Johan Ludvig Heiberg >>
The most important were: the Australian Antarctic expedition of 1911-4 under Sir Douglas Mawson; the Danish Oceanographical expeditions in the Mediterranean and adjacent seas of 1908-10; a short cruise made by Sir John Murray and Dr. Johan Hjort in the Norwegian Fishery exploring vessel " Michael Sars " in 1910, the general results of which were published as The Depths of the Ocean (1912) by the leaders of the expedition; and a short special cruise made by the " Scotia " in 1913 (after the loss of the " Titanic ") under the leadership of Dr. Matthews, which made observations upon the distribution of ice in the North Atlantic.
The Swedish plenipotentiaries were Johan Oxenstjerna, the chancellor's son, and Adler Salvius.
Among his numerous works the following are especially worthy of note: Bidrag till svenska radets historia under medeltiden (Upsala, 1872); Sveriges Historia, 1511 -1611 (Stockholm, 1878); Bidrag till svenska statsrickets historia (Stockholm, 1884-1887); Den svensk-norsk Unionen (Stockholm, 1889-1891), the best book on the Norwego-Swedish Union question from the Swedish point of view; Fjerde Artiklen of Fredstraktaten i Kiel (Stockholm, 1899); Carl Johan och Sveriges yttre politik, 1810-1815 (Stockholm, 1899); Carl XIV.
JOHAN FRIIS (1494-1570), Danish statesman, was born in 1 494, and was educated at Odense and at Copenhagen, completing his studies abroad.
Few among the ancient Danish nobility occupy so prominent a place in Danish history as Johan Friis, who exercised a decisive influence in the government of the realm during the reign of three kings.
A few years afterwards he married again, his second wife being Agnes, daughter of Sir James 1 The descent of the first Napier of Merchiston has been traced to "Johan le Naper del Counte de Dunbretan," who was one of those who swore fealty to Edward I.
27, 1673) suspended the Hungarian constitution, appointed Johan Gaspar Ampringen dictator, deprived 450 Protestant clergy of their livings and condemned 67 more to the galleys.
His talents commended him to the notice of Advocate Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, who sent him, at the age of 26 years, as a diplomatic agent of the states-general to the court of France.
A new company, officially known as the West India, American, or New Sweden Company, but like its predecessor popularly known as the South Company, was chartered, and a governor, Johan Printz (c. 1600-1663) was sent out by the crown.
In 1654 Printz's successor, Johan Claudius Rising, who had arrived from Sweden with a large number of colonists, expelled the Dutch from Fort Casimir.
1640-1643 Johan Printz 1643-1653 Johan Papegoga (acting) 1653-1654 Johan Claudius Rising.
Johan Niklas Bystrom >>
Johan Kristoffer, Count Toll >>
The conquest of Gotland at once led to a war between Valdemar and Sweden allied with the Hanseatic towns; but in the spring of 1362 Valdemar repulsed from the fortress of Helsingborg a large Hanseatic fleet provided with "shooting engines" (cannon) and commanded by Johan Wittenburg, the burgomaster of Lubeck.
His vocation for literature was assisted by his tutor, the poet Johan Magnus Stjernstolpe (1777-1831), whose works he edited.
Sars, Norges politiske historia (Christiania, 1899) Yngvar Nielsen, Carl Johan som han virkelig var (Christiania, 1897); Johan Almen, Atten Bernadotte (Stockholm, 1893); C. Schefer, Bernadotte roi (Paris, 1899); G.
Lagerhjelm, Napoleon och Carl Johan under Kriget i Tyskland, 1813 (Stockholm, 1891).
His son, Knut Johan Angstrom, was born at Upsala on the 12th of January 1857, and studied at the university of that town from 1877 to 1884.
Two years later, on the 24th of February 1577, he died suddenly in his new prison at Orbyhus, poisoned, it is said, by his governor, Johan Henriksen.
Schofield, English Literature from the Norman Conquest to Chaucer (London, 1906); Johan Vising, Franska Spraket i England (Goteborg, 1900, 1901, 1902).
Johan Wessel >>
Sjogren, Johan Reinhold Patkul (Swed.) (Stockholm, 1882); Anton Buchholtz, Beitreige zur Lebensgeschichte J.
Two devoted adherents of William of Orange, Paul Buys, advocate of Holland, and Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, pensionary of Rotterdam, were the statesmen who at this difficult juncture took the foremost part in directing the policy of the confederacy.
The States of Holland under the leadership of Johan van Oldenbarneveldt, took up an attitude of resolute hostility to him, and the States of Holland dominated the States-General.
Lefevre-Pontalis, Jean de Witt, grand pensionnaire de Hollande (2 vols., Paris, 1884); P. Simons, Johan de Witt en zijn tijd (3 vols., Amsterdam, 1832-1842); W.
Gewisselt tusschen den Heer Johan de Witt ...
Bergen is the birthplace of the poets Ludvig Holberg (1684-1754) and Johan Welhaven (1807-1873), of Johan Dahl the painter (1788-1857), of Ole Bull (1810-1880) and Edvard Grieg the musicians.
It enabled him to create and remunerate adequately a capable official class, which proved its efficiency under the strictest supervision, and ultimately produced a whole series of great statesmen and admirals like Johan Friis, Peder Oxe, Herluf Trolle and Peder Skram.
Johan Herman Wessel' (1742-1785) excited even greater hopes in his contemporaries, but left less that is immortal behind him.
Johan Nordahl Brun's best work is to be found in his patriotic songs and his hymns.
Johan Clemens Tode (1736-1806) was eminent in many branches of science, but especially as a medical writer.
Johan Ludvig Heiberg (q.v.; 1791-1860) was a critic who ruled the world of Danish taste for many years.
In 1796 there were here several encounters between the French under General Jourdan and the troops of the archduke Johan, which resulted in the retreat of the French across the Rhine.
The picturesque town hall (1688) contains some finely decorated rooms with paintings by Johan van Neck, a collection of local antiquities and the archives.
In 1831 he succeeded Johan Sigismund Misting (1789-1843), as minister of finance.
The first Swedish bank, called the Palmstruch bank after its founder, Johan Palmstruch, was incorporated in 1656.
There was the high-aristocratic party with a leaning towards martial adventure headed by Magnus de la Gardie, and the party of peace and economy whose ablest representative was the liberal and energetic Johan Gyllenstjerna.
Each wrote copiously in verse, but Johan (1640-1684), who was professor of poetry at Upsala, almost entirely in Latin, while Samuel (1642-1679), especially in his Odae sveticae, showed himself an apt and fervid imitator of the Swedish hexameters of Stjernhjelm, to whom he was at one time secretary, and whose Hercules he dramatized.
Johan Paulinus Liljenstedt (1655-1732), a Finn, was a graceful imitator of Ronsard and Guarini.
Johan Runius (1679-1713), called the " Prince of Poets," published a collection entitled Dudaim, in which there is nothing to praise, and with him the generation of the 17th century closes.
Olof Verelius (1618-1682) had led the way for Rudbeck, by his translations of Icelandic sagas, a work which was carried on with greater intelligence by Johan PeringskjOld (1654-1720), the editor of the Heimskringla (1697), and J.
Count Anders Johan von Hopken (1712-1789), the friend of Louise Ulrica, was a master of rhetorical compliment in addresses and funeral orations.
One of his prose dramas, Siri Brahe och Johan Gyllenstjerna, held the stage for many years.
Of the academical poets Johan Gabriel Oxenstjerna (1750-1818), the nephew of Gyllenborg, was a descriptive idyllist of grace.
A writer of far more power and versatility was Johan Henrik Kellgren (q.v.; 1751-1795), the, leader of taste in his time.
The excellent lyrical poet Frans Mikael Franzen (q.v.; 1772-1847) and a belated academician Johan David Valerius (1776-1852), fill up the space between the Gustavian period and the domination of romantic ideas from Germany.
Johan Olof Wallin (1779-1839) may be mentioned in the same category, although he is really distinct from all the schools.
Second only to Tegner in genius, the brief life and mysterious death of Erik Johan Stagnelius (1793-1823) have given a romantic interest to all that is connected with his name.
Two humorous poets of the same period who deserve mention are Johan Anders Wadman (1777-1837), an improvisatore of the same class as Bellman, and Christian Erik Fahlcrantz (q.v.; 1790-1866).
In 1850 the first poet of Sweden, without a rival, was Johan Ludvig Runeberg (q.v.; 1804-1877), whose reputation rivals Runeberg: that of Tegner.
The other leading verse-writers were Karl Vilhelm Bottiger (1807-1878), the son-in-law and biographer of Tegner, who, in addition to his lyrical poetry, chiefly of the sentimental kind, wrote an admirable series of monographs on Swedish men of letters; Johan Borjesson (1790-1866), the last of the Phosphorists, author of various romantic dramas; Vilhelm August Detlof von Braun (1813-1860), a humorous lyrist; " Talis Qualis," whose real name was Karl Vilhelm August Strandberg (1818-1877); Oscar Patrick Sturzen-Becker (181'- 1869), better known as " Orvar Odd," a lyrical poet who was also the author of a series of amusing sketches of everyday life; and August Teodor Blanche (1811-1868), the popular dramatist.
Lars Johan Hierta (1801-1872) was the leading journalist, Johan Henrik Thomander, bishop of Lund (1798-1865), the greatest orator, Matthias Alexander Castren (1813-1852) a prominent man of science, and Karl Gustaf af Forsell (1783-1848), the principal statistician of this not very brilliant period.
Among writers of the earlier generation were Achatius Johan Kahl.
(1794-1888), the biographer of Tegner; Per Erik Bergfalk (1798-1890), the critic and supporter of Geijer; the distinguished historian and academician, Karl Johan Schlyter (1795-1888) and the historical writers, Fredrik Ferdinand Carlson (1811-1887), Vilhelm Erik Svedelius (1816-1889), and Martin Weibull (1835-1902).
Unquestionably the greatest name in recent Swedish literature is that of Johan August Strindberg (q.v.; b.