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Thisconstant, now designated as Joules equivalent, is the principal experimental datum of the science of thermodynamics.

53measure is equivalent to 4.177 joules per calorie at 16.5° C., on the scale of Joule's mercury thermometer.

31Assoc. Report, 1899, with a slight modification Specific Heat Of Water In Terms Of Unit At 20° C. 4.180 Joules to allow for the increase in the specific heat below 20° C. This was estimated in 1899 as being equivalent to the addition of the constant quantity 0.020 to the values of the total heat h of the liquid as reckoned by the parabolic formula (5).

2110° 15° 20° 2 5° 3 O ° 35° Joules Per Cal.

22The unit of heat assumed in the table is the calorie at 20° C., which is taken as equal to 4.180 joules, as explained in the article Calorimetry.

22By Ohm'S Law, And By The Definition Of Difference Of Electric Pressure Or Potential, We Obtain The Following Alternative Expressions For The Quantity Of Heat H In Joules Generated In A Time T Seconds By A Current Of C Amperes Flowing In A Wire Of Resistance R Ohms, The Difference Of Potential Between The Ends Of The Wire Being E = Cr Volts: H=Ect=Crt=E Z T/R.

10A Steady Current Of Liquid, Q Grammes Per Second, Of Specific Heat, Js Joules Per Degree, Flowing Through A Fine Tube, A B, Fig.

11The Result Calculated On These Assumptions Is Given In The Last Column In Joules, And Also In Calories Of 20° C. The Heatloss In This Example Is Large, Nearly 4.5% Of The Total Supply, Owing To The Small Flow And The Large Rise Of Temperature, But This Correction Was Greatly Reduced In Subsequent Observations On The Specific Heat Of Water By The Same Method.

11The coefficients, P and P', are called coefficients of the Peltier effect, and may be stated in calories or joules per ampere-second.

11Like the Peltier coefficient, it may be measured in joules or calories per ampere-second per degree, or more conveniently and simply in microvolts per degree.

11This unit is taken as being 4.180 joules per gramme-degree-centigrade on the scale of the platinum thermometer, corrected to the absolute scale as explained in the article Thermometry, Which Has Been Shown To Be Practically Equivalent To The Hydrogen Scale.

00atm m " which needs multiplied by to convert to Joules.

00The heel seat is capable of absorbing 20 joules of energy.

00If this also fails a third shock using 360 joules is employed.

00This means that you already have 108 thousand joules of kinetic energy for every kg.

00This tells you how many joules of energy the appliance uses every second.

00The lead pair of reindeer would absorb 14.3 quintillion joules of energy per second each.

00joules per square meter (usually for pulsed lasers ).

00joules per kilogram ).

00joules per second " .

00newton meters [Nm] and for work is joules [J] .

00quintillion joules of energy per second each.

00Other convenient practical units of the same kind would be the watt-hour, 3600 joules, which is of the same order of magnitude as the kilocalorie, and the kilowatt-hour, which is the ordinary commercial unit of electrical energy.

00measure is equivalent to 4.177 joules per calorie at 16.5Ã‚° C., on the scale of Joule's mercury thermometer.

0010Ã‚° 15Ã‚° 20Ã‚° 2 5Ã‚° 3 O Ã‚° 35Ã‚° Joules Per Cal.

00Expressed In J Oules Per Calorie The Result Is 4.1832, Which Agrees Very Closely With The Value Foand By Rowland As The Mean Over The Range 15Ã‚° To 20Ã‚° C. The Value 4.183 Is Independently Confirmed In A Remarkable Manner By The Results Of The Electrical Method Described Below, Which Give 4.185 Joules For The Mean Calorie, If Rowland'S Value Is Assumed As The Starting Point, And Taken To Be 4.180 Joules At 20Ã‚° C.

00By Ohm'S Law, And By The Definition Of Difference Of Electric Pressure Or Potential, We Obtain The Following Alternative Expressions For The Quantity Of Heat H In Joules Generated In A Time T Seconds By A Current Of C Amperes Flowing In A Wire Of Resistance R Ohms, The Difference Of Potential Between The Ends Of The Wire Being E = Cr Volts: H=Ect=Crt=E Z T/R.

00Griffiths' Final Result For The Average Value Of The Calorie Over This Range Was 4.192 Joules, Taking The E.M.F.

00The Result Found Was 4.191 Joules Per Calorie At 19Ã‚° C. This Agrees Very Well With Griffiths Considering The Difficulty Of Measuring So Small A Rise Of Temperature At 2Ã‚° With A Mercury Thermometer.

00A Steady Current Of Liquid, Q Grammes Per Second, Of Specific Heat, Js Joules Per Degree, Flowing Through A Fine Tube, A B, Fig.

00The Result Calculated On These Assumptions Is Given In The Last Column In Joules, And Also In Calories Of 20Ã‚° C. The Heatloss In This Example Is Large, Nearly 4.5% Of The Total Supply, Owing To The Small Flow And The Large Rise Of Temperature, But This Correction Was Greatly Reduced In Subsequent Observations On The Specific Heat Of Water By The Same Method.

00Assoc. Report, 1899, with a slight modification Specific Heat Of Water In Terms Of Unit At 20Ã‚° C. 4.180 Joules to allow for the increase in the specific heat below 20Ã‚° C. This was estimated in 1899 as being equivalent to the addition of the constant quantity 0.020 to the values of the total heat h of the liquid as reckoned by the parabolic formula (5).

00This unit is taken as being 4.180 joules per gramme-degree-centigrade on the scale of the platinum thermometer, corrected to the absolute scale as explained in the article Thermometry, Which Has Been Shown To Be Practically Equivalent To The Hydrogen Scale.

00The Value 4.180 Joules At 20Ã‚° C. Is The Mean Between Rowland'S Corrected Result 4.181 And The Value 4.179, Deduced From The Experiments Of Reynolds And Moorby On The Assumption That The Ratio Of The Mean Specific Heat OÃ‚° To 100Ã‚° To That At 20Ã‚° Is 1.043'6, As Given By The Formulae Representing The Results Of Callendar And Barnes.

00It Was Proposed By A Committee Of The British Association To Select The Temperature At Which The Specific Heat Was 4.20O Joules, Leaving The Exact Temperature To Be Subsequently Determined.

00The energy stored up in the jar in joules is expressed by the value of CV 2, where C is the capacity measured in farads and V the potential difference of the coatings in volts.

00If the capacity C is reckoned in microfarads then the energy storage is equal to CV 2 /2 X 19 6 joules or 0.737 CV 2 / 2 X 10 6 foot-pounds.

00The unit of heat assumed in the table is the calorie at 20Ã‚° C., which is taken as equal to 4.180 joules, as explained in the article Calorimetry.

00Thisconstant, now designated as Joules equivalent, is the principal experimental datum of the science of thermodynamics.

00Moorby, gives 778 as the mean value of Joules equivalent through the range of 32 to 212 F.

00The coefficients, P and P', are called coefficients of the Peltier effect, and may be stated in calories or joules per ampere-second.

00Like the Peltier coefficient, it may be measured in joules or calories per ampere-second per degree, or more conveniently and simply in microvolts per degree.

00Expressed In J Oules Per Calorie The Result Is 4.1832, Which Agrees Very Closely With The Value Foand By Rowland As The Mean Over The Range 15° To 20° C. The Value 4.183 Is Independently Confirmed In A Remarkable Manner By The Results Of The Electrical Method Described Below, Which Give 4.185 Joules For The Mean Calorie, If Rowland'S Value Is Assumed As The Starting Point, And Taken To Be 4.180 Joules At 20° C.

01The Value 4.180 Joules At 20° C. Is The Mean Between Rowland'S Corrected Result 4.181 And The Value 4.179, Deduced From The Experiments Of Reynolds And Moorby On The Assumption That The Ratio Of The Mean Specific Heat O° To 100° To That At 20° Is 1.043'6, As Given By The Formulae Representing The Results Of Callendar And Barnes.

01It Was Proposed By A Committee Of The British Association To Select The Temperature At Which The Specific Heat Was 4.20O Joules, Leaving The Exact Temperature To Be Subsequently Determined.

01The energy stored up in the jar in joules is expressed by the value of CV 2, where C is the capacity measured in farads and V the potential difference of the coatings in volts.

01If the capacity C is reckoned in microfarads then the energy storage is equal to CV 2 /2 X 19 6 joules or 0.737 CV 2 / 2 X 10 6 foot-pounds.

01Moorby, gives 778 as the mean value of Joules equivalent through the range of 32 to 212 F.

01

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