Judah sentence example

judah
  • That Israel was the stronger may be suggested by the acquiescence of Judah in the new situation.
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  • He made raids on the territory of Judah (2 Chron.
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  • Two tribes only, Judah and Benjamin, with the descendants of Levi, remained faithful to Rehoboam, the son of Solomon.
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  • 4 ff.) gives the duration of the national punishment in loose chronological reckoning: 40 years (a round number) for Judah, and 150 more (according to the corrected text) for Israel, the starting-point, probably, being the year 722, the date of the capture of Samaria; the procedure described in v.
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  • 20, 22), Edom was a dependency of Judah, ruled by a viceroy (i Kings xxii..
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  • The men of Judah and Benjamin did not succeed in getting full possession of the place, and the Jebusites still held it when David became king of Israel.
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  • Joash, king of Israel, captured the city from Amaziah, king of Judah, and destroyed part of the fortifications, but these were rebuilt by Uzziah, the son of Amaziah, who did much to restore the city to its original prosperity.
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  • In the reign of Hezekiah, the kingdom of Judah became tributary to the Assyrians, who attempted the capture of Jerusalem.
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  • The traditions would seem to point to the institution of new principles in the religion of Yahweh, and would associate with it not merely Moses but those foreign elements which are subsequently found in Israel and Judah.
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  • Judah suffered also, and it is not until a century later that any important literary activity is again manifested.
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  • Europe, Judah Hadassi composed his Eshkol ha-Kopher, a great theological compendium in the form of a commentary on the Decalogue.
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  • Africa were in close relation with those of Spain, and as early as the beginning of the 9th century Judah ben Quraish of Tahort had composed his Risalah (letter) to the Jews of Fez on grammatical subjects from a comparative point of view, and a dictionary now lost.
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  • Among these was Judah IJayyuj of Cordova, the father of modern Hebrew grammar, who first established the principle of tri-literal roots.
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  • The man, however, who shares with Ibn Gabirol the first place in Jewish poetry is Judah Ha-levi, of Toledo, who died in Jerusalem about 1140.
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  • 1141 at Lucena), a friend of Judah Ha-levi and of Moses ben Ezra, wrote Responsa and IIiddushin (annotations) on parts of the Talmud.
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  • Somewhat earlier in the 13th century lived Judah al-IIarizi, who belongs in spirit to the time of Ibn Gabirol and Judah ha-levi.
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  • The first of them, Judah ibn Tibbon, translated works of Bahya ibn Paqudah, Judah ha-levi, Seadiah, Abu'lwalid and Ibn Gabirol, besides writing works of his own.
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  • 7 as belonging to a clan of Judah.
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  • The religion of the Hebrew race - properly the Jews - now enters on a new stage, for it should be observed that it was Amos, Isaiah and Micah - prophets of Judah - who laid the actual foundations.
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  • The latter half of the 8th century, which witnessed a rapid succession of reigns in the northern kingdom accompanied by dismemberment of its territory and final overthrow, witnessed also the humiliating vassalage and religious decline of the kingdom of Judah.
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  • Though Yahweh's chastisements on Ephraim and Judah would continue to fall till scarcely a remnant was left (Isa.
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  • It contains in fact the history itself in two forms: (a) from the creation of man to the fall of Judah (Genesis-2 Kings), which is supplemented and continued further - (b) to the foundation of Judaism in the 5th century B.C. (Chronicles - Ezra-Nehemiah).
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  • (a) The first, that of the two rival kingdoms: Israel (Ephraim or Samaria) in the northern half of Palestine, and Judah in the south.
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  • In addition to this it should be noticed that the term " Jew " (originally Yehudi), in spite of its wider application, means properly " man of Judah," i.e.
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  • The traditions which prevailed among the Hebrews concerning their origin belong to a time when Judah and Israel were regarded as a unit.
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  • Twelve divisions or tribes, of which Judah was one, held together by a traditional sentiment, were traced back to the sons of Jacob (otherwise known as Israel), the son of Isaac and grandson of Abraham.
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  • The best historical narratives belong to Israel and Gilead; Judah scarcely appears, and in a relatively old poetical account of a great fight of the united tribes against a northern adversary lies outside the writer's horizon or interest (Judg.
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  • At all events the first of a series of annalistic notices of the kings of Israel ascribes to Saul conquests over the surrounding peoples to an extent which implies that the district of Judah formed part of his kingdom (I Sam.
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  • Both Israel and Judah had their own annals, brief excerpts from which appear in the books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles, and they are supplemented by fuller narratives of distinct and more popular origin.
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  • The Monarchy of Judah.
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  • - Certain traditions of Judah and Jerusalem appear to have looked back upon a movement from the south, traces of which underlie the present account of the " exodus."
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  • Caleb alone had distinguished himself by his fearlessness, and the clan Caleb drove them out from Hebron in south Judah (Josh.
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  • Judah and Israel dwelt at ease, or held the superior position of military officials, while the earlier inhabitants of the land were put to forced labour.
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  • The accession of Solomon had not been without bloodshed, and Judah, together with David's old general Joab and his faithful priest Abiathar, were opposed to the son of a woman who had been the wife of a Hittite warrior.
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  • These words were calculated to inflame a people whom history proves to have been haughty and high-spirited, and the great Israel renounced its union with the small district of Judah.
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  • - Biblical history previous to the separation of Judah and Israel holds a prominent place in current ideas, since over two-fifths of the entire Old Testament deals with these early ages.
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  • This inquiry is further complicated by (c), where the history of Israel and Judah, as related in Judges and I Samuel, has caused endless perplexity.
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  • The traditions of the Ephraimite Joshua and of Saul the first king of (north) Israel virtually treat Judah as part of Israel and are related to the underlying representations in (a).
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  • The Rival Kingdoms. - The Palestine of the Hebrews was but part of a great area breathing the same atmosphere, and there was little to distinguish Judah from Israel except when they were distinct political entities.
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  • The history of the two kingdoms is contained in Kings and the later and relatively less trustworthy Chronicles, which deals with Judah alone.
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  • Next, the Judaean compiler regularly finds in Israel's troubles the punishment for its schismatic idolatry; nor does he spare Judah, but judges its kings by a standard which agrees with the standpoint of Deuteronomy and is scarcely earlier than the end of the 7th century B.C. (§§ 16, 20).
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  • Judah had natural connexions with Edom and southern Palestine; Israel was more closely associated with Gilead and the Aramaeans of the north.
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  • However, Baasha at length seized Ramah about five miles north of Jerusalem, and the very existence of Judah was threatened.
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  • Meanwhile the Israelite army was again besieging the Philistines at Gibbethon, and the recurrence of these conflicts points to a critical situation in a Danite locality in which Judah itself (although ignored by the writers), must have been vitally concerned.
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  • A massacre ensued in which the royal families of Israel and Judah perished.
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  • The descendants of the detested Phoenician marriage were rooted out, and unless the close intercourse between Israel and Judah had been suddenly broken, it would be supposed that the new king at least laid claim to the south.
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  • Damascus, Israel and Judah.
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  • With these perplexing data the position of Judah is inextricably involved.
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  • Moreover, the account of the joint undertaking by Judah (under Jehoshaphat) and Israel against Syria at Ramoth-Gilead at the time of Ahab's death, and again (under Ahaziah) when Jehoram was wounded, shortly before the accession of Jehu, are historical doublets, and they can hardly be harmonized either with the known events of 854 and 842 or with the course of the intervening years.
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  • point clearly to the very close union of Israel and Judah at this period, a union which is apt to be obscured by the fact that the annalistic summaries of each kingdom are mainly independent.
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  • Moreover, of the various accounts of the massacre of the princes of Judah, the Judaean ascribes it not to Jehu and the reforming party (2 Kings x.
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  • It is a new source which is here suddenly introduced, belonging apparently to a history of the Temple; it throws no light upon the relations between Judah with its priests and Israel with its prophets, the circumstances of the regency under the priest Jehoiada are ignored, and the Temple reforms occupy the first place in the compiler's interest.
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  • Jehoash, it is said, turned away from Yahweh after the death of Jehoiada and gave heed to the Judaean nobles, " wrath came upon Judah and Jerusalem for their guilt," prophets were sent to bring them back but they turned a deaf ear.
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  • Soon after, a small band of Syrians entered Judah, destroyed its.
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  • But the absence of Judah is surprising.
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  • Both Jehoash (of Judah) and his son Amaziah left behind them a great name; and the latter was comparable only to David (2 Kings xiv.
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  • The result was the route of Judah, the capture of Amaziah, the destruction of the northern wall of Jerusalem, the sacking of the temple and palace, and the removal of hostages to Samaria (2 Kings xiv.
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  • So, on the one hand, the year of the disaster sees the death of the Israelite king, and Amaziah survives for fifteen years, while, on the other, twenty-seven years elapse between the battle and the accession of Uzziah, the next king of Judah.'
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  • The importance of the historical questions regarding relations between Damascus, Israel and Judah is clear.
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  • 5 The defeat of Ben-hadad by the king of 3 It is possible that Hadad-nirari's inscription refers to conditions in the latter part of his reign (812-783 B.C.), when Judah apparently was no longer independent and when Jeroboam II.
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  • Moab was probably tributary; the position of Judah and Edom is involved with the chronological problems. According to the Judaean annals, the " people of Judah " set Azariah (Uzziah) upon his father's throne; and to his long reign of fifty-two years are ascribed conquests over Philistia and Edom, the fortification of Jerusalem and the reorganization of the army.
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  • All that can be recognized from the biblical records, however, is the period of internal prosperity which Israel and Judah enjoyed under Jeroboam and Uzziah (qq.v.) respectively.
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  • The extension of the term " Judah " (cf.
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  • It is possible that tradition is right in supposing that " Judah went down from his brethren " (Gen.
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  • It is at least probable that when Israel was supreme an independent Judah would centre around a more southerly site than Jerusalem.
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  • The Hebrews of Israel and Judah were, political history apart, men of the same general stamp, with the same cult and custom; for the study of religion and social usages, therefore, they can be treated as a single people.
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  • Judah was probably holding aloof.
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  • It is suggestive to find Judah the centre of attack.'
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  • ' Perhaps Judah had come to an understanding with Tiglathpileser (H.
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  • The disorganized state of Egypt and the uncertain allegiance of the desert tribes left Judah without direct aid; on the other hand, opposition to Assyria among the conflicting interests of Palestine and Syria was rarely unanimous.
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  • Assyrian officers were placed in the land and Judah thus gained its deliverance at the expense of Israel.
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  • A number of petty peoples, of whom little definite is known, fringed Palestine from the south of Judah and the Delta to the Syrian desert.
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  • Although no evidence is at hand, it is probable that Ahaz of Judah rendered service to Assyria by keeping the allies in check; possible, also, that the former enemies of Jerusalem had now been induced to turn against Samaria.
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  • Judah and Assyria.
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  • In both Judah and Philistia the anti-Assyrian party was not without opposition, and those who adhered or favoured adherence to the great power were justified by the result.
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  • The small kings who had remained faithful were rewarded by an extension of their territories, and Ashdod, Ekron and Gaza were enriched at Judah's expense.
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  • It is uncertain whether Sennacherib invaded Judah again shortly before his death, never,- theless the land was practically under the control of Assyria.
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  • If Judah was compelled to take part in the Assyrian campaigns against Egypt, Arabia (the Syrian desert) and Tyre, this would only be in accordance with a vassal's duty.
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  • 2), there is just a possibility that Judah made some attempt to gain independence.
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  • The fall of Samaria, Sennacherib's devastation of Judah, and the growth of Jerusalem as the capital, had tended to raise the position of the Temple, although Israel itself, as also Judah, had famous sanctuaries of its own.
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  • If Israel could appear to be better than Judah (iii.
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  • Cheyne, Decline and Fall of Judah (1908), p. 13, with references.
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  • It was perhaps after this that an inroad of Scythians (q.v.) occurred (c. 626 B.C.); if it did not actually touch Judah, the advent of the people of the north appears to have caused great alarm (Jer.
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  • The book of Kings gives the standpoint of a later Judaean writer, but Josiah's authority over a much larger area than Judah alone is suggested by xxiii.
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  • But the relations between Egypt and Judah were not broken off.
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  • Throughout these stormy years the prophet Jeremiah (q.v.) had realized that Judah's only hope lay in submission to Babylonia.
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  • The period under review, with its relations between Judah and Egypt, can be illustrated by prophecies ascribed to a similar situation in the time of Hezekiah.
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  • The agriculturists and herdsmen who had been left in Palestine formed, as always, the staple population, and it is impossible to imagine either Judah or Israel as denuded of its inhabitants.
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  • It is possible that some had escaped by taking timely refuge among their brethren in Judah; indeed, if national tradition availed, there were doubtless times when Judah cast its eye upon the land with which it had been so intimately connected.
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  • It would certainly be unwise to draw a sharp boundary line between the two districts; kings of Judah could be tempted to restore the kingdom of their traditional founder, or Assyria might be complaisant towards a faithful Judaean vassal.
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  • But Israel after the fall of Samaria is artificially excluded from the Judaean horizon, and lies as a foreign land, although Judah itself had suffered from the intrusion of foreigners in the preceding centuries of war and turmoil, and strangers had settled in her midst, had formed part of the royal guard, or had even served as janissaries (§ 15, end).
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  • To the prophets the religious position was lower in Judah than in Samaria, whose iniquities were less grievous (Jer.
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  • In Israel as in Judah the political disasters not only meant a shifting of population, they also brought into prominence the old popular and non-official religion, the character of which is not to be condemned because of the attitude of lofty prophets in advance of their age.
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  • It is a gratuitous assumption that the history of (north) Israel ceased with the fall of Samaria or that Judah then took over Israelite literature and inherited the old Israelite spirit: the question of the preservation of earlier writings is of historical importance.
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  • But the history which the Judaean writers have handed down is influenced by the later hostility between Judah and Samaria.
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  • 8, 6) has been carried back to the earliest ages; yet the present period, after the age of rival kingdoms, Judah and Israel, and before the foundation of Judaism, is that in which the historical background for the inclusion of Judah among the " sons " of Israel is equally suitable (§§ 5, 20, end).
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  • An outburst of Jewish religious feeling is dated in the second year of Darius (520), but whether Judah was making a bold bid for independence or had received special favour for abstaining from the above revolts, external evidence alone can decide.
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  • 44 8 -447), independent evidence for the position of Judah is needed, since a catastrophe apparently befell the unfortunate state before Nehemiah appears upon the scene.
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  • The Restoration of Judah.
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  • Babylonia was politically unsettled, the representative of the Davidic dynasty had descendants; if Babylon was assured of the allegiance of Judah further acts of clemency may well have followed.
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  • Consequently, although small bodies of individuals no doubt came back to Judah from time to time, and some special mark of favour may have been shown by Cyrus, the opinion has gained ground since the early arguments of E.
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  • 14-26), and the evidence for the conclusion that traditions originally of (north) Israelite interest were taken over and adapted to the later standpoint of Judah and Jerusalem (viz.
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  • represent a Judah composed mainly of groups which had moved up from the south (Hebron) to the vicinity of Jerusalem.
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  • Against the former is the fact that although certain groups are ultimately found in Judah (Judg.
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  • See, for Cheyne's view, his Decline and Fall of Judah:'Introduction (1908).
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  • the history of the northern monarchy), it is obvious that, apart from indigenous Judaean tradition, the southern groups which were ultimately enrolled in Judah would possess their own stock of oral and written lore.
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  • Although Judah was always closely connected with the south, these " southern " features (once clearly more extensive and complete) are found in the Deuteronomic and priestly compilations, and their presence in the historical records can hardly be severed from the prominence of " southern " families in the vicinity of Jerusalem, some time after the fall of Jerusalem.
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  • For the prominence of the " southern " element in Judah see E.
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  • historical criticism is faced with the established literary conclusions which, it should be noticed, place the Deuteronomic and priestly compilations posterior to the great changes at and after the fall of the northern monarchy, and, to some extent, contemporary with the equally serious changes in Judah.
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  • It was insinuated that Nehemiah had his prophets to proclaim that Judah had again its own king; it was even suggested that he was intending to rebel against Persia!
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  • Nevertheless the undaunted Judaean pressed on unmoved by the threatening letters which were sent around, and succeeded in completing the walls within fifty-two days.2 In the next place, Nehemiah appears as governor of the small district of Judah and Benjamin.
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  • 22), Bagohi (Bagoas), governor of Judah, and Delaiah and Shelemiah sons of Sanballat (408-407 B.C.) They ignore any strained relations between Samaria and Judah, and Delaiah and Bagohi unite in granting permission to the Jewish colony to rebuild their place of worship. If this fixes the date of Sanballat and Nehemiah in the time of the first Artaxerxes, the probability of confusion in the later written sources is enhanced by the recurrence of identical names of kings, priests, &c., in the history.
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  • end), a people with whom Judah, as the genealogies show, had once been intimately connected.
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  • The unfriendliness of the " brother " people, which added so much to the bitterness of Judah, although associated with the events of 586 (so especially 1 Esdras iv.
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  • The tradition that Edomites burned the Temple and occupied part of Judah (ib.
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  • Moreover, the late compiler of I Chronicles distinguishes a Judah composed almost wholly of " southern " groups (1 Chron.
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  • It is from this narrower standpoint of an exclusive and confined Judah (and Benjamin) that the traditions as incorporated in the late recensions gain fresh force, and in Israel's renunciation of the Judaean yoke the later hostility between the two may be read between the lines.
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  • Judah was now a religious community whose representative was the high priest of Jerusalem.
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  • Whatever the predominant party might think of foreign marriages, the tradition of the half-Moabite origin of David serves, in the beautiful idyll of Ruth (q.v.), to suggest the debt which Judah and Jerusalem owed to one at least of its neighbours.
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  • - Thus the Old Testament, the history of the Jews during the first great period, describes the relation of the Hebrews to surrounding peoples, the superiority of Judah over the faithless (north) Israelite tribes, and the reorganization of the Jewish community in and around Jerusalem at the arrival of Ezra with the Book of the Law.
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  • Bacchides and Alcimus returned meanwhile into the land of Judah; at Elasa " Judas fell and the rest fled " (i Macc. ix.
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  • Some traditions regarded the last king of Davidic descent (Jehoiachin) as the first exilarch, and all the later holders of the dignity claimed to be scions of the royal house of Judah.
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  • DAVID (a Hebrew name meaning probably beloved 1), in the Bible, the son of Jesse, king of Judah and Israel, and founder of the royal Judaean dynasty at Jerusalem.
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  • He returned to the wilds of Judah, and was joined at Adullam 5 by his father's house and by a small band of outlaws, of which he became the head.
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  • But the town of Adullam, which has not been identified with any certainty, lay in the low country of Judah (Josh.
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  • of Ashdod), but rather to the south of Judah (Josh.
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  • Here he occupied himself in chastening the Amalekites and other robber tribes who made raids on Judah and the Philistines without distinction (xxvii.).
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  • If this were an attempt to steer a middle course his true actions could not have been kept secret long, and as it is implied that the Philistines subsequently acquiesced in David's sovereignty in Hebron, it is not easy to see what interest they had in embroiling him with the men of Judah.
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  • He was no longer an outlaw with a band of wandering companions, but a petty chieftain, head of a small colony of men, allied with families of Caleb and Jezreel (in Judah), and on friendly footing with the sheikhs south of Hebron.
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  • In response to an oracle he was bidden to move northwards to Judah and successfully occupied it with Hebron as his capital.
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  • The embassy threw out a hint, - their lord was dead and David himself had been anointed king over Judah; but the relation between Jabesh-Gilead and Saul had been a close one, and it was not to be expected that its eyes would be turned upon the king of Judah when Saul's son was installed at the not distant Mahanaim.
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  • But David's position in the south of Judah is clear.
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  • The evidence has obviously some bearing upon the history of Saul, as also upon the intercourse between Judah and Benjamin which David's early history implies.
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  • 1-3), with his old subjects the men of Judah, and with the members of his own household.
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  • Then all the people repented except the men of Judah, who were not to be conciliated without a virtual admission of prerogative of kinship to the king.
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  • The precedence claimed by Judah was challenged by the northern tribes even on the day of David's victorious return to his capital, and a rupture ensued, headed by Sheba, which but for the energy of Joab might have led to a second and more dangerous rebellion.
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  • Several indications suggest that the revolt was one in which the men of Judah originally took the leading if not the only part.
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  • It is noteworthy that, as in the case of Absalom, the pretender, though supported by Joab and Abiathar, found his chief stay among the men of Judah (I Kings i.
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  • His talent enabled him to weld together the mixed southern clans which became incorporated under Judah, and to build up a monarchy which represented the highest conception of national life possible under the circumstances.
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  • The generous elevation of David's character is seen most clearly in those parts of his life where an inferior nature would have been most at fault, - in his conduct towards Saul, in the blameless reputation of himself and his band of outlaws in the wilderness of Judah, in his repentance under the rebuke of Nathan and in his noble bearing on the revolt of Absalom.
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  • 9 show that according to one view David delivered Israel (not Judah) from the Philistines.
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  • If the clans of Moses' kin which moved into Judah bore the ark (Num.
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  • It is possible, therefore, that one early account of David was that of an entrance into the land of Judah, and that round him have gathered traditions partly individual and partly tribal or national.
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  • A second city named Jezreel lay in the hill country of Judah, somewhere near Hebron (Josh.
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  • 18, however, from which the Chronicler derived his statement, reads " Tamar " in the Hebrew text, with " Tadmor " in the Hebrew margin; there can be no doubt that the text is right and refers to Tamar in the land of Judah (Ezek.
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  • It was taken from Jeroboam by Abijah, king of Judah (2 Chr.
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  • Jeroboam arranged for a similar feast in the northern kingdom on the 15th day of the eighth month, "like unto the feast in Judah" (ibid.
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  • 1-3), or by the tribes Judah and Simeon (Judg.
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  • The district of Amalek lay to the south of Judah (cp. 1 Chron.
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  • The order founded by Jehonadab must from its constitution have soon become a sort of hereditary clan, and as such the "house of Rechab" appears in Judah after the fall of the northern kingdom and continued to observe the ordinance of Jehonadab till the approach of Nebuchadrezzar drove them for protection into Jerusalem (Jer.
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  • This second writer singles out three of the Maccabean priest kings for attack, the first of whom he charges with every abomination; the people itself, he declares, is apostate, and chastisement will follow speedily - the temple will be laid waste, the nation carried afresh into captivity, whence, on their repentance, God will restore them again to their own land, where they shall enjoy the blessedness of God's presence and be ruled by a Messiah sprung from Judah.
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  • yo' shiyyahu, perhaps "Yah [well] supports"), in the Bible, the grandson of Manasseh, and king of Judah.
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  • The storm which shook the external states was favourable to the peace of Judah; the Assyrian power was practically broken, and that of the Chaldeans had scarcely developed into an aggressive form.
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  • At all events, at the battle of Megiddo he lost both his kingdom and his life (608 B.C.), and for a few years Judah was in the hands of Egypt (2 Kings xxiii.
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  • Although the character of the reforms throws remarkable light upon the condition of religion in Judah in the time of Josiah, it is to be observed that the writings of the contemporary prophets (Jeremiah, Ezekiel) make it very questionable whether the narratives are thoroughly trustworthy for the history of the king's measures.
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  • It is of course possible that the ark was originally the sacred shrine of the clans which came direct to Judah, and that the traditions in 1 Sam.
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  • As the chronicler rewrote the history of Israel and Judah from the basis of the Priests' Code, so our author re-edited from the Pharisaic standpoint of his time the book of Genesis and the early chapters of Exodus.
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  • This kingdom was to be ruled over by a Messiah sprung not from Judah but from Levi, that is, from the reigning Maccabean family.
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  • Allegorists and literalists still contend over the first and still more over the second chapter, and, while the largest number of recent interpreters accept Credner's view that the prophecy was written in the reign of Joash of Judah (8 35796 B.C.?), a powerful school of critics (including A.
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  • He presupposes a nation of Yahweh-worshippers, whose religion has its centre in the temple and priesthood of Zion, which is indeed conscious of sin, and needs forgiveness and an outpouring of the Spirit, but is not visibly divided, as the kingdom of Judah was.
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  • Edom's hostility to Judah was incessant, but the feud reached its full intensity only after the time of Deuteronomy (xxiii.
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  • From this time down to the last period of the Hebrew monarchy Egypt was not the enemy of Judah.
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  • To Joel Judah and the people of Yahweh are synonyms; northern Israel has disappeared.
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  • 27 (a poem of which every translatable verse is explicable if it refers to the great procession at the rededication of the Temple in 164 B.C.) the same two tribes are joined with Judah and Ben j amin (sc. Judaea) as celebrating the Lord's victory.
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  • those which were called forth by passing events), the author is called "the son of Amoz" and Rabbinical legend identifies this Amoz with a brother of Amaziah, king of Judah; but this is evidently based on a mere etymological fancy.
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  • 1-10, sometimes referred of late to a supposed invasion of Judah by Sargon, rather belongs to some one of the many prophetic personages who wrote, but did not speak like the greater prophets, during and after the Exile.
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  • His campaign against Hezekiah of Judah was as much a failure as his policy in Babylonia, and in his murder by his sons on the 10th of Tebet 681 B.C. both Babylonians and Jews saw the judgment of heaven.
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  • - vi.) and Zephaniah had foretold the invasion of Judah by a mighty people from the north.
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  • Haggai and Zechariah explained the delay by the failure of Judah to rebuild II.
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  • and ii., he was born in "a city of Judah" in "the hill country" (possibly Hebron 1) of priestly parentage.
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  • Supported by the prophets, Zerubbabel and Joshua set about the work, and the elders of Judah built and the work went forward (Ezra v.
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  • Seventy years have passed, and Zion and the cities of Judah still mourn.
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  • an ephahmeasure with a heavy lid and carried from Judah to Chaldaea, where it is to have its home for the future.
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  • (1) Yahweh's word is accomplished on Syria-Phoenicia and Philistia; and then the Messianic kingdom begins in Zion, and the Israelites detained among the heathen, Judah and Ephraim combined, receive a part in it.
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  • the brotherhood between Judah and Israel.
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  • Yahweh first gives victory to the countryfolk of Judah and then they rescue the capital.
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  • were ascribed to a contemporary of Amos and Hosea, about the middle of the 8th century B.C., because Ephraim is mentioned as well as Judah, and Assyria along with Egypt (x.
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  • 1-6); but, as this prophecy speaks only of Judah and Jerusalem, it was dated after the fall of Samaria, and assigned to the last days of the Judaean kingdom on the strength of xii.
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  • for "Yah[weh] is [my] strength"), more correctly Azariah (Hebrew for "Yah[weh] helps"), son of Amaziah, grandson of Joash I., and king of Judah (2 Kings xiv.
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  • 5) could only increase the hostility, and preparations were made by Israel for an alliance with Damascus which culminated in an attack upon Judah in the time of Jotham's son, Ahaz.
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  • ADULLAM, a Canaanitish town in the territory of the tribe of Judah, perhaps the modern 'Aid-el-Ma, 7 m.
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  • Azriyau of Jaudi, also, in inscriptions of Tiglath-Pileser (745-728 B.C.), who was for merly supposed to be Azariah (Uzziah) of Judah, is probably a king of the country in northern Syria known to us from the Zenjirli inscriptions as Ja'di.
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  • 7) - leads an army of Israel and Judah to deliver Jabesh-Gilead from the Ammonites, and is now recognized as king.
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  • The editorial title of the book of Micah declares that Micah prophesied "in the days of Jotham (739-734), Ahaz (733-721) and Hezekiah (720-693), kings of Judah."
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  • In its present form, however, it has been incorporated in a prophecy against Judah, belonging, most probably, to the years 705-701, when a new Palestinian rising provoked Sennacherib's campaign of 701 (Nowack; cf.
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  • 12, 13) 4 are a prediction of judgment on the sins of Judah and Ephraim.
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  • But, while Samaria is summarily dismissed, the sin of Judah is analysed at length in chs.
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  • 7, 22) placed the lucrative trade between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea in the hands of the rulers of Judah.
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  • He employed one of his sons to serve as priest, but when a Levite from Bethlehem in Judah came along he gladly installed him as "father and priest."
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  • ATHALIAH, in the Bible, the daughter of Ahab, and wife of Jehoram, king of Judah.
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  • Samuel Judah Rapoport >>
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  • 1, io), the province of Judah was under a Persian governor (i.
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  • c. 2908) holds that the reference here is purely figurative; " Judah has dealt falsely with the wife of his youth, the covenant religion, and is wedding a strange cult."
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  • Fear of a possible rival may have influenced Joab, and this at all events led him to slay Amasa of Judah (2 Sam.
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  • Alte Test., 2nd ed., 262) suspects a reference to Israel's overlordship in Judah; Burney (Heb.
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  • The "adversaries of Judah and Benjamin" offered to assist but were repulsed, and they raised such opposition to the progress of the work that it ceased until the second year of Darius (521520 B.C.).
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  • In the twentieth year of Artaxerxes (445 B.C.), Nehemiah the royal cup-bearer at Shushan (Susa, the royal winter palace) was visited by friends from Judah and was overcome with grief at the tidings of the miserable condition of Jerusalem and the pitiful state of the Judaean remnant which had escaped the captivity.
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  • According to this view, Judah and Jerusalem were practically deserted until the return.
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  • 17-19 with the notice of the conspiracy of Tobiah and the nobles of Judah.
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  • In the next chapter (v.) the seer has a vision of a roll in the hand of Him that sat on the throne which none could open or look upon, till the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the mighty one with seven horns.
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  • For some centuries the term was applied to the northern kingdom, as distinct from Judah, although the feeling of national unity extended it so as to include both.
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  • On this account Saul spared them when bidden by Yahweh to destroy Amalek; David, too, whilst living in Judah, appears to have been on friendly terms with them (I Sam.
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  • 16), see CALEB, GENESIS, JERAHMEEL, JUDAH.
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  • "Yah[weh] raiseth up"), in the Bible, son of Josiah and king of Judah (2 Kings xxiii.
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  • It was at the close of Jehoiakim's reign, apparently just before his death, that the enemy appeared at the gates of Jerusalem, and although he himself "slept with his fathers" his young son was destined to see the first captivity of the land of Judah (597 B.C.).
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  • I) are intended is disputed; it is uncertain whether Judah suffered in 605 B.C. (Berossus in Jos.
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  • 19), on the border between Judah and Benjamin (Josh.
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  • 83), it maintained, down even to the days of the Maccabees, a vigorous though somewhat intermittent independence against the power of the Israelites, by whom it was nominally assigned to the territory of Judah.
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  • It is necessary to realize Gaza's position and its links with trading centres, since conditions in the comparatively small and halfdesert land of Judah depended essentially upon its relations with the Edomites and Arabian tribes on the south-east and with the Philistines on the west.
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  • Its king Hanun had fled to Musri, but was pursued and captured; Ascalon, Judah and Edom appear in a list of tributaries.
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  • Judah, Edom and Moab were also involved, but submitted (711 B.C.).
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  • Gaza and Edom against Judah in Amos i.
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  • Farther south came the turn of Ascalon, Lachish and Libnah; Judah under " Hezekiah suffered severely, and its western cities were transferred to the faithful vassals of Ekron, Ashdod and Gaza.
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  • In the 7th century Gaza, Ascalon, Ashdod and Ekron were Assyrian vassals, together with Judah, Moab and Edom - in all, twenty-two kings of the " Hittites " - and the discovery of Assyrian contract-tablets at Gezer (c. 650) may indicate the presence of Assyrian garrisons.
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  • 22, Lucian's recension), bears upon Judah, but the statements are isolated.
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  • Even in David's fights with the Philistines in Judah, Jerusalem is Jebusite, neighbouring non-Israelite cities are Hivite or Amorite (Joshua ix.
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  • Cheyne, Decline and' Fall of Kingdom of Judah (1908), pp. xx.
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  • 2 In the prophetical writings the Philistines are denounced (with Ammon, Moab and Edom) for their vengeance upon Judah (Ezek.
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  • With Tyre and Sidon they are condemned for plundering Judah, and for kidnapping its children to sell to the Greeks (Joel iii.
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  • Judah is promised reprisals (Zeph.
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  • If we might accept the various theories mentioned above, Balaam would appear in one source of J as an Edomite, in another as an Ammonite; in E as a native of the south of Judah or' possibly as an Aramaean; in the tradition followed by the Priestly Code probably as a Midianite.
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  • Amos, it appears, though himself a Judahite, had been prophesying in the northern kingdom, when his activity was brought to an abrupt close by the head priest of the royal sanctuary at Bethel, Amaziah, who bade him escape to the land of Judah and get his living there.
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  • It was far otherwise in the period of the fall of Judah.
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  • For Amos cannot have been quite alone either in Israel or in Judah; there must have been a little flock of those who felt with Amos that there was small reason indeed to "desire the day of Yahweh" (v.
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  • In Daniel, c. 160 B.C., angels, usually spoken of as " men " or " princes," appear as guardians or champions of the nations; grades are implied, there are " princes " and " chief " or " great princes "; and the names of some angels are known, Gabriel, Michael; the latter is pre-eminent 26, he is the guardian of Judah.
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  • In Daniel the princes or guardian angels of the heathen nations oppose Michael the guardian angel of Judah.
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  • 17 that the Annals of the Kings of Judah gave no account of Manasseh's repentance, which, according to 2 Chron.
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  • 7), and political affairs in Judah receive attention, not in proportion to their intrinsic importance, but according as they serve to exemplify God's help to the obedient and His chastisement of the rebellious.
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  • That the names "Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah," "Book of Sources.
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  • the Kings of Judah and Israel," "Book of the Kings of Israel," and "Affairs of the Kings of Israel" (2 Chron.
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  • The two chief sources of the canonical book of Kings were entitled Annals (" events of the times") of the Kings of Israel and Judah respectively (see Kings).
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  • The Edomite revolt under Jehoram of Judah becomes the penalty for the king's apostasy (2 Chron.
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  • The Aramaean invasion in the time of Joash of Judah was a punishment for the murder of Jehoiada's son (2 Chron.
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  • Particular prominence is given to the tribe and kings of Judah (i Chron.
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  • The historical value of these lists is very unequal; a careful study of the names often proves the lateness of the source, although an appreciation of the principles of genealogies sometimes reveals important historical information; see Caleb, Genealogy, Judah.
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  • 3, 15 sqq.); conflicts between Ephraim and Judah (2 Chron.
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  • Bathsheba, relying upon David's promise that Solomon should succeed him, vigorously advanced her son's claims with the support of Zadok the priest, the military officer Benaiah, and David's bodyguard; Adonijah, for his part, had David's old priest Abiathar, the commander Joab, and the men of Judah.
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  • The description of Solomon's administration not only ignores the tribal divisions which play an important part in the separation of Israel from Judah (xii.
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  • 9 seq.), but south Judah and Hebron the seat of David's early power find no place, and it would seem as though the district which had shared in the revolt of Adonijah was freed from the duty of furnishing supplies.
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  • Arpad revolted soon afterwards, but after a siege was taken in 740 B.C. The following year Azariah of Judah appears among the enemies of Tiglath-Pileser, who had overthrown his Hamathite allies and annexed the nineteen districts of Hamath.
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  • In 734 B.C. he was called to the help of Yahu-khazi (Ahaz) of Judah, who had been attacked by Pekah of Israel and Rezon (Rasun) of Damascus.
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  • 7, always "the Molech"), the name or title of the divinity which the men of Judah in the last ages of the kingdom were wont to propitiate by the sacrifice of their own children.
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  • Even the Hebrew historian ascribes to this act the effect of rousing divine indignation against the invading host of Israel; it would not, therefore, be surprising if under the miseries brought on Palestine by the westward march of the Assyrian power, the idea of the sacrifice of one's own son, as the most powerful of atoning rites, should have taken hold of those kings of Judah (Ahaz and Manasseh, 2 Kings xvi.
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  • to seq.); indeed the monarchs of Judah, like those of other nations, did sacrifice in person when they chose down to the time of the captivity (I Kings ix.
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  • - The traditions current among the Israelites respecting the origins and early history of their nation - the patriarchal period, and the times of Moses and Joshua - were probably first cast into a written form in the 10th or 9th century B.C. by a prophet living in Judah, who, from the almost exclusive use in his narrative of the sacred name " Jahveh " (" Jehovah "), - or, as we now commonly write it, Yahweh, - is referred to among scholars by the abbreviation " J."
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  • Not long, probably, after the fall of the northern kingdom in 722 B.C., a prophet of Judah conceived the plan of compiling a comprehensive history of the traditions of his people.
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  • vi.) having reference to the condition of Judah and Israel, and the movements of the Assyrians during the reigns of Ahaz and Hezekiah.
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  • xliv.) was delivered by him in Egypt, whither he was carried, against his will, by some of the Jews who had been left in Judah, shortly after the fall of Jerusalem in 586.
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  • the Chronicles, place the old history in a new light; he invests it with the associations of his own day; and pictures pre-exilic Judah as already possessing the fully developed ceremonial.
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  • From the Fourth Year of Solomon to the Captivity of Judah.
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  • The following are examples of the standing formulae used by the compiler for the purpose :-" In the twentieth year of Jeroboam king of Israel began Asa to reign over Judah.
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  • " In the third year of Asa king of Judah began Baasha the son of Ahijah to reign over all Israel in Tirzah (and reigned) twenty and four years " (ibid.
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  • In these chronological notices the lengths of the reigns were derived, there is every reason to suppose, either from tradition or from the state annals-the " book of the chronicles of Israel " (or " Judah "), so constantly referred to by the compiler as his authority (e.g.
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  • After the division of the kingdom the first year of Jeroboam in Israel coincides, of course, with the first year of Rehoboam in Judah; and after the death of Jehoram of Israel and Ahaziah of Judah in battle with Jehu (2 Kings ix.
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  • 24, 27), the first year of Jehu in Israel coincides similarly with the first year of Athaliah in Judah: there are thus in the history of the two kingdoms two fixed and certain synchronisms. Now, 3 Namely, 40 years in the wilderness; Joshua and the elders (Judges ii.
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  • if the regnal years of the kings of Israel from Jeroboam toJehoram be added together, they will be found to amount to 98, while if those of the kings of Judah for the same period (viz.
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  • Here, in Judah, from the accession of Athaliah to the accession of Ahaz, tradition gives 143 years, whereas, in fact, there were but 196 years (842-736); and in Israel, from the death of Menahem to the fall of Samaria, it gives 31 years, whereas from 738 (assuming that Menahem died in that year) to 722 there are actually only 16 years.
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  • This is known to the probably contemporary Testament of Judah and to much later Midrashim (Mid.
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  • To Hosea, at least in his later prophecies, the fate of Judah does not appear separable from that of the northern realm - when Israel and Ephraim fall by their iniquity Judah must fall with them (Hos.
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  • It was therefore only as the God of Israel that the true God could be known within Israel; and so on the one hand the little society of faith - which had not in reality the least tinge of political coherence - is thought of as yet forming the true kernel of the nation qua nation, while on the other hand the state of Judah profits by the prophetic religion inasmuch as the nation must be saved from destruction in order that the prophetic faith - which is still bound up with the idea of the nation - may not be dissolved.
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  • Nay, every attempt at genuine amendment was frustrated by the dead weight of a powerful opposition, and when the first captivity came it was precisely the best elements of Judah that went into captivity and were scattered among the nations (xxiv.
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  • 10 must be rendered "Until he cometh to Shiloh," and refers to the division of the kingdom of Judah after Solomon's death.
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  • 1-3 the Israelites (a generalizing amplification) captured Hormah, on the way to Beersheba, and subsequently the clan Caleb and the Kenites (the clan of Moses' father-in-law) are found in Judah (Judg.
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  • 2 If certain clans moved direct from Kadesh into Judah, it is improbable that others made the lengthy detour from Kadesh by the Gulf of Akabah, but this may well be an attempt to fuse the traditions of two distinct migrations.
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  • Kent, &C. See Caleb; Jerahmeel; Judah; Kenites; Levites; and Jews: History, §§ 5, 20 (end).
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  • Such was the theory of the kingship in Ephraim as well as in Judah (Deut.
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  • All Israel and Judah flocked to his side, and David, attended only by the Cherethites and Pelethites and some recent recruits from Gath, found it expedient to flee.
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  • 31-34) which Jehovah would make with Israel when representatives of the previously exiled ten tribes should return with the exiles of Judah.
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  • foolish!), a man of Judah whose son was a member of David's bodyguard.
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  • It never passed for long into Israelite hands, though subject for a while to Hezekiah of Judah; from him it passed to Assyria.
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  • But Elulaeus, according to Menander, suppressed the revolt of Citium, and early in the reign of Sennacherib joined the league of Philistia and Judah, which had considerable effect upon the' cities of Phoenicia (above, Justin xviii.
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  • Nevertheless Baal submitted in the end, along with the princes of Gebal and Arvad, Manasseh of Judah, and the other Canaanite chiefs; in the island of Cyprus the Assyrians carried all before them ii.
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  • David, who was accepted as king by Judah alone, was meanwhile reigning at Hebron, and for some time war was carried on between the two parties.
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  • (I) The son and successor of Rehoboam, king of Judah (2 Chron.
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  • Although Moab and Ammon were "brothers," their history was usually associated with that of Judah and Israel respectively, and naturally depended to a considerable extent upon these two and their mutual relations.
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  • now gives prominence to Elisha, his wonders, his hostility to the ruling dynasty and his regard for the aged Jehoshaphat of Judah.
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  • Following other synchronisms, the Septuagint (Lucian's recension) names Ahaziah of Judah; from 2 Kings i.
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  • The king of Edom appears as an ally of Israel and Judah (contrast i Kings xxii.
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  • Singularly enough, Jehoram of Judah suffered some defeat from Edom at Zair, an unknown name for which Ewald suggested (the Moabite) Zoar (2 Kings viii.
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  • 14) paid tribute to Tiglath-Pileser IV., but joined the short-lived revolt with Judah and Philistia in 71 i.
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  • If it made inroads upon Judah (2 Kings xxiv.
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  • 8) or Judah (ibid.
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  • Nor can it be sought in political history, since Israel and Judah suffered as much from external movements as Moab itself.
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  • For a description of the natural features of the country see Palestine; for its history see Jews and Judah.
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  • Judah >>
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  • ra'bi-ilu, `Am may represent some god; Septuagint reads po f 30a,u), son of Solomon and first king of Judah.
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  • Towns of both Judah and Israel are incorporated, and it is possible that Jerusalem once stood where now the stone is mutilated.'
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  • That the book of Ruth did not originally form part of the series of "Former Prophets" (Joshua - Kings) is further probable from the fact that it is quite untouched by the process of "prophetic" or "Deuteronomistic" editing, which helped to give that series its present shape after the fall of the kingdom of Judah.
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  • 12 to the story of Tamar and Judah.
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  • IBN GABIROL [SOLOMON BEN JUDAH}, Jewish poet and philosopher, was born at Malaga, probably about 1021.
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  • The other important work of Ibn Gabirol is .141äh al-akhlaq (the improvement of character), a popular work in Arabic, translated into Hebrew (Tigqun middoth ha-nephesh) by Judah ibn Tibbon.
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  • The collection of moral maxims, compiled in Arabic but best known (in the Hebrew translation of Judah ibn Tibbon) as Mibhar ha-peninim, is generally ascribed to Ibn Gabirol, though on less certain grounds.
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  • Cheyne's suggestion that the unknown brook Cherith should be placed to the south of Judah agrees with Josephus (Ant.
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  • The first stage of the journey was to Beersheba, on the southern limits of Judah.
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  • 12-15) is where he is represented as sending a letter of rebuke and denunciation to Jehoram, son of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah.
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  • During Ahab's reign Moab, which had been conquered by his father, remained tributary; Judah, with whose king, Jehoshaphat, he was allied by marriage, was probably his vassal; only with Damascus is he said to have had strained relations.
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  • The numbers are comparatively large and possibly include forces from Tyre, Judah, Edom and Moab.
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  • It lay inland and off the main line of traffic. Though included by the Israelites within the limits of the tribe of Judah, and mentioned in Judges xix.
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  • From Assyrian inscriptions it has been gathered that Padi, king of Ekron, was for a time the vassal of Hezekiah of Judah, but regained his independence when the latter was hard pressed by Sennacherib.
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  • Sheshonk secured Thebes, making one of his sons high priest of Ammon, and whereas Solomon appears to have dealt with a king of Egypt on something like an equal footing, Sheshonk re-established Egyptian rule in Palestine and Nubia, and his expedition in the fifth year of Rehoboam subdued Israel as well as Judah, to judge by the list of city names which he inscribed on the wall of the temple of Karnak.
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  • Pharaoh Hophra (Apries), 589570 B.C., fomented rebellion against the Babylonian suzerainty in Judah, but accomplished little there.
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  • ZEDEKIAH (Hebrew for "righteousness of Yah[weh]"), son of Josiah, and the last king of Judah (2 Kings xxiv.
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  • On one occasion, when he delivered the army that had been brought out against Moab from a threatened dearth of water (2 Kings iii.), 2 he plainly intimates that, but for his regard to Jehoshaphat, the king of Judah, who was in alliance with Israel, he would not have interfered.
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  • He laid down seven rules for the interpretation of the Scriptures, and these became the foundation of rabbinical hermeneutics; and the ordering of the traditional doctrines into a whole, effected in the Mishna by his successor Judah I., two hundred years after Hillel's death, was probably likewise due to his instigation.
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  • The facade, which is flanked by two square towers without spires, has three portals decorated with a profusion of statuary, the central portal having a remarkable statue of Christ of the 13th century; they are surmounted by two galleries, the upper one containing twenty-two statues of the kings of Judah in its arcades, and by a fine rose-window.
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  • Judah Ben Solomon Harizi >>
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  • Hezekiah's time may have been selected by the author of the title (or by the tradition which he represents) as being the next great literary period in Judah after Solomon, the time of Micah and Isaiah, or the selection may have been suggested by the military glory of the period (the repulse of the Assyrian army) and by the fame of Hezekiah as a pious monarch and a vigorous reformer of the national religion.
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  • 6), the modern Arabic Yebna, a town of Palestine, on the border between Dan and Judah, situated 13 m.
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  • Jamnia belonged to the Philistines, and Uzziah of Judah is said to have taken it (2 Chron.
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  • Till the period of the Roman occupation it was subdivided into independent provinces or kingdoms, different at different times (such as Philistia, Canaan, Judah, Israel, Bashan, &c.), but never united under one collective designation.
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  • A conspicuous feature is the difficulty of maintaining this single monarchy, which, however it originated, speedily became two rival states (Judah and Israel).
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  • The balance of power moves now to Israel and now to Judah, and tendencies to internal disintegration are illustrated by the dynastic changes in Israel and by the revolts and intrigues in both states.
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  • to its interference in Philistia and friendliness to Judah, see Philistine), the chief event was the great invasion by Sheshonk (Shishak) in the latter part of the 10th century; but although it appears to be an isolated campaign, contact with Egypt, to judge from the archaeological results of the excavations, was never intermittent.
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  • The royal houses of Phoenicia, Israel and Judah were united by intermarriage, and the last two by joint undertakings in trade and war (note also i Kings ix.
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  • The anti-Assyrian alliance was, as often in west Asia, a temporary one, and the inveterate rivalries of the small states are illustrated, in a striking manner, in the downfall of Omri's dynasty and the rise of that of Jehu (842-c. 745); in the bitter onslaughts of Damascus upon Israel, leading nearly to its annihilation; in an unsuccessful attack upon the king of Hamath by Damascus, Cilicia and small states in north Syria; in an Israelite expedition against Judah and Jerusalem (2 Kings xiv.
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  • Israel at the death of Jeroboam was rent by divided factions, whereas Judah (under Uzziah) has now become a powerful kingdom, controlling both Philistia and the Edomite port of Elath on the gulf of `Akaba.
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  • The dependence of Judaean sovereignty upon these districts was inevitable; the resources of Jerusalem obviously did not rely upon the small district of Judah alone.
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  • It is possible that Judah (under Uzziah and Jotham) had come to an understanding with Assyria; at all events Ahaz was at once encircled by fierce attacks, and was only saved by Tiglath-Pileser's campaign against Philistia, north Israel and Damascus.
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  • Judah itself was next involved in an anti-Assyrian league (with Edom, Moab and Philistia), but apparently submitted in time; nevertheless a decade later (70r), after the change of dynasty in Assyria, it participated in a great but unsuccessful effort from Phoenicia to Philistia to shake off the yoke, and suffered disastrously.3 With the crushing blows upon Syria and Samaria the centre of interest moves southwards and the history is influenced by Assyria's rival Babylonia (under Marduk-baladan and his successors), by north Arabia and by Egypt.
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  • Henceforth there is little Samarian history, and of Judah, for nearly a century, few political events are recorded (JEws; § 16).
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  • A recently published inscription of Sennacherib (of 694 B.C.) mentions enslaved peoples from Philistia and Tyre, but does not name Judah.
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  • Judah (under Josiah) was overthrown at Megiddo, where about nine centuries previously the victory of Tethmoses (Thutmose) III.
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  • Although Syria and Palestine now became Babylonian, this revival of the Egyptian Empire aroused hopes in Judah of deliverance and led to revolts (under Jehoiachin and Zedekiah), in which Judah was apparently not alone.'
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  • Assyrian conquest and domination influenced the cults at all events outside Judah and Israel, and when Sargon sent skilled men to teach " the fear of God and the king " (cyl.
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  • As a matter of fact the prophets Jeremiah and Ezekiel by no means regarded the population lying to the north of Judah as strangers, and the latter in turn were ready to share the Judaean distress at the fall of Jerusalem (Jer.
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  • From the description of Sennacherib's invasion it is clear that social and economic conditions must have been seriously, perhaps radically disturbed,' and the quiescence of Judah during the next few decades implies an internal weakness and a submission to Assyrian supremacy.
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  • The land was not denuded, and the fact that " some scores of thousands of Jews remained in Judah through all the period of the exile," 3 even though they were " the poorest of the land," revolutionizes ordinary notions of this period.
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  • But the Judaean historians have successfully concealed the course of events, although, as has long been recognized, there was some movement upwards from the south of Judah of groups closely tion of related to Edomite and kindred peoples of South New Palestine and Northern Arabia.
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  • l i ke the new occupants of Samaria, gradually assimilated themselves to the new soil; but the circumstances can hardly be recovered, and even the relations between Judah and Samaria can only be inferred.
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  • The ruling classes are related partly to the southern groups already mentioned and partly to Samaria; but the kingship of old is replaced by a high-priest, and, under the influence of Babylonian Jews of the strictest principles, a breach was made between Judah and Samaria which has never been healed (JEws: § 21 seq.).
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  • There is internal literary support for this in the criticism of Deuteronomy (which appears to have in view a comprehensive Israel and Judah at this period), and of various passages evidently earlier than Nehemiah's time (see R.
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  • Its appearance has been associated with the invasion of the Israelites or with the establishment of the independent monarchy, but on very inadequate grounds; and since it has been independently placed at the latter part of the monarchy, its historical explanation may presumably be found in that break in the career of Palestine when peoples were changed and new organizations slowly grew up. 5 The great significance of these vicissitudes for the course of internal conditions in Palestine is evident when it is observed that the subsequent cleavage between Judah and Samaria, not earlier than the 5th century, presupposes an antecedent common foundation which, in view of the history of the monarchies, can hardly be earlier than the 7th century.
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  • These centuries represent an age which the Jewish historians have partly ignored (as regards Samaria) and partly obscured (as regards the return from exile and the reconstruction of Judah); but since this age stands at the head of an historical development which leads on to Christianity and Rabbinical Judaism, it is necessary to turn from Palestine as a land in order to notice more particularly certain features of the Old Testament upon which the foregoing evidence directly bears.
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  • of Judah, ed.
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  • The strange character of the names of the first kings in Israel and Judah (Saul, David and Solomon), noticed already by A.
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  • The biblical history is a " canonical " history which looks back to the patriarchs, the exodus from Egypt, the law-giving and the covenant with Yahweh at Sinai, the conquest of Palestine by the Israelite tribes, the monarchy, the rival kingdoms, the fall and exile of the northern tribes, and, later, of the southern (Judah), and the reconstructions of Judah in the times of Cyrus, Darius and Artaxerxes.
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  • But other evidence also points to an entrance from Kadesh into Judah, and associates the kin of Moses, Kenites, Calebites and others.
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  • An enormous gap severs the pre-monarchical period from this age, and while the tribal schemes and tribal traditions can hardly be traced during the monarchies, the inclusion of Judah among the " sons " of Israel would not have originated when Judah and Israel were rival kingdoms. Yet the tribes survive in post-exilic literature and their traditions develop henceforth in Jubilees, Testament of the XII Patriarchs, &c.
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  • During the changes from the 8th century onwards a nonmonarchical constitution naturally prevailed, first in the north and then in the south, and while in the north the mingled peoples of Samaria came to regard themselves as Israelite, the southern portion, the tribe of Judah, proves in I Chron.
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  • Old tradition suggests the " schools of the prophets " at Jericho, Gilgal and Bethel, and in fact the proximity of these places, especially Bethel, to Judaean soil may be connected with the friendly and sometimes markedly favourable attitude to Judah in these narratives.
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  • The interest of the narratives clings around north Judah and Benjamin, and more attention is given to the rise of the Judaean dynasty, the hostility of Saul, and the romantic friendship between his son Jonathan and the young David of Bethlehem.
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  • The account of his steps contains details touching Judah and its relation to Israel which cannot be reconciled with certain traditions of Saul and the Ephraimite Joshua.
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  • The history of Judah is, broadly speaking, that of the Davidic dynasty and the Temple, and it begins at the time of the first king of the rival north.
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  • Chronicles, with the book of Ezra and Nehemiah, makes a continuity between the old Judah which fell in 586 and the return (time of Cyrus), the rebuilding of the temple (Darius), and the reorganization associated with Nehemiah and Ezra (Artaxerxes).
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  • 14, 20-24), a Judah consisting of fragments of an older stock replenished with families of South Palestinian, Edomite and North Arabian affinity.
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  • This half-Edomite population, recognizable also in Benjamin, manifests its presence in the official lists, and more especially in the ecclesiastical bodies inaugurated by David, from whose time the supremacy of this Judah is dated.
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  • accord with certain details in 1 Samuel, and appear to refer to a half-Edomite Judah in David's time (c. 1000 B.e.).
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  • Meyer, on the basis of a larger induction, has pointed out the relation of this Judah to a large group of Edomite or Edomite-Ishmaelite tribes.
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  • 4 The rise of this new Judah is generally attributed to David, but the southern clans remain independent for some five centuries, only moving a few miles nearer Jerusalem; and this vast interval severs the old halfEdomite or Arabian Judah from the sequel - the association of such names as Kora.h, Ethan and Heman with temple-psalms and psalmody.
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  • Such a movement is in keeping with the course of Palestinian history from the traditional entrance of the Israelite tribes to the relatively recent migration of the tribe 1 " The population of South Judah was of half-Arab origin " (W.
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  • Cheyne, who writes (Decline and Fall of the Kingdom of Judah, London, 1908, p. xxxvii.)..
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  • A few centuries later, the Edomites (Idumaeans) were again closely connected with the Jews; an Idumaean dynasty - that of the Herods - ruled in Judah, and once more there must have been a considerable amount of intermixture.
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  • The history of the past is viewed from rather different positions which, on the whole, are subsequent to the relatively recent changes that gave birth to new organizations in Samaria and Judah.
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  • 3 The term " post-exilic " is applied to literature and history after the return of exiles and the religious reconstruction of Judah.
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  • The history of these centuries is of fundamental importance in any attempt to " reconstruct " biblical history., The fall of Samaria and Judah was a literary as well as a political catastrophe, and precisely how much earlier material has been 6 Cf.
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  • (7th century), and not only are they in touch with Judah and Samaria, but in Psamtek's time an effort was made by the Asiatic and other mercenaries to escape into Ethiopia (J.
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  • By the inclusion of the Philistines among the oppressors, and of Judah, Benjamin and Ephraim among the oppressed (x.
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  • The older parts are preserved in xix.: the account of the Levite of Mt Ephraim whose concubine from Bethlehem in Judah was outraged, not by the non-Israelite Jebusites of Jerusalem, but by the Benjamites of Gibeah; there are traces of another source in vv.
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  • JUDAH PHILIP BENJAMIN (1811-1884), Anglo-American lawyer, of Jewish descent, was born a British subject at St Thomas in the West Indies on the 11th of August 1811, and was successively an American lawyer, a leading Confederate politician and a distinguished English barrister.
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  • See Judah P. Benjamin, by Pierce Butler (Philadelphia, 1907, with a good bibliography).
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  • for "[my] strength is [of] Yah"), in the Bible son of Ahaz, one of the greatest of the kings of Judah.
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  • Whether he came to the throne before or after the fall of Samaria (722721 B.C.) is disputed,' nor is it clear what share Judah took in the Assyrian conflicts down to 701.2 Shortly before this date the whole of western Asia was in a ferment; Sargon had died and Sennacherib had come to the throne (in 705); vassal kings plotted to recover their independence and Assyrian puppets were removed by their opponents.
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  • Judah was in touch with a general rising in S.W.
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  • In this invasion of Judah the Assyrian claims entire success; 46 towns of Judah were captured, 200,150 men and many herds of cattle were carried off among the spoil, and Jerusalem itself was closely invested.
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  • That Judah was invaded on this latter occasion is not improbable.
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  • (4) A town in the tribe of Judah (Joshua xv.
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  • Judah, grandson of Gamaliel II., known as the Prince or Patriarch (nasi), as Rabbenu (" our teacher "), or simply as " Rabbi " par excellence, was the editor.
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  • Judah, above), and were famed for their knowledge of law; so numerous were their points of difference that the Talmud will emphasize certain decisions by the statement that the two were agreed.
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  • Judah allows it.
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  • south of Beersheba (the southern end of Israel as opposed to Dan in the north), and the precise borders must always have been determined by political conditions: by the relations between Edom and its neighbours, Judah, the Philistine states, Moab, and the restless desert tribes with which Edom was always very closely allied.
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  • 47).3 Of the conquest of Edom by David, the first king of the united Judah and Israel, several details are given (2 Sam.
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  • However, in the first half of the 9th century Edom was under the rule of Jehoshaphat of Judah, and this king together with Israel held Ezion-geber (r Kings xxii.
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  • In the time of Adad-nirari of Assyria (812-783 B.C.) Edom is mentioned as an independent tributary with Beth-Omri (Israel) and Palashtu (Philistia); the absence of Judah is perplexing.
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  • Amaziah of Judah had gained a signal victory over Edom in the valley of Salt (2 Kings xiv.
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  • In the middle of the 7th century both Edom and Moab suffered from the restlessness of the desert tribes, and after another period of obscurity, they joined in the attempt made by Zedekiah of Judah to revolt against Nebuchadrezzar (Jer.
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  • The pressure of the Nabataeans forced Edom to leave its former seats and advance into the south of Judah with Hebron as the capital.
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  • See, for further history, Herod; Jews.4 Although but little is known of the inhabitants of Edom, their close relationship to Judah and their kinship with the surrounding tribes invest them with particular interest.
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  • The ties which united Lot (the "father" of Ammon and Moab), Ishmael, Midian and Edom (Esau) with the southern tribes Judah and Simeon, as manifested in the genealogical lists, are intelligible enough on geographical grounds alone, and the significance of this for the history of Judah and Palestine cannot be ignored.
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  • 16, read "Edom" for "Aram"), and Judah and Israel as well as Gaza and Damascus enjoyed the fruits of its commerce.
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  • of Judah; cf.
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  • There is no trace of his confident faith in the restoration of both Israel and Judah (Jer.
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  • verse I; " adversaries " (o' is), of Judah's hostile neighbours, verse 7, Neh.
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  • With verse 3 " Judah migrated from oppression; From greatness of servitude; She settled among the nations, Without finding a resting-place," cf.
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  • On entering Palestine it is allotted a portion encompassed by the districts of Ephraim, Dan and Judah.
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  • Although its territory lies open on the west and east, its physical features unite it to Judah, and what is known of its mixed population 1 makes it difficult to determine how far the youngest of the tribes of Israel enjoyed any independent position previous to the monarchy.
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  • Its neutral position between Judah and Ephraim gave it an importance which was religious as well as political.
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  • When in 734-733 B.C. Ahaz, king of Judah, alarmed at the preparations made against him by the Syro-Ephraimitish alliance, was inclined to seek aid from Tiglath-pileser of Assyria, the prophet Isaiah endeavoured to allay his fear by telling him that the danger would pass away, and as a sign from Yahweh that this should be so, any young woman who should within the year bear a son, might call his name Immanuel in token of the divine protection accorded to Judah.
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  • Here lived Rabbi Judah ha k-I adosh, editor of the Mishnah; here was edited the Jerusalem Talmud, and here are the tombs of Rabbi Aqiba and Maimonides.
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  • As the chronicler had rewritten the history of Israel and Judah from the standpoint of the Priests' Code, so our author re-edited from the Pharisaic standpoint of his time the history of the world from the creation to the publication of the Law on Sinai.
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  • "Yah[weh] establisheth"), in the Bible, son of Jehoiakim and king of Judah (2 Kings xxiv.
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  • He came to the throne at the age of eighteen in the midst of the Chaldean invasion of Judah, and is said to have reigned three months.
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  • (3) King of Judah, son of Amaziah by his wife Jecholiah (2 Kings xv.
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  • (4) Son of Ethan and great-grandson of Judah (I Chron.
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  • (5) Son of Jehu, of the posterity of Judah (1 Chron.
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  • (6) A prophet in the reign of Asa, king of Judah (2 Chron.
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  • (7) Two sons of Jehoshaphat, king of Judah (2 Chron.
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  • (8) King of Judah, also called Ahaziah and Jehoahaz, son of Jehoram (2 Chron.
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  • There has also to be considered whether the text of the poetical passages has not often become corrupt, not only from ordinary causes but through the misunderstanding and misreading of north Arabian names on the part of late scribes and editors, the danger to Judah from north Arabia being (it is held) not less in pre-exilic times than the danger from Assyria and Babylonia, so that references to north Arabia are only to be expected.
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  • Dan, he declares, sooner than join in Jeroboam's scheme of an Israelite war against Judah, had migrated to Cush, and finally, with the help of Naphthali, Asher and Gad, had founded an independent Jewish kingdom in the Gold Land of Havila, beyond Abyssinia.
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  • Jethro was invited to accompany the people into the promised land, and later, we find his clan settling in the south of Judah (Judg.
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  • Further (c) the capture of Hebron and Debir is ascribed to Judah who gives them to Caleb (Judg.
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  • Primarily the clan Caleb was settled in the south of Judah but formed an independent unit (i Sam.
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  • Not until later are the small divisions of the south united under the name Judah, and this result is reflected in the genealogies where the brothers Caleb and Jerahmeel are called "sons of Hezron" (the name typifies nomadic life) and become descendants of Judah.
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  • 19 (post-exilic), Caleb becomes the representative of the tribe of Judah, and also in c (above) Caleb's enterprise was later regarded as the work of the tribe with which it became incorporated.
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  • (See JERAHMEEL, KENITES, SIMEON.) The genealogical lists place the earliest seats of Caleb in the south of Judah (i Chron.
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  • the house of Jacob shall regain their old possessions; Edom shall be burned up before them as chaff before the flame; they shall spread over all Canaan, over the mountain of Esau and the south of Judah, as well as over Gilead and the Philistine and Phoenician coast.
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  • 14; but such passages represent this conquest as a suzerainty of Israel over its neighbours, as in the days of David, while in Obadiah, as in other later books, the intensified antithesis - religious as well as political - between Judah and the surrounding heathen finds its expression in the idea of a consuming judgment on the latter - the great "day of Yahweh."
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  • Ahaziah son of Jehoram of Judah and Jehoram brother of Ahaziah of Israel had taken joint action against the Aramaeans of Damascus who were attacking Ramoth-Gilead under Hazael.
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  • Judah Philip Benjamin >>
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  • 1, be the well-known king of Judah (c. 720-690).
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  • Zephaniah's prophecies are characterized by the denunciation of Judah and Jerusalem and the promise of a peaceful future, and these are interwoven with the idea of a world-wide judgment resulting in the sovereignty of a universally recognized Yahweh.
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  • I) and the announcement of the entire destruction of every living thing (2-3), the fate of Judah and Jerusalem is heralded (4-6).
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  • Thus Yahweh's jealousy fired by the dishonour shown towards him in Judah will make an end of all them that dwell in the earth (v.
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  • With a sudden transition the " remnant of the house of Judah " is promised the maritime coast (v.
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  • 7 seq.) there will be a purified Judah (cf.
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  • The foe which threatened Judah has become the chastiser of Ethiopia and Assyria (ii.) and the prelude to the golden age (iii., cf.
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  • Manasseh of Judah >>
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  • for "[Yahweh] holds"), son of Jotham, grandson of Uzziah or Azariah and king of Judah.
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  • After the death of Menahem, Pekah, king of Israel, and Rezin (rather Rasun), king of Syria, allied against Assyria, invaded Judah, and laid siege to Jerusalem in the hope of setting up one of their puppets upon the throne.
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  • 16 sqq.) and Judah was isolated.
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  • I-17), Ahaz lost heart and used the temple funds to call in the aid of Tiglath-pileser IV., who after attacking the Philistines destroyed the power of Syria, taking care to exact heavy tribute from Judah, which led to further despoliation of the temple.
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  • Though situated in the nominal territory of the tribe of Judah, it was never for any length of time in the possession of the Israelites.
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  • During the exile many occasional fasts were doubtless observed by the scattered communities, in sorrowful commemoration of the various sad events which had issued in the downfall of the kingdom of Judah.
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  • Judah Ben Samuel Halevi >>
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  • Thus the religion of Judah became henceforward a religion which enabled its adherents to learn from a book exactly what was required of them.
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  • It opens with Judah, its borders (xv.
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  • 2-10, source uncertain); seven tribes have not yet received an inheritance, and Joshua (alone) encourages them to send three men from each tribe to walk through the land-excluding the territory of Judah and Joseph-and to bring a description of it to him, after which he divides it among them by lot.
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  • The older source, however, presupposes that Judah and the two Joseph tribes have acquired their territory; the remaining seven are blamed for their indifference (xviii.
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  • Another account of the exploits of Judah and Joseph can be traced here and there; e.g.
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  • But points of resemblance between Joshua the invader and Saul the founder of the (north) Israelite monarchy gain in weight when the traditions of both recognize the inclusion or possession of Judah, and thus stand upon quite another plane as compared with those of David the founder of the Judaean dynasty.
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  • AHAZIAH (" he whom Yahweh sustains"), the name of two kings in the Bible, one of Israel, the other of Judah.
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  • (2) Ahaziah, 6th king of Judah, was the son of Jehoram and Ahab's daughter Athaliah, and reigned one year.
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  • crowds the early history of the family of Judah into the twenty-two years between xxxvii.
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  • Joseph incurs the ill-will of his brethren because of Israel's partiality or because of his significant dreams. He is at Shechem or at Dothan; and when the brothers seek to slay him, Judah proposes that he should be sold to Ishmaelites, or Reuben suggests that he should be cast into a pit, where Midianites find and kidnap him (xxxvii., cf.
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  • Among other signs of dual origin are the alternation of" Jacob "and" Israel,"and the prominence of Judah (xliii.
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  • Jacob is otherwise known as Israel and becomes the father of the tribes of Israel; Joseph is the father of Ephraim and Manasseh, and incidents in the life of Judah lead to the birth of Perez and Zerah, Judaean clans.
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  • Judah is promised a world-wide king (xlix.8-io), though elsewhere the supremacy of Joseph rouses the jealousy of his "brothers" (xxxvii.
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  • 5-7) recall the fact that Simeon's cities were in the territory of Judah (Josh.
    0
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  • 28 sqq.), on the other hand, is only intelligible when one recalls the attitude of Judah to the Philistine cities in the 2nd century B.C.; see R.
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  • Charles, ad loc. Israel; but this unity was not felt at certain periods of disorganization, and the idea of including Judah among the sons of Israel could not have arisen at a time when Israel and Judah were rival kingdoms.'
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  • This patriarch and his "brother" Ishmael are closely associated with the district south of Judah, both are connected with Beer-lahai-roi (xxiv.
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  • 43 (original text) the men of Israel claim to be the first-born rather than Judah; cf.
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  • Particular attention is paid to Edom and Jacob, and there is good evidence for a close relationship between Edomite and allied names and those of South Palestine (including Simeon and Judah).
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  • Elsewhere, in the records of the Exodus, there are traces of specific traditions associated with Kadesh, Kenites, Caleb and Jeralimeel, and with a movement into Judah, all originally independent of their present context.
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  • of Judah iii.).
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  • Judah, also, is represented as settling among the Canaanites (xxxviii.), and Simeon marries a Canaanite - according to late tradition, a woman of Zephath (xlvi.
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  • 40); Levi descended with Kehath, who became the grandfather of Aaron and Moses, while Aaron married a descendant in the fifth generation from Judah (Ex.
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  • Judah and Simeon are the first to conquer their lot, and the "house of Joseph" proceeds south to Bethel, where the story of the "weeping" at Bochim finds a parallel in the "oak of weeping" (Gen.
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  • "at that time Judah went down from his brethren"- in xxxvii.
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  • The northern standpoint appears when Rachel, mother of Joseph and Benjamin, is the favoured wife in contrast to the despised Leah, mother of Judah and Simeon; when Joseph is supreme among his brethren; and when Judah is included among the "sons" of Israel.
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  • and iv., the genealogies represent a Judah composed of clans from the south (Caleb and Jerahmeel) and of small families or guilds, Shelah included.
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  • It is not the Judah of the monarchy or of the post-exilic Babylonian-Israelite community.
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  • But the mixed elements were ultimately reckoned among the descendants of Judah, through Hezron the "father" of Caleb and Jerahmeel, and just as the southern groups finally became incorporated in Israel, so it is to be observed that although Hebron and Abraham have gained the first place in the patriarchal history, the traditions are no longer specifically Calebite, but are part of the common Israelite heritage.
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  • Some time after the fall of Jerusalem (587 B.C.) there was a movement from the south of Judah northwards to the vicinity of Jerusalem (Bethlehem, Kirjath-jearim, &c.), where, as can be gathered from I Chron.
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  • Names related to those of Edomite and kindred groups are found in the late genealogies of both Judah and Benjamin, and recur even among families of the time of Nehemiah.
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  • 3 The same obscure period witnessed the advent of southern families, 4 the revival of the Davidic dynasty and its mysterious disappearance, the outbreak of fierce hatred of Edom, the return of exiles from Babylonia, the separation of Judah from Samaria and the rise of bitter anti-Samaritan feeling.
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  • is scarcely pre-exilic, yet naturally there had always been a close relation between Judah and the south, as the Assyrian inscriptions of the latter part of the 8th century B.C. indicate.
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  • A small edifice on the east of the synagogue is called the "Rashi Chapel," and the "Rashi Chair," raised on three steps in the niche, is one of the objects of the pious admiration of pilgrims. At Worms Rashi worked under Jacob ben Yaqar, and at Mainz under Isaac ben Judah, perhaps combining at the same time the functions of teacher and student.
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  • To counteract the influence of Jerusalem he established golden calves at Dan and Bethel, an act which to later ages was as gross a piece of wickedness as his rebellion against the legitimate dynasty of Judah.
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