Between them they rendered into Hebrew all the chief Jewish writings of the middle ages.
The precepts of the law were valuable in the eyes of the Scribes because they were the seal of Jewish particularism, the barrier erected between the world at large and the exclusive community of Yahweh's grace.
The first Christians were regarded, even by themselves, as a Jewish sect.
48), and that two Jewish brigands maintained themselves for years in Neerda in the swamps of Babylonia, and were acknowledged as dynasts by Artabanus (Jos.
IBN TIBBON, a family of Jewish translators, who flourished in Provence in the 12th and 13th centuries.
He was a considerable force in the educational revival of Jewish education in France.
In 1869 and 1871 he was president of the first and second Jewish Synods at Leipzig and Augsburg.
The crusaders brought back fresh developments; Gog and Magog (partly Arab and partly Greek) and some Jewish stories were then added.
20), directly suggest a Jewish origin.
These Hebrew translations were, in their turn, rendered into Latin (by Buxtorf and others) and in this form the works of Jewish authors found their way into the learned circles of Europe.
Tiberius sent 4000 Jewish and Egyptian freedmen to the island to bring the brigands to submission (Tac. Ann.
Probably his judgment of the situation was correct; yet, in view of Sennacherib's failure at Jerusalem in 701 and of the admitted strength of the city, the hope of the Jewish nobles could not be considered wholly unfounded, and in any case their patriotism (like that of the national party in the Roman siege) was not unworthy of admiration.
20), directly suggest a Jewish origin.
SIR FRANCIS PALGRAVE (1788-1861), English historian, was the son of Meyer Cohen, a Jewish stockbroker, and was born in London in July 1788.
The story of Alexander's visit to Jerusalem rests on no better authority than a later Jewish romance.
The story of Alexander's visit to Jerusalem rests on no better authority than a later Jewish romance.
No traces of Jewish worship have been found at Ostia, but at Portus a considerable number of Jewish inscriptions in Greek have come to light.
Mendelssohn was the first great champion of Jewish emancipation in the 18th century.
Few men of the period so profoundly impressed their mark on Jewish life.
- Although the legal basis for the final stage is found in the legislation of the time of Moses (latter part of the second millennium B.C.), it is in reality scarcely earlier than the 5th century B.C., and the Jewish theory finds analogies when developments of the Levitical service are referred to David (I Chron.
on Ezek.) the Jewish youth were forbidden to read the mysterious first chapter (called the markaba, the " chariot ") and the concluding section (x1.-xlviii.) till they reached the age of thirty years.
Luria and his school altered the very look of the Jewish Prayer Book.
HEATHEN, a term originally applied to all persons or races who did not hold the Jewish or Christian belief, thus including Mahommedans.
Apart from the weighty objections that the Edomites would have frustrated such a recrudescence of the remnant Jews as has been described, it must be remembered that the main stream of Jewish life and thought had been diverted to Babylon.
Probably the recognition and appointment of elders was simply the transfer from the synagogue to the Church of a usage which was regarded as essential among Jews; and the Gentile churches naturally followed the example of the Jewish Christians.
By some it is said to have begun at the Reformation; by some it is traced back to the days of Israel in O Egypt; 2 by most, however, it is regarded as of later Jewish origin, and as having come into existence in its present form simultaneously with the formation of the Christian Church.
They were spoken of as" the way."4 They took with them, into the new communities which they formed, the Jewish polity or rule and oversight by elders.
He was the foremost Jewish figure of the 18th century, and to him is attributable the renaissance of the House of Israel.
With this third Moses (the other two being the Biblical lawgiver and Moses Maimonides) a new era opens in the history of the Jewish people.
A refugee Pole, Zamosz, taught him mathematics, and a young Jewish physician was his tutor in Latin.
In the first part of the lath century, the criticism of Jewish dogmas and traditions was associated with a firm adhesion to the older Jewish mode of living.
The two Protestant bodies used to cost the state about 60,000 a year and the Jewish Church about 6000.
The Jewish parishes, called synagogues, are grouped into departmental consistories (Paris, Bordeaux, Nancy, Marseilles, Bayonne, Lille, Vesoul, Besancon and three in Algeria).
On the other hand, the Jewish Christians continued to keep the Sabbath, like other points of the old law.
Schechter, Jewish Quart.
Unless the Sabbath was already an institution peculiarly Jewish, it could not have served as a mark of distinction from heathenism.
that this doctrine was a mainstay of Jewish faith in those very days of exile which gave the Sabbath a new importance for the faithful.
The Babylonian calendars contain explicit directions for the observance of abstention from certain secular acts on certain days which forms a close parallel to the Jewish Sabbatical rules.
For it is obvious that if each 7th day during the year was observed as above, it would, like our Sunday or a Jewish Sabbath, fall on a different day of the month in different months.
ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879-), German-Swiss physicist, was born of Jewish parents at Ulm in the kingdom of Wurttemberg on May 14 1879.
Cromwell's policy in this instance was not overturned at the Restoration, and the great Jewish immigration into England with all its important consequences may be held to date practically from these first concessions made by Cromwell.
Bowman (1900); Cromwell's Jewish Intelligencies (1891), Crypto-Jews under the Commonwealth (1894), Menasseh Ben Israel's Mission to Oliver Cromwell (1901), by L.
In the Jewish speculations of the middle ages may be found curious forms of the doctrine of emanations uniting the Biblical idea of creation with elements drawn from the Persians and the Greeks.
3, 2 it has been concluded that Sabazius was identified in ancient times with the Jewish Sabaoth (Zebaoth).
(2) As to the speculation of the errorists, it is replied that it is explicable in the lifetime of Paul, that some of the elements of it may have their source in pre-Christian Jewish theories, and that recourse to the developed gnosticism of the 2nd century is unnecessary.
ISAAC BEN SOLOMON LURIA (1534-1572), Jewish mystic, was born in Jerusalem.
The numbers of Jewish families driven out of the country by Torquemada is variously stated from Mariana's 1,700,000 to the more probable 800,000 of later historians.
Mwvorts, Mwvrls), the great Jewish lawgiver,, prophet and mediator, and leader of the Israelites from Egypt to the eastern borders of the promised land.
in Jewish Church and Prophets of Israel are most helpful; see also J.-M.
For Jewish and other legends (to which Jude 9 alludes), see Beer, Leben Moses (1863), M.
Finally, he exhorts all, Gentile and Jewish Christians alike (xv.
ISAAC ABRABANEL, called also Abravanel, Abarbanel (1437-1508), Jewish statesman, philosopher, theologian and commentator, was born at Lisbon of an ancient family which claimed descent from the royal house of David.
In catalogues and bibliographies, however, the expression is now generally used, conveniently if incorrectly, as synonymous with Jewish literature, including all works written by Jews in Hebrew characters, whether the language be Aramaic, Arabic or even some vernacular not related to Hebrew.
According to Jewish teaching (e.g.
Later on, Jacob 3 I Hebrew vi, from the initial letters of Rabbi Shelomoh Yizbagi, a convenient method used by Jewish writers in referring to well-known authors.
All these writers, however, are entirely eclipsed by the commanding personality of the most famous of the Geonim, Seadiah ben Joseph (q.v.) of Sura, often called al-Fayyumi (of the Fayum in Egypt), one of the greatest representatives of Jewish learning of all times, who died in 942.
While the schools of Babylonia were flourishing as the religious head of Judaism, the West, and especially Spain under Moorish rule, was becoming the home of Jewish scholarship. On the breaking of the schools many of the fugitives fled o- g up Y g?
There the most prominent figure was that of Samuel ibn Nagdela (or Nagrela), generally known as Samuel the Nagid or head of the Jewish settlement, who died in 1055.
in 1040 at Mainz), a famous Talmudist and com mentator, his pupil Jacob ben Yaqar, and Moses of Narbonne, called ha-Darshan, the "Exegete," were the forerunners of the greatest of all Jewish commentators, Solomon ben Isaac (Rashi), who died at Troyes in 1105.
Unlike his contemporaries in Spain, he seems to have confined himself wholly to Jewish learning, and to have known nothing of Arabic or other languages except his native French.
about 1140), wrote in Arabic a philosophical work based on Greek and Arabic as well as Jewish authorities, known by the name of the Hebrew translation as Arugath ha-bosem, and the Kitab al-Mahadarah, of great value for literary history.
The man, however, who shares with Ibn Gabirol the first place in Jewish poetry is Judah Ha-levi, of Toledo, who died in Jerusalem about 1140.
The greatest of all medieval Jewish scholars was Moses ben Maimon (Rambam), called Maimonides by Christians.
1340), was the author of the Tur (or the four Tarim), a most important manual of Jewish law, serving as an abridgement of the Mishneh Torah brought up to date.
In his Me'or t Enayim (Mantua, 1573) Dei Rossi endeavoured to investigate Jewish history in a scientific spirit, with the aid of non-Jewish authorities, and even criticizes Talmudic and traditional statements.
Another historian living also in Italy was Joseph ben Joshua, whose Dibhre ha-yamim (Venice, 1 534) is a sort of history of the world, and his `Emeq ha-bakhah an account of Jewish troubles to the year 1575.
about 1685) wrote the historical work Qore ha-doroth (Venice, 1746), using Jewish and other sources; Jacob ben Hayyim Zemah, kabbalist and student of Luria, wrote Qol be-ramah, a commentary on the Zohar and on the liturgy; Abraham Hayekini, kabbalist, chiefly remembered as a supporter of the would-be Messiah, Shabbethai Zebhi, wrote Hod Malkuth (Constantinople, 1655) and sermons.
1891), both scholarly investigators of Jewish literary history.
Introductory: Abrahams, Short History of Jewish Literature (London, 1906); Steinschneider, Jewish Literature (London, 18 57); Winter and Wi nsche, Die jitdische Literatur (Leip;ig, 1893-1895) (containing selections translated into German).
On particular authors and subjects there are many excellent monographs in the Jewish Encyclopaedia (New York, 1901-6), to which the present article is much indebted.
Bacharach was a man of wide culture, and holds an honourable place among the pioneers of the Jewish Renaissance which was inaugurated towards the end of the 18th century.
It was the theoretical eastern limit of the Jewish kingdom; for a long time it separated Assyria from the Khita or Hittites; it divided the eastern from the western satrapies of Persia (Ezra iv.
Of the many Jewish bearers of this name, three are well known: (1) the grandson of Moses, who was priest at Dan (Judg.
So (it is alleged) rulers, both Jewish and Gentile, have often admitted (xviii.
The atmosphere is no longer Jewish but fully Greek.
True there are, as always, Jewish controversialists.
For modification in light of recent scholarship of argument from prophecy, to Riehm's Messianic Prophecy, Stanton's Jewish and Christian Messiah, and Woods's Hope of Israel.
The oldest building in Sofia is the little round chapel of St George in the Jewish quarter - originally, it is said, a Roman temple; then a church, then a mosque, and now a church once more.
He also caused new rules to be enacted by which his Jewish subjects were heavily handicapped in education and professional advancement.
(3) Where there was an appointed place of sacrifice - the Temple at Jerusalem, according to later Jewish prescription - there was.
In the east Syrian, the Armenian and the Georgian churches, respectively Nestorian, Monophysite and Greek Orthodox in their tenets, the agape was from the first a survival, under Christian and Jewish forms, of the old sacrificial systems of a pre-Christian age.
The latter regards Ezekiel as the organizer of the Jewish community and the originator of the sanctity of the Sabbath as a seventh day (Ezek.
xl.-lv.) we have no longer a Jewish but a foreign messiah.
2 (b) In many passages Jewish particularism is painfully manifest.
The second path is that which is traced out by the priest-prophet Ezekiel, and is that of legalism, which was destined to secure a permanent place in the life and literature of the Jewish people.
The development of the priestly code of legislation (Priestercodex) was a gradual process, and probably occupied a considerable part of the 5th century B.C. The Hebrew race now definitely entered upon the new path of organized Jewish legalism which had been originally marked out for it by Ezekiel in the preceding century.
Circumcision and Sabbath, separation from marriage with a foreigner, which rendered a Jew unclean, as well as strict conformity to the precepts of the Torah, constituted henceforth an adamantine bond which was to preserve the Jewish communities from disintegration.
The later Post-exilian Developments Jewish Religion.
The added conception of the resurrection of the righteous does not appear in the world of Jewish thought till the early Greek period in Isa.
Charles thinks that in this passage the idea of resurrection is of purely Jewish and not of Mazdaan (or Zoroastrian) origin, but it is otherwise with Dan.
2; see his Eschatology, Hebrew, Jewish and Christian.
It is impossible to deny Persian influence in the development of this conception, and that the Persian Ahriman (Angromainyu), the evil personality opposed to the good, Ahura Mazda, moulded the Jewish counterpart, Satan.
But in Judaism monotheistic conceptions reigned supreme, and the Satan of Jewish belief as opposed to God stops short of the dualism of Persian religion.
In later Jewish literature we meet with further examples of similar hypostases in the form of Memra, Metatron, Shechinah, Holy Spirit and Bath kol.
(d) The doctrine of pre-existence is another product of the speculative tendency of the Jewish mind.
Caird wrote also an excellent study of Spinoza, in which he showed the latent Hegelianism of the great Jewish philosopher.
Toy compares Barnebo, "son of Nebo," of which he regards Barnabas as a slightly disguised form (Jewish Encyclopaedia).
GERSONIDES, or BEN Gerson (Gershon), Levi, known also as Ralbag (1288-1344), Jewish philosopher and commentator, was born at Bagnols in Languedoc, probably in 1288.
As in the case of the other medieval Jewish philosophers little is known of his life.
His family had been distinguished for piety and exegetical skill, but though he was known in the Jewish community by commentaries on certain books of the Bible, he never seems to have accepted any rabbinical post.
The Milhamoth is throughout modelled after the plan of the great work of Jewish philosophy, the Moreh Nebuhim of Moses Maimonides, and may be regarded as an elaborate criticism from the more philosophical point of view (mainly Averroistic) of the syncretism of Aristotelianism and Jewish orthodoxy as presented in that work.
Hence it is possible, by a comprehensive comparative study of Eastern peoples, in both ancient and modern times, to supplement and illustrate within certain limits our direct knowledge of the early Jewish people, and thus to understand more clearly those characteristics which were [OLD Testament History peculiar to them, in relation to those which they shared with other Oriental peoples.
of the Jewish Church (1863-1879).
in Jewish Church, 1881, 2nd ed., 1892; Prophets of Israel, 1882, 2nd ed.
4 For the sections which follow the present writer may be permitted to refer to his introductory contributions in the Expositor (June, 1906; " The Criticism of the 0.T."); the Jewish Quarterly Review (July 1905-January 1907 = Critical Notes on 0.T.
Elaborate legal enactments codified in Babylonia by the 10th century B.C. find striking parallels in Hebrew, late Jewish (Talmudic), Syrian and Mahommedan law, or in the unwritten usages of all ages; for even where there were neither written laws nor duly instituted lawgivers, there was no lawlessness, since custom and belief were, and still are, almost inflexible.
The disaster became the great epoch-making event for Jewish history and literature.
length of reigns), and the difficulty felt in regard to the second and third is obvious in the attempts of the Jewish historian Josephus to provide a compromise.
4-7); Jewish colonies, too, were being founded in Egypt.
A large majority of the Jewish people remained on the land.
He did not fulfil the detailed predictions, and the events did not reach the ideals of Hebrew writers; but these anticipations may have influenced the form which the Jewish traditions subsequently took.
An outburst of Jewish religious feeling is dated in the second year of Darius (520), but whether Judah was making a bold bid for independence or had received special favour for abstaining from the above revolts, external evidence alone can decide.
Longimanus (465-425), attracts attention because the famous Jewish reformers Ezra and Nehemiah flourished under a king of this name.
The Jewish historian Josephus (Ant.
Smith, Old Testament in Jewish Church, p. 438 seq.; W.
The overthrow of Tyre and Gaza secured the possession of the coast and the Jewish state entered upon the Greek period.
For the Jewish colonies in general, see H.
22), Bagohi (Bagoas), governor of Judah, and Delaiah and Shelemiah sons of Sanballat (408-407 B.C.) They ignore any strained relations between Samaria and Judah, and Delaiah and Bagohi unite in granting permission to the Jewish colony to rebuild their place of worship. If this fixes the date of Sanballat and Nehemiah in the time of the first Artaxerxes, the probability of confusion in the later written sources is enhanced by the recurrence of identical names of kings, priests, &c., in the history.
With Nehemiah and Ezra we enter upon the era in which a new impulse gave to Jewish life and thought that form which became the characteristic orthodox Judaism.
With his priests and Levites, and with the chiefs and nobles of the Jewish families, the high priest directs this small state, and his death marks an epoch as truly as did that of the monarchs in the past.
3 If one is apt to acquire too narrow a view of Jewish legalism, the whole experience of subsequent history, through the heroic age of the Maccabees and onwards, only proves that the minuteness of ritual procedure could not cramp the heart.
Besides, this was only one of the aspects of Jewish literary activity.
- Thus the Old Testament, the history of the Jews during the first great period, describes the relation of the Hebrews to surrounding peoples, the superiority of Judah over the faithless (north) Israelite tribes, and the reorganization of the Jewish community in and around Jerusalem at the arrival of Ezra with the Book of the Law.
These four centuries are the Greek period of Jewish history.
The insignificance of the Jewish community in Palestine was their salvation.
At Alexandria in particular Alexander provided for a Jewish colony which soon became Hellenic enough in speech to require a translation of the Law.
According to Juvenal the sons of such proselytes were apt to go farther and to substitute the Jewish Law for the Roman Romanas autem soliti contemnere leges; Judaicum ediscunt et servant ac metuunt ius Tradidit arcano quodcunque volumine Moyses.
The language of Polybius suggests that he was acquainted with other Jewish communities and with the fame of the Temple: in his view they are not an organized state.
According to the Jewish legend Heliodorus was attacked when he entered the Temple by a horse with a terrible rider and by two young men.
All the religious rites of Judaism were proscribed and the neighbouring Greek cities were requested to enforce the prohibition upon their Jewish citizens.
The proscription of the Jewish religion was withdrawn and the Temple restored to them.
At Joppa, for example, the Jewish settlers - two hundred in all - " were invited to go into boats provided in accordance with the common decree of the city."
The Jewish refugees had turned the balance, and so Judas became strategus of Judaea, whilst Menelaus was put to death.
The Jewish aristocracy became peers of the Seleucid kingdom.
The Jewish forces were driven back upon Jerusalem and the city was closely invested.
When he went on his last disastrous campaign, Hyrcanus led a Jewish contingent to join his army, partly perhaps a troop of mercenaries (for Hyrcanus was the first of the Jewish kings to hire mercenaries, with the treasure found in David's tomb).
After his death Hyrcanus took advantage of the general confusion to extend Jewish territory with the countenance of Rome.
These services, which incidentally illustrate the solidarity and unity of the Jewish nation and the respect of the communities of the dispersion for the metropolis, were recognized and rewarded.
Herod had put down Jewish rebels and Herod appointed the high priests.
When all the Jewish people swore to be loyal to Caesar and the king's policy, the Pharisees - above 6000 - refused to swear.
Such is the account which Josephus gives in the Antiquities; in the Jewish War he represents the rabbis and their disciples as looking forward to greater happiness for themselves after such a death.
On the death of Herod in 4 B.C. Archelaus kept open house for mourners as the Jewish custom, which reduced many Jews to beggary, prescribed.
When he presented himself before the emperor - apart from rival claimants of his own family - there was an embassy from the Jewish people who prayed to be rid of a monarchy and rulers such as Herod.
The Sanhedrin had its police and powers to safeguard the Jewish religion; but the procurator had the appointment of the high priests, and no capital sentence could be executed without his sanction.
So far as this influence extended, the Jewish community was threatened with the danger of suicide, and the distinction drawn by Josephus between the Pharisees and the Zealots is a valid one.
But Pilate so conducted affairs as to attract the attention not only of Josephus but also of Philo, who represents for us the Jewish community of Alexandria.
So we learn something of the Palestinian Jews and more of the Jewish community in Alexandria.
Images of Caligula were set up in the synagogues, an edict deprived the Jews of their rights as citizens, and finally the governor authorized the mob to sack the Jewish quarter, as if it had been a conquered city (38).
The Jewish embassy was headed by Philo, who has described its fortunes in a tract dealing with the divine punishment of the persecutors.
So there was once more a king of Judaea, and a king who observed the tradition of the Pharisees and protected the Jewish religion.
The success of Agrippa's brief reign had revived the hopes of the Jewish nationalists, and concessions only retarded the inevitable insurrection.
Cumanus armed the Samaritans, and, with them and his own troops, defeated these Jewish marauders.
received a kingdom - first Chalcis, and then the tetrarchies of Philip and Lysanias - but, though he had the oversight of the Temple and the nomination of the high priest, and enjoyed a reputation for knowledge of Jewish customs and questions, he was unable to check the growing power of the Zealots.
In Caesarea there had been for some time trouble between the Jewish and the Syrian inhabitants.
A new Sanhedrin was formed there under the presidency of a ruler, who received yearly dues from all Jewish communities.
The temple-tax was strictly exacted; Jews who lived the Jewish life without openly confessing their religion and Jews who concealed their nationality were brought before the magistrates.
An earlier edition was translated into English under the title History of the Jewish People (Edinburgh, 1890, 1891).
Little more than half a century after the overthrow of the Jewish nationality, the Mishnah was practically completed, and by this code of rabbinic law - and law is here a term which includes the social, moral and religious as well as the ritual and legal phases of human activity - the Jewish people were organized into a community, living more or less autonomously under the Sanhedrin or Synedrium and its officials.
The laws concerning the Jews had a repressive and preventive object: the repression of Judaism and the prevention of inroads of Jewish influences into the state religion.
But the admission of Christians into the Jewish fold was punished by confiscation of goods (357), the erection of new synagogues was arrested by Theodosius II.
A similar penalty attached to intermarriage between Jews and Christians, and an attempt was made to nullify all Jewish marriages which were not celebrated in accordance with Roman law.
But Justinian (527-565) was the first to interfere directly in the religious institutions of the Jewish people.
(911-959) goes back the Jewish form of oath which in its later development required the Jew to gird himself with thorns; stand in water; and, holding the scroll of the Torah in his hand, invoke upon his person the leprosy of Naaman, the curse of Eli and the fate of Korah's sons should he perjure himself.
The land which, a millennium before, had been a prison for the Jewish exiles was now their asylum of refuge.
The population of the southern part of Mesopotamia - the strip of land enclosed between the Tigris and the Euphrates - was, according to Graetz, mainly Jewish; while the district extending for about 70 m.
Babylonia had risen into supreme importance for Jewish life at about the time when the Mishnah was completed.
The great rabbinic academies at Sura and Nehardea, the former of which retained something of its dominant role till the rrth century, had been founded, Sura by Abba Arika (c. 219), but Nehardea, the more ancient seat of the two, famous in the 3rd century for its association with Abba Arika's renowned contemporary Samuel, lost its Jewish importance in the age of Mahomet.
The schismatic Qaraites initiated or rather necessitated a new Hebrew philology, which later on produced Qimhi, the gaon Saadiah founded a Jewish philosophy, the statesman Hasdai introduced a new Jewish culture - and all this under Mahommedan rule.
From Hasdai ibn Shaprut in the 10th century and Samuel the nagid in the 11th the line of Jewish scholar-statesmen continued till we reach Isaac Abrabanel in 1492, the date of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain.
This last-named event synchronized with the discovery of America; Columbus being accompanied by at least one Jewish navigator.
While the Spanish period of Jewish history was thus brilliant from the point of view of public service, it was equally notable on the literary side.
In him culminates the Jewish expression of the Spanish-Moorish culture; his writings had an influence on European scholasticism and contributed significant elements to the philosophy of Spinoza.
In Spain Jewish life had participated in the general life, but the expulsion - while it dispersed 1 On the writers mentioned below see articles s.v.
] the Spanish Jews in Poland, Turkey, Italy and France, and thus in the end contributed to the Jewish emancipation at the French Revolution - for the time drove the Jews within their own confines and barred them from the outside world.'
- In the meantime Jewish life had been elsewhere subjected to other influences which produced a result at once narrower and deeper.
In Mainz there settled in the 10th century Gershom, the " light of the exile," who, about 1000, published his ordinance forbidding polygamy in Jewish law as it had long been forbidden in Jewish practice.
Jacobs, Jewish Encyclopedia, iv.
Small coteries of Jewish minor poets and philosophers were formed, and men like Kalonymos and Immanuel - Dante's friend - shared the versatility and culture of Italy.
" The Jews were unwilling sponges by means of which a large part of the subjects' wealth found its way into the royal exchequer " (Abrahams, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages, ch.
The Inquisition in Spain led to the expulsion of the Jews (1492), and this event involved not only the latter but the whole of the Jewish people.
If fugitives are for the next half-century to be met with in all parts of Europe, yet, especially in the Levant, there grew up thriving Jewish communities often founded by Spanish refugees.
The reformation as such had no favourable influence on Jewish fortunes in Christian Europe, though the championship of the cause of toleration by Reuchlin had considerable value.
It is to Holland and to the 17th century that we must turn for the first real steps towards Jewish emancipation.
Holland from the moment that it joined the union of Utrecht (1579) deliberately set its face against religious persecution (Jewish Encyclopedia, i.
Cromwell, upon the inconclusive termination of the conference summoned in 1655 at Whitehall to consider the Jewish question, tacitly assented to the return of the Jews to this country, and at the restoration his action was confirmed.
These men often rendered great services to their fellow-Jews, and one of the results was the growth in Jewish society of an aristocracy of wealth, where previously there had been an aristocracy of learning.
In 1781 Dohm pointed to the fact that a Jewish father could seldom hope to enjoy the happiness of living with his children.
The emperor even permitted Jewish wholesale merchants, notables and their sons, to wear swords (January 2, 1782), and especially insisted that Christians should behave in a friendly manner towards Jews."
Mendelssohn's Phaedo, on the immortality of the soul, brought the author into immediate fame, and the simple home of the " Jewish Plato " was sought by many of the leaders of Gentile society in Berlin.
- In close relation to the German progress in Mendelssohn's age, events had been progressing in France, where the Revolution did much to improve the Jewish condition, thanks largely to the influence of Mirabeau.
In 1807 Napoleon convoked a Jewish assembly in Paris.
Though the decisions of this body had no binding force on the Jews generally, yet in some important particulars its decrees represent principles widely adopted by the Jewish community.
" The names of the Jewish soldiers who died in the cause of Italian liberty were placed along with those of their Christian fellow soldiers on the monuments erected in their honour " (Jewish Encyclopedia, vii.
Most noted of recent Jewish scholars in Italy was S.
" In 1760 she issued an order that all unbearded Jews should wear a yellow badge on their left arm " (Jewish Encyclopedia, ii.
The most petty limitations of Jewish commercial activity continued; thus at about this period the community of Prague, in a petition, " complain that they are not permitted to buy victuals in the market before a certain hour, vegetables not before 9 and cattle not before II o'clock; to buy fish is sometimes altogether prohibited; Jewish druggists are not permitted to buy victuals at the same time with Christians " (op. cit.).
Soon after his accession he abolished the distinctive Jewish dress, abrogated the poll-tax, admitted the Jews to military service and their children to the public schools, and in general opened the era of emancipation by the Toleranzpatent of 1782.
As time went on, a more progressive policy intervened, the special form of Jewish oath was abolished in 1846, and in 1848, as a result of the revolutionary movement in which Jews played an active part, legislation took a more liberal turn.
Low, Jellinek, Kaufmann, as scholars in the Jewish field; as poets and novelists, Kompert, Franzos, L.
A Jew can avoid the communal tax only by formally declaring himself as outside the Jewish community.
Kossuth succeeded in granting them temporary emancipation, but the suppression of the War of Independence led to an era of royal autocracy which, while it advanced Jewish culture by enforcing the establishment of modern schools, retarded the obtaining of civic and political rights.
In the words of Biichler (Jewish Encyclopedia,vi.
Caimi the present Jewish communities of Greece are divisible into five groups: (r) Arta (Epirus); (2) Chalcis (Euboea); (3) Athens (Attica); (4) Volo, Larissa and Trikala (Thessaly); and (5) Corfu and Zante (Ionian Islands).
In 1675 was consecrated in Amsterdam the synagogue which is still the most noted Jewish edifice in Europe.
But there has been considerable interference (ostensibly on humanitarian grounds) with the Jewish method of slaughtering animals for food (Shehitah) and the method was prohibited by a referendum in 1893.
In Norway there is a small Jewish settlement (especially in Christiania) who are engaged in industrial pursuits and enjoy complete liberty.
Many Copenhagen Jews achieved distinction as manufacturers, merchants and bankers, and among famous Jewish men of letters may be specially named Georg Brandes.
The pale now includes fifteen governments, and under the May laws of 1892 the congestion of the Jewish population, the denial of free movement, and the exclusion from the general rights of citizens were rendered more oppressive than ever before.
Much was hoped from the duma, but this body has proved bitterly opposed to the Jewish claim for liberty.
In Morocco the Jews, who until late in the 19th century were often persecuted, are still confined to a mellah (separate quarter), but at the coast-towns there are prosperous Jewish communities mostly engaged in commerce.
Recently a mission has been sent to the Falashas of Abyssinia, and much interest has been felt in such outlying branches of the Jewish people as the Black Jews of Cochin and the Bene Israel community of Bombay.
The general course of Jewish history in England has been indicated above.
In 1830 the first Jewish emancipation bill was brought in by Robert Grant, but it was not till the legislation of 1858-1860 that Jews obtained full parliamentary rights.
In 1873 Sir George Jessel was made a judge, and Lord Rothschild took his seat in the House of Lords as the first Jewish peer in 1886.
Sir Matthew Nathan has been governor of Hong-Kong and Natal, and among Jewish statesmen in the colonies Sir Julius Vogel and V.
There are some thriving Jewish agricultural colonies in the same dominion.
At the end of 1909 was held the first conference of Jewish ministers in London, and from this is expected some more systematic organization of scattered communities.
Anglo-Jewry is rich, however, in charitable, educational and literary institutions; chief among these respectively may be named the Jewish board of guardians (1859), the Jews' college (1855), and the Jewish historical society (1893).
(Full accounts of Anglo-Jewish institutions are given in the Jewish Year-Book published annually since 1895.) 55 The American Continent.
At the present time orthodox Judaism is also again acquiring its due position and the Jewish theological seminary of America was founded for this purpose.
In 1908 an organization, inclusive of various religious sections, was founded under the description " the Jewish community of New York."
There have been four Jewish members of the United States senate, and about 30 of the national House of Representatives.
Many Jews have filled professorial chairs at the universities, others have been judges, and in art, literature (there is a notable Jewish publication society), industry and commerce have rendered considerable services to national culture and prosperity.
American universities have owed much to Jewish generosity, a foremost benefactor of these (as of many other American institutions) being Jacob Schiff.
(Full accounts of American Jewish institutions are given in the American Jewish Year-Book, published annually since 1899.) 56.
Its object was the foundation of a Jewish state in Palestine, but though it aroused much interest it failed to attract the majority of the emancipated Jews, and the movement has of late been transforming itself into a mere effort at colonization.
From time to time incidents arise which appeal to the Jewish sympathies everywhere and joint action ensues.
Each country has its own local organiza tion for dealing with Jewish questions.
Baron Hirsch (q.v.) founded the Jewish colonial association, which has undertaken vast colonizing and educational enterprises, especially in Argentina, and more recently the Jewish territorial organization has been started to found a home for the oppressed Jews of Russia.
Statistics.-Owing to the absence of a religious census in several important countries, the Jewish population of the world can only be given by inferential estimate.
The following approximate figures are taken from the American Jewish Year-Book for1909-1910and are based on similar estimates in the English Jewish Year-Book, the Jewish Encyclopedia, Nossig's Jiidische Statistik and the Reports of the Alliance Israelite Universelle.
According to these estimates the total Jewish population of the world in the year named was approximately 11,500,000.
There are also Jews in Curacoa, Surinam, Luxemburg, Norway, Peru, Crete and Venezuela; but in none of these does the Jewish population much exceed woo.
of the Jewish Quarterly Review; Scherer, Rechtsverhdltnisse der Juden (1901); M.
Abrahams, Jewish Life in the Middle Ages (1896); G.
The first Christians continued to observe the Jewish festivals, though in a new spirit, as commemorations of events which those festivals had foreshadowed.
Although the observance of Easter was at a very early period the practice of the Christian church, a serious difference as to the day for its observance soon arose between the Christians of Jewish and those of Gentile descent, which led to a long and bitter controversy.
With the Jewish Christians, whose leading thought was the death of Christ as the Paschal Lamb, the fast ended at the same time as that of the Jews, on the fourteenth day of the moon at evening, and the Easter festival immediately followed, without regard to the day of the week.
The Gentile Christians, on the other hand, unfettered by Jewish traditions, identified the first day of the week with the Resurrection, and kept the preceding Friday as the commemoration of the crucifixion, irrespective of the day of the month.
Generally speaking, the Western churches kept Easter on the first day of the week, while the Eastern churches followed the Jewish rule, and kept Easter on the fourteenth day.
Anicetus, however, declined to admit the Jewish custom in the churches under his jurisdiction, but readily communicated with Polycarp and those who followed it.
That province was the only portion of Christendom which still adhered to the Jewish usage, and Victor demanded that all should adopt the usage prevailing at Rome.
We find the Jewish usage from time to time reasserting itself after this, but it never prevailed to any large extent.
At first an eight years' cycle was adopted, but it was found to be faulty, then the Jewish cycle of 84 years was used, and remained in force at Rome till the year 457, when a more accurate calculation of a cycle of 532 years, invented by Victorius of Acquitaine, took its place.
Agnes (Catholic), Euclid Avenue Temple (Jewish), and the Amasa Stone memorial chapel of Adelbert College.
Some have claimed for it apostolical sanction and found its origin in the liturgical head-gear of the Jewish priesthood.
With the episcopal mitre the Jewish miznephet, translated " mitre " in the Authorized Version (Exod.
ad episc.) is the Jewish miznephet, and the well-known miniature of Gregory the Great (not St Dunstan, as commonly assumed) wearing a mitre (Cotton MSS.
EXILARCH, in Jewish history, "Chief or Prince of the Captivity."
See Neubauer, Mediaeval Jewish Chronicles, ii.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.