Jewish sentence example

jewish
  • Between them they rendered into Hebrew all the chief Jewish writings of the middle ages.
    18
    3
  • The first Christians were regarded, even by themselves, as a Jewish sect.
    17
    7
  • The precepts of the law were valuable in the eyes of the Scribes because they were the seal of Jewish particularism, the barrier erected between the world at large and the exclusive community of Yahweh's grace.
    15
    6
  • 48), and that two Jewish brigands maintained themselves for years in Neerda in the swamps of Babylonia, and were acknowledged as dynasts by Artabanus (Jos.
    10
    4
  • He was a considerable force in the educational revival of Jewish education in France.
    7
    2
    Advertisement
  • In 1869 and 1871 he was president of the first and second Jewish Synods at Leipzig and Augsburg.
    6
    1
  • The story of Alexander's visit to Jerusalem rests on no better authority than a later Jewish romance.
    6
    1
  • These Hebrew translations were, in their turn, rendered into Latin (by Buxtorf and others) and in this form the works of Jewish authors found their way into the learned circles of Europe.
    5
    1
  • No traces of Jewish worship have been found at Ostia, but at Portus a considerable number of Jewish inscriptions in Greek have come to light.
    4
    0
  • The crusaders brought back fresh developments; Gog and Magog (partly Arab and partly Greek) and some Jewish stories were then added.
    6
    2
    Advertisement
  • Probably his judgment of the situation was correct; yet, in view of Sennacherib's failure at Jerusalem in 701 and of the admitted strength of the city, the hope of the Jewish nobles could not be considered wholly unfounded, and in any case their patriotism (like that of the national party in the Roman siege) was not unworthy of admiration.
    6
    2
  • Mendelssohn was the first great champion of Jewish emancipation in the 18th century.
    4
    0
  • Luria and his school altered the very look of the Jewish Prayer Book.
    3
    1
  • Apart from the weighty objections that the Edomites would have frustrated such a recrudescence of the remnant Jews as has been described, it must be remembered that the main stream of Jewish life and thought had been diverted to Babylon.
    1
    0
  • By some it is said to have begun at the Reformation; by some it is traced back to the days of Israel in O Egypt; 2 by most, however, it is regarded as of later Jewish origin, and as having come into existence in its present form simultaneously with the formation of the Christian Church.
    1
    0
    Advertisement
  • They were spoken of as" the way."4 They took with them, into the new communities which they formed, the Jewish polity or rule and oversight by elders.
    1
    0
  • He was the foremost Jewish figure of the 18th century, and to him is attributable the renaissance of the House of Israel.
    1
    0
  • With this third Moses (the other two being the Biblical lawgiver and Moses Maimonides) a new era opens in the history of the Jewish people.
    1
    0
  • A refugee Pole, Zamosz, taught him mathematics, and a young Jewish physician was his tutor in Latin.
    1
    0
  • In the first part of the lath century, the criticism of Jewish dogmas and traditions was associated with a firm adhesion to the older Jewish mode of living.
    1
    0
    Advertisement
  • The two Protestant bodies used to cost the state about 60,000 a year and the Jewish Church about 6000.
    1
    0
  • The Jewish parishes, called synagogues, are grouped into departmental consistories (Paris, Bordeaux, Nancy, Marseilles, Bayonne, Lille, Vesoul, Besancon and three in Algeria).
    1
    0
  • On the other hand, the Jewish Christians continued to keep the Sabbath, like other points of the old law.
    1
    0
  • Unless the Sabbath was already an institution peculiarly Jewish, it could not have served as a mark of distinction from heathenism.
    1
    0
  • The Babylonian calendars contain explicit directions for the observance of abstention from certain secular acts on certain days which forms a close parallel to the Jewish Sabbatical rules.
    1
    0
    Advertisement
  • For it is obvious that if each 7th day during the year was observed as above, it would, like our Sunday or a Jewish Sabbath, fall on a different day of the month in different months.
    1
    0
  • Cromwell's policy in this instance was not overturned at the Restoration, and the great Jewish immigration into England with all its important consequences may be held to date practically from these first concessions made by Cromwell.
    1
    0
  • In the Jewish speculations of the middle ages may be found curious forms of the doctrine of emanations uniting the Biblical idea of creation with elements drawn from the Persians and the Greeks.
    1
    0
  • 3, 2 it has been concluded that Sabazius was identified in ancient times with the Jewish Sabaoth (Zebaoth).
    1
    0
  • (2) As to the speculation of the errorists, it is replied that it is explicable in the lifetime of Paul, that some of the elements of it may have their source in pre-Christian Jewish theories, and that recourse to the developed gnosticism of the 2nd century is unnecessary.
    1
    0
    Advertisement
  • The numbers of Jewish families driven out of the country by Torquemada is variously stated from Mariana's 1,700,000 to the more probable 800,000 of later historians.
    1
    0
  • In catalogues and bibliographies, however, the expression is now generally used, conveniently if incorrectly, as synonymous with Jewish literature, including all works written by Jews in Hebrew characters, whether the language be Aramaic, Arabic or even some vernacular not related to Hebrew.
    1
    0
  • While the schools of Babylonia were flourishing as the religious head of Judaism, the West, and especially Spain under Moorish rule, was becoming the home of Jewish scholarship. On the breaking of the schools many of the fugitives fled o- g up Y g?
    1
    0
  • Probably the recognition and appointment of elders was simply the transfer from the synagogue to the Church of a usage which was regarded as essential among Jews; and the Gentile churches naturally followed the example of the Jewish Christians.
    0
    0
  • Unlike his contemporaries in Spain, he seems to have confined himself wholly to Jewish learning, and to have known nothing of Arabic or other languages except his native French.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • The man, however, who shares with Ibn Gabirol the first place in Jewish poetry is Judah Ha-levi, of Toledo, who died in Jerusalem about 1140.
    0
    0
  • The greatest of all medieval Jewish scholars was Moses ben Maimon (Rambam), called Maimonides by Christians.
    0
    0
  • In his Me'or t Enayim (Mantua, 1573) Dei Rossi endeavoured to investigate Jewish history in a scientific spirit, with the aid of non-Jewish authorities, and even criticizes Talmudic and traditional statements.
    0
    0
  • Another historian living also in Italy was Joseph ben Joshua, whose Dibhre ha-yamim (Venice, 1 534) is a sort of history of the world, and his `Emeq ha-bakhah an account of Jewish troubles to the year 1575.
    0
    0
  • Introductory: Abrahams, Short History of Jewish Literature (London, 1906); Steinschneider, Jewish Literature (London, 18 57); Winter and Wi nsche, Die jitdische Literatur (Leip;ig, 1893-1895) (containing selections translated into German).
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • On particular authors and subjects there are many excellent monographs in the Jewish Encyclopaedia (New York, 1901-6), to which the present article is much indebted.
    0
    0
  • Bacharach was a man of wide culture, and holds an honourable place among the pioneers of the Jewish Renaissance which was inaugurated towards the end of the 18th century.
    0
    0
  • The atmosphere is no longer Jewish but fully Greek.
    0
    0
  • True there are, as always, Jewish controversialists.
    0
    0
  • The oldest building in Sofia is the little round chapel of St George in the Jewish quarter - originally, it is said, a Roman temple; then a church, then a mosque, and now a church once more.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • He also caused new rules to be enacted by which his Jewish subjects were heavily handicapped in education and professional advancement.
    0
    0
  • (3) Where there was an appointed place of sacrifice - the Temple at Jerusalem, according to later Jewish prescription - there was.
    0
    0
  • In the east Syrian, the Armenian and the Georgian churches, respectively Nestorian, Monophysite and Greek Orthodox in their tenets, the agape was from the first a survival, under Christian and Jewish forms, of the old sacrificial systems of a pre-Christian age.
    0
    0
  • 2 (b) In many passages Jewish particularism is painfully manifest.
    0
    0
  • The second path is that which is traced out by the priest-prophet Ezekiel, and is that of legalism, which was destined to secure a permanent place in the life and literature of the Jewish people.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • The development of the priestly code of legislation (Priestercodex) was a gradual process, and probably occupied a considerable part of the 5th century B.C. The Hebrew race now definitely entered upon the new path of organized Jewish legalism which had been originally marked out for it by Ezekiel in the preceding century.
    0
    0
  • Circumcision and Sabbath, separation from marriage with a foreigner, which rendered a Jew unclean, as well as strict conformity to the precepts of the Torah, constituted henceforth an adamantine bond which was to preserve the Jewish communities from disintegration.
    0
    0
  • The added conception of the resurrection of the righteous does not appear in the world of Jewish thought till the early Greek period in Isa.
    0
    0
  • Charles thinks that in this passage the idea of resurrection is of purely Jewish and not of Mazdaan (or Zoroastrian) origin, but it is otherwise with Dan.
    0
    0
  • 2; see his Eschatology, Hebrew, Jewish and Christian.
    0
    0
  • It is impossible to deny Persian influence in the development of this conception, and that the Persian Ahriman (Angromainyu), the evil personality opposed to the good, Ahura Mazda, moulded the Jewish counterpart, Satan.
    0
    0
  • But in Judaism monotheistic conceptions reigned supreme, and the Satan of Jewish belief as opposed to God stops short of the dualism of Persian religion.
    0
    0
  • In later Jewish literature we meet with further examples of similar hypostases in the form of Memra, Metatron, Shechinah, Holy Spirit and Bath kol.
    0
    0
  • (d) The doctrine of pre-existence is another product of the speculative tendency of the Jewish mind.
    0
    0
  • Caird wrote also an excellent study of Spinoza, in which he showed the latent Hegelianism of the great Jewish philosopher.
    0
    0
  • Toy compares Barnebo, "son of Nebo," of which he regards Barnabas as a slightly disguised form (Jewish Encyclopaedia).
    0
    0
  • As in the case of the other medieval Jewish philosophers little is known of his life.
    0
    0
  • His family had been distinguished for piety and exegetical skill, but though he was known in the Jewish community by commentaries on certain books of the Bible, he never seems to have accepted any rabbinical post.
    0
    0
  • The Milhamoth is throughout modelled after the plan of the great work of Jewish philosophy, the Moreh Nebuhim of Moses Maimonides, and may be regarded as an elaborate criticism from the more philosophical point of view (mainly Averroistic) of the syncretism of Aristotelianism and Jewish orthodoxy as presented in that work.
    0
    0
  • Elaborate legal enactments codified in Babylonia by the 10th century B.C. find striking parallels in Hebrew, late Jewish (Talmudic), Syrian and Mahommedan law, or in the unwritten usages of all ages; for even where there were neither written laws nor duly instituted lawgivers, there was no lawlessness, since custom and belief were, and still are, almost inflexible.
    0
    0
  • The disaster became the great epoch-making event for Jewish history and literature.
    0
    0
  • A large majority of the Jewish people remained on the land.
    0
    0
  • He did not fulfil the detailed predictions, and the events did not reach the ideals of Hebrew writers; but these anticipations may have influenced the form which the Jewish traditions subsequently took.
    0
    0
  • An outburst of Jewish religious feeling is dated in the second year of Darius (520), but whether Judah was making a bold bid for independence or had received special favour for abstaining from the above revolts, external evidence alone can decide.
    0
    0
  • Longimanus (465-425), attracts attention because the famous Jewish reformers Ezra and Nehemiah flourished under a king of this name.
    0
    0
  • The overthrow of Tyre and Gaza secured the possession of the coast and the Jewish state entered upon the Greek period.
    0
    0
  • With Nehemiah and Ezra we enter upon the era in which a new impulse gave to Jewish life and thought that form which became the characteristic orthodox Judaism.
    0
    0
  • With his priests and Levites, and with the chiefs and nobles of the Jewish families, the high priest directs this small state, and his death marks an epoch as truly as did that of the monarchs in the past.
    0
    0
  • 3 If one is apt to acquire too narrow a view of Jewish legalism, the whole experience of subsequent history, through the heroic age of the Maccabees and onwards, only proves that the minuteness of ritual procedure could not cramp the heart.
    0
    0
  • Besides, this was only one of the aspects of Jewish literary activity.
    0
    0
  • - Thus the Old Testament, the history of the Jews during the first great period, describes the relation of the Hebrews to surrounding peoples, the superiority of Judah over the faithless (north) Israelite tribes, and the reorganization of the Jewish community in and around Jerusalem at the arrival of Ezra with the Book of the Law.
    0
    0
  • These four centuries are the Greek period of Jewish history.
    0
    0
  • The insignificance of the Jewish community in Palestine was their salvation.
    0
    0
  • At Alexandria in particular Alexander provided for a Jewish colony which soon became Hellenic enough in speech to require a translation of the Law.
    0
    0
  • According to Juvenal the sons of such proselytes were apt to go farther and to substitute the Jewish Law for the Roman Romanas autem soliti contemnere leges; Judaicum ediscunt et servant ac metuunt ius Tradidit arcano quodcunque volumine Moyses.
    0
    0
  • The language of Polybius suggests that he was acquainted with other Jewish communities and with the fame of the Temple: in his view they are not an organized state.
    0
    0
  • According to the Jewish legend Heliodorus was attacked when he entered the Temple by a horse with a terrible rider and by two young men.
    0
    0
  • All the religious rites of Judaism were proscribed and the neighbouring Greek cities were requested to enforce the prohibition upon their Jewish citizens.
    0
    0
  • The proscription of the Jewish religion was withdrawn and the Temple restored to them.
    0
    0
  • At Joppa, for example, the Jewish settlers - two hundred in all - " were invited to go into boats provided in accordance with the common decree of the city."
    0
    0
  • The Jewish refugees had turned the balance, and so Judas became strategus of Judaea, whilst Menelaus was put to death.
    0
    0
  • The Jewish aristocracy became peers of the Seleucid kingdom.
    0
    0
  • The Jewish forces were driven back upon Jerusalem and the city was closely invested.
    0
    0
  • When he went on his last disastrous campaign, Hyrcanus led a Jewish contingent to join his army, partly perhaps a troop of mercenaries (for Hyrcanus was the first of the Jewish kings to hire mercenaries, with the treasure found in David's tomb).
    0
    0
  • After his death Hyrcanus took advantage of the general confusion to extend Jewish territory with the countenance of Rome.
    0
    0
  • These services, which incidentally illustrate the solidarity and unity of the Jewish nation and the respect of the communities of the dispersion for the metropolis, were recognized and rewarded.
    0
    0
  • Herod had put down Jewish rebels and Herod appointed the high priests.
    0
    0
  • When all the Jewish people swore to be loyal to Caesar and the king's policy, the Pharisees - above 6000 - refused to swear.
    0
    0
  • Such is the account which Josephus gives in the Antiquities; in the Jewish War he represents the rabbis and their disciples as looking forward to greater happiness for themselves after such a death.
    0
    0
  • On the death of Herod in 4 B.C. Archelaus kept open house for mourners as the Jewish custom, which reduced many Jews to beggary, prescribed.
    0
    0
  • When he presented himself before the emperor - apart from rival claimants of his own family - there was an embassy from the Jewish people who prayed to be rid of a monarchy and rulers such as Herod.
    0
    0
  • The Sanhedrin had its police and powers to safeguard the Jewish religion; but the procurator had the appointment of the high priests, and no capital sentence could be executed without his sanction.
    0
    0
  • So far as this influence extended, the Jewish community was threatened with the danger of suicide, and the distinction drawn by Josephus between the Pharisees and the Zealots is a valid one.
    0
    0
  • But Pilate so conducted affairs as to attract the attention not only of Josephus but also of Philo, who represents for us the Jewish community of Alexandria.
    0
    0
  • So we learn something of the Palestinian Jews and more of the Jewish community in Alexandria.
    0
    0
  • Images of Caligula were set up in the synagogues, an edict deprived the Jews of their rights as citizens, and finally the governor authorized the mob to sack the Jewish quarter, as if it had been a conquered city (38).
    0
    0
  • The Jewish embassy was headed by Philo, who has described its fortunes in a tract dealing with the divine punishment of the persecutors.
    0
    0
  • So there was once more a king of Judaea, and a king who observed the tradition of the Pharisees and protected the Jewish religion.
    0
    0
  • The success of Agrippa's brief reign had revived the hopes of the Jewish nationalists, and concessions only retarded the inevitable insurrection.
    0
    0
  • Cumanus armed the Samaritans, and, with them and his own troops, defeated these Jewish marauders.
    0
    0
  • In Caesarea there had been for some time trouble between the Jewish and the Syrian inhabitants.
    0
    0
  • A new Sanhedrin was formed there under the presidency of a ruler, who received yearly dues from all Jewish communities.
    0
    0
  • The temple-tax was strictly exacted; Jews who lived the Jewish life without openly confessing their religion and Jews who concealed their nationality were brought before the magistrates.
    0
    0
  • An earlier edition was translated into English under the title History of the Jewish People (Edinburgh, 1890, 1891).
    0
    0
  • Little more than half a century after the overthrow of the Jewish nationality, the Mishnah was practically completed, and by this code of rabbinic law - and law is here a term which includes the social, moral and religious as well as the ritual and legal phases of human activity - the Jewish people were organized into a community, living more or less autonomously under the Sanhedrin or Synedrium and its officials.
    0
    0
  • The laws concerning the Jews had a repressive and preventive object: the repression of Judaism and the prevention of inroads of Jewish influences into the state religion.
    0
    0
  • But the admission of Christians into the Jewish fold was punished by confiscation of goods (357), the erection of new synagogues was arrested by Theodosius II.
    0
    0
  • A similar penalty attached to intermarriage between Jews and Christians, and an attempt was made to nullify all Jewish marriages which were not celebrated in accordance with Roman law.
    0
    0
  • But Justinian (527-565) was the first to interfere directly in the religious institutions of the Jewish people.
    0
    0
  • (911-959) goes back the Jewish form of oath which in its later development required the Jew to gird himself with thorns; stand in water; and, holding the scroll of the Torah in his hand, invoke upon his person the leprosy of Naaman, the curse of Eli and the fate of Korah's sons should he perjure himself.
    0
    0
  • The land which, a millennium before, had been a prison for the Jewish exiles was now their asylum of refuge.
    0
    0
  • The population of the southern part of Mesopotamia - the strip of land enclosed between the Tigris and the Euphrates - was, according to Graetz, mainly Jewish; while the district extending for about 70 m.
    0
    0
  • Babylonia had risen into supreme importance for Jewish life at about the time when the Mishnah was completed.
    0
    0
  • The great rabbinic academies at Sura and Nehardea, the former of which retained something of its dominant role till the rrth century, had been founded, Sura by Abba Arika (c. 219), but Nehardea, the more ancient seat of the two, famous in the 3rd century for its association with Abba Arika's renowned contemporary Samuel, lost its Jewish importance in the age of Mahomet.
    0
    0
  • The schismatic Qaraites initiated or rather necessitated a new Hebrew philology, which later on produced Qimhi, the gaon Saadiah founded a Jewish philosophy, the statesman Hasdai introduced a new Jewish culture - and all this under Mahommedan rule.
    0
    0
  • From Hasdai ibn Shaprut in the 10th century and Samuel the nagid in the 11th the line of Jewish scholar-statesmen continued till we reach Isaac Abrabanel in 1492, the date of the expulsion of the Jews from Spain.
    0
    0
  • This last-named event synchronized with the discovery of America; Columbus being accompanied by at least one Jewish navigator.
    0
    0
  • While the Spanish period of Jewish history was thus brilliant from the point of view of public service, it was equally notable on the literary side.
    0
    0
  • In him culminates the Jewish expression of the Spanish-Moorish culture; his writings had an influence on European scholasticism and contributed significant elements to the philosophy of Spinoza.
    0
    0
  • In Spain Jewish life had participated in the general life, but the expulsion - while it dispersed 1 On the writers mentioned below see articles s.v.
    0
    0
  • - In the meantime Jewish life had been elsewhere subjected to other influences which produced a result at once narrower and deeper.
    0
    0
  • In Mainz there settled in the 10th century Gershom, the " light of the exile," who, about 1000, published his ordinance forbidding polygamy in Jewish law as it had long been forbidden in Jewish practice.
    0
    0
  • Small coteries of Jewish minor poets and philosophers were formed, and men like Kalonymos and Immanuel - Dante's friend - shared the versatility and culture of Italy.
    0
    0
  • The Inquisition in Spain led to the expulsion of the Jews (1492), and this event involved not only the latter but the whole of the Jewish people.
    0
    0
  • If fugitives are for the next half-century to be met with in all parts of Europe, yet, especially in the Levant, there grew up thriving Jewish communities often founded by Spanish refugees.
    0
    0
  • The reformation as such had no favourable influence on Jewish fortunes in Christian Europe, though the championship of the cause of toleration by Reuchlin had considerable value.
    0
    0
  • It is to Holland and to the 17th century that we must turn for the first real steps towards Jewish emancipation.
    0
    0
  • Cromwell, upon the inconclusive termination of the conference summoned in 1655 at Whitehall to consider the Jewish question, tacitly assented to the return of the Jews to this country, and at the restoration his action was confirmed.
    0
    0
  • These men often rendered great services to their fellow-Jews, and one of the results was the growth in Jewish society of an aristocracy of wealth, where previously there had been an aristocracy of learning.
    0
    0
  • In 1781 Dohm pointed to the fact that a Jewish father could seldom hope to enjoy the happiness of living with his children.
    0
    0
  • The emperor even permitted Jewish wholesale merchants, notables and their sons, to wear swords (January 2, 1782), and especially insisted that Christians should behave in a friendly manner towards Jews."
    0
    0
  • Mendelssohn's Phaedo, on the immortality of the soul, brought the author into immediate fame, and the simple home of the " Jewish Plato " was sought by many of the leaders of Gentile society in Berlin.
    0
    0
  • - In close relation to the German progress in Mendelssohn's age, events had been progressing in France, where the Revolution did much to improve the Jewish condition, thanks largely to the influence of Mirabeau.
    0
    0
  • In 1807 Napoleon convoked a Jewish assembly in Paris.
    0
    0
  • Though the decisions of this body had no binding force on the Jews generally, yet in some important particulars its decrees represent principles widely adopted by the Jewish community.
    0
    0
  • The most petty limitations of Jewish commercial activity continued; thus at about this period the community of Prague, in a petition, " complain that they are not permitted to buy victuals in the market before a certain hour, vegetables not before 9 and cattle not before II o'clock; to buy fish is sometimes altogether prohibited; Jewish druggists are not permitted to buy victuals at the same time with Christians " (op. cit.).
    0
    0
  • Soon after his accession he abolished the distinctive Jewish dress, abrogated the poll-tax, admitted the Jews to military service and their children to the public schools, and in general opened the era of emancipation by the Toleranzpatent of 1782.
    0
    0
  • As time went on, a more progressive policy intervened, the special form of Jewish oath was abolished in 1846, and in 1848, as a result of the revolutionary movement in which Jews played an active part, legislation took a more liberal turn.
    0
    0
  • A Jew can avoid the communal tax only by formally declaring himself as outside the Jewish community.
    0
    0
  • Kossuth succeeded in granting them temporary emancipation, but the suppression of the War of Independence led to an era of royal autocracy which, while it advanced Jewish culture by enforcing the establishment of modern schools, retarded the obtaining of civic and political rights.
    0
    0
  • Caimi the present Jewish communities of Greece are divisible into five groups: (r) Arta (Epirus); (2) Chalcis (Euboea); (3) Athens (Attica); (4) Volo, Larissa and Trikala (Thessaly); and (5) Corfu and Zante (Ionian Islands).
    0
    0
  • In 1675 was consecrated in Amsterdam the synagogue which is still the most noted Jewish edifice in Europe.
    0
    0
  • But there has been considerable interference (ostensibly on humanitarian grounds) with the Jewish method of slaughtering animals for food (Shehitah) and the method was prohibited by a referendum in 1893.
    0
    0
  • In Norway there is a small Jewish settlement (especially in Christiania) who are engaged in industrial pursuits and enjoy complete liberty.
    0
    0
  • Many Copenhagen Jews achieved distinction as manufacturers, merchants and bankers, and among famous Jewish men of letters may be specially named Georg Brandes.
    0
    0
  • The pale now includes fifteen governments, and under the May laws of 1892 the congestion of the Jewish population, the denial of free movement, and the exclusion from the general rights of citizens were rendered more oppressive than ever before.
    0
    0
  • Much was hoped from the duma, but this body has proved bitterly opposed to the Jewish claim for liberty.
    0
    0
  • In Morocco the Jews, who until late in the 19th century were often persecuted, are still confined to a mellah (separate quarter), but at the coast-towns there are prosperous Jewish communities mostly engaged in commerce.
    0
    0
  • Recently a mission has been sent to the Falashas of Abyssinia, and much interest has been felt in such outlying branches of the Jewish people as the Black Jews of Cochin and the Bene Israel community of Bombay.
    0
    0
  • The general course of Jewish history in England has been indicated above.
    0
    0
  • In 1830 the first Jewish emancipation bill was brought in by Robert Grant, but it was not till the legislation of 1858-1860 that Jews obtained full parliamentary rights.
    0
    0
  • In 1873 Sir George Jessel was made a judge, and Lord Rothschild took his seat in the House of Lords as the first Jewish peer in 1886.
    0
    0
  • There are some thriving Jewish agricultural colonies in the same dominion.
    0
    0
  • At the end of 1909 was held the first conference of Jewish ministers in London, and from this is expected some more systematic organization of scattered communities.
    0
    0
  • Anglo-Jewry is rich, however, in charitable, educational and literary institutions; chief among these respectively may be named the Jewish board of guardians (1859), the Jews' college (1855), and the Jewish historical society (1893).
    0
    0
  • (Full accounts of Anglo-Jewish institutions are given in the Jewish Year-Book published annually since 1895.) 55 The American Continent.
    0
    0
  • At the present time orthodox Judaism is also again acquiring its due position and the Jewish theological seminary of America was founded for this purpose.
    0
    0
  • In 1908 an organization, inclusive of various religious sections, was founded under the description " the Jewish community of New York."
    0
    0
  • There have been four Jewish members of the United States senate, and about 30 of the national House of Representatives.
    0
    0
  • Many Jews have filled professorial chairs at the universities, others have been judges, and in art, literature (there is a notable Jewish publication society), industry and commerce have rendered considerable services to national culture and prosperity.
    0
    0
  • American universities have owed much to Jewish generosity, a foremost benefactor of these (as of many other American institutions) being Jacob Schiff.
    0
    0
  • (Full accounts of American Jewish institutions are given in the American Jewish Year-Book, published annually since 1899.) 56.
    0
    0
  • Its object was the foundation of a Jewish state in Palestine, but though it aroused much interest it failed to attract the majority of the emancipated Jews, and the movement has of late been transforming itself into a mere effort at colonization.
    0
    0
  • From time to time incidents arise which appeal to the Jewish sympathies everywhere and joint action ensues.
    0
    0
  • Each country has its own local organiza tion for dealing with Jewish questions.
    0
    0
  • Baron Hirsch (q.v.) founded the Jewish colonial association, which has undertaken vast colonizing and educational enterprises, especially in Argentina, and more recently the Jewish territorial organization has been started to found a home for the oppressed Jews of Russia.
    0
    0
  • Statistics.-Owing to the absence of a religious census in several important countries, the Jewish population of the world can only be given by inferential estimate.
    0
    0
  • The following approximate figures are taken from the American Jewish Year-Book for1909-1910and are based on similar estimates in the English Jewish Year-Book, the Jewish Encyclopedia, Nossig's Jiidische Statistik and the Reports of the Alliance Israelite Universelle.
    0
    0
  • According to these estimates the total Jewish population of the world in the year named was approximately 11,500,000.
    0
    0
  • There are also Jews in Curacoa, Surinam, Luxemburg, Norway, Peru, Crete and Venezuela; but in none of these does the Jewish population much exceed woo.
    0
    0
  • The first Christians continued to observe the Jewish festivals, though in a new spirit, as commemorations of events which those festivals had foreshadowed.
    0
    0
  • Although the observance of Easter was at a very early period the practice of the Christian church, a serious difference as to the day for its observance soon arose between the Christians of Jewish and those of Gentile descent, which led to a long and bitter controversy.
    0
    0
  • With the Jewish Christians, whose leading thought was the death of Christ as the Paschal Lamb, the fast ended at the same time as that of the Jews, on the fourteenth day of the moon at evening, and the Easter festival immediately followed, without regard to the day of the week.
    0
    0
  • The Gentile Christians, on the other hand, unfettered by Jewish traditions, identified the first day of the week with the Resurrection, and kept the preceding Friday as the commemoration of the crucifixion, irrespective of the day of the month.
    0
    0
  • Generally speaking, the Western churches kept Easter on the first day of the week, while the Eastern churches followed the Jewish rule, and kept Easter on the fourteenth day.
    0
    0
  • Anicetus, however, declined to admit the Jewish custom in the churches under his jurisdiction, but readily communicated with Polycarp and those who followed it.
    0
    0
  • That province was the only portion of Christendom which still adhered to the Jewish usage, and Victor demanded that all should adopt the usage prevailing at Rome.
    0
    0
  • We find the Jewish usage from time to time reasserting itself after this, but it never prevailed to any large extent.
    0
    0
  • At first an eight years' cycle was adopted, but it was found to be faulty, then the Jewish cycle of 84 years was used, and remained in force at Rome till the year 457, when a more accurate calculation of a cycle of 532 years, invented by Victorius of Acquitaine, took its place.
    0
    0
  • Some have claimed for it apostolical sanction and found its origin in the liturgical head-gear of the Jewish priesthood.
    0
    0
  • See Neubauer, Mediaeval Jewish Chronicles, ii.
    0
    0
  • For opposite reasons, neither the Greek nor the Jewish mind lent itself readily to mysticism: the Greek, because of its clear and sunny naturalism; the Jewish, because of its rigid monotheism and its turn towards worldly realism and statutory observance.
    0
    0
  • It is only with the exhaustion of Greek and Jewish civilization that mysticism becomes a prominent factor in Western thought.
    0
    0
  • In Philo, Alexandrian Judaism had already seized upon Plato as " the Attic Moses," and done its best to combine his speculations with the teaching of his Jewish prototype.
    0
    0
  • There is no reason why their descendants should not be found to-day in various tribes, but the physical type commonly called Jewish is characteristic not so much of Israel as of western Asia generally.
    0
    0
  • Babylon long continued to be a Jewish centre whence the Jews radiated to other countries.
    0
    0
  • From choice or compulsion large numbers settled in Egypt in the time of the Ptolemies, and added an appreciable element to Alexandrine culture, while gradual voluntary emigration established Jewish communities in Syria, Asia Minor, Greece and Italy, who facilitated the first spread of Christianity.
    0
    0
  • It is plain from early Moslem literature that Persian, Christian and especially Jewish ideas had penetrated into Arabia.
    0
    0
  • The Hebrew titles ascribe to him seventy-three psalms; the Septuagint adds some fifteen more; and later opinion, both Jewish p and Christian, claimed for him the authorship of the whole Psalter (so the Talmud, Augustine and others).
    0
    0
  • The attempt to check the Jewish rebellion ended in a weak compromise.
    0
    0
  • Jewish tradition had reason to remember these formidable Palmyrenes in the Roman armies; according to the Talmud 80,000 of them assisted at the destruction of the first temple, 8000 at that of the second !
    0
    0
  • It is worth noticing that this epithet like " lord of eternity " (or, " of the world "), has a distinctly Jewish character.
    0
    0
  • His father, Emmanuel Mendel, is said to have been a Jewish pedlar, but August adopted the name of Neander on his baptism as a Christian.
    0
    0
  • We only know that as long ago as the 1st century B.C. true Hebrew blood was becoming rare, and that a vast proportion of the Jews of Roman times were Hebraized Aramaeans, whose assimilation into the Jewish community did not date much further back than the Maccabaean age.
    0
    0
  • It is intended to represent him as a member of an assembly (Kahal) - not the Jewish congregation, but a body of students or inquirers, such as is referred to in xii.
    0
    0
  • Such is Koheleth's view of life, and it is obvious that such a conception of an aimless cosmos is thoroughly non-Jewish, if we may judge Jewish thought by the great body of the extant literature.
    0
    0
  • 16-18, be not over-righteous (over-attentive to details of ritual and convention) or over-wicked (flagrantly neglectful of established beliefs and customs); here "righteous" and "wicked" appear to be technical terms designating two parties in the Jewish world of the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C., the observers and the non-observers of the Jewish ritual law; these parties represent in a general way the Pharisees and the Sadducees; viii.
    0
    0
  • The supposition of such influence is favoured by some critics (Tyler, Plumptre, Palm, Siegfried, Cheyne in his Jewish Religious Life after the Exile, and others), rejected by some (Zeller, Renan, Kleinert and others).
    0
    0
  • Such a conception has a Greek tinge, and would be found in Jewish circles, probably, not before the 2nd century B.C.
    0
    0
  • The claim of sacredness made for it was warmly contested by some Jewish scholars.
    0
    0
  • For the older works see Dickler (in Lange's Comm.); for Jewish commentaries see Zedner, Cat.
    0
    0
  • With the spread of their empire to Spain the Arabs took with them their knowledge of Greek medicine and science, including alchemy, and thence it passed, strengthened by the infusion of a certain Jewish element, to the nations of western Europe, through the medium of Latin translations.
    0
    0
  • 40, though in Jewish tradition the latter passage was taken to refer to the Lulab, or a combination of twigs of willow and myrtle, with a palm branch, which, together with a citron, are held in the hand during processions in the synagogue?
    0
    0
  • The Feast of Tabernacles is one of the few Jewish festivals, described in classical writers.
    0
    0
  • It was pre-eminently the period of exultation in ancient Jewish rite, and the Mishnah declares that "He who has not seen the jcy of the libations of Tabernacles has never in his life witnessed joy."
    0
    0
  • In later Jewish custom the one-year cycle of reading of sections from the Pentateuch ends on the concluding day of Tabernacles, which is therefore known as the Rejoicing of the Law (Simhat Torah).
    0
    0
  • Maimonides had brought Jewish thought entirely under the domination of Aristotle.
    0
    0
  • In southern Syria, which had been won by the house of Seleucus from the house of Ptolemy in 198, the independent Jewish principality was set up in 143.
    0
    0
  • Jeremiah promised them as a reward of their obedience that they should never lack a man to represent them (as a priest) before Yahweh, whence perhaps the later Jewish tradition that the Rechabites intermarried with the Levites and so entered the temple service.
    0
    0
  • This idea that the Messianic kingdom of the future on earth should have a definite duration has - like the whole eschatology of the primitive Church - its roots in the Jewish apocalyptic literature, where it appears at a comparatively late period.
    0
    0
  • The Jewish expectation is thus considerably curtailed, as it is also shorn of its sensual attractions.
    0
    0
  • Accepting the Jewish apocalypses as sacred books of venerable antiquity, they read them eagerly, and transferred their contents bodily to Christianity.
    0
    0
  • The result was that these books became "Christian" documents; it is entirely to Christian, not to Jewish, tradition that we owe their preservation.
    0
    0
  • The Jewish expectations are adopted for example, by Papias, by the writer of the epistle of Barnabas, and by Justin.
    0
    0
  • Barnabas 15) gives us the Jewish theory (from Gen.
    0
    0
  • After the Montanistic controversy chiliastic views were more and more discredited in the Greek Church; they were, in fact, stigmatized as "Jewish" and consequently "heretical."
    0
    0
  • During this controversy Dionysius became convinced that the victory of mystical theology over "Jewish" chiliasm would never be secure so long as the book of Revelation passed for an apostolic writing and kept its place among the homologoumena of the canon.
    0
    0
  • Anything beyond this was held to be Jewish.
    0
    0
  • Victorinus wrote a commentary on the Apocalypse of John; and all these theologians, especially Lactantius, were diligent students of the ancient Sibylline oracles of Jewish and Christian origin, and treated them as divine revelations.
    0
    0
  • Part of the Jewish ritual was the preservation of the Israelites from the idolatry which at that time prevailed among every other people.
    0
    0
  • In 70 a formidable rising in Gaul, headed by Claudius Civilis, was suppressed and the German frontier made secure; the Jewish War was brought to a close by Titus's capture of Jerusalem, and in the following year, after the joint triumph of Vespasian and Titus, memorable as the first occasion on which a father and his son were thus associated together, the temple of Janus was closed, and the Roman world had rest for the remaining nine years of Vespasian's reign.
    0
    0
  • For several centuries it was wholly lost sight of, and it was not till the 13th century that it was rediscovered through the agency of Robert Grosseteste, bishop of Lincoln, who translated it into Latin, under the misconception that it was a genuine work of the twelve sons of Jacob, and that the Christian interpolations were a genuine product of Jewish prophecy.
    0
    0
  • Now, in all Jewish history the triple offices were ascribed to only one individual, John Hyrcanus.
    0
    0
  • It was a centre not only of Hellenism but of Semitism, and the greatest Jewish city in the world.
    0
    0
  • The Brucheum and Jewish quarters were desolate in the 5th century, and the central monuments, the Soma and Museum, fallen to ruin.
    0
    0
  • Interment in rock-hewn tombs, " as the manner of the Jews is to bury," had been practised in Rome by the Jewish settlers for a considerable period anterior to the rise of the Christian Church.
    0
    0
  • There would, therefore, be nothing extraordinary in the fact that a community, always identified in the popular heathen mind with the Jewish faith, should adopt the mode of interment belonging to that religion.
    0
    0
  • In the same year the Jewish cemetery on the Via Portuense, known to Bosio but since forgotten, was rediscovered.
    0
    0
  • The human form is shaped after the four letters which constitute the Jewish Tetragrammaton (q.v.; see also Jehovah).
    0
    0
  • It laid stress, not on external authority, as did the Jewish law, but on individual experience and inward meditation.
    0
    0
  • " The mystics accorded the first place to prayer, which was considered as a mystical progress towards God, demanding a state of ecstasy."4 As a result, some of the finest specimens of Jewish devotional literature and some of the best types of Jewish individual character have been Kabbalist.
    0
    0
  • Jewish orthodoxy found itself attacked by the more revolutionary aspects of mysticism and its tendencies to alter established customs. While the medieval scholasticism denied the possibility of knowing anything unattainable by reason, the spirit of the Kabbalah held that the Deity could be realized, and it sought to bridge the gulf.
    0
    0
  • 6 The appearance of the Kabbalah and of other forms of mysticism in Judaism may seem contrary to ordinary and narrow conceptions of orthodox Jewish legalism.
    0
    0
  • These and similar statements favouring the doctrines of the New Testament made many Kabbalists of the highest position in the synagogue embrace the Christian faith and write elaborate books to win their Jewish brethren over to Christ.
    0
    0
  • As early as 1450 a company of Jewish converts in Spain, at the head of which were Paul de Heredia, Vidal de Saragossa de Aragon, and Davila, published compilations of Kabbalistic treatises to prove from them the doctrines of Christianity.'
    0
    0
  • 1 Jewish theosophy, then, with its good and evil tendencies, and with its varied results, may thus claim to have played no unimportant part in the history of European scholarship and thought.
    0
    0
  • It has " had a greater influence on the development of the Jewish mind than almost any other book after the completion of the Talmud " (ibid.).
    0
    0
  • See further the very full articles in the Jewish Ency.
    0
    0
  • While the first has the form of a treatise, the second is an address to God; the first, though it has the Jewish people in mind, does not refer to them by name except incidentally in Solomon's prayer; the second is wholly devoted to the Jewish national experiences (this is true even of the section on idolatry).
    0
    0
  • Both parts of the book ignore the Jewish sacrificial cult.
    0
    0
  • Its exclusion from the Jewish Canon of Scripture resulted naturally from its Alexandrian thought and from the fact that it was written in Greek.
    0
    0
  • At the time the Jewish question was coming to the fore in London, and Leon of Modena's book did much to stimulate popular interest.
    0
    0
  • The extant writings of the Jewish sages are contained in the books of Job, Proverbs, Psalms, Ben-Sira, Tobit, Ecclesiastes, Wisdom of Solomon, 4th Maccabees, to which may be added the first chapter of Pirke Aboth (a Talmudic tract giving, probably, pre-Christian material).
    0
    0
  • Though the intellectual world of the sages is different from that of the prophetic and legal Hebraism, they do not break with the fundamental Jewish theistic and ethical creeds.
    0
    0
  • There was nothing in their general position to make them in- 'hospitable to ethical conceptions of the future life, as is shown by the fact that so soon as the Egyptian-Greek idea of immortality made itself felt in Jewish circles it was adopted by the author of the Wisdom of Solomon; but prior to the 1st century B.C. it does not appear in the Wisdom literature, and the nationalistic dogma of resurrection is not mentioned in it at all.
    0
    0
  • With the establishment of the belief in ethical immortality this phase of scepticism vanished from the Jewish world, not, however, without leaving behind it works of enduring value.
    0
    0
  • Serajevo is also the seat of the Jewish chief rabbi; and of the highest Moslem ecclesiastic, or reis-el-ulema, who with his council is nominated and paid by the government.
    0
    0
  • The communities now recognized are the Latin (or Catholic), Greek (or Orthodox), Armenian Catholic, Armenian Gregorians, Syrian, and United Chaldee, Maronite, Protestant and Jewish.
    0
    0
  • This is one of four similar Jewish shrines in Irak; the others being the tomb of Ezra on the Shatt el-Arab near Korna, the tomb of Ezekiel in the village of Kefil near Kufa, and the well of Daniel near Hillah.
    0
    0
  • Besides the court of superior officers, which assists the pasha in the general administration of the province, there is also a mejlis or mixed tribunal for the settlement of municipal and commercial affairs, to which both Christian and Jewish merchants are admitted.
    0
    0
  • Besides these, there are the religious heads of the community; especially the nakib and Jewish high priest, who possess an undefined and extensive authority in their own communities.
    0
    0
  • The Jewish chief priest may be said to be the successor of the exilarch or resh galutha of the earlier period.
    0
    0
  • References in the Jewish Talmud show that this city still continued to exist at and after the commencement of our era; but according to Arabian writers, at the time when the Arab city of Bagdad was founded by the caliph Mansur, there was nothing on that site except an old convent.
    0
    0
  • 10, is associated in Jewish tradition with the barley harvest (Mishna, Menachoth x.).
    0
    0
  • Finally, the association of the first-born with the festival specially referred to in the texts, and carried out both in Samaritan tradition, which marks the forehead of the first-born with the blood of the lamb, and in Jewish custom, which obliged the first-born to fast on the day preceding Passover, also connects the idea of the feast with the sacro-sanctity of the first-born.
    0
    0
  • They sacrifice the paschal lamb, which is probably the oldest religious rite that has been continuously kept up. In two important points they differ from later Jewish interpretation.
    0
    0
  • Up to the Nicene Council the Church kept Easter coincident with the Jewish Passover, but after that period took elaborate precautions to dissociate the two.
    0
    0
  • In the Stromateis, while attempting to show that the Jewish Scriptures were older than any writings of the Greeks, he invariably brings down his dates to the death of Commodus, a circumstance which at once suggests that he wrote in the reign of the emperor Severus, from 193 to 211 A.D.
    0
    0
  • Some, however, of the classic poets he appears to have known only from anthologies; hence he was misled into quoting as from Euripides and others verses which were written by Jewish forgers.
    0
    0
  • There were many Jewish settlers in Melos in the beginning of the Christian era, and Christianity was early introduced.
    0
    0
  • The Ark of the Law, in the Jewish synagogue, is a chest or cupboard containing the scrolls of the Torah (Pentateuch), and is placed against or in the wall in the direction of Jerusalem.
    0
    0
  • - The liturgical vestments of the Catholic Church, East and West, are not, as was at one time commonly supposed, borrowed from the sacerdotal ornaments of the Jewish ritual, although the obvious analogies of this ritual doubtless to a certain extent determined their sacral character; they were developed independently out of the various articles of everyday dress worn by citizens of the Graeco-Roman world under the Empire.
    0
    0
  • By the 12th century, mitre and gloves were worn by all bishops, and in many cases they had assumed a new ornament, the rationale, a merely honorific decoration (supposed to symbolize doctrine and wisdom), sometimes of the nature of a highly ornamental broad shoulder collar with dependent lappets; sometimes closely resembling the pallium; rarely a "breast-plate" on the model of that of the Jewish high priest.'
    0
    0
  • The Report of the five bishops divides them into three schools: (1) the moralizing school, the oldest, by which - as in the case of St Jerome's treatment of the Jewish vestments - the vestments are explained as typical of the virtues proper to those who wear them; (2) the Christological school, i.e.
    0
    0
  • There were, however, varying opinions as to the value to the Jewish body of these accessions.
    0
    0
  • For the Jewish law of the admission of proselytes, see Shullhan Aruch, Yore Deah, § 268.
    0
    0
  • His voluminous writings are classified in the Jewish Encyclopedia, v.
    0
    0
  • (r) Midrashic. Jellinek published in the six parts of his Beth ha-Midrasch (1853-1878) a large number of smaller Midrashi, ancient and medieval homilies and folk-lore records, which have been of much service in the recent revival of interest in Jewish apocalyptic literature.
    0
    0
  • On the Jewish Decalogue, for instance, follows the law, and on the law the rabbinical schools.
    0
    0
  • It is not improbable that with many Jewish enthusiasts this literature was more highly treasured than the canonical scriptures.
    0
    0
  • In due course the Jewish authorities were forced to draw up a canon or book of sacred scriptures, and mark them off from those which claimed to be such without justification.
    0
    0
  • But as Christianity took its origin from Judaism, it is not unnatural that a large body of Jewish ideas was incorporated in the system of Christian thought.
    0
    0
  • The eschatology of a nation - and the most influential portion of Jewish and Christian apocrypha are eschatological - is always the last part of their religion to experience the transforming power of new ideas and new facts.
    0
    0
  • Christianity, moreover, moved by the same apocalyptic tendency as Judaism, gave birth to new Christian apocryphs, though, in the case of most of them, the subject matter was to a large extent traditional and derived from Jewish sources.
    0
    0
  • We have remarked above that the Jewish apocrypha - especially the apocalyptic section and the host of Christian apocryphsbecame the ordinary religious literature of the early Christians.
    0
    0
  • - This Jewish work has been in part preserved in the Ascension of Isaiah.
    0
    0
  • It is of Jewish origin, and recounts the martyrdom of Isaiah at the hands of Manasseh.
    0
    0
  • - Though the Latin version of this book was thrice printed in the 16th century (in 1527, 1550 and 1599), it was practically unknown to modern scholars till it was recognized by Conybeare and discussed by Cohn in the Jewish Quarterly Review, 1898, pp. 2 79-33 2.
    0
    0
  • - Writings dealing with this subject are extant in Greek, Latin, Slavonic, Syriac, Armenian and Arabic. They go back undoubtedly to a Jewish basis, but in some of the forms in which they appear at present they are christianized throughout.
    0
    0
  • Before we discuss these three documents we shall mention other members of this literature, which, though derivable ultimately from Jewish sources, are Christian in their present form.
    0
    0
  • Returning to the question of the Jewish origin of i., ii., iii., we have already observed that these spring from a common original.
    0
    0
  • These names were known not only to Jewish but also to heathen writers, such as Pliny and Apuleius.
    0
    0
  • The Christian legend, which is no doubt in the main based on the Jewish, is found in Greek, Syriac, Armenian, Slavonic and Medieval Latin.
    0
    0
  • The Pirke Aboth, a collection of sayings of the Jewish Fathers, are preserved in the 9th Tractate of the Fourth Order of the Mishnah.
    0
    0
  • They are attributed to some sixty Jewish teachers, belonging for the most part to the years A.D.
    0
    0
  • These were recent events in the time of Joash, and in like manner the Phoenician slave trade in Jewish children is carried back to an early date by the reference in Amos i.
    0
    0
  • The earliest prophetic books have a quite different standpoint; otherwise indeed the books of northern prophets and historians could never have been admitted into the Jewish canon.
    0
    0
  • Very different is the medieval theory, which arose from the gradual acceptance of the belief that the Jewish was the prototype of the Christian priest.
    0
    0
  • To these must be added the Neoplatonically inspired Fons Vitae of the Jewish philosopher and poet Ibn Gabirol, or Avicebron.
    0
    0
  • The Jewish communities are comprised in ecclesiastical districts, the head direction being at Budapest.
    0
    0
  • There were in Hungary in 1900 forty-nine high theological colleges, twenty-nine Roman Catholic; five Greek Uniat, four Greek Orthodox, ten Protestant and one Jewish.
    0
    0
  • Making friends with Alityrus, a Jewish actor, who was a favourite of Nero, Josephus obtained an introduction to the empress Poppaea and effected his purpose by her help. His visit to Rome enabled him to speak from personal experience of the power of the Empire, when he expostulated with the revolutionary Jews on his return to Palestine.
    0
    0
  • In the spring of 67 the Jewish troops, whom Josephus had drilled so sedulously, fled before the Roman forces of Vespasian and Titus.
    0
    0
  • The Jewish War (I Ept Tou'IovIcdKoli 7ro%Egov), the oldest of Josephus' extant writings, was written towards the end of Vespasian's reign (69-79) The Aramaic original has not been preserved; but the Greek version was prepared by Josephus himself in conjunction with competent Greek scholars.
    0
    0
  • Its purpose was to glorify the Jewish nation in the eyes of the Roman world.
    0
    0
  • Josephus wrote a narrative of his own Life in order to defend himself against the accusation brought by his enemy Justus of Tiberias to the effect that he had really been the cause of the Jewish rebellion.
    0
    0
  • In his defence Josephus departs from the facts as narrated in the Jewish War and represents himself as a partisan of Rome and, therefore, as a traitor to his own people from the beginning.
    0
    0
  • Schiirer (History of the Jewish People) gives a full bibliography.
    0
    0
  • The name is not therefore equally applicable to all psalms, and in the later Jewish ritual the synonym Hallel specially designates two series of psalms, cxiii.
    0
    0
  • Hippolytus tells us that in his time most Christians said " the Psalms of David," and believed the whole book to be his; but this title and belief are both of Jewish origin, for in 2 Macc. ii.
    0
    0
  • But, according to older Jewish tradition attested by Origen, 4 Ps.
    0
    0
  • Now, both the Korahite and Asaphic groups of psalms are remarkable that they hardly contain any recognition of present sin on the part of the community of Jewish faith - though they do confess the sin of Israel in the past - but are exercised with the observation that prosperity does not follow righteousness either in the case of the individual (xlix., lxxiii.) or in that of the nation, which suffers notwithstanding its loyalty to God, or even on account thereof (xliv., lxxix.).
    0
    0
  • There is nothing even to connect these Jews with Palestine; they may have formed a part of the very considerable Jewish community which we know to have been settled in Egypt as early as the 5th century B.C. On the other hand, it is extremely improbable that the Jews of Judaea, whom Nehemiah had entirely detached from their immediate neighbours, would have taken part in any general rising against Persia.
    0
    0
  • The only possible question for the critic is whether the ascription of these psalms to David was due to the idea that he was the psalmist par excellence, to whom any poem of unknown origin was naturally ascribed, or whether we have in some at least of these titles an example of the habit so common in later Jewish literature of writing in the name of ancient worthies.
    0
    0
  • It is therefore difficult to suppose that the Jewish Church as a whole passed through a stage in which it was felt desirable to substitute o'n'7 H in writing for n¦n'.
    0
    0
  • There is, however, no difficulty in supposing that such a thing was done in some sections of the Jewish Church, and it is probable that we must look for an explanation of the peculiarity not to the time but to the place where the second collection was formed.
    0
    0
  • For the Psalms, as for the other books of the Old Testament, the scholars of the period of the revival of Hebrew studies about the time of the Reformation were mainly dependent on the ancient versions and on the Jewish scholars of the middle ages.
    0
    0
  • The father of the controversy may be said to be the Jewish rabbi, Aben Ezra, who died A.D.
    0
    0
  • But once admit (as it is only reasonable to do) the extension of Jewish editorial activity to the prophetic books and all becomes clear.
    0
    0
  • We cannot here do more than chronicle the attempts of a Jewish scholar, the late Dr Kohut, in the Z.D.M.G.
    0
    0
  • The idea is not in itself inadmissible, at least for post-exilic portions, for Zoroastrian ideas were in the intellectual atmosphere of Jewish writers in the Persian age.
    0
    0
  • It is now known to have existed in Aramaic as far back as the 5th century B.C., appearing on Jewish papyri which were lately discovered by the German mission to Elephantine.'
    0
    0
  • That it was proper to wear special garments (or at least to rearrange one's weekday clothes) on the Jewish sabbath was recognized in the Talmud, and Mahommedans, after discussing at length the most suitable raiment for prayer, favoured the use of a single simple garment (Bukhari, viii.).
    0
    0
  • Of all priestly costumes 5 the most interesting is undoubtedly that of the Jewish Levitical high-priest.
    0
    0
  • Apart from these details later Jewish dress does not belong to this section.
    0
    0
  • For further details and illustrations of Hanukkah lamps see Jewish Encyc., s.v.
    0
    0
  • Terence was by birth an African, and was thus perhaps a fitter medium of connexion between the genius of Greece and that of Italy than if he had been a pure Greek or a pure Italian; just as in modern times the Jewish type of genius is sometimes found more detached from national peculiarities, and thus more capable of reproducing a cosmopolitan type of character than the genius of men belonging to other races.
    0
    0
  • Like his brother Isaac, Jacob Abendana had a circle of Christian friends, and his reputation led to the appreciation of Jewish scholarship by modern Christian theologians.
    0
    0
  • He compiled a Jewish Calendar and wrote Discourses on the Ecclesiastical and Civil Polity of the Jews (1706).
    0
    0
  • At Damascus Greek medicine was zealously cultivated with the aid of Jewish and Christian teachers.
    0
    0
  • The Jewish element appears to have' been important among the students, and possibly among the professors.
    0
    0
  • Jewish scholars, often under the patronage of Christian bishops, were especially active in the work.
    0
    0
  • The medical school owed its foundation largely to Jewish teachers, themselves educated in the Moorish schools of Spain, and imbued with the intellectual independence of the Averroists.
    0
    0
  • Other accounts of its composition, drawn from Rabbinical sources, will be found in various works on Jewish antiquities; see, for example, Reland, Sacr.
    0
    0
  • The slighting references to it by the Christian fathers are no more an argument against its existence in the primitive church than the similar denunciations by the Jewish prophets of burnt-offerings and sacrifices are any proof that there were no such rites as the offering of incense, and of the blood of bulls and fat of rams, in the worship of the temple at Jerusalem.
    0
    0
  • 96 cannot be assigned if it is held that his writings show acquaintance with the Antiquities of the Jewish People by Josephus.
    0
    0
  • These were "lost sheep of the house of Israel"; but Christ's freedom from Jewish exclusiveness is also brought out (I) as regards Samaritans, by the rebuke administered to the disciples at ix.52 sqq., the parable in x.
    0
    0
  • In Austria there are Roman Catholic, Greek Church, Jewish and Mahommedan chaplains.
    0
    0
  • In the sculptures of the Cornmagene and the Tyana districts, the nose has a long curving tip, of very Jewish appearance, but not unlike the outline given to Kheta warriors in Egyptian scenes.
    0
    0
  • But as this northern foe had failed to appear Ezekiel re-edited this prophecy in a new form as a final assault of Gog and his hosts on Jerusalem, and thus established a permanent dogma in Jewish apocalyptic, which in due course passed over into Christian.
    0
    0
  • Thus the inner development of Jewish apocalyptic was always conditioned by the historical experiences of the nation.
    0
    0
  • Determinism thus became a leading characteristic of Jewish apocalyptic, and its conception of history became severely mechanical.
    0
    0
  • Now it is acknowledged by Christian and Jewish scholars alike to have been written in Hebrew in the 2nd century B.C. From Hebrew it was translated into Greek and from Greek into Armenian and Slavonic. The versions have come down in their entirety, and small portions of the Hebrew text have been recovered from later Jewish writings.
    0
    0
  • It is of Jewish origin, but in part worked over by a Christian reviser.
    0
    0
  • See Jewish Encycl.
    0
    0
  • Of the books which have come down to us the main part is Jewish, and was written at various dates.
    0
    0
  • But though Christianity was in spirit the descendant of ancient Jewish prophecy, it was no less truly the child of that Judaism which had expressed its highest aspirations and ideals in pseudepigraphic and apocalyptic literature.
    0
    0
  • It was Christianity that preserved Jewish apocalyptic, when it was abandoned by Judaism as it sank into Rabbinism, and gave it a Christian character either by a forcible exegesis or by a systematic process of interpolation.
    0
    0
  • Taken together they constitute a Christian adaptation of an originally Jewish work, written A.D.
    0
    0
  • - The earliest form of Pauline eschatology is essentially Jewish.
    0
    0
  • He starts from the fundamental thought of Jewish apocalyptic that the end of the world will be brought about by the direct intervention of God when evil has reached its climax.
    0
    0
  • Its object, like other Jewish apocalypses, was to encourage faith under persecution; its burden is not a call to repentance but a promise of deliverance.
    0
    0
  • It is derived from one author, who has made free use of a variety of elements, some of which are Jewish and consort but ill with their new context.
    0
    0
  • Its editor is of opinion that it was written by a Jewish Christian in Egypt in the 2nd century A.D., but that it embodies legends of an earlier date, and that it received its present form in the 9th or 10th century.
    0
    0
  • The lost oracles were therefore in all probability originally Jewish, and subsequently re-edited by a Christian.
    0
    0
  • It is not improbable that these chapters are based on an earlier Jewish writing.
    0
    0
  • The book is a poor imitation of the ancient Jewish one.
    0
    0
  • It appears to be the work of a Jewish Christian.
    0