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joints

joints Sentence Examples

  • But even filters of this type, if they are to be fully relied upon, must be frequently cleaned and sterilized, and great care must be taken that the joints and connexions are watertight, and that the candles are without cracks or flaws.

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  • 2, looks as though composed of a number of segments, gradually decreasing in size from base to tip like the joints of a telescope, instead of tapering gradually and evenly from one extremity to the other.

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  • 2, looks as though composed of a number of segments, gradually decreasing in size from base to tip like the joints of a telescope, instead of tapering gradually and evenly from one extremity to the other.

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  • Many vitreous rocks show alteration of this type in certain parts where either the glass has been of unstable nature or where agencies of change such as percolating water have had easiest access (as along joints, perlitic cracks and the margins of dikes and sills).

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  • The top joints of the hind legs.

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  • The wood of the fly honeysuckle is extremely hard, and the clear portions between the joints of the stems, when their pith has been removed, were stated by Linnaeus to be utilized in Sweden for making tobacco-pipes.

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  • The joints of flanged rails are similar to those employed with bull-headed rails.

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  • The intervertebral joints are further complicated by the interposition of a cartilaginous or fibrous pad or ring.

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  • (2) As regards plays, in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Timur is described as tall of stature, straightly fashioned, large of limb, having joints strongly knit, long and sinewy arms, a breadth of shoulders to "bear old Atlas's burden," pale of complexion, and with "amber hair wrapp'd in curls."

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  • By making them in longer lengths a reduction was effected in the number of joints - always the weakest part of the line; and another advance consisted in the substitution of wrought iron for cast iron, though that material did not gain wide adoption until after the patent for an improved method of rolling rails granted in 1820 to John Birkinshaw, of the Bedlington Ironworks, Durham.

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  • In this several microphonic joints were employed.

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  • The restricted area on which the pressure acts at the lead joints involves greater intensity of stress than has been usual in arched bridges.

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  • thick extending over the middle third of the depth of the voussoir joints, the rest of the joints being left open.

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  • His joints, I notice, are swollen and overgrown, and he lacks flesh and is old in years.

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  • an amount p 2 which seems small but which would be quite sufficient to destroy one or more of the joints if provision were not made to prevent damage.

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  • Bridges Adams, the intention being by " fishing " the joints to convert the rails into continuous beams. In the original design two chairs were placed, one under each rail, a few inches apart, as in fig.

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  • For instance, it is not very uncommon to find persons who can make loud sounds by partially dislocating and restoring the toe, knee, or other joints, and some experiments made with the Fox girls in 1851 supported the view that they made raps by this method.

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  • Their support being removed they break away in the direction of natural joints, and the fragments fall down the slope upon the vegetable soil.

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  • The antennae of Diptera, which are also extremely important in classification, are thread-like in the more primitive families, such as the Tipulidae (daddy-long-legs), where they consist of a considerable number of joints, all of which except the first two, and sometimes also the last two, are similar in shape; in the more specialized families, such as the Tabanidae (horse-flies), Syrphidae (hover-flies) or Muscidae (house-flies, blue-bottles and their allies), the number of antennal joints is greatly reduced by coalescence, so that the antennae appear to consist of only three joints.

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  • The union of the index and middle fingers by means of a web extending as far as the terminal joints is the distinctive feature of the siamang, which is the largest of the group, and black in colour with a white frontal band.

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  • In the Puerco, or Lowest Eocene of North America the place of the above species was taken by Euprotogonia puercensis, an animal only half the size of Phenacodus primaevus, with the terminal joints of the limbs intermediate between hoofs and claws, and the first and fifth toes taking their full share in the support of the weight of the body.

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  • an amount p 2 which seems small but which would be quite sufficient to destroy one or more of the joints if provision were not made to prevent damage.

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  • In these forms, however, the third joint is really a complex, which in many families bears in addition a jointed bristle (arista) or style, representing the terminal joints of the primitive antenna.

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  • In these forms, however, the third joint is really a complex, which in many families bears in addition a jointed bristle (arista) or style, representing the terminal joints of the primitive antenna.

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  • The Silurian scorpion Palaeophonus, differs, so far as obvious points are concerned, from a modern scorpion only in the thickness of its legs and in their terminating in strong spike-like joints, instead of being slight and provided with a pair of terminal claws.

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  • The antennae are long and thread-like, composed at first of few joints, but the number of these latter apparently increases at each moult.

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  • Subsequently straws are selected from the sheaves, and of these the pipes of the two upper joints are taken for plaiting.

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  • A vine, for instance, that produces bunches of grapes at each joint is preferable to one in which there are several barren joints, as a larger quantity can be grown within a smaller area.

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  • The stems are solid and marked with numerous shining, polished, yellow, purple or striped joints, 3 in.

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  • In many calcareous forms, .both Cheilostomes and Cyclostomes, the zoarium is rendered flexible by the interposition of chitinous joints at intervals.

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  • Diagonal bracing or strutting is nowhere to be found, and in many cases mortises and other joints are such as very materially to weaken the timbers at their points of connection.

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  • They are fleshy shrubs, with rounded, woody stems, and numerous succulent branches, composed in most of the species of separate joints or parts, which are much compressed, often elliptic or suborbicular, dotted over in spiral lines with small, fleshy, caducous leaves, in the axils of which are placed the areoles or tufts of barbed or hooked spines of two forms. The flowers are mostly yellow or reddish-yellow, and are succeeded by pear-shaped or egg-shaped fruits, having a broad scar at the top, furnished on their soft, fleshy rind with tufts of small spines.

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  • UNGULATA, the name of an order of placental mammals in which the terminal joints of the toes are usually encased in solid hoofs or covered with broad hoof-like nails, while the molar (and not unfrequently some or all of the premolar) teeth have broad tuberculated crowns adapted for crushing vegetable substances.

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  • Many assumptions are made in treating of the flexure of a continuous structure which are not strictly true; no assumption is made in determining the stresses on a frame except that the joints are flexible, and that the frame shall be so stiff as not sensibly to alter in form under the load.

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  • 65 shows a common form of bridge truss known as a Warren girder, with lines indicating external forces applied to the joints; FIG.

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  • half the load carried between the two lower joints next the piers on either side is directly carried by the abutments.

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  • This polygon of forces may, by a slight extension of the above definition, be called the reciprocal figure of the external forces, if the sides are arranged in the same order as that of the joints on which they act, so that if the joints and forces be numbered I, 2, 3, 4, &c., passing round the outside of the frame in one direction, and returning at last to joint 1, then in the polygon the side representing the force 2 will be next the side representing the force I, and will be followed by the side representing the force 3, and so forth.

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  • 66 shows a frame supported at the two end joints, and loaded at each top joint.

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  • Owing to the yielding of joints when a beam is first loaded a smaller modulus of elasticity should be taken than for a solid bar.

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  • Throughout her life she had enjoyed excellent health, and even in the last few years the only marks of age were rheumatic stiffness of the joints, which prevented walking, and a diminished power of eyesight.

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  • On the Hessian fly, Cecidomyia destructor, Say, the May brood of which produces swellings immediately above the joints of barley attacked by it, see Asa Fitch, The Hessian Fly (Albany, 1847), reprinted from Trans.

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  • In September 1839 a 3-foot speculum was finished and mounted on an altazimuth stand similar to Herschel's; but, though the definition of the images was good (except that the diffraction at the joints of the speculum caused minute rays in the case of a very bright star), and its peculiar skeleton form allowed the speculum to follow atmospheric changes of temperature very quickly, Lord Rosse decided to cast a solid 3-foot speculum.

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  • When blasting is resorted to, advantage is taken of the natural cuts or joints, as the rock is readily thrown or worked off these.

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  • The mandibles are normally five-jointed, with remnants of an outer branch on the second joint, the biting edge varying from strong development to evanescence, the terminal joints or " palp " giving the organ a leg-like appearance and function, which disappears in suctorial genera such as Paracytherois.

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  • They are fleshy shrubs, with rounded, woody stems, and numerous succulent branches, composed in most of the species of separate joints or parts, which are much compressed, often elliptic or suborbicular, dotted over in spiral lines with small, fleshy, caducous leaves, in the axils of which are placed the areoles or tufts of barbed or hooked spines of two forms. The flowers are mostly yellow or reddish-yellow, and are succeeded by pear-shaped or egg-shaped fruits, having a broad scar at the top, furnished on their soft, fleshy rind with tufts of small spines.

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  • 65 shows a common form of bridge truss known as a Warren girder, with lines indicating external forces applied to the joints; FIG.

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  • This polygon of forces may, by a slight extension of the above definition, be called the reciprocal figure of the external forces, if the sides are arranged in the same order as that of the joints on which they act, so that if the joints and forces be numbered I, 2, 3, 4, &c., passing round the outside of the frame in one direction, and returning at last to joint 1, then in the polygon the side representing the force 2 will be next the side representing the force I, and will be followed by the side representing the force 3, and so forth.

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  • You can find high-end restaurants, college hamburger joints and any kind of ethnic food you want downtown.

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  • From pub-like joints with spurs on the walls and fries on the grill to first-class suit-and-tie arrangements, steakhouses come in all styles and types.

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  • This is checked by the mile marks, the known position of the joints, &c., as they pass.

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  • Occasionally the joints thus formed are " supported " on a sleeper, as was the practice in the early days of railway construction, but they are generally " suspended " between two sleepers, which are set rather more closely together than at other points in the rail.

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  • These attempts were, however, unsuccessful, on account of the excessive leakage at the joints of the pipes.

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  • With this arrangement it is possible to find the actual value of the magnetizing force, corrected for the effects of joints and other sources of error.

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  • Amyloid develops in various organs and tissues and is commonly associated with chronic phthisis, tubercular disease of bone and joints, and syphilis (congenital and acquired).

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  • The leaf directly opposite the bunch must in all cases be preserved, and the young shoot is to be topped at one or two joints beyond the incipient fruit, the latter distance being preferable if there is plenty of room for the foliage to expand; the lateral shoots, which will push out after the topping, must be again topped above their first or second joints.

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  • The opening upon the upper surface have three joints, the terroot-dwellers.

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  • This result must follow in any frame, the members of which are so connected that the joints offer little or no resistance to change in the relative angular position of the members.

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  • Occasionally the joints thus formed are " supported " on a sleeper, as was the practice in the early days of railway construction, but they are generally " suspended " between two sleepers, which are set rather more closely together than at other points in the rail.

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  • The dangerous principle is a narcotic, and the symptoms are usually great nausea, drowsiness, stupor and pains in the joints.

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  • They are remarkable for skill in the massing of light and shade, richness and delicacy of colouring, and for the admirable style in which the drapery of the figures is handled, Bartolommeo having been the first to introduce and use the lay-figure with joints.

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  • The pipes are best supported on rollers which allow of movement without straining the joints.

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  • It is customary to divide the Orthorrhapha into the two divisions Nematocera and Brachycera, in the former of which the antennae are elongate and in a more or less primitive condition, as described above, while in the latter these organs are short, and, as already explained, apparently composed of only three joints.

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  • Space between tops of shoulder blades and tops of hip joints.

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  • The hock joints.

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  • Tops of the hip joints.

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  • - This name is now restricted to two or three dwarf branching Brazilian epiphytal plants of extreme beauty, which agree with Phyllocactus in having the branches dilated into the form of fleshy leaves, but differ in having them divided into short truncate leaf-like portions, which are articulated, that is to say, provided with a joint by which they separate spontaneously; the margins are crenate or dentate, and the flowers, which are large and showy, magenta or crimson, appear at the apex of the terminal joints.

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  • The golden statues were votive offerings; thus a man and his wife offer four statues for the health of their four children, and a man offers to Dhu Samai statues of a man and two camels, in prayer for his own health and the protection of his camels from disease of the joints.

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  • They have mostly been replaced, decay having taken place at the joints.

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  • In some girder -1 o bridges the members are connected entirely by riveting, in others the principal members are con nected by pin joints.

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  • The reciprocal figure for any loaded frame is a complete formula for the stress on every member of a frame of that particular class with loads on given joints.

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  • 68), loaded at the top and bottom joints.

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  • The title " branching horns " alludes to the second antennae, which are two-branched except in the females of Holopedium, with each branch setiferous, composed of only two to four joints.

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  • The first antennae never have more than eight joints.

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  • As an architectural term "bevel" is a sloped or canted edge given to a sill or horizontal course of stone, but is more frequently applied to the canted edges worked round the projecting bands of masonry which for decorative purposes are employed on the quoins of walls or windows and in some cases, with vertical joints, cover the whole wall.

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  • The whole was bedded, not in mortar, but in clay, which has mostly been washed out of the joints; originally the surface was probably protected with a coating of stucco.

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  • They occur no less in structures of masonry and brickwork, but in these cases they generally follow the joints, and are almost imperceptible.

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  • In the case of a smooth concrete face there are no joints to follow, and the cracks become an ugly feature.

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  • They are sometimes regulated by forming artificial "joints" in the structure by embedding strips of wood or sheet iron at regular intervals, thus forming "lines of weakness," at which the cracks therefore take place.

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  • Difficulties were at first encountered in making the necessary joints, but these have been overcome by practice and experience.

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  • The joints are packed or caulked with tow, smeared with a mixture of white and red lead.

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  • Flanged joints are made to bolt together on washers of vulcanized rubber.

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  • Many of the free-growing soft-wooded plants may also be grown from cuttings of single joints of the young wood, where rapid increase is desired; and in the case of opposite-leaved plants two cuttings may often be made from one joint by splitting the stem longitudinally, each cutting consisting of a leaf and a perfect bud attached to half the thickness of the stem.

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  • Keep sweet potatoes hoed to prevent the vines rooting at the joints.

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  • W, Water-cooled joints between L', Gas port.

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  • The error of flatness of the joints from a straight line and a true square is but thth in.

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  • In the monkey the proportions it assumes are still greater, and the number of foci, for distinct movements of this and that member, indeed for the individual joints of each limb, are much more numerous, and together occupy a more extensive surface, though relatively to the total surface of the brain a smaller one.

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  • To the law that no subsequent transverse division takes place in segments cut off from the apical cell, there seem to be two exceptions: first, the calcareous genus Corallina, in the pliable joints of which intercalated division occurs; and, second, the Nitophylleae, in which, moreover, median longitudinal division of axial cells is said to occur.

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  • In Polysiphonia they cover the joints of the so-called leaves; in Chondria they arise on flattened disks; in the more massive forms they arise in patches on the ordinary surface; in a few cases (Gracilaria, Corallina, Galaxaura) they line the walls of conceptacle-like depressions.

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  • - Mixtures of animal, vegetable and mineral substances are employed in great variety in the arts for making joints, mending broken china and other objects, &c. A strong cement for alabaster and marble, which sets in a day, may be prepared by mixing 12 parts of Portland cement, 8 of fine sand and 1 of infusorial earth, and making them into a thick paste with silicate of soda; the object to be cemented need not be heated.

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  • The various stages in this kind of demolition are best seen where the underlying rock is of granite or similarly tough material, which at the same time is apt to be split and splintered by means of its numerous transverse joints.

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  • In other cases it is secured by the intersection of joints, whereby a rock, in itself hard and durable, is divided into small angular blocks, which are separated by the action of the elements and slide down the declivities.

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  • The horizontal stratification of some of these masses gives them a curiously architectural aspect, further increased by the effect of the numerous vertical joints by which the rock is cleft into buttresses and recesses along the fronts of the precipices and into pinnacles and finials along the summits.

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  • Vast vertical walls of rock shoot up to a height of 600 ft., cut by their perpendicular joints into quadrangular piers and projections, some of which stand out alone as cathedral-like islets in front of the main cliff.

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  • These vessels were made of planks well fitted and sewn together, the joints being caulked and pitched.'

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  • The large canoes in which they formerly made long voyages are no longer built, but various kinds of smaller canoes are made, from the commonest, which is simply a hollowed-out tree cut into form, to the finely shaped one built upon a keel, the joints of the various pieces being nicely fitted, and the whole stitched together with cord made from the husk of coconuts.

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  • This is the explanation of all the varied forms of riveted joints, which to casual observers often appear to be of a fanciful character.

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  • It is evident that a system of jointed bars having the shape of the funicular polygon would be in equilibrium under the action of the given forces, supposed applied to the joints; moreover any bar in which the stress is of the nature of a tension (as distinguished from a thrust) might be replaced by a string.

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  • Theory of Frames.A frame is a structure made up of pieces, or members, each of which has two joints connecting it with other members.

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  • We shall suppose, in the first instance, that extraneous forces act on the frame at the joints only, i.e.

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  • On this assumption, the reactions on any member at its two joints must be equal and opposite.

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  • For diagrammatic purposes each member is sufficiently represented by a straight line terminating at the two joints; these lines will be referred to as the bars of the frame.

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  • When a plane frame which is just rigid is subject to a given system of equilibrating extraneous forces (in its own plane) acting on the joints, the stresses in the bars are in general uniquely determinate.

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  • A frame of n joints and vi 3 bars may of course fail to be rigid owing to some parts being over-stiff whilst others are deformable; in such a case it will be found that the statical equations, apart from the thre identical relations imposed by the equilibrium of the extraneous forces, are not all independent but are equivalent to less thar 2,13 relations.

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  • The stresses produced by extraneous forces in a simple frame can be found by considering the equilibrium of the various joints in a proper succession; and if the graphical method be employed the various polygons of force can be combined into a single force-diagram.

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  • To find the reactions at the joints we may proceed as follows.

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  • The principle of virtual work is specially convenient in the theory of frames (~ 6), since the reactions at smooth joints and the stresses in inextensible bars may be left out of account.

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  • If we imagine the bar in question t be removed, equilibrium will still persist if we introduce two equal and opposite forces S, of suitable magnitude, at the joints which it connected.

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  • For this purpose the infinitesimal displacements of W the various joints are replaced by finite lengths proportional to them, and there- FIG.

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  • fore proportional to the velocities of the joints in some imagined motion of the deformable frame through its actual configuration; this is really (it may be remarked) a reversion to the original notion of virtual velocities.

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  • Consider, for example, a frame whose sides form the six sides of a hexagon ABCDEF and the three diagonals AD, BE, CF; and suppose that it is required to find the stress in CF due to a given system of extraneous forces in equilibrium, acting on the joints.

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  • The simplest case is that of a frame of three bars, when the three joints A, B, C fall into a straght line; a small displacement of the joint B at right angles to AC would involve changes in the lengths of AB, BC which are only of the second order of small quantities.

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  • Os = o, where S is the stress in the removed bar, and Os is the change in the distance between the joints which it connected.

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  • Again, when extraneous forces P act on the joints, the equation is Z(P.&P)+S.Os=-o, where op is the displacement of any joint in the direction of the corresponding force P. If ~(P. Op) =o, the stresses are merely indeterminate as before; but if ~ (P. op) does not vanish, the equation cannot be satisfied by any finite value of S, since Os =0.

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  • We may note that a frame of n joints which is just rigid must have 3116 bars; and that the stresses produced in such a frame by a given system of extraneous forces in equilibrium are statically determinate, subject to the exception of critical forms.

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  • Those pieces are connected at theii joints or surfaces of mutual contact, either by simple pressure and friction (as in masonry with moist mortar or without mortar), by pressure and adhesion (as in masonry with cement or with hardened mortar, and timber with glue), or by the resistance of fastenings of different kinds, whether made by means of the form of the joint (as dovetails, notches, mortices and tenons) or by separate fastening pieces (as trenails, pins, spikes, nails, holdfasts, screws, bolts, rivets, hoops, straps and sockets.

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  • Relations between Polygons of Loads and of Resistances.In a structure in which each piece is supported at two joints only, the well-known laws of statics show that the directions of the gross load on each piece and of the two resistances by which it is supported must lie in one plane, must either be parallel or meet in one point, and must bear to each other, if not parallel, the proportions of the sides of a triangle respectively parallel to their directions, and, if parallel, such proportions that each of the three forces shall be proportional to the distance between the other two,all the three distances being measured along one direction.

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  • of the resistances ex erted at the joints.

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  • Partial Polygons of Resistance.In a structure in which there are pieces supported at more than two joints, let a polygon be con-.

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  • In considering its properties, the load at each centre of load is to be held to include the resistances of those joints which are not comprehended in the partial polygon of resistances, to which the theorem of 7 will then apply in every respect.

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  • The line of resistance is a line traversing all the centres of resistance of a series of joints,its form, in the positions intermediate between the actual joints of the structure, being determined by supposing the pieces and their loads to be subdivided by the introduction of intermediate joints ad snfinstum, and finding the continuous line, curved or straight, in which the intermediate centres of resistance are all situated, however great their number.

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  • 88), where aa, bb, cc, dd represent plane a joints.

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  • The centres of pressure at the joints are also called centres of resistance, and the curve passing through these points is called a line of resistance.

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  • Stability of Position, and Stability of Frictio-n.The resistances at the several joints having been determined by the principles set forth in 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, not only under the ordinary load of the structure, but under all the variations to which the load is subject as to amount and distribution, the joints are now to be placed and shaped so that the pieces shall not suffer relative displacement under any of those loads.

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  • Stability of Friction in Earth.The grains of a mass of loosi earth are to be regarded as so many separate pieces abutting agains each other at joints in all possible positions, and depending for thei stability on friction.

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  • For in the second structure the weights, external pressures, and resistances will balance each other as in the first structure; the weights of the pieces and all other parallel systems of forces will have the same ratios as in the first structure; and the severa] centres of resistance will divide the depths of the joints in the same proportions as in the first structure.

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  • Conditions of Stiffness and Strength.After the arrangement of the pieces of a structure and the size and figure of their joints or surfaces of contact have been determined so as to fulfil the conditions of stabilityconditions which depend mainly on the position and direction of the resultant or total load on each piece, and the relative magnitude of the loads on the different piecesthe dimensions of each piece singly have to be adjusted so as to fulfil the conditions of stiffness and strengthconditions which depend not only on the absolute magnitude of the load on each piece, and of the resistances by which it is balanced, but also on the mode of distribution of the load over the piece, and of the resistances over the joints.

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  • While the stroke of A is ACa, extending to equal distances on either side of C, and equal to twice the chord of the arc Dd, the stroke of B is only equal to twice the sagitta; and thus A is guided through a comparatively long stroke by the sliding of B through a comparatively short stroke, and by rotatory motions at the joints C, D, B.

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  • The relation between the effort and the resistance in a machine to include the effect of friction at the joints has been investigated in a paper by Professor Fleeming Jenkin, On the application of graphrc methods to the determination of the efficiency of machinery (Trans.

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  • It is shown that a machine may at any instant be represented by a frame of links the stresses in which are identical with the pressures at the joints of the mechanism.

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  • In the mandibles and maxillae some of the terminal joints of the stem are invariably wanting.

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  • The latter obscurity results either from coalescence, to which all joints and segments are liable, or from subdivision, which occasionally affects joints even in the trunk-legs.

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  • According to Sars, the 1 In Huxley's terminology the first two or three joints of the stem constitute a "protopodite," from which spring the "endopodite" and "exopodite."

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  • In the companion tribes these appendages have normally seven joints, and always more than three.

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  • The plant is a herbaceous perennial with a long, branched root-stock creeping through the mud, about 3/4 inch thick, with short joints and large brownish leaf-scars.

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  • A hundred or more jars were coupled in series, the cathodes of one to the anodes of the next, and were so arranged that with the aid of side-pipes with leaden connexions and india-rubber joints the electrolyte could, once daily, be made to circulate through them all from the top of one jar to the bottom of the next.

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  • Blisters also cause local dilatation of vessels, but are usually applied to the skin for inflammation in deep-seated parts, such as the lungs, though they also relieve pain in the joints in acute rheumatism.

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  • In health most of the nitrogenous waste in the body is eliminated as urea, but in gout uric acid is either formed in too great quantity or too little is eliminated, so that it tends to be deposited as urate of soda in the joints and other tissues.

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  • In acute attacks of rheumatism the remedy par excellence is salicylate of soda, which reduces the temperature, relieves the pain, and removes the swellings from the joints.

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  • Sulphur waters are chiefly used for painful and stiff joints, chronic skin disease, and chronic catarrhal affections.

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  • In the treatment of stiffened joints, massage under water is very serviceable, and in the so-called Aix douche a nozzle from which water continuously streams is fastened to the wrist of the masseur, so that a current of water is constantly playing upon the joint which he is rubbing.

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  • Exercises, passive and active, are also used in diseases of the joints, as well as massage and baths, but exercises and training are even more important in cases of cardiac disease.

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  • The specially painful points are about the knee and ankle joints; besides which a feeling of numbness is experienced throughout the whole limb.

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  • The slender stem is hollow, and, as generally in grasses, has well-marked joints or nodes, at which the cavity is closed by a strong diaphragm.

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  • As the plant grows older, a species of fluid is secreted in the hollow joints, in which a concrete substance once highly valued in the East for its medicinal qualities, called tabaxir or tabascheer, is gradually developed.

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  • Joints of sufficient size form water buckets; smaller ones are used as bottles, and among the Dyaks of Borneo they are employed as cooking vessels.

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  • The Logos is quick and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of the joints and marrow.

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  • soldare, to make solidus, firm), an alloy easily melted and used for uniting as by a metallic cement two metal surfaces, joints, edges, &c.

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  • " Misericord and " miserere " are also used of a small dagger, the " dagger of mercy," capable of passing between the joints of armour, with which the coup de grace might be given to a wounded man.

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  • In its simplest form the exoskeleton of a typical somite is a ring of chitin defined from the rings in front and behind by areas of thinner integument forming moveable joints, and having a pair of appendages articulated to its ventral surface on either side of the middle line.

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  • The first three joints are much longer than thick; the four following are shorter, and the seventh not longer than thick.

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  • " To confer on the wings the multiplicity of movements which they require, they are supplied with double hinge or compound joints, which enable them to move not only in an upward, downward, forward and backward direction, but also at various intermediate degrees of obliquity.

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  • This twisting is in a great measure owing to the manner in which the bones of the wing are twisted upon themselves, and the spiral nature of their articular surfaces - the long axes of the joints always intersecting each other b FIG.

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  • n,o, Hand and finger joints.

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  • a triple line of defences of later date (possibly added by the Roman colonists), inasmuch as both the city wall proper and the double wall thrown out in front of it are partly constructed of concrete, and faced with finer polygonal masonry (in which horizontal joints seem to be purposely avoided).

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  • Tabasheer is a white substance mainly composed of silica, found in the joints of several bamboos.

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  • In the sugar-cane (Saccharum) and several allied genera the separating joints of the axis bear long hairs below the spikelets; in others, as in Arundo (a reed-grass), the flowering glumes are enveloped in long hairs.

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  • Spikelets one-flowered, rarely two-flowered as in Zea, falling from the pedicel entire or with certain joints of the rachis at maturity.

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  • Steel plates and shapes, when delivered from the rolls which form them to the cooling beds, are largely covered with scales, which, adhering only partially to the surface, offer the intervening cracks or joints as vulnerable points for rust.

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  • The columns are sometimes run through two or more storeys and arranged to break joints at the different floors.

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  • All abutting joints in riveted work are faced to exact lengths and absolutely at right angles to the axis of the piece, and are spliced by scarf plates of proper dimensions adequately secured by rivets.

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  • 20 it occurs with zinc in reticulated deposits and fissure veins in clays and clastic limestones; and in the third, of which Jasper county is much the most important county, the two metals occur in pockets and joints in the Burlington-Keokuk beds of the sub-Carboniferous.

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  • In this case, however, some of the water probably passed through the beds and joints of rocks to an adjoining valley lying at a lower level, and had both streams been gauged the average would probably have been considerably greater.

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  • On the other hand, some rocks in mountain districts, notably the granites, owing to the great quantity of water stored in their numerous fissures or joints, commonly yield a much higher proportion of so-called dry weather flow.

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  • Among the sedimentary rocks we have, for example, in the clay slates of the Silurian formations, rocks no less cracked and fissured than others, but generally quite impermeable by reason of the joints being packed with the very fine clay resulting from the rubbing of slate upon slate in the earth movements to which the cracks are due.

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  • 13 a the usual materials employed for lining the well and holding up the sand, and the quantity of water drawn is kept below the comparatively small quantity necessary to produce a velocity, through the joints or orifices, capable of disturbing the sand.

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  • The less permeable materials should be confined to the inner parts of the embankments; this is especially important in the case of the inner embankment in order that, when the water level falls, they may remain moist without becoming liable to slip. The inner slope should be protected from the action of waves by so-called " hand-pitching," consisting of roughlysquared stonework, bedded upon a layer of broken stone to prevent local disturbance of the embankment by action of the water between the joints of the larger stones.

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  • The base of a puddle trench is often found to have been placed upon rock, perfectly sound in itself, but having joints which are not impermeable.

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  • The loss of water by leakage through such joints or fissures below the puddle wall may or may not be a serious matter in itself; but if at any point there is sufficient movement of water across the base of the trench to produce the slightest erosion of the clay above it, that movement almost invariably increases.

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  • These researches led to a wide discussion of the sufficiency of the law of uniformly varying stress when applied to horizontal joints as a test of the stability of dams. Professor Karl Pearson showed that the results are dependent upon the assumption that the distribution of the vertical stresses on the base of the structure also followed the law of uniformly varying stress.

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  • As a result of this theory, in the case of a retaining wall supporting a vertical face of earth beneath an extended horizontal plane level with the top of the wall, we get p _ wx 2 1 - sin ii 2 I +sin P' [[Reservoir Empty Reservoir Full Ellipses Of Vertical Pressures On Horizontal Joints]].

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  • Horizontal Pressures On Vertical Joints.

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  • In the construction of the Vyrnwy masonry dam Portland cement concrete was used in the joints.

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  • All stones must be beaten down into their beds until the mortar squeezes up into the joints around them.

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  • Generally speaking, in the excavations for the foundations springs are met with; these may be only sufficient to indicate a continuous dampness at certain beds or joints of the rock, but all such places should be connected by relief drains carried to visible points at the back of the dam.

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  • In the best examples this has been secured by bedding the stones near to the water face in somewhat finer mortar than the rest, and sometimes also by placing pads to fill the joints for several inches from the water face, so that the mortar was kept away from the face and was well held up to its work.

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  • They generally leak a little near the junction with the rock, and at some other joints in intermediate positions.

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  • In the case of the Neuadd dam this difficulty was met by deliberately omitting the mortar in transverse joints at regular intervals near the top of the dam, except just at their faces, where it of course cracks harmlessly, and by filling the rest with asphalt.

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  • Both these filters arrest the organisms by purely mechanical action, and if the joints are water-tight and they receive proper attention and frequent sterilization, they both give satisfactory results on a small scale for domestic purposes.

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  • Thus it happened that pipes and joints intended for a low-pressure supply were subjected, not only to high pressure, but to the trying ordeal of suddenly varying pressures.

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  • But even in entirely new distributing systems the network is so extensive, and the number of joints so great, that the aggregate leakage is always considerable; the greatest loss being at the so-called " ferrules " connecting the mains with the house " communication " or " service " pipes, in the lead pipes, and in the household fittings.

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  • The system, however, does not assist in the detection of the leakage which inevitably occurs between the reservoir and the consumer's meter; thus the whole of the mains, joints and ferrules connecting the service pipes with the mains, and the greater parts of the service pipes, are still exposed to leakage without any compensating return to the water authority.

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  • high, constructed of sheet-lead, the joints of the sheets being made by" burning "or autogenous soldering, i.e.

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  • In all the groups which are at present arboreal, the palaeontological evidence goes to show that their ancestors were likewise so; while since, in the case of modern terrestrial forms, the structure of the wrist and ankle joints tends to approximate to the arboreal type, as we recede in time, the available evidence, so far as it goes, is in favour of Dr Matthew's contention.

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  • Very usually (but not in the Onychophora = Peripatus) all the parapodia are plated with chitin secreted by the epidermis, and divided into a series of joints - giving the " arthropodous " or hinged character.

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  • The five pairs of appendages of the post-oral somites of the head or prosoma thus constituted all primitively carry gnathobasic projections on their coxal joints, which act as hemignaths: in the more specialized forms the mandibular gnathobases cease to develop.

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  • The only son of Stephen Flamsteed, a maltster, he was educated at the free school of Derby, but quitted it finally in May 1662, in consequence of a rheumatic affection of the joints, due to a chill caught while bathing.

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  • Classit9ca The classification adopted by Henry de Vilmorin in his - Les Bles meilleurs (Paris, 1881) is based, in the first instance, on the nature of the ear: when mature its axis or stem remains unbroken, as in the true wheats, or it breaks into a number of joints, as in the spelt wheats.

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  • Evidently the flint has accumulated along fissures, such as bedding planes, joints and other cracks, after the chalk had to some extent consolidated.

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  • The bones and joints of the foot have the same names as in the fore limb.

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  • The muscles of the limbs are modified from those of the ordinary mammalian type in accordance with the reduced condition of the bones and the simple requirements of flexion and extension of the joints, no such actions as pronation and supination, or opposition of digits, being possible or needed.

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  • Below the carpal and tarsal joints, the fore and hind limbs correspond almost exactly in structure as well as function.

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  • The withers may be moderately high and thin; the chest well developed, but not too wide or deep; the shoulder should lie well on the chest, and be oblique and well covered with muscle, so as to reduce concussion in galloping; the upper and lower arms should be long and muscular; the knees broad and strong; legs short, flat and broad; fetlock joints large; pasterns strong and of moderate length; the feet should be moderately large, with the heels open and frogs sound - with no signs of contraction.

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  • The points of chief importance are a fine, clean, lean head, set on free from collar heaviness; a long and strongly muscular neck, shoulders oblique and covered with muscle; high, long withers, chest of good depth and narrow but not extremely so; body round in type; back rib well down; depth at withers a little under half the height; length equal to the height at withers and croup; loins level and muscular; croup long, rather level; tail set on high and carried gracefully; the hind quarters long, strongly developed, and full of muscle and driving power; the limbs clean-cut and sinewy, possessing abundance of good bone, especially desired in the cannons, which are short, broad and flat; comparatively little space between the fore legs; pastern joints smooth and true; pasterns strong, clean and springy, sloping when at rest at an angle of 45°; feet medium size, wide and high at the heels, concave below and set on straight.

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  • The non-cellular order Siphoneae is fairly well represented in Palaeozoic strata, especially by calcareous verticillate forms referable to the family Dasycladeae; the separate tubular joints of the articulated thallus, bearing the prints of the whorled branches, are sometimes cylindrical (Arthroporella, Vermiporella, &c.), sometimes oval (Sycidium) or spherical (Cyclocrinus).

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  • The wave-induced motion of these joints is resisted by hydraulic rams, which pump high-pressure oil through hydraulic motors via smoothing accumulators.

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  • achee art of massage therapy Do you ever wish there were a magical oil to squeeze into your aching joints?

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  • achy joints, but now I see the impact it has, especially on a younger person.

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  • aqua aerobics - A water workout that improves fitness whilst protecting the joints.

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  • autologous cartilage transplantation [ACT] for defects in knee joints.

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  • baseboard joints.

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  • All pivots will be by ball joints or spherical bearings.

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  • being overweight doesn't help the condition as it places stress on painful joints, particularly hips, knees and feet.

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  • When bedded in hot bitumen, the board joints will be further sealed.

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  • The red and white sandstones looked blocky in places and were fragmented by joints.

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  • bonded joints - single- and multi-step lap, guide to design.

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  • Values can be obtained for whole bones or joints, or bone cortex or trabecular bone alone.

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  • brazed joints.

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  • brazed joints.

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  • breeze block with lengths of hose pipe between the mortar joints.

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  • gaged brickwork - very precisely made bricks laid with fine joints.

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  • butt welded..The valve is provided with butt weld end and welded into the piping system using high integrity joints.

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  • This prolonged hypercalcaemia causes dystrophic calcification of the gastrointestinal tissues, the kidneys, lungs, blood vessels, and joints.

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  • capsular shrinkage has been under study for both the knee and the shoulder joints.

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  • hyaline cartilage, with a white translucent appearance, occurs on the smooth surfaces of joints.

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  • cartilage transplantation [ACT] for defects in knee joints.

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  • Most artificial joints (prostheses) are fixed into the bone with acrylic cement.

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  • Hemophilia is an inherited bleeding disorder characterized by prolonged or spontaneous bleeding, especially into the muscles, joints, or internal organs.

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  • characterized by inflammation of the membrane lining in joints.

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  • Sprains usually refer to injuries to ligaments, but sometimes to other connective tissues, such as tendons and the capsules surrounding joints.

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  • Theory is I'm having spontaneous contusions into the soft tissues on top of the joints.

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  • Think about the following... Joints, flanges Crevices let stagnant liquid accumulate, causing locally accelerated corrosion from differential aeration.

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  • cross-training activity to real running, only without the impact on your joints!

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  • Between each pair of its joints is a distance of twelve cubits.

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  • New evidence shows that metallic debris from the replaced joints travels to other organs, possibly causing cancer.

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  • A surgical method for treating scarring which restricts normal movement of joints, or causes deformity.

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  • dilatation joints are particularly noticeable within the free-face on the western edge of Beacon Hill.

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  • dispensed by veterinary surgeons to help dogs maintain healthy joints.

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  • It is near impossible to take divots and the course therefore can be tough on muscles, joints and bones.

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  • dovetailed joints and solid bases for all the drawers.

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  • dovetail joints for a box.

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  • BSRIA Testing and Certification is able to evaluate the performance of rectangular ductwork flanged duct joints to HVCA standard DW / TM1: 1987.

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  • efficacious than placebo and may occasionally be useful for painful osteoarthritic joints where they can be rubbed on as necessary.

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  • facet joints.

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  • Severe and debilitating fatigue, painful muscles and joints, disordered sleep, gastric disturbances, poor memory and concentration are commonplace.

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  • faucet joints are being removed and replaced with new steel pipes using Victaulic joints.

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  • As dogs age, it is common for their joints to become less flexible which impacts their mobility and quality of life.

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  • In addition smaller flower buds emerge from the upper leaf joints.

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  • These ingredients have been scientifically formulated to support and maintain the health of your dog's joints.

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  • Dorothy maintains that age is catching up with them, joints are beginning to creak, but they look pretty frisky to us!

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  • Boiling gammon or ham joints All gammon joints should be boiled for at least part of their cooking time.

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  • The doctor also may find it helpful to examine chalky, sodium urate deposits (tophi) around joints to diagnose gout.

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  • Notable examples are hip joints, and replacement heart valves and vascular grafts.

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  • The bacteria can enter the skin through cuts and abrasions and can produce granulomas around some of the joints.

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  • To grout the tile joints in the pool, ARDEX-FLEX FL gray rapid setting flexible grout the tile joints in the pool, ARDEX-FLEX FL gray rapid setting flexible grout was used.

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  • gunwale strake has been attached to the upper strake with mortise and tenon joints and dovetail fastenings.

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  • hyaline cartilage, with a white translucent appearance, occurs on the smooth surfaces of joints.

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  • The motion at the joints produced by the wave is resisted by hydraulic rams, which pumps high-pressure oil through hydraulic motors.

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  • NovaKur ChoThera contains collagen hydrolysate, amino acids, vitamins and minerals that are essential for healthy joints and healthy cartilage metabolism.

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  • immobilize the joints adjacent to the fracture makes early restoration of motion possible.

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  • The fact that functional bracing does not immobilize the joints adjacent to the fracture makes early restoration of motion possible.

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  • Deep heat is not recommended for patients with acutely inflamed joints.

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  • Reducing the inflammation can help to reduce the damage to joints.

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  • It is a progressive, systemic autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of the membrane lining in joints.

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  • A shoe with a soft insole may help to protect any tender joints on the soles of the feet.

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  • Some people with psoriasis also have associated arthritis (inflamed joints ), which can range from being very mild to severe.

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  • Ideal for those who suffer with aching joints or with concerns about joint health.

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  • That's a long, long time to have swollen joints!

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    0
  • Joint problems Osteoarthritis or rheumatoid disease can cause stiff painful joint problems Osteoarthritis or rheumatoid disease can cause stiff painful joints with loss of range of movement which can cause problems with function.

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  • The bearing surface of all synovial joints is made up of a very specialized material called hyaline cartilage.

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  • Recommended dosage Apply 2-3 times a day to affected joints or as and when required.

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  • We are building two planters out of breeze block with lengths of hose pipe between the mortar joints.

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  • The Six Hits 1. Forward, use ankle joints.

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  • juke joints, you take the church basements and Boy Scout jamborees.

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  • knobbly appearance and the stiffness and pain, arthritic joints can continue to give good service for many years.

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  • knobbly swellings form on the back of the joints (see Figure 6 ).

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  • Quarry or Ceramic tiles Follow the basic requirements above, using a latex leveling compound to fill the joints between the tiles.

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  • Let job stand for about 5 minutes then wipe the tiles and grout joints with a dry lint free cloth.

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  • Well I have to say I think Goldshield's cod liver oil capsules have helped to keep my joints a bit more flexible.

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  • Typical symptoms include malaise, weight loss, a low grade fever and pain and swelling in the affected joints.

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  • mandrel bent on CNC benders for smooth perfect bends without joints making it unique for this application.

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  • fluorescence measurements performed on the tissue specimens ex vivo showed the predominant accumulation of porphyrins in the synovium of the inflamed joints.

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  • meniscus repair and washout and was told that the joints were too badly damaged for replacement joints.

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  • metreking on behalf of Defense Estates, Colas installed sealant to over 150,000 linear meters of concrete joints.

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  • Read Stress caused by thermal mismatch, to see the benefits of using compliant joints where possible.

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  • mitren the ends to the back and miter the front corner joints.

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  • mitreer joints are only suitable for 27 & 40mm thick tops.

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  • mitre making those joints neat, a square or miter block is a must.

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  • Thin-layer mortar joints should be formed between 1mm and 3mm thick using the proprietary scoops available from the manufacturer.

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  • For instance, the timbers are jointed together using traditional mortise and tenon joints, dowel pegs, copper nails and brass screws.

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  • mortise joints which may have been to take an end piece or stempost.

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  • Syllabus Plan and Content Normal human anatomy Axial skeleton: joints, associated musculature and other tissues.

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  • If the symmetry of the SI joints are incorrect, it can prevent the pelvic floor musculature from working properly.

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  • Being overweight therefore places an increased loading bearing burden on the hip joints leading to premature osteoarthritis.

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  • The symptoms result from an accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints, causing an intensely painful inflammatory reaction.

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  • The joints between the clay pantiles are pointed with mortar in a traditional fashion.

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  • perpend joints speeds construction, saves mortar and enhances thermal insulation.

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  • There were small quantities of black lubricant on certain joints and this was cleaned off and replaced with white petroleum jelly on reassembly.

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  • We are building two planters out of breeze block with lengths of hose pipe between the mortar joints.

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  • Delicious home-made pizzas put most fancy Italian sit down joints to shame, at a fraction of the price.

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  • keep joints pliant and soft throughout all the movements.

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  • It has non corrosive quality polypropylene tubing frame which is easily assembled with pressure joints.

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  • porphyrins in the synovium of the inflamed joints.

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  • various anti-arthritis potions can be rubbed into the affected joints.

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  • They suffer leg and foot problems, swollen joints and uterine prolapse.

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  • The majority of your weight is carried through your pelvic bone which has 2 protrusions immediately below the thigh joints.

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  • Some of the joints were dry, all looked slightly puckered on top (not how it looks when too cold ).

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  • avoid racket and contact sports and any form of exercise that jars your joints, such as jogging and high-impact aerobics.

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  • Its joints are not what they were and can sound rather rattly.

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  • Manufactured from kiln dried redwood with high quality mortise and tenon joints and pressure treated for long life in service.

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  • horizontal reinforcement is placed in the bed joints at vertical spacing maximum 600 mm.

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    0
  • You must have active rheumatoid arthritis, which can be measured on a score of ' disease activity ' in your joints.

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  • riveted joints of the hull.

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  • In the long run, all joints with cruciate ligament rupture will develop some degree of osteoarthritis.

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  • sacroiliac joints at the base of the back.

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    0
  • self-adhesive parcel tape will do at a pinch provided you've got something to stop the joints sliding.

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  • All soldered joints should appear shiny as in the picture below.

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  • Some designs use rather small universal joints, some of which feel sloppy even before they've started wearing out.

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  • soldered joints which can then fail.

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  • It employs a continuously generated wave of molten solder to form the joints.

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  • soot deposits that erode mortar joints.

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  • soothe arthritic symptoms such as: tender joints morning stiffness and swelling.

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  • bog spavin is excessive fluid in the largest of the hock joints.

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  • cervical spondylitis is inflammation of the synovial joints between the cervical vertebrae.

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  • Glossary Ankylosing spondylitis - an inflammatory arthritis affecting mainly the joints in the back.

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    0
  • sportsmanaKur Special Joint Gel can also help sportsmen and sportswomen to calm and revitalize tired and strained joints.

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  • stagger the end joints of adjacent rows by at least 30cm.

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  • Max is now in relatively good health for age apart from slightly stiff joints which he takes a supplement for.

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  • If your ankles feel stiff in the morning, allowing some time for the joints to ' loosen up ' will usually help.

    0
    0
  • stiffening of the joints, which restricts the range of movement.

    0
    0
  • subluxation of the ankle or subtalar joints.

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    0
  • MSM supplies the body with organic sulfur that directly contributes to the maintenance of the integrity of the cartilage within the joints.

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    0
  • Of all the gin joints in Gozo... 19.00: For a great sundowner, seek out the most interesting pub on Gozo.

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  • Yoga, for example, can help to relax the muscles and make the joints more supple.

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    0
  • Heberden's nodes - firm swellings of the end joints of fingers, often painless when fully formed - the hallmark of nodal osteoarthritis.

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  • swellings of the end joints of fingers, often painless when fully formed - the hallmark of nodal osteoarthritis.

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  • I am due to go for Radiofrequency denervation on my SI joints, facet joints and pubis symphysis next week.

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  • tenoned joints.

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  • tenon joints.

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  • tethering rings on block or bow perches breaking due to badly welded joints.

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  • In the second year work will begin on the cyclic loading of adhesive joints and also on the creep behavior of welded thermoplastics.

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  • tie rod ends, ball joints and radius rod bushings if they need renewal or are getting close to it.

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  • tophushis case the crystals are seen as small bumps near the joints or on the outer side of the ear called tophi.

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    0
  • unknown etiology, with chronic inflammation affecting multiple joints.

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    0
  • urate crystals being shed into the joints.

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    0
  • The disease is caused by the deposition of sodium urate (uric acid) crystals in the joints.

    0
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  • uric acid crystals being deposited in the joints.

    0
    0
  • Soft neoprene blend adds soothing warmth to help keep joints flexible.

    0
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  • water-soaked areas on flowers and stem joints, and can kill stems quickly, leaving them dry and bleached.

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    0
  • Pairs of wooden wedges were then driven into the vertical joints of the stones.

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    0
  • The dangerous principle is a narcotic, and the symptoms are usually great nausea, drowsiness, stupor and pains in the joints.

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  • They are remarkable for skill in the massing of light and shade, richness and delicacy of colouring, and for the admirable style in which the drapery of the figures is handled, Bartolommeo having been the first to introduce and use the lay-figure with joints.

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  • The joints take a special form to enable them to withstand the great strain to which they are subjected (fig.

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  • The pipes are best supported on rollers which allow of movement without straining the joints.

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  • There are several joints in general use for the best class of work which are formed with the aid of india-rubber rings or collars, any expansion being divided amongst the whole number of joints.

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  • This is checked by the mile marks, the known position of the joints, &c., as they pass.

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  • In this several microphonic joints were employed.

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  • When the vertebrae are free their 6.h, centra articulate with each other by complicated joints, exhibiting four types.

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  • The intervertebral joints are further complicated by the interposition of a cartilaginous or fibrous pad or ring.

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  • rudda, stick, rodda, stake), a twig or shoot of a tree or bush, especially a straight slender stick or wand used as an instrument of punishment, as a symbol of office, or as an implement, usually composed of several joints, for angling or fishing.

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  • By making them in longer lengths a reduction was effected in the number of joints - always the weakest part of the line; and another advance consisted in the substitution of wrought iron for cast iron, though that material did not gain wide adoption until after the patent for an improved method of rolling rails granted in 1820 to John Birkinshaw, of the Bedlington Ironworks, Durham.

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  • It was found, naturally, that the rails would not rest in their chairs at the joints, but were loosened and bruised at the ends by the blows of the traffic. The fish-joint was therefore devised in 1847 by W.

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  • Bridges Adams, the intention being by " fishing " the joints to convert the rails into continuous beams. In the original design two chairs were placed, one under each rail, a few inches apart, as in fig.

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  • The joints of flanged rails are similar to those employed with bull-headed rails.

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  • For instance, it is not very uncommon to find persons who can make loud sounds by partially dislocating and restoring the toe, knee, or other joints, and some experiments made with the Fox girls in 1851 supported the view that they made raps by this method.

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  • Their support being removed they break away in the direction of natural joints, and the fragments fall down the slope upon the vegetable soil.

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  • The antennae of Diptera, which are also extremely important in classification, are thread-like in the more primitive families, such as the Tipulidae (daddy-long-legs), where they consist of a considerable number of joints, all of which except the first two, and sometimes also the last two, are similar in shape; in the more specialized families, such as the Tabanidae (horse-flies), Syrphidae (hover-flies) or Muscidae (house-flies, blue-bottles and their allies), the number of antennal joints is greatly reduced by coalescence, so that the antennae appear to consist of only three joints.

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  • It is customary to divide the Orthorrhapha into the two divisions Nematocera and Brachycera, in the former of which the antennae are elongate and in a more or less primitive condition, as described above, while in the latter these organs are short, and, as already explained, apparently composed of only three joints.

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  • The union of the index and middle fingers by means of a web extending as far as the terminal joints is the distinctive feature of the siamang, which is the largest of the group, and black in colour with a white frontal band.

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  • These attempts were, however, unsuccessful, on account of the excessive leakage at the joints of the pipes.

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  • In the Puerco, or Lowest Eocene of North America the place of the above species was taken by Euprotogonia puercensis, an animal only half the size of Phenacodus primaevus, with the terminal joints of the limbs intermediate between hoofs and claws, and the first and fifth toes taking their full share in the support of the weight of the body.

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  • Space between tops of shoulder blades and tops of hip joints.

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  • The hock joints.

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  • Tops of the hip joints.

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  • The top joints of the hind legs.

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  • The antennae are long and thread-like, composed at first of few joints, but the number of these latter apparently increases at each moult.

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  • The head is smaller, often occupied almost entirely above in the male by the very large eyes, which in some species are curiously double in that sex, one portion being pillared, and forming what is termed a "turban," the mouth parts are aborted, for the creature is now incapable of taking nutriment either solid or fluid; the antennae are mere short bristles, consisting of two rather large basal joints and a multi-articulate thread.

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  • Many vitreous rocks show alteration of this type in certain parts where either the glass has been of unstable nature or where agencies of change such as percolating water have had easiest access (as along joints, perlitic cracks and the margins of dikes and sills).

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  • With this arrangement it is possible to find the actual value of the magnetizing force, corrected for the effects of joints and other sources of error.

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  • The Silurian scorpion Palaeophonus, differs, so far as obvious points are concerned, from a modern scorpion only in the thickness of its legs and in their terminating in strong spike-like joints, instead of being slight and provided with a pair of terminal claws.

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  • The sound is produced by stridulating organs developed on the basal joints of the limbs, which differ in position and character in different genera (see Pocock, 27).

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  • Subsequently straws are selected from the sheaves, and of these the pipes of the two upper joints are taken for plaiting.

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  • A knowledge of the bacteriology of scrofulous affections of bone and joints, such as caries and gelatinous degeneration, has shown that they also are tubercular diseases - that is to say, diseases due to the presence locally of the tubercle bacillus.

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  • Amyloid develops in various organs and tissues and is commonly associated with chronic phthisis, tubercular disease of bone and joints, and syphilis (congenital and acquired).

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  • On the other hand, not a few disorders proved to be alien to classes to which narrower views of causation had referred them; of such are tabes dorsalis, neuritis, infantile palsy or tetanus, now removed from the category of primary nervous diseases and placed in one or other of the class of infections; or, conversely, certain forms of disease of the joints are now regarded with some certainty as members of more than one series of diseases chiefly manifest in the nervous system.

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  • A vine, for instance, that produces bunches of grapes at each joint is preferable to one in which there are several barren joints, as a larger quantity can be grown within a smaller area.

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  • The leaf directly opposite the bunch must in all cases be preserved, and the young shoot is to be topped at one or two joints beyond the incipient fruit, the latter distance being preferable if there is plenty of room for the foliage to expand; the lateral shoots, which will push out after the topping, must be again topped above their first or second joints.

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  • The stems are solid and marked with numerous shining, polished, yellow, purple or striped joints, 3 in.

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  • In many calcareous forms, .both Cheilostomes and Cyclostomes, the zoarium is rendered flexible by the interposition of chitinous joints at intervals.

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  • Diagonal bracing or strutting is nowhere to be found, and in many cases mortises and other joints are such as very materially to weaken the timbers at their points of connection.

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  • - This name is now restricted to two or three dwarf branching Brazilian epiphytal plants of extreme beauty, which agree with Phyllocactus in having the branches dilated into the form of fleshy leaves, but differ in having them divided into short truncate leaf-like portions, which are articulated, that is to say, provided with a joint by which they separate spontaneously; the margins are crenate or dentate, and the flowers, which are large and showy, magenta or crimson, appear at the apex of the terminal joints.

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  • UNGULATA, the name of an order of placental mammals in which the terminal joints of the toes are usually encased in solid hoofs or covered with broad hoof-like nails, while the molar (and not unfrequently some or all of the premolar) teeth have broad tuberculated crowns adapted for crushing vegetable substances.

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  • The typical ungulates are the members of the suborders Artiodactyla and Perissodactyla, in both of which the bones of the foot articulate with each other by means of groove-and-tongue joints, whence the name of Diplarthra (equivalent to Ungulata Vera), which has been proposed for these two groups collectively, as distinct from the other representatives of the order.

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  • The head bears small red eyes and a pair of three-jointed antenn ae, the first two joints being short and thick, the third more elongated, with the end cut off obliquely and FIG.

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  • The opening upon the upper surface have three joints, the terroot-dwellers.

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  • But even filters of this type, if they are to be fully relied upon, must be frequently cleaned and sterilized, and great care must be taken that the joints and connexions are watertight, and that the candles are without cracks or flaws.

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  • The golden statues were votive offerings; thus a man and his wife offer four statues for the health of their four children, and a man offers to Dhu Samai statues of a man and two camels, in prayer for his own health and the protection of his camels from disease of the joints.

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  • They have mostly been replaced, decay having taken place at the joints.

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  • thick extending over the middle third of the depth of the voussoir joints, the rest of the joints being left open.

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  • The restricted area on which the pressure acts at the lead joints involves greater intensity of stress than has been usual in arched bridges.

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  • In some girder -1 o bridges the members are connected entirely by riveting, in others the principal members are con nected by pin joints.

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  • The girder held its position with both joints severed, proving that, as should be the case, there was no stress in the boom where the bending moment changes sign.

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  • If, however, hinges or joints are introduced at the points of contrary flexure, they become necessarily points where the bending moment is zero and ambiguity as to the stresses vanishes.

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  • This result must follow in any frame, the members of which are so connected that the joints offer little or no resistance to change in the relative angular position of the members.

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  • Many assumptions are made in treating of the flexure of a continuous structure which are not strictly true; no assumption is made in determining the stresses on a frame except that the joints are flexible, and that the frame shall be so stiff as not sensibly to alter in form under the load.

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  • half the load carried between the two lower joints next the piers on either side is directly carried by the abutments.

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  • Let a frame (without redundant members), and the external forces which keep it in equilibrium, be represented by a diagram constituting one of these two plane figures, then the lines in the other plane figure or the reciprocal will represent in direction and magnitude the forces between the joints of the frame, and, consequently, the stress on each member, as will now be explained.

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  • 66 shows a frame supported at the two end joints, and loaded at each top joint.

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  • The reciprocal figure for any loaded frame is a complete formula for the stress on every member of a frame of that particular class with loads on given joints.

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  • 68), loaded at the top and bottom joints.

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  • Owing to the yielding of joints when a beam is first loaded a smaller modulus of elasticity should be taken than for a solid bar.

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  • Throughout her life she had enjoyed excellent health, and even in the last few years the only marks of age were rheumatic stiffness of the joints, which prevented walking, and a diminished power of eyesight.

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  • On the Hessian fly, Cecidomyia destructor, Say, the May brood of which produces swellings immediately above the joints of barley attacked by it, see Asa Fitch, The Hessian Fly (Albany, 1847), reprinted from Trans.

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  • In September 1839 a 3-foot speculum was finished and mounted on an altazimuth stand similar to Herschel's; but, though the definition of the images was good (except that the diffraction at the joints of the speculum caused minute rays in the case of a very bright star), and its peculiar skeleton form allowed the speculum to follow atmospheric changes of temperature very quickly, Lord Rosse decided to cast a solid 3-foot speculum.

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  • When blasting is resorted to, advantage is taken of the natural cuts or joints, as the rock is readily thrown or worked off these.

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  • The title " branching horns " alludes to the second antennae, which are two-branched except in the females of Holopedium, with each branch setiferous, composed of only two to four joints.

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  • The first antennae never have more than eight joints.

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  • The mandibles are normally five-jointed, with remnants of an outer branch on the second joint, the biting edge varying from strong development to evanescence, the terminal joints or " palp " giving the organ a leg-like appearance and function, which disappears in suctorial genera such as Paracytherois.

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  • The two joints of the thumb, for example, are homogenous throughout the whole series of the pentadactylate, or five-fingered animals, from the most primitive amphibian to man.

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  • The wood of the fly honeysuckle is extremely hard, and the clear portions between the joints of the stems, when their pith has been removed, were stated by Linnaeus to be utilized in Sweden for making tobacco-pipes.

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  • (2) As regards plays, in Marlowe's Tamburlaine Timur is described as tall of stature, straightly fashioned, large of limb, having joints strongly knit, long and sinewy arms, a breadth of shoulders to "bear old Atlas's burden," pale of complexion, and with "amber hair wrapp'd in curls."

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  • As an architectural term "bevel" is a sloped or canted edge given to a sill or horizontal course of stone, but is more frequently applied to the canted edges worked round the projecting bands of masonry which for decorative purposes are employed on the quoins of walls or windows and in some cases, with vertical joints, cover the whole wall.

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  • The whole was bedded, not in mortar, but in clay, which has mostly been washed out of the joints; originally the surface was probably protected with a coating of stucco.

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  • They occur no less in structures of masonry and brickwork, but in these cases they generally follow the joints, and are almost imperceptible.

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  • In the case of a smooth concrete face there are no joints to follow, and the cracks become an ugly feature.

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  • They are sometimes regulated by forming artificial "joints" in the structure by embedding strips of wood or sheet iron at regular intervals, thus forming "lines of weakness," at which the cracks therefore take place.

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  • It is made by cutting a series of long slots at regular intervals in a plain steel plate, which is then forcibly stretched out sideways until the slots become diamond-shaped openings, and a trellis work of steel without any joints is the result (fig.

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  • Difficulties were at first encountered in making the necessary joints, but these have been overcome by practice and experience.

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  • The joints are packed or caulked with tow, smeared with a mixture of white and red lead.

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  • Flanged joints are made to bolt together on washers of vulcanized rubber.

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  • Many of the free-growing soft-wooded plants may also be grown from cuttings of single joints of the young wood, where rapid increase is desired; and in the case of opposite-leaved plants two cuttings may often be made from one joint by splitting the stem longitudinally, each cutting consisting of a leaf and a perfect bud attached to half the thickness of the stem.

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  • Keep sweet potatoes hoed to prevent the vines rooting at the joints.

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  • W, Water-cooled joints between L', Gas port.

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  • The group of two longnecked gazelles facing a palm tree is of extraordinary refinement, and shows the, artistic consciousness in every part; the symmetric rendering of the palm tree, reduced to fit the scale of the animals, the dainty grace of the smooth gazelles contrasted with the rugged stem, the delicacy of the long flowing curves and the fine indications of the joints, all show a sense of design which has rarely been equalled in the ceaseless repetitions of the tree and supporters motive during every age since.

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  • The error of flatness of the joints from a straight line and a true square is but thth in.

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  • In the monkey the proportions it assumes are still greater, and the number of foci, for distinct movements of this and that member, indeed for the individual joints of each limb, are much more numerous, and together occupy a more extensive surface, though relatively to the total surface of the brain a smaller one.

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  • To the law that no subsequent transverse division takes place in segments cut off from the apical cell, there seem to be two exceptions: first, the calcareous genus Corallina, in the pliable joints of which intercalated division occurs; and, second, the Nitophylleae, in which, moreover, median longitudinal division of axial cells is said to occur.

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  • In Polysiphonia they cover the joints of the so-called leaves; in Chondria they arise on flattened disks; in the more massive forms they arise in patches on the ordinary surface; in a few cases (Gracilaria, Corallina, Galaxaura) they line the walls of conceptacle-like depressions.

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  • - Mixtures of animal, vegetable and mineral substances are employed in great variety in the arts for making joints, mending broken china and other objects, &c. A strong cement for alabaster and marble, which sets in a day, may be prepared by mixing 12 parts of Portland cement, 8 of fine sand and 1 of infusorial earth, and making them into a thick paste with silicate of soda; the object to be cemented need not be heated.

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  • The various stages in this kind of demolition are best seen where the underlying rock is of granite or similarly tough material, which at the same time is apt to be split and splintered by means of its numerous transverse joints.

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  • In other cases it is secured by the intersection of joints, whereby a rock, in itself hard and durable, is divided into small angular blocks, which are separated by the action of the elements and slide down the declivities.

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  • The horizontal stratification of some of these masses gives them a curiously architectural aspect, further increased by the effect of the numerous vertical joints by which the rock is cleft into buttresses and recesses along the fronts of the precipices and into pinnacles and finials along the summits.

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  • Vast vertical walls of rock shoot up to a height of 600 ft., cut by their perpendicular joints into quadrangular piers and projections, some of which stand out alone as cathedral-like islets in front of the main cliff.

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  • These vessels were made of planks well fitted and sewn together, the joints being caulked and pitched.'

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  • The large canoes in which they formerly made long voyages are no longer built, but various kinds of smaller canoes are made, from the commonest, which is simply a hollowed-out tree cut into form, to the finely shaped one built upon a keel, the joints of the various pieces being nicely fitted, and the whole stitched together with cord made from the husk of coconuts.

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  • This is the explanation of all the varied forms of riveted joints, which to casual observers often appear to be of a fanciful character.

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  • It is evident that a system of jointed bars having the shape of the funicular polygon would be in equilibrium under the action of the given forces, supposed applied to the joints; moreover any bar in which the stress is of the nature of a tension (as distinguished from a thrust) might be replaced by a string.

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  • Theory of Frames.A frame is a structure made up of pieces, or members, each of which has two joints connecting it with other members.

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  • We shall suppose, in the first instance, that extraneous forces act on the frame at the joints only, i.e.

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  • On this assumption, the reactions on any member at its two joints must be equal and opposite.

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  • For diagrammatic purposes each member is sufficiently represented by a straight line terminating at the two joints; these lines will be referred to as the bars of the frame.

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  • A plane frame of n joints which is just rigid (as regards deformation in its own plane) has 2n3 bars, for if one bar be held fixed the 2(n2) co-ordinates of the remaining fl2 joints must just be determined by the lengths of the remaining bars.

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  • When a plane frame which is just rigid is subject to a given system of equilibrating extraneous forces (in its own plane) acting on the joints, the stresses in the bars are in general uniquely determinate.

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  • A frame of n joints and vi 3 bars may of course fail to be rigid owing to some parts being over-stiff whilst others are deformable; in such a case it will be found that the statical equations, apart from the thre identical relations imposed by the equilibrium of the extraneous forces, are not all independent but are equivalent to less thar 2,13 relations.

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  • The stresses produced by extraneous forces in a simple frame can be found by considering the equilibrium of the various joints in a proper succession; and if the graphical method be employed the various polygons of force can be combined into a single force-diagram.

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  • To find the reactions at the joints we may proceed as follows.

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  • The principle of virtual work is specially convenient in the theory of frames (~ 6), since the reactions at smooth joints and the stresses in inextensible bars may be left out of account.

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  • If we imagine the bar in question t be removed, equilibrium will still persist if we introduce two equal and opposite forces S, of suitable magnitude, at the joints which it connected.

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  • For this purpose the infinitesimal displacements of W the various joints are replaced by finite lengths proportional to them, and there- FIG.

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  • fore proportional to the velocities of the joints in some imagined motion of the deformable frame through its actual configuration; this is really (it may be remarked) a reversion to the original notion of virtual velocities.

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  • Consider, for example, a frame whose sides form the six sides of a hexagon ABCDEF and the three diagonals AD, BE, CF; and suppose that it is required to find the stress in CF due to a given system of extraneous forces in equilibrium, acting on the joints.

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  • The simplest case is that of a frame of three bars, when the three joints A, B, C fall into a straght line; a small displacement of the joint B at right angles to AC would involve changes in the lengths of AB, BC which are only of the second order of small quantities.

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  • Os = o, where S is the stress in the removed bar, and Os is the change in the distance between the joints which it connected.

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  • Again, when extraneous forces P act on the joints, the equation is Z(P.&P)+S.Os=-o, where op is the displacement of any joint in the direction of the corresponding force P. If ~(P. Op) =o, the stresses are merely indeterminate as before; but if ~ (P. op) does not vanish, the equation cannot be satisfied by any finite value of S, since Os =0.

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  • We may note that a frame of n joints which is just rigid must have 3116 bars; and that the stresses produced in such a frame by a given system of extraneous forces in equilibrium are statically determinate, subject to the exception of critical forms.

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  • Those pieces are connected at theii joints or surfaces of mutual contact, either by simple pressure and friction (as in masonry with moist mortar or without mortar), by pressure and adhesion (as in masonry with cement or with hardened mortar, and timber with glue), or by the resistance of fastenings of different kinds, whether made by means of the form of the joint (as dovetails, notches, mortices and tenons) or by separate fastening pieces (as trenails, pins, spikes, nails, holdfasts, screws, bolts, rivets, hoops, straps and sockets.

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  • Relations between Polygons of Loads and of Resistances.In a structure in which each piece is supported at two joints only, the well-known laws of statics show that the directions of the gross load on each piece and of the two resistances by which it is supported must lie in one plane, must either be parallel or meet in one point, and must bear to each other, if not parallel, the proportions of the sides of a triangle respectively parallel to their directions, and, if parallel, such proportions that each of the three forces shall be proportional to the distance between the other two,all the three distances being measured along one direction.

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  • of the resistances ex erted at the joints.

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  • Partial Polygons of Resistance.In a structure in which there are pieces supported at more than two joints, let a polygon be con-.

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  • In considering its properties, the load at each centre of load is to be held to include the resistances of those joints which are not comprehended in the partial polygon of resistances, to which the theorem of 7 will then apply in every respect.

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  • The line of resistance is a line traversing all the centres of resistance of a series of joints,its form, in the positions intermediate between the actual joints of the structure, being determined by supposing the pieces and their loads to be subdivided by the introduction of intermediate joints ad snfinstum, and finding the continuous line, curved or straight, in which the intermediate centres of resistance are all situated, however great their number.

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  • 88), where aa, bb, cc, dd represent plane a joints.

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  • The centres of pressure at the joints are also called centres of resistance, and the curve passing through these points is called a line of resistance.

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  • Stability of Position, and Stability of Frictio-n.The resistances at the several joints having been determined by the principles set forth in 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10, not only under the ordinary load of the structure, but under all the variations to which the load is subject as to amount and distribution, the joints are now to be placed and shaped so that the pieces shall not suffer relative displacement under any of those loads.

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  • Stability of Friction in Earth.The grains of a mass of loosi earth are to be regarded as so many separate pieces abutting agains each other at joints in all possible positions, and depending for thei stability on friction.

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  • For in the second structure the weights, external pressures, and resistances will balance each other as in the first structure; the weights of the pieces and all other parallel systems of forces will have the same ratios as in the first structure; and the severa] centres of resistance will divide the depths of the joints in the same proportions as in the first structure.

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  • Conditions of Stiffness and Strength.After the arrangement of the pieces of a structure and the size and figure of their joints or surfaces of contact have been determined so as to fulfil the conditions of stabilityconditions which depend mainly on the position and direction of the resultant or total load on each piece, and the relative magnitude of the loads on the different piecesthe dimensions of each piece singly have to be adjusted so as to fulfil the conditions of stiffness and strengthconditions which depend not only on the absolute magnitude of the load on each piece, and of the resistances by which it is balanced, but also on the mode of distribution of the load over the piece, and of the resistances over the joints.

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  • While the stroke of A is ACa, extending to equal distances on either side of C, and equal to twice the chord of the arc Dd, the stroke of B is only equal to twice the sagitta; and thus A is guided through a comparatively long stroke by the sliding of B through a comparatively short stroke, and by rotatory motions at the joints C, D, B.

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  • The relation between the effort and the resistance in a machine to include the effect of friction at the joints has been investigated in a paper by Professor Fleeming Jenkin, On the application of graphrc methods to the determination of the efficiency of machinery (Trans.

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  • It is shown that a machine may at any instant be represented by a frame of links the stresses in which are identical with the pressures at the joints of the mechanism.

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  • In the mandibles and maxillae some of the terminal joints of the stem are invariably wanting.

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  • The latter obscurity results either from coalescence, to which all joints and segments are liable, or from subdivision, which occasionally affects joints even in the trunk-legs.

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  • According to Sars, the 1 In Huxley's terminology the first two or three joints of the stem constitute a "protopodite," from which spring the "endopodite" and "exopodite."

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  • In the companion tribes these appendages have normally seven joints, and always more than three.

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  • The plant is a herbaceous perennial with a long, branched root-stock creeping through the mud, about 3/4 inch thick, with short joints and large brownish leaf-scars.

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  • A hundred or more jars were coupled in series, the cathodes of one to the anodes of the next, and were so arranged that with the aid of side-pipes with leaden connexions and india-rubber joints the electrolyte could, once daily, be made to circulate through them all from the top of one jar to the bottom of the next.

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  • Blisters also cause local dilatation of vessels, but are usually applied to the skin for inflammation in deep-seated parts, such as the lungs, though they also relieve pain in the joints in acute rheumatism.

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  • In health most of the nitrogenous waste in the body is eliminated as urea, but in gout uric acid is either formed in too great quantity or too little is eliminated, so that it tends to be deposited as urate of soda in the joints and other tissues.

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  • In acute attacks of rheumatism the remedy par excellence is salicylate of soda, which reduces the temperature, relieves the pain, and removes the swellings from the joints.

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  • Sulphur waters are chiefly used for painful and stiff joints, chronic skin disease, and chronic catarrhal affections.

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  • In the treatment of stiffened joints, massage under water is very serviceable, and in the so-called Aix douche a nozzle from which water continuously streams is fastened to the wrist of the masseur, so that a current of water is constantly playing upon the joint which he is rubbing.

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  • Exercises, passive and active, are also used in diseases of the joints, as well as massage and baths, but exercises and training are even more important in cases of cardiac disease.

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  • The specially painful points are about the knee and ankle joints; besides which a feeling of numbness is experienced throughout the whole limb.

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  • The slender stem is hollow, and, as generally in grasses, has well-marked joints or nodes, at which the cavity is closed by a strong diaphragm.

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  • As the plant grows older, a species of fluid is secreted in the hollow joints, in which a concrete substance once highly valued in the East for its medicinal qualities, called tabaxir or tabascheer, is gradually developed.

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  • Joints of sufficient size form water buckets; smaller ones are used as bottles, and among the Dyaks of Borneo they are employed as cooking vessels.

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  • The Logos is quick and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of the joints and marrow.

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  • soldare, to make solidus, firm), an alloy easily melted and used for uniting as by a metallic cement two metal surfaces, joints, edges, &c.

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  • " Misericord and " miserere " are also used of a small dagger, the " dagger of mercy," capable of passing between the joints of armour, with which the coup de grace might be given to a wounded man.

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  • In its simplest form the exoskeleton of a typical somite is a ring of chitin defined from the rings in front and behind by areas of thinner integument forming moveable joints, and having a pair of appendages articulated to its ventral surface on either side of the middle line.

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  • The first three joints are much longer than thick; the four following are shorter, and the seventh not longer than thick.

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  • " To confer on the wings the multiplicity of movements which they require, they are supplied with double hinge or compound joints, which enable them to move not only in an upward, downward, forward and backward direction, but also at various intermediate degrees of obliquity.

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  • This twisting is in a great measure owing to the manner in which the bones of the wing are twisted upon themselves, and the spiral nature of their articular surfaces - the long axes of the joints always intersecting each other b FIG.

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  • n,o, Hand and finger joints.

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  • a triple line of defences of later date (possibly added by the Roman colonists), inasmuch as both the city wall proper and the double wall thrown out in front of it are partly constructed of concrete, and faced with finer polygonal masonry (in which horizontal joints seem to be purposely avoided).

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  • Tabasheer is a white substance mainly composed of silica, found in the joints of several bamboos.

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  • In the sugar-cane (Saccharum) and several allied genera the separating joints of the axis bear long hairs below the spikelets; in others, as in Arundo (a reed-grass), the flowering glumes are enveloped in long hairs.

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  • Spikelets one-flowered, rarely two-flowered as in Zea, falling from the pedicel entire or with certain joints of the rachis at maturity.

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  • Steel plates and shapes, when delivered from the rolls which form them to the cooling beds, are largely covered with scales, which, adhering only partially to the surface, offer the intervening cracks or joints as vulnerable points for rust.

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  • The columns are sometimes run through two or more storeys and arranged to break joints at the different floors.

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  • All abutting joints in riveted work are faced to exact lengths and absolutely at right angles to the axis of the piece, and are spliced by scarf plates of proper dimensions adequately secured by rivets.

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