The increase in the number of joint-stock companies, and the capital thus invested in industrial undertakings, furnish a valuable indication.
The Mopani colliery, which dates back to 1860, is worked by a joint-stock company.
For the ordinary process of organizing a joint-stock company and raising share-capital the nation was not yet prepared.
Since the functions of these organizations were commercial, for which the regular Government officials were unsuited, they were established as commercial joint-stock companies under peculiar conditions adapting them to the service of the state.
Various attempts were also made to improve trade and industry by abolishing the still remaining privileges of the Hanseatic towns, by promoting a wholesale immigration of skilful and well-to-do Dutch traders and handicraftsmen into Denmark under most favourable conditions, by opening up the rich fisheries of the Arctic seas, and by establishing joint-stock chartered companies both in the East and the West Indies.
The other banks are joint-stock banks and savings-banks, of which the first was opened at Gothenburg in 1820.
There are 23 joint-stock banks of issue, with an aggregate registered capital of 40,689,665 pesos (£3,051,724).
He entered his father's firm of hatters, in London, and later became a director of the London Joint-Stock Bank.
In the case of joint-stock companies the company pays the state, and deducts the amount from the individual owners of stocks and shares out of whose incomes the amount comes.
The following figures for1905-1906may, however, be given: valuation of lands, houses, &c., £15,466,000; value of principal crops, £35,3 62, 000; value of cattle, &c., £81,508,000; paid-up capital and reserve funds of joint-stock banks, £11,300,000; deposits in jointstock and savings banks, £58,791,000; investments in government stock, transferable at Bank of Ireland, £36,952,000; paid-up capital and debentures of railway companies, £38,405,000; paid-up capital of tramway companies, £2,074,000.
Since its reorganization as a joint-stock company in 1890 many of the shares have been held by the crown, philanthropic institutions and other public bodies.
On the shores of the Gulf St Vincent, again, from 1835 to 1837, South Australia was created by another joint-stock company, as an experiment in the Wakefield scheme of colonization.
Since 1895, again, a totally new departure has been made by Morishita Hachizaemon, a ceramic expert, in conjunction with Shida Yasukyo, president of the Kaga products joint stock company (Kaga bussan kabushiki kaisha) and teacher in the Kaga industrial school.
At the close of 1906 this road was handed over to a joint-stock company with a capital of 20 millions sterling, the government contributing 10 millions in the form of the road and its associated properties; the public subscribing 2 millions, and the company being entitled to issue debentures to the extent of 8 millions, the princ~pal and interest of these debentures being officially guaranteed.
During the first winter nearly onehalf their number died from exposure, and the relations of the survivors with their partners of the London Company, who had insisted that for seven years the plantation should be managed as a joint stock company, were unsatisfactory.
His next publications also were on economic or political subjects, Rationale of Political Representation (1835), and Money and its Vicissitudes (1837), now practically forgotton; about the same time also appeared some of his pamphlets, Discussion of Parliamentary Reform, Right of Primogeniture Examined, Defence of Joint-Stock Banks.
He is perhaps scarcely consistent in ap proving the concession of temporary monopolies to joint-stock companies undertaking risky enterprises "of which the public is afterwards to reap the benefit."
X.) 1 Professor Bastable calls attention to the interesting fact that the proposal of an export duty on wool and the justification of a temporary monopoly to joint-stock companies both appear for the first time in the edition of 1784.
In virtue of the new bank statute of the year 1899 the bank is a joint-stock company, with a stock of £8,780,000.
Between 1600 and 1612 there were twelve separate voyages, but in the latter year a joint-stock system began involving continual communication with the Indies.
Over a great part of municipal administration - particularly that engaged in supplying the needs of the individual citizens - the finance may be assimilated to that of the joint-stock company, with of course the necessary differences, viz.
The native Normans were but a third part of his host, and he himself commanded rather as director of a great joint-stock venture than as the feudal chief of his own duchy.
The deposits in the joint-stock banks amounted in 1880 to £29,350,000; in 1890 to £33,061,000; in 1900 to £40,287,000; and in 1906 to £45,842,000.
This concession passed into the hands of a joint-stock company, which in 1898 obtained an extension to 1947, in return for a payment to the prince of £400,000 in 1899 and of £600,000 in 1913, together with an increase of the annual tribute of 50,000 to 70,000 in 1907, 80,000 in 1917, 90,000 in 1927, and £10o,000 in 1937.
insurance and banking concerns of the state), and to Connecticut's liberal Joint Stock Act of 1837 (copied in Great Britain and elsewhere), permitting small sums to be capitalized in manufactures; and even to a larger extent, possibly it is the result of the ingenuity of the Connecticut people.
The Joint Stock Act of 1837 furnished the precedent and the principle for similar legislation in other American states and (it is said) for the English Joint Stock Companies Act of 1856.
One early example is the speculative mania in London in 1719 and 1720, when some 190 new joint stock companies were proposed.
The company is then free to proceed with the work of construction, and at once becomes subject to various general acts, such as the Companies Clauses Act, which affects all joint-stock companies incorporated by any special act; the Land Clauses Act, which has reference to all companies having powers to acquire land compulsorily; the Railway Clauses Act, which imposes certain conditions on all railways alike (except light railways); the various Regulation of Railways Acts; the Carriers Protection Act; acts for the conveyance of mails, parcels, troops; acts relating to telegraphs, to the conveyance of workmen and to the housing of the labouring classes; and several others which it is unnecessary to specify.
Other sources of revenue are stamp taxes on business transactions, domestic consumption taxes (usually payable in stamps) on manufactured tobaccos, beverages, boots and shoes, textiles, matches, salt, preserved foods, hats, pharmaceutical preparations, perfumeries, candles, vinegar, walking sticks and playing cards, and taxes on lotteries, passenger tickets, salaries and dividends of joint-stock companies.
These old regulated trade gilds passed gradually into joint-stock associations, which were capable of far greater extension, both as to the number of members and amount of stock, each member being only accountable for the amount of his own stock, and being able to transfer it at will to any other person.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.