), and on friendly footing with the sheikhs south of Hebron.
In response to an oracle he was bidden to move northwards to Judah and successfully occupied it with Hebron as his capital.
The embassy threw out a hint, - their lord was dead and David himself had been anointed king over Judah; but the relation between Jabesh-Gilead and Saul had been a close one, and it was not to be expected that its eyes would be turned upon the king of Judah when Saul's son was installed at the not distant Mahanaim.
But David's position in the south of Judah is clear.
The evidence has obviously some bearing upon the history of Saul, as also upon the intercourse between Judah and Benjamin which David's early history implies.
1-3), with his old subjects the men of Judah, and with the members of his own household.
Then all the people repented except the men of Judah, who were not to be conciliated without a virtual admission of prerogative of kinship to the king.
The precedence claimed by Judah was challenged by the northern tribes even on the day of David's victorious return to his capital, and a rupture ensued, headed by Sheba, which but for the energy of Joab might have led to a second and more dangerous rebellion.
Several indications suggest that the revolt was one in which the men of Judah originally took the leading if not the only part.
It is noteworthy that, as in the case of Absalom, the pretender, though supported by Joab and Abiathar, found his chief stay among the men of Judah (I Kings i.
His talent enabled him to weld together the mixed southern clans which became incorporated under Judah, and to build up a monarchy which represented the highest conception of national life possible under the circumstances.
The generous elevation of David's character is seen most clearly in those parts of his life where an inferior nature would have been most at fault, - in his conduct towards Saul, in the blameless reputation of himself and his band of outlaws in the wilderness of Judah, in his repentance under the rebuke of Nathan and in his noble bearing on the revolt of Absalom.
9 show that according to one view David delivered Israel (not Judah) from the Philistines.
If the clans of Moses' kin which moved into Judah bore the ark (Num.
It is possible, therefore, that one early account of David was that of an entrance into the land of Judah, and that round him have gathered traditions partly individual and partly tribal or national.
A second city named Jezreel lay in the hill country of Judah, somewhere near Hebron (Josh.
18, however, from which the Chronicler derived his statement, reads " Tamar " in the Hebrew text, with " Tadmor " in the Hebrew margin; there can be no doubt that the text is right and refers to Tamar in the land of Judah (Ezek.
It was taken from Jeroboam by Abijah, king of Judah (2 Chr.
Jeroboam arranged for a similar feast in the northern kingdom on the 15th day of the eighth month, "like unto the feast in Judah" (ibid.
1-3), or by the tribes Judah and Simeon (Judg.
The district of Amalek lay to the south of Judah (cp. 1 Chron.
They represent a protest against the contemporary Canaanite civilization and a reaction towards the simplicity of life which was felt more strongly in Judah or to the east of the Jordan than in the northern kingdom of Israel.
The order founded by Jehonadab must from its constitution have soon become a sort of hereditary clan, and as such the "house of Rechab" appears in Judah after the fall of the northern kingdom and continued to observe the ordinance of Jehonadab till the approach of Nebuchadrezzar drove them for protection into Jerusalem (Jer.
This second writer singles out three of the Maccabean priest kings for attack, the first of whom he charges with every abomination; the people itself, he declares, is apostate, and chastisement will follow speedily - the temple will be laid waste, the nation carried afresh into captivity, whence, on their repentance, God will restore them again to their own land, where they shall enjoy the blessedness of God's presence and be ruled by a Messiah sprung from Judah.
yo' shiyyahu, perhaps "Yah [well] supports"), in the Bible, the grandson of Manasseh, and king of Judah.
The storm which shook the external states was favourable to the peace of Judah; the Assyrian power was practically broken, and that of the Chaldeans had scarcely developed into an aggressive form.
At all events, at the battle of Megiddo he lost both his kingdom and his life (608 B.C.), and for a few years Judah was in the hands of Egypt (2 Kings xxiii.
Although the character of the reforms throws remarkable light upon the condition of religion in Judah in the time of Josiah, it is to be observed that the writings of the contemporary prophets (Jeremiah, Ezekiel) make it very questionable whether the narratives are thoroughly trustworthy for the history of the king's measures.
It is of course possible that the ark was originally the sacred shrine of the clans which came direct to Judah, and that the traditions in 1 Sam.
As the chronicler rewrote the history of Israel and Judah from the basis of the Priests' Code, so our author re-edited from the Pharisaic standpoint of his time the book of Genesis and the early chapters of Exodus.
This kingdom was to be ruled over by a Messiah sprung not from Judah but from Levi, that is, from the reigning Maccabean family.
Allegorists and literalists still contend over the first and still more over the second chapter, and, while the largest number of recent interpreters accept Credner's view that the prophecy was written in the reign of Joash of Judah (8 35796 B.C.?), a powerful school of critics (including A.
He presupposes a nation of Yahweh-worshippers, whose religion has its centre in the temple and priesthood of Zion, which is indeed conscious of sin, and needs forgiveness and an outpouring of the Spirit, but is not visibly divided, as the kingdom of Judah was.
Edom's hostility to Judah was incessant, but the feud reached its full intensity only after the time of Deuteronomy (xxiii.
From this time down to the last period of the Hebrew monarchy Egypt was not the enemy of Judah.
To Joel Judah and the people of Yahweh are synonyms; northern Israel has disappeared.
27 (a poem of which every translatable verse is explicable if it refers to the great procession at the rededication of the Temple in 164 B.C.) the same two tribes are joined with Judah and Ben j amin (sc. Judaea) as celebrating the Lord's victory.
those which were called forth by passing events), the author is called "the son of Amoz" and Rabbinical legend identifies this Amoz with a brother of Amaziah, king of Judah; but this is evidently based on a mere etymological fancy.
1-10, sometimes referred of late to a supposed invasion of Judah by Sargon, rather belongs to some one of the many prophetic personages who wrote, but did not speak like the greater prophets, during and after the Exile.
His campaign against Hezekiah of Judah was as much a failure as his policy in Babylonia, and in his murder by his sons on the 10th of Tebet 681 B.C. both Babylonians and Jews saw the judgment of heaven.
- vi.) and Zephaniah had foretold the invasion of Judah by a mighty people from the north.
Haggai and Zechariah explained the delay by the failure of Judah to rebuild II.
and ii., he was born in "a city of Judah" in "the hill country" (possibly Hebron 1) of priestly parentage.
Supported by the prophets, Zerubbabel and Joshua set about the work, and the elders of Judah built and the work went forward (Ezra v.
Seventy years have passed, and Zion and the cities of Judah still mourn.
an ephahmeasure with a heavy lid and carried from Judah to Chaldaea, where it is to have its home for the future.
(1) Yahweh's word is accomplished on Syria-Phoenicia and Philistia; and then the Messianic kingdom begins in Zion, and the Israelites detained among the heathen, Judah and Ephraim combined, receive a part in it.
the brotherhood between Judah and Israel.
Yahweh first gives victory to the countryfolk of Judah and then they rescue the capital.
were ascribed to a contemporary of Amos and Hosea, about the middle of the 8th century B.C., because Ephraim is mentioned as well as Judah, and Assyria along with Egypt (x.
1-6); but, as this prophecy speaks only of Judah and Jerusalem, it was dated after the fall of Samaria, and assigned to the last days of the Judaean kingdom on the strength of xii.
for "Yah[weh] is [my] strength"), more correctly Azariah (Hebrew for "Yah[weh] helps"), son of Amaziah, grandson of Joash I., and king of Judah (2 Kings xiv.
5) could only increase the hostility, and preparations were made by Israel for an alliance with Damascus which culminated in an attack upon Judah in the time of Jotham's son, Ahaz.
ADULLAM, a Canaanitish town in the territory of the tribe of Judah, perhaps the modern 'Aid-el-Ma, 7 m.
Azriyau of Jaudi, also, in inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser (745-728 B.C.), who was for merly supposed to be Azariah (Uzziah) of Judah, is probably a king of the country in northern Syria known to us from the Zenjirli inscriptions as Ja'di.
7) - leads an army of Israel and Judah to deliver Jabesh-Gilead from the Ammonites, and is now recognized as king.
The editorial title of the book of Micah declares that Micah prophesied "in the days of Jotham (739-734), Ahaz (733-721) and Hezekiah (720-693), kings of Judah."
In its present form, however, it has been incorporated in a prophecy against Judah, belonging, most probably, to the years 705-701, when a new Palestinian rising provoked Sennacherib's campaign of 701 (Nowack; cf.
12, 13) 4 are a prediction of judgment on the sins of Judah and Ephraim.
But, while Samaria is summarily dismissed, the sin of Judah is analysed at length in chs.
7, 22) placed the lucrative trade between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea in the hands of the rulers of Judah.
He employed one of his sons to serve as priest, but when a Levite from Bethlehem in Judah came along he gladly installed him as "father and priest."
ATHALIAH, in the Bible, the daughter of Ahab, and wife of Jehoram, king of Judah.
Samuel Judah Rapoport >>
1, io), the province of Judah was under a Persian governor (i.
c. 2908) holds that the reference here is purely figurative; " Judah has dealt falsely with the wife of his youth, the covenant religion, and is wedding a strange cult."
Fear of a possible rival may have influenced Joab, and this at all events led him to slay Amasa of Judah (2 Sam.
Alte Test., 2nd ed., 262) suspects a reference to Israel's overlordship in Judah; Burney (Heb.
The "adversaries of Judah and Benjamin" offered to assist but were repulsed, and they raised such opposition to the progress of the work that it ceased until the second year of Darius (521520 B.C.).
In the twentieth year of Artaxerxes (445 B.C.), Nehemiah the royal cup-bearer at Shushan (Susa, the royal winter palace) was visited by friends from Judah and was overcome with grief at the tidings of the miserable condition of Jerusalem and the pitiful state of the Judaean remnant which had escaped the captivity.
According to this view, Judah and Jerusalem were practically deserted until the return.
17-19 with the notice of the conspiracy of Tobiah and the nobles of Judah.
In the next chapter (v.) the seer has a vision of a roll in the hand of Him that sat on the throne which none could open or look upon, till the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the mighty one with seven horns.
For some centuries the term was applied to the northern kingdom, as distinct from Judah, although the feeling of national unity extended it so as to include both.
On this account Saul spared them when bidden by Yahweh to destroy Amalek; David, too, whilst living in Judah, appears to have been on friendly terms with them (I Sam.
16), see CALEB, GENESIS, JERAHMEEL, JUDAH.
"Yah[weh] raiseth up"), in the Bible, son of Josiah and king of Judah (2 Kings xxiii.
It was at the close of Jehoiakim's reign, apparently just before his death, that the enemy appeared at the gates of Jerusalem, and although he himself "slept with his fathers" his young son was destined to see the first captivity of the land of Judah (597 B.C.).
I) are intended is disputed; it is uncertain whether Judah suffered in 605 B.C. (Berossus in Jos.
19), on the border between Judah and Benjamin (Josh.
83), it maintained, down even to the days of the Maccabees, a vigorous though somewhat intermittent independence against the power of the Israelites, by whom it was nominally assigned to the territory of Judah.
It is necessary to realize Gaza's position and its links with trading centres, since conditions in the comparatively small and halfdesert land of Judah depended essentially upon its relations with the Edomites and Arabian tribes on the south-east and with the Philistines on the west.
Its king Hanun had fled to Musri, but was pursued and captured; Ascalon, Judah and Edom appear in a list of tributaries.
Judah, Edom and Moab were also involved, but submitted (711 B.C.).
Gaza and Edom against Judah in Amos i.
Farther south came the turn of Ascalon, Lachish and Libnah; Judah under " Hezekiah suffered severely, and its western cities were transferred to the faithful vassals of Ekron, Ashdod and Gaza.
In the 7th century Gaza, Ascalon, Ashdod and Ekron were Assyrian vassals, together with Judah, Moab and Edom - in all, twenty-two kings of the " Hittites " - and the discovery of Assyrian contract-tablets at Gezer (c. 650) may indicate the presence of Assyrian garrisons.
22, Lucian's recension), bears upon Judah, but the statements are isolated.
Even in David's fights with the Philistines in Judah, Jerusalem is Jebusite, neighbouring non-Israelite cities are Hivite or Amorite (Joshua ix.
Cheyne, Decline and' Fall of Kingdom of Judah (1908), pp. xx.
2 In the prophetical writings the Philistines are denounced (with Ammon, Moab and Edom) for their vengeance upon Judah (Ezek.
With Tyre and Sidon they are condemned for plundering Judah, and for kidnapping its children to sell to the Greeks (Joel iii.
Judah is promised reprisals (Zeph.
If we might accept the various theories mentioned above, Balaam would appear in one source of J as an Edomite, in another as an Ammonite; in E as a native of the south of Judah or' possibly as an Aramaean; in the tradition followed by the Priestly Code probably as a Midianite.
Amos, it appears, though himself a Judahite, had been prophesying in the northern kingdom, when his activity was brought to an abrupt close by the head priest of the royal sanctuary at Bethel, Amaziah, who bade him escape to the land of Judah and get his living there.
It was far otherwise in the period of the fall of Judah.
For Amos cannot have been quite alone either in Israel or in Judah; there must have been a little flock of those who felt with Amos that there was small reason indeed to "desire the day of Yahweh" (v.
In Daniel, c. 160 B.C., angels, usually spoken of as " men " or " princes," appear as guardians or champions of the nations; grades are implied, there are " princes " and " chief " or " great princes "; and the names of some angels are known, Gabriel, Michael; the latter is pre-eminent 26, he is the guardian of Judah.
In Daniel the princes or guardian angels of the heathen nations oppose Michael the guardian angel of Judah.
17 that the Annals of the Kings of Judah gave no account of Manasseh's repentance, which, according to 2 Chron.
7), and political affairs in Judah receive attention, not in proportion to their intrinsic importance, but according as they serve to exemplify God's help to the obedient and His chastisement of the rebellious.
That the names "Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah," "Book of Sources.
the Kings of Judah and Israel," "Book of the Kings of Israel," and "Affairs of the Kings of Israel" (2 Chron.
The two chief sources of the canonical book of Kings were entitled Annals (" events of the times") of the Kings of Israel and Judah respectively (see Kings).
The Edomite revolt under Jehoram of Judah becomes the penalty for the king's apostasy (2 Chron.
The Aramaean invasion in the time of Joash of Judah was a punishment for the murder of Jehoiada's son (2 Chron.
Particular prominence is given to the tribe and kings of Judah (i Chron.
The historical value of these lists is very unequal; a careful study of the names often proves the lateness of the source, although an appreciation of the principles of genealogies sometimes reveals important historical information; see Caleb, Genealogy, Judah.
3, 15 sqq.); conflicts between Ephraim and Judah (2 Chron.
Bathsheba, relying upon David's promise that Solomon should succeed him, vigorously advanced her son's claims with the support of Zadok the priest, the military officer Benaiah, and David's bodyguard; Adonijah, for his part, had David's old priest Abiathar, the commander Joab, and the men of Judah.
The description of Solomon's administration not only ignores the tribal divisions which play an important part in the separation of Israel from Judah (xii.
9 seq.), but south Judah and Hebron the seat of David's early power find no place, and it would seem as though the district which had shared in the revolt of Adonijah was freed from the duty of furnishing supplies.
Arpad revolted soon afterwards, but after a siege was taken in 740 B.C. The following year Azariah of Judah appears among the enemies of Tiglath-Pileser, who had overthrown his Hamathite allies and annexed the nineteen districts of Hamath.
In 734 B.C. he was called to the help of Yahu-khazi (Ahaz) of Judah, who had been attacked by Pekah of Israel and Rezon (Rasun) of Damascus.
7, always "the Molech"), the name or title of the divinity which the men of Judah in the last ages of the kingdom were wont to propitiate by the sacrifice of their own children.
Even the Hebrew historian ascribes to this act the effect of rousing divine indignation against the invading host of Israel; it would not, therefore, be surprising if under the miseries brought on Palestine by the westward march of the Assyrian power, the idea of the sacrifice of one's own son, as the most powerful of atoning rites, should have taken hold of those kings of Judah (Ahaz and Manasseh, 2 Kings xvi.
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