NABATAEANS, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus (Ant.
Josephus suggests, and Jerome, apparently following him, affirms, that the name is identical with that of the Ishmaelite tribe of Nebaioth (Gen.
65 we find them at Hebron, and this is one of the first indications that we discover of the cis-Jordanic Idumaea of Josephus and the Talmud.
Josephus used the name Idumaea as including not only Gobalitis, the original Mount Seir, but also Amalekitis, the land of Amalek, west of this, and Akrabatine, the ancient Acrabbim,, S.W.
See Josephus, Antiq.
Originally, however, its formation was very different, as it was intersected by a deep valley, called Tyropoeon by Josephus, which, starting from a point N.W.
Solomon greatly strengthened the fortifications of Jerusalem, and was probably the builder of the line of defence, called by Josephus the first or old wall, which united the cities on the eastern and western hills.
Some writers place it north of the Temple on the site afterwards occupied by the fortress of Antonia, but such a position is not in accord with the descriptions either in Josephus or in the books of the Maccabees, which are quite consistent with each other.
At some period between the time of the Maccabees and of Herod, a second or outer wall had been built outside and north of the first wall, but it is not possible to fix an accurate date to this line of defence, as the references to it in Josephus are obscure.
The writings of Josephus give a good idea of the fortifications and buildings of Jerusalem at the time of the siege, and his accurate personal knowledge makes his account worthy of the most careful perusal.
However, the feeling which was aroused among the priests when some centuries later the singers obtained from Agrippa the privilege of wearing the priestly linen dress (Josephus, Ant.
regarded by Philo and Josephus, who are accustomed to seek a philosophical justification for the peculiar institutions of their religion.
55-63; Plutarch, Pompey, 25.48; Josephus, Antiq.
Although the first definite endeavour to locate the Golden Chersonese thus dates from the middle of the 2nd century of our era, the name was apparently well known to the learned of Europe at a somewhat earlier period, and in his Antiquities of the Jews, written during the latter half of the 1st century, Josephus says that Solomon gave to the pilots furnished to him by Hiram of Tyre commands " that they should go along with his stewards to the land that of old was called Ophir, but now the Aurea Chersonesus, which belongs to India, to fetch gold."
also Josephus, Ant.
8), it is not necessary to take it in the technical Greek sense when the usage of Philo and Josephus permits a looser meaning.
The story of the adoption of Moses by the Egyptian princess appealed to later imagination (Josephus,.
length of reigns), and the difficulty felt in regard to the second and third is obvious in the attempts of the Jewish historian Josephus to provide a compromise.
For this twenty-third year Josephus (Ant.
The Jewish historian Josephus (Ant.
The account of Josephus (above) raises several difficulties, especially the identity of Bagoses.
Browning, " Development."] It is noteworthy that Josephus, who has his own representation of the post-exilic age, allows two years and four months for the work (Ant.
The incidents can be supplemented from Josephus.
There is little doubt that Josephus refers to the same events; but there is considerable confusion in his history of the Persian age, and when he places the schism and the foundation of the new Temple in the time of Alexander the Great (after the obscure disasters of the reign of Artaxerxes III.), it is usually supposed that he is a century too late.
But they were ready to deny their kinship with the Jews when the latter were in adversity, and could have replied to the tradition that they were foreigners with a to quoque (Josephus, Ani.
Daniel, Esther, i Esdras, Josephus), the historical narratives are of the scantiest and vaguest until the time of Artaxerxes, when the account of a return (Ezra iv.
The ancient historians, who together cover this period, are strangely indifferent to the importance of the Jews, upon which Josephus is at pains to insist.
In connexion with Alexander's march through Palestine Josephus gives a tradition of his visit to Jerusalem.
According to the tradition which Josephus has preserved the high priest refused to transfer his allegiance, and Alexander marched against Jerusalem after the capture of Gaza.
- After the death of Alexander Palestine fell in the end to Ptolemy (301 B.C.) and remained an Egyptian province until 198 B.C. For a century the Jews in Palestine and in Alexandria had no history - or none that Josephus knew.
But Josephus reports of one Onias that for avarice he withheld it.
As tax-farmer he oppressed the non-Jewish cities and so won the admiration of Josephus.
At this point Josephus cites the testimony of Polybius: - " Scopas, the general of Ptolemy, advanced into the highlands and subdued the nation of the Jews in the winter.
Josephus adds that an Egyptian garrison was left in Jerusalem.
The country was divided into five districts with five synods; and Josephus asserts that the people welcomed the change from the monarchy.
There is a story of a priest named Onias preserved both by Josephus and in the Talmud, which throws some light upon the indecision of the religious in the period just reviewed.
It is to be remembered that, in this and all narratives of the life of Herod, Josephus was dependent upon the history of Herod's client, Nicolaus of Damascus, and was himself a supporter of law and order.
Pollio the Pharisee and Sameas his disciple were in special honour with him, Josephus says, when he re-entered Jerusalem and put to death the leaders of the faction of Antigonus.
Such is the account which Josephus gives in the Antiquities; in the Jewish War he represents the rabbis and their disciples as looking forward to greater happiness for themselves after such a death.
Order was restored by Varus the governor of Syria in a campaign which Josephus describes as the most important war between that of Pompey and that of Vespasian.
The result of this alliance between a revolutionary and a Pharisee was the formation of the party of Zealots, whose influence - according to Josephus - brought about the great revolt and so led to the destruction of Jerusalem in 70.
So far as this influence extended, the Jewish community was threatened with the danger of suicide, and the distinction drawn by Josephus between the Pharisees and the Zealots is a valid one.
Josephus' history of the Jews contains accounts of John the Baptist and Jesus, the authenticity of which has been called in question for plausible but not entirely convincing reasons.
But Pilate so conducted affairs as to attract the attention not only of Josephus but also of Philo, who represents for us the Jewish community of Alexandria.
During the government of Fadus, Theudas, who claimed to be a prophet and whom Josephus describes as a wizard, persuaded a large number to take up their possessions and follow him to the Jordan, saying that he would cleave the river asunder with a word of command and so provide them with an easy crossing.
The country, Josephus says, was full of " robbers " and " wizards."
Such deceivers, according to Josephus, did no less than the murderers to destroy the happiness of the city.
By comparison with Florus, Albinus was, in the opinion of Josephus, a benefactor.
Josephus and the Zealots.
Ananus the high priest, their leader, remained in command at Jerusalem; Galilee, where the first attack was to be expected, was entrusted to Josephus, the historian of the war.
Josephus set himself to make an army of the inhabitants of Galilee, many of whom had no wish to fight, and to strengthen the strongholds.
In spite of all this Josephus held his ground and by force or craft put down those who resisted his authority.
The inhabitants of Sepphoris - whom Josephus had judged to be so eager for the war that he left them to build their wall for themselves - received a Roman garrison at their own request.
Before his advance the army of Josephus fled.
Josephus with a few stalwarts took refuge in Tiberias, and sent a letter to Jerusalem asking that he should be relieved of his command or supplied with an adequate force to continue the war.
A deserter announced his arrival to Vespasian, who rejoiced (Josephus says) that the cleverest of his enemies had thus voluntarily imprisoned himself.
Josephus, whose pretences had postponed the final assault, hid in a cave with forty men.
At his suggestion they cast lots, and the first man was killed by the second and so on, until all were dead except Josephus and (perhaps) one other.
So Josephus saved them from the sin of suicide and gave himself up to the Romans.
And so, when Vespasian was proclaimed emperor in fulfilment of Josephus' prophecy, and deputed the command to Titus, there were three rivals at war in Jerusalem - Eleazar, Simon and John.
According to Josephus, Titus decided to spare the Temple, but - whether this was so or not - on the 10th of August it was fired by a soldier after a sortie of the Jews had been repelled.
His zeal, private and public, for Judaism is celebrated by Josephus and the rabbis; and the narrative of Acts xii.
The story in Acts differs slightly from that in Josephus, who describes how in the midst of his elation he saw an owl perched over his head.
Josephus says nothing of his being "eaten of worms," but the discrepancies between the two stories are of slight moment.
7), suggest the troublous time of the later Greek and the Maccabean rulers, of which the history of Josephus gives a good picture.
It is not certain that it is quoted in the New Testament, but it appears to be included in Josephus' list of sacred books.
John the Baptist condemned his marriage with Herodias, and in consequence was put to death in the way described in the gospels and in Josephus.
In Josephus and the New Testament the name Peraea or ripav Tou 'Iopbavou is most frequently used; and the country is sometimes spoken of by Josephus as divided into small provinces called after the capitals in which Greek colonists had established themselves during the reign of the Seleucidae.
It is reported by Josephus that, when Alexander Jannaeus, in the year 95 B.e., was acting as high-priest in the temple on the Feast of Tabernacles, instead of pouring the water libation on the altar, according to the Pharisaic custom, he poured it at his feet, giving rise to a riot in which 6000 men are said to have lost their lives (Ant.
ASMONEUS, or Asamonaeus (so Josephus), great-grandfather of Mattathias, the father of Judas Maccabaeus.
Nothing more is known of him, and the name is only given by Josephus (not in 1 Macc. ii.
Josephus (Wars, iv.
Josephus testifies that there was much proselytism in Rome (Against Apion, ii.
Throughout these years he declined to remove the sentence of excommunication which he had passed upon Michael, and after his death, when the new patriarch Josephus gave absolution to the emperor, the quarrel was carried on between the "Arsenites" and the "Josephists."
Certain circles in Judaism, as the Essenes in Palestine (Josephus, B.J.
It must have early passed out of circulation, as it was unknown to Josephus.
FLAVIUS JOSEPHUS (c. 37 - c. 95 ?), Jewish historian and military commander, was born in the first year of Caligula (37-38).
Making friends with Alityrus, a Jewish actor, who was a favourite of Nero, Josephus obtained an introduction to the empress Poppaea and effected his purpose by her help. His visit to Rome enabled him to speak from personal experience of the power of the Empire, when he expostulated with the revolutionary Jews on his return to Palestine.
In the spring of 67 the Jewish troops, whom Josephus had drilled so sedulously, fled before the Roman forces of Vespasian and Titus.
Josephus providentially drew the last lot and prevailed upon his destined victim to live.
Their companions were all dead in accordance with the compact; but Josephus at any rate survived and surrendered.
it is probable that he lived into the 2nd century; but the date of Agrippa's death has been challenged and, if his patron Epaphroditus may be identified with Nero's freedman, it is possible that Josephus may have been involved in his fall and perished under Domitian in 95.
The Jewish War (I Ept Tou'IovIcdKoli 7ro%Egov), the oldest of Josephus' extant writings, was written towards the end of Vespasian's reign (69-79) The Aramaic original has not been preserved; but the Greek version was prepared by Josephus himself in conjunction with competent Greek scholars.
Of its seven books, the first two survey the history of the Jews from the capture of Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes to the outbreak of war in 67, and here Josephus relies upon some such general history as that of Nicolaus of Damascus.
In the part covered by the books of the Bible Josephus follows them, and that mainly, if not entirely as they are translated into Greek by the Seventy (the Septuagint version).
The work contains accounts of John the Baptist and Jesus, which may account for the fact that Josephus' writings were rescued from oblivion by the Christians.
Josephus wrote a narrative of his own Life in order to defend himself against the accusation brought by his enemy Justus of Tiberias to the effect that he had really been the cause of the Jewish rebellion.
In his defence Josephus departs from the facts as narrated in the Jewish War and represents himself as a partisan of Rome and, therefore, as a traitor to his own people from the beginning.
The defence which Josephus puts forward has a permanent value and shows him at his best.
The Greek text of Josephus' works has been edited with full collection of different readings by B.
But there is no evidence that the Jews were involved in these; for the account which Josephus gives of Bagoses' oppression of the Jews represents the trouble as having arisen originally from internal dissensions, and does not hint at anything of the nature of a rebellion against Persia.
Even Josephus does not say that the Persians tried to interfere with the Jews in the exercise of their religion; and nothing less than this would satisfy the language of Ps.
18 as a fictitious prophecy in the interests of Onias, the founder of the rival Egyptian temple to Yahweh at Leontopolis in the name of Heliopolis (Josephus, Ant.
2 (interpreted by Josephus, Ant.
But the garment as explained by Josephus (Ant.
According to Josephus they symbolized the lightning and thunder respectively.
96 cannot be assigned if it is held that his writings show acquaintance with the Antiquities of the Jewish People by Josephus.
Had the native history of Berossus survived, this would not have been the case; all that is known of the Chaldaean historian's work, however, is derived from quotations in Josephus, Ptolemy, Eusebius and the Syncellus.
2., Gamaliel Ii., the son of Simon ben Gamaliel, one of Jerusalem's foremost men in the war against the Romans (vide Josephus, Bellum Jud.
Josephus also mentions that the city was "naturally strong" (Antiq.
The caves were also fortified against the Romans by Josephus.
16 sqq.) regarded this as a punishment for a ritual fault of which the king was guilty; whilst Josephus (Ant.
To Josephus it was "the new city" by the inhabitants called Mabortha (B.
16), though Josephus places the sepulchre at Hebron (Ant.
3 See Josephus, Ant.
They possess - not in Hebrew, of which they are altogether ignorant, but in Ethiopic (or Geez)- the canonical and apocryphal books of the Old Testament; a volume of extracts from the Pentateuch, with comments given to Moses by God on Mount Sinai; the Te-e-sa-sa Sanbat, or laws of the Sabbath; the Ardit, a book of secrets revealed to twelve saints, which is used as a charm against disease; lives of Abraham, Moses, &c.; and a translation of Josephus called Sana Aihud.
The Latin translations of the Antiquities of Josephus and of the ecclesiastical histories of Theodoret, Sozomen and Socrates, under the title of Historia Tripartita (embracing the years 3 06 -439), were carried out under his supervision.
HERESY, the English equivalent of the Greek word aipEVCs which is used in the Septuagint for "free choice," in later classical literature for a philosophical school or sect as "chosen" by those who belong to it, in Philo for religion, in Josephus for a religious party (the Sadducees, the Pharisees and the Essenes).
He supplied Josephus with information for his history.
In the Roman camp the rabbi was courteously received, and Vespasian (whose future elevation to the imperial dignity Johanan, like Josephus, is said to have foretold) agreed to grant him any boon he desired.
Many fanciful legends about Abraham founded on Biblical accounts or spun out of the fancy are to be found in Josephus, and in post-Biblical and Mahommedan literature; for these, reference may be made to Beer, Leben Abrahams (1859); Gri nbaum, Neue Beitrdge z.
This work was valuable for the use which its author made of the Greek of the Septuagint, of the Old and New Testament Apocrypha, of Josephus, and of the apostolic fathers, in illustration of the language of the New Testament.
So also the Talmud (in Baba bathra, 14.2), nor can it be supposed that Josephus in his enumeration (c. i.
is uncertain, and the possibility of artificiality is suggested by the unembellished statement of Josephus that the building of the walls occupied, not fifty-two days, but two years four months (Ant.
The sacred feasts of the Essenes and Therapeutae in particular, as described by Josephus and Philo, closely resembled the Eucharistic agape.
According to Josephus (Ant.
On the other hand, Josephus knows nothing of a younger Lysanias, and it is suggested by others that he really does refer to Lysanias I.
Krenkel (Josephus and Lucas, Leipzig, 18 94, p. 97) is that Josephus does not mean to imply that Abila was the only possession of Lysanias, and that he calls it the tetrarchy or kingdom of Lysanias because it was the last remnant of the domain of Lysanias which remained under direct Roman administration until the time of Agrippa.
The expression was borrowed from Josephus by Luke, who wrongly imagined that Lysanias I.
6, and, for the part played by Damascus, the later vicissitudes under the Nabataeans (Josephus, Ant.
Josephus 7 paraphrases the story more suo, and speaks of Balaam as the best prophet of his time, but with a disposition ill adapted to resist temptation.
4), or of Old Testament law; so especially in Philo the Jew, and in Flavius Josephus (even perhaps at Contra Apionem, i.
See Dio Cassius xlix.-liv.; Suetonius, Augustus; Velleius Paterculus ii.; Josephus, Antiq.
Io seq.), and that the last name is that of Jaddua, who, according to Josephus, was a contemporary of Alexander the Great (333 B.C.).
Having gained possession of the northern suburb, he attacked the temple mount; but, after five days' fighting, just when (according to Josephus) success was within his grasp, he unaccountably withdrew his forces.
10, 13; Suetonius, Vespasian, 4; Josephus, Bell.
the Latin Josephus of 1524 to which Erasmus only contributed one translation of 14 pages; or the Aristotle of 1531, of which Simon Grynaeus was the real editor.
Beside him are the Celts Josephus Scottus and Dungal, the Lombards Paulinus and Paulus Diaconus, the West Goth Theodulf and many Franks.
He was a freedman either of the emperor Claudius - according to which theory Josephus (Antiq.
The large purplish Mecca or Bussorah galls, 14 produced on a species of oak by Cynips insana, Westw., have been regarded by many writers as the Dead Sea fruit, mad-apples (mala insana), or apples of Sodom (poma sodomitica), alluded to by Josephus and others, which, however, are stated by E.
The Greek versions, as well as Josephus, refer to them as iepbbouXot, which can mean one thing only.
1 in A; Josephus, XfjOor, Vulg.
Philo, De posteriori Caini, § 3, explains the name as meaning iroru ryos,"watering" or "irrigation," connecting it with the Hebrew root Sh Th Josephus, Ant.
They discovered astronomy, and inscribed their discoveries on two pillars, one of which, says Josephus, survived in his time.
2 According to Josephus (Ant.
This computation attained currency among the later Jews (Josephus and others; cf.
The date of the completed Luke depends (a) on whether or not we believe Luke himself or a later disciple to be the author, and (b) whether or not we believe that the author of Acts had seen Josephus' Antiquities, published in A.D.
If Luke used Josephus, as F.
- The birth of Christ took place before the death of Herod, and the evidence of Josephus fixes the death of Herod, with some approach to certainty, in the early spring of 4 B.C. Josephus, indeed, while he tells us that Herod died not long before Passover, nowhere names the exact year; but he gives four calculations which serve to connect Herod's death with more or less known points, namely, the length of Herod's own reign, both from his de jure and from his de facto accession, and the length of the reigns of two of his successors, Archelaus and Herod Philip, to the date of their deposition and death respectively.
37 (Josephus, Ant.
34 (Josephus, Ant.
52, for Tacitus mentions Cumanus's recall under that year, Josephus immediately before the notice of the completion of Claudius's twelfth year [January, A.D.
54); he certainly supposes Felix to have been already governor of Samaria, and apparently of Judaea too, and only recognizes Cumanus as governor of Galilee; and Josephus, though he says nothing of this, and treats Cumanus as the sole procurator down to A.D.
(() Josephus enumerates after the accession of Nero (October 54) a long catalogue of events which all took place under the procuratorship of Felix, including the revolt of " the Egyptian " which was already " before these days " at the time of St Paul's arrest, two years from the end of Felix's tenure.
56; and it implies certainly that the main or most important part of Felix's governorship fell, in Josephus's view, under Nero.
But as two years only of Felix's rule (52-54) fell under Claudius, this procedure would be quite natural on Josephus's part if his recall were dated in 58 or 59, so that four or five years fell under Nero.
But (i.) Nero 2 is really September 56-September 57; (ii.) it is doubtful whether Eusebius had any authority to depend on here other than Josephus, who gives no precise year for Festus - Julius Africanus is, hardly probable, since we know that his chronicle was very jejune for the Christian period - and if so, Eusebius had to find a year as best he could.'
Thus the point that Josephus catalogues the events of Felix's procuratorship under Nero cannot be pressed to bring down Felix's tenure as far as 60 or 61, but it does seem to exclude as early a termination as 56, or even 57.
of Simeon, viii., and Benjamin vii., and is connected with details (burial of Jacob's sons at Hebron) recorded by Josephus (Ant.
Josephus in turn has another story wherein Moses leads the Egyptians against Ethiopia (Ant.
The best datum is in Josephus (Ant.
valuing them by 31 Sicilian = 41 Attic modii (Josephus, above).
His works have perished, but extracts from the history have been preserved by Josephus and Eusebius, the latter of whom probably derived them not directly from Berossus, but through the medium of Alexander Polyhistor and Apollodorus.
Josephus, who constantly calls him " the Cappadocian," often quotes from him, but does not mention the title of the work.
Josephus has related the curious circumstances under which he ultimately transferred his personal support from the former to the latter.
See Josephus (Ant.
The name, though at one time identified with that of the historian Josephus, is perhaps a corruption of Hegesippus, from whom (according to Trieber) the author derived much of his material.
'Eaanvoi is used by Josephus fourteen times, Eaaaiot six, but the latter is the only form used by Philo (ii.
There is a place named Essa mentioned by Josephus (Ant.
The original accounts we have of them are confined to three authors - Philo, Pliny the Elder, and Josephus.
Josephus treats of them at length in his Jewish War (ii.
Josephus himself made trial of the sect of Essenes in his youth; but from his own statement it appears that he must have been a very short time with them, and therefore could not have been initiated into the inner mysteries of the society (De vita sua, 2).
180-192), reproduced the account of Josephus, adding a few touches of his own.
2 33-3 06) afterwards did the same, but had the grace to mention Josephus in the context.
Eusebius quoted the account as from Porphyry, though he must have known that he had derived it from Josephus (Praep. Ev.
Though their prevailing tendency was practical, and the tenets of the society were kept a profound secret, it is perfectly clear from the concurrent testimony of Philo and Josephus that they cultivated a kind of speculation, which not only accounts for their spiritual asceticism, but indicates a great deviation from the normal development of Judaism, and a profound sympathy with Greek philosophy, and probably also with Oriental ideas.
Josephus informs us that they had no single city of their own, but that many of them dwelt in every city.
On the whole, as Philo and Josephus agree in estimating their number at 4000 (Philo, Q.O.P.L.
Josephus tells us too that the Essenes believed in fate; but in what sense, and what relation it bore to Divine Providence, does not appear.
From Josephus we learn that it.
22, and Josephus, War, iv.
From 970 to 772 B.C. the bare outline of events is supplied by extracts from two Hellenistic historians, Menander of Ephesus and Dius (largely dependent upon Menander), which have been preserved by Josephus, Ant.
The list of Hiram's successors given by Josephus indicates frequent changes of dynasty until the time of Ithobal I.
At this point Josephus's extracts from Menander come to an end.
18) the reference was probably to the felling of timber in Lebanon for Hiram's temples; Josephus then misinterpreted this by 1 Kings v.
Josephus (loc.cit.) is again our authority for the changes of government which followed until the monarchy was revived.
The bottom is of loose sand, and the fish called coracinus by Josephus (B.J.
Dr Tristram was the first explorer to identify this fish, and on account of its presence suggested the identification of the "round spring" with the fountain of Capharnaum, which, according to Josephus, watered the plain of Gennesareth.
Burbur) is the coracinus of Josephus.
The ruin of Kerak answers to the description given by Josephus of the city of Taricheae, which lay 30 stadia from Tiberias, the hot baths being between the two cities.
Sinn en-Nabreh, a ruin on a spur of the hills close to the last-mentioned site, represents the ancient Sennabris, where Vespasian (Josephus, B.J.
This site is not identified; the suggestion that it is Gamala is doubtful, and not borne out by Josephus (War, iv.
Cheyne's suggestion that the unknown brook Cherith should be placed to the south of Judah agrees with Josephus (Ant.
and foe of Judaism, whose criticism was answered by Josephus, appears in this character both in Homilies and Recognitions, though mainly in the former (iv.
Josephus (c. Apion.
(It may be that Josephus had it, not direct from Manetho's writings, but through the garbled version of some Alexandrine compiler.) In outline it is as follows.
" shepherd kings," and some say they were Arabs (another explanation found by Josephus is "captive shepherds").
Avaris is generally assigned to the region towards Pelusium on the strength of its being located in the Sethroite nome by Josephus, but Petrie thinks it was at Tell el-Yahudiyeh (Yehudia), where Hyksos scarabs are common.
'EKRON (better, as in the Septuagint and Josephus, AcCARON, AKKapwv), a royal city of the Philistines commonly identified with the modern Syrian village of 'Akir, 5 m.
According to the narrative of the Hebrew text, here differing from the Greek text and Josephus (which read Askelon), it was the last town to which the ark was transferred before its restoration to the Israelites.
The statements, for instance, of Josephus that the Jews were given full citizen rights in the new foundations are probably false (Willrich, Juden and Griechen vor der makkabciischen Erhebung, 18 95, p. 19 f.).
ments made by later writers like Josephus, as to the visit of Alexander to Jerusalem or the privileges conferred upon the Jews in the new Macedonian realms are justly suspected of being fiction.
The Hyksos, in whom Josephus recognized the children of Israel, worshipped their own Syrian deity, identifying him with the Egyptian god Seth, and endeavoured to establish his cult throughout Egypt to the detriment of the native gods.
The natural arrangement (which is assumed by Philo and Josephus) would be five and five.
PHARISEES, a sect of the Jews first mentioned by Josephus, in his account (Ant.
This action of the Ilasidaeans is clearly the practical outcome of the principle which Josephus describes in the language of p.iilosophy as the characteristic of the Pharisees - "some things and not all are the work of Fate" (Ant.
Everything - the repeated statements of Josephus and the facts of Jewish history after A.D.
Attempts have been made in modern times to represent the Apocalyptists as opposed to the Pharisees and as occupying the position in popular estimation which Josephus ascribes to the Pharisees.
Though hard pressed by poverty, he applied himself to study in the schools of Shemaiah and Abtalion (Sameas and Pollion in Josephus).
The fact that Josephus (Vita 38) ascribes to Simon descent from a very distinguished stock ('y vovs acbo pa Aaµirpov), shows in what degree of estimation Hillel's descendants stood.
The temptations of Alexandria and the loose morals of the time (latter part of the 3rd century) are illustrated by the story told by Josephus (Ant.
The reference here must be to the numerous non-Jewish kings of the Greek period, and perhaps also to the Maccabean princes; the manners of the time are set forth in Josephus's account of Ptolemy's dinner, at which the Jew Hyrcanus was a guest (Ant.
The mingling of despotism and good-natured familiarity there described (and the spirit is doubtless correctly given by Josephus, whether or not his details are historical) agrees with the picture in Proverbs.
of Tiberias; and another fortress in Upper Galilee was named Jamnia (Josephus, Vita, 37).
Apart from the facts contained in this statement, the phraseology is of some importance, as the district of " Palestinian Syria " clearly includes more than the territory of the Philistines, which the adjective properly denotes (Josephus, Antiquities, i.
But, in spite of the statement and silence of Arrian, Jewish tradition, as reported by Josephus (Ant.
The loyalty of the Jews he rewarded by granting them Samaritan territory free of tribute - according to a statement attributed by Josephus (c. Apionem, ii.
Whenever this occupation took place, Ptolemy became master of Palestine in 312 B.C., and though, as Josephus complains, he may have disgraced his title, Soler, by momentary severity at the outset, later he created in the minds of the Jews the impression that in Palestine or in Egypt he was - in deed as well as in name - their preserver.
Of Palestine, as it was during this century of Egyptian domination, there is much to be learned from the traditions, reported by Josephus (Ant.
In consequence of this deficiency he failed to pay the tribute due from the people to Ptolemy, as his fathers had done, and is set down by Josephus as a miser who cared nothing for the protest of Ptolemy's special ambassador.
For twentytwo years he held his office and was to all intents and purposes governor of Syria, Phoenicia and Samaria - " A good man " (Josephus calls him) " and a man of mind, who rescued the people of the Jews from poverty and weakness, and set them on the way to comparative splendour " (Ant.
References to authorities other than Josephus are given in the course of the article; his Antiquities and War are the chief source for the period.
NOAH (oi, rest; Septuagint, New Testament, Philo, Josephus, Nwc, NWXor, Nc'oEos: Vulg.
We are enabled thus to contrast Tacitus with Josephus, who warped his narrative to do honour to Titus.
TETRAGRAMMATON (TETTapa, four; ypcp. a, letter), a Greek compound, found in Philo and Josephus, which designates the divine name composed of the four Hebrew letters J H V H (n»').
286, 71.1 45, 9; 228, 55.28 7, 94), apparently on the authority of Josephus (Ant.
But in the Aramaic versions Rekem is the name of Kadesh; Josephus may have confused the two places.
In the neighbourhood is a watersource, Ain et-Tabighah, an Arabic corruption of Heptapegon or Seven Springs (referred to by Josephus as being near Capernaum).
But it is doubtful whether Tell Ham can be considered as a corruption of Kefr Nahum, the Semitic name which the Greek represents: and there is not here, as at Khan Minyeh, any spring that can be equated to the Heptapegon of Josephus.
30-31), and consequently not in the neighbourhood of Petra, which has been the traditional scene from the time of Josephus (Ant.
It is curious that Thermuthis, the traditional name of the princess who adopted Moses (Josephus, Ant.
1 Josephus Ripamontius,'De peste anni 1630 (Milan, 1641), 4to.
If, indeed, it were proved that Acts uses the later works of Josephus, we should have to place the book about A.D.
Three points of contact with Josephus in particular are cited.
Hence the parallel, when analysed, tells against dependence on Josephus.
8.6; for the numbers of his followers do not agree with either of Josephus's rather divergent accounts, while Acts alone calls them Sicarii.
Of all his labours the most useful is his translation of Josephus (1737), with valuable notes and dissertations, often reprinted.
Longimanus, the son and successor of Xerxes, though countenanced by Josephus, deserves little consideration.
Josephus displays no knowledge of the work, but he may have been animated by the same prejudice as the Pharisees of St Jerome's day, whose displeasure, that father tells us, he had to face in giving to Latin readers a book which was against their canon.
Regarding his authorship of a work on the Jews (utilized by Josephus in Contra Apionem), it is conjectured that portions of the Aiywnrrtath were revised by a Hellenistic Jew from his point of view and published as a special work.
3) and his son Simeon (Josephus, Life, § 38 seq., Wars, iv.
24; Josephus, Ant., iv.
Theoretically it was in the territory of the tribe of Asher, and Josephus assigns it by name to the district of one of Solomon's provincial governors.
The Greek historians name it Ake (Josephus calls it also Akre); but the name was changed to Ptolemais, probably by Ptolemy Soter, after the partition of the kingdom of Alexander.
The testimony of Josephus, who often names the temple hill "Moriah," is of course not original, and of no weight.
The idea that Lamentations was originally appended to Jeremiah in the Hebrew Canon, as it is in the old versions, and was afterwards separated from it and added to the other Megilloth for the liturgical convenience of the Synagogue, rests on the fact that Josephus (Ap. i.
When, however, Josephus (Ant.
- Various writers, following Josephus and the Greek version, have placed Ophir in different parts of the Far East.
According to Josephus, Abilene was a separate Iturean kingdom till A.D.
As, however, according to Josephus (Ant.
LITERATURE.-I and 2 Macc. and Josephus are the main sources for the Maccabaean history.
The hot springs mentioned by Josephus (and also by Pliny) are about half an hour's journey to the south.
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