Jesuits sentence example
But for both proprietors and Jesuits a surprise was in store.
Two Dutch friends, Constantijn Huygens (von Zuylichem), father of the more celebrated Huygens, and Hoogheland, figure amongst the correspondents, not to mention various savants, professors and churchmen (particularly Jesuits).
And so great was the influence of the Jesuits, that the congregation of St Maur, the canons of Ste Genevieve, and the Oratory laid their official ban on the obnoxious doctrines.
Pascal and other members of Port Royal openly expressed their doubts about the place allowed to God in the system; the adherents of Gassendi met it by resuscitating atoms; and the Aristotelians maintained their substantial forms as of old; the Jesuits argued against the arguments for the being of God, and against the theory of innate ideas; whilst Pierre Daniel Huet (1630-1721), bishop of Avranches, once a Cartesian himself, made a vigorous onslaught on the contempt in which his former comrades held literature and history, and enlarged on the vanity of all human aspirations after rational truth.
This was the name in common use when the Jesuits entered China towards the end of the 16th century, and began to send home accurate information about China.Advertisement
In 1655 a proclamation was issued for administering the laws against the priests and Jesuits, and some executions were carried out.
The country was flooded with Jesuits and friars, whose arguments were reinforced by quartering troops, veterans of the Indian wars in Mexico, on the refractory inhabitants.
He took public education out of the hands of the Jesuits, which, for the future development of manliness in his dominions, was a measure of incalculable value.
The papacy, during this period, had to reconsider the question of the Jesuits, who made themselves universally odious, not only in Italy, but also in France and Spain.
While leaving intact the general houses of the various confraternities (except that of the Jesuits), the bill abolished the Religious corporate personality of religious orders, handed over Bill, their schools and hospitals to civil administrators, placed their churches at the disposal of the secular clergy, and provided pensions for nuns and monks, those who had families being sent to reside with their relatives, and those who by reason of age or bereavement had no home but their monasteries being allowed to end their days in religious houses specially set apart for the purpose.Advertisement
In the latter half of the 16th century the direction of education fell into the hands of the Jesuits.
Kang-hi next ordered a similar map to be made of Tibet, the survey being executed by two lamas who were carefully trained as surveyors by the Jesuits at Peking.
By a looseness of translation, the superintendents of provinces, in the order of Jesuits, who act as officials under the superintendence of and auxiliary to the general, are sometimes called adjutants-general.
Polish proprietors settled in large numbers on the Cossack territory, and great efforts were made, with the assistance of the Jesuits, to bring the Orthodox population under papal authority.
Meanwhile John III., king of Portugal, had resolved on sending a mission to his Indian dominions, and had applied through his envoy Pedro Mascarenhas to the pope for six Jesuits.Advertisement
He favoured the Jesuits, especially in their conflict with the Jansenists, forbade in 1661 the translation of the Roman Missal into French, and in 1665 canonized Francis of Sales.
Garnet's Ghost was published as a broadside in 1679, but the other Satires on the Jesuits, although written at the same time, were not printed until 1681.
Thomas Garnet, who suffered for supposed implication in the Gunpowder Plot, rose from the dead to encourage the Jesuits in the first satire, and in the third Ignatius Loyola is represented as dictating his wishes to his disciples from his death-bed.
A dispute with the archbishop compelled him to leave Rouen, and after a short stay in Rome he returned to Paris to the college of the Jesuits, where he spent the rest of his life.
After occupying the positions of procurator of the Jesuits at Rome and censor (calificador) of the Inquisition at Madrid, Acuna returned to South America, where he died, probably soon after 1675.Advertisement
His skill in verse-making seems to have shown itself early, as at the age of fifteen he composed a piece in Latin which was represented by his fellow-pupils at the Jesuits' college of Rouen.
The Constitutions are discussed in the article on the Jesuits.
His doctrine on the subject is found in the well-known letter to the Portuguese Jesuits in 15J3, and if this be read carefully together with the Constitutions his meaning is clear.
She took part in the suppression of the Jesuits, and she resisted the pope in the interest of the state.
The Quakers, accused as they were of being Jesuits, and refusing to take the oath, suffered under this proclamation and under the more stringent act of 1656.Advertisement
He and his elder brother Giuseppe (known as Cardinal Pecci) received their earliest education from the Jesuits at Viterbo, and completed their education in Rome.
During his three years' residence at the Belgian capital he found ample scope for his gifts as a diplomatist in the education controversy then raging, and as mediator between the Jesuits and the Catholic university of Louvain.
According to Pierre Bayle, he was almost killed by some Englishmen at Madrid in 1614, and again fearing for his life he left Germany for Italy in 1617, afterwards taking part in an attack upon the Jesuits.
Cotton culture began in 1740, and sugar-cane was successfully introduced from Santo Domingo by the Jesuits in 1751.
Peter Vok of Rosenberg, a strong adherent of the Utraquist party, sold Krumau shortly before his death (161 I), because the Jesuits had established themselves in the neighbourhood.
He painted the "Battle of Joshua" in the Quirinal Gallery, the "Crucifixion of St Andrew" in the church of that saint on Monte Cavallo, various works for the Jesuits, some also in co-operation with his brother.
On his release he went to London, where he was a member of the association of young men founded in 1580 to assist the Jesuits Edmund Campion and Robert Parsons.
He was unpopular with them, however, owing to his subserviency to the Jesuits, and resigned the agency in 1607 owing to the remonstrances of the English arch-priest George Birkhead.
Upon the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1767 the Chiquitos became decadent, and now number short of 20,000.
Reformation; and most of them were Jesuits, the order that set out to be nothing Protestantism was, and everything that Protestantism was not.
He was educated by the Jesuits and at the university of Paris.
The Americans and the Jesuits have missionary schools for the Armenian population.
Care had been taken for the spiritual wants of the provinces by associating six Jesuits with the expedition.
Female orphans of noble families were given in marriage to the officers, and portioned from the royal estates, and orphan boys were sent to be educated by the Jesuits.
Meanwhile the Jesuits undertook the moral and religious culture of the natives, and of the scarcely less savage colonists.
Over these persons the Jesuits had no authority; and it was not until the arrival of the first bishop of Brazil in 1552, that anything like an efficient check was imposed upon them.
Next year Sousa was succeeded by Duarte da Costa, who brought with him a reinforcement of Jesuits, at the head of whom was Luis de Gran, appointed, with Nobrega the chief of the first mission, joint provincial of Brazil.
The good intentions of the Jesuits were in part frustrated by the opposition of Costa the governor; and it was not until 1558, when Mem de Sa was sent out to supersede him, that their projects were allowed free scope.
The Jesuits from the first moment of their landing in Brazil had constituted themselves the protectors of the natives, and though strenuously opposed by the colonists and ordinary clergy, had gathered the Indians together in many aldeas, over which officials of their order exercised spiritual and temporal authority.
The proud minister had been resisted p in his plans of reform at home by the Jesuits, and, determining to attack the power of the order, first deprived them of all temporal power in the state of Maranhao and Para.
It was only when the Jesuits obtained a footing both at Prague 2 and Klausenburg that persecution began, but then it was very violent.
In royal Hungary also the Jesuits were the chief persecutors.
He was educated at the college of the Jesuits in his native city, and distinguished himself by the extraordinary precocity and versatility of his talents.
At the age of ten he was sent to the College Louis-le-Grand, which was under the management of the Jesuits, and remained there till 1711.
Nor can there be much doubt that the great attention bestowed on acting - the Jesuits kept up the Renaissance practice of turning schools into theatres for the performance of plays both in Latin and in the vernacular - had much to do with Voltaire's lifelong devotion to the stage.
His published partial French translations of Calderon and Lope de Vega, and wrote parodies for the Opera Comique and pamphlets in favour of the Jesuits.
In the latter year especially he was very busy with his pen against the Jesuits.
As laborious historical students, Don Jose Toribio Polo, the author of an ecclesiastical history of Peruvian dioceses, and Don Enrique Torres Saldamando, the historian of the Jesuits in Peru, have great merit.
St Michael's in the Renaissance style, erected for the Jesuits in 15831 595, contains the monument of Eugene Beauharnais by Thorwaldsen.
The edition most frequently quoted is that by the Jesuits (4 vols., Douai, 5624).
He confirmed the bull Unigenitus; but, despite the Jesuits, allowed the Dominicans to preach the Augustinian doctrine of grace.
Louis Auguste de Bourbon, sovereign prince of Dombes, having transferred his parliament to Trevoux, set up a printing press, and was persuaded by two Jesuits, Michel le Tellier and Philippe Lalleman, to establish the Me-moires pour servir d l'histoire des sciences et des arts (1701-1767), more familiarly known as the Journal des Trevoux, long the best-informed and best-written journal in France.
The Jesuits retaliated with the Supplement des nouvelles ecclesiastiques (1734-1748).
The Civilta cattolica (1850), fortnightly, is still the organ of the Jesuits.
In 1 574, owing to ill health, he obtained permission to return to Spain; the rest of his life being passed at the Jesuits' house in Toledo in vigorous literary activity.
In its sixth chapter the question whether it is lawful to overthrow a tyrant is freely discussed and answered in the affirmative, a circumstance which brought much odium upon the Jesuits, especially after the assassination of Henry IV.
During his confinement there was found among his papers a criticism upon the Jesuits, which was printed after his death as Discursus de erroribus qui in forma gubernationis societatis Jesu occurrunt (Bordeaux, 1625), and was reprinted by order of Charles III.
After the Pioneers the sequence is The Jesuits in North America, La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West, The Old Regime in Canada, Frontenac and New France and Louis XIV., Montcalm and Wolfe, A Half Century of Conflict.
He also worked for the due recognition of the dignity of the secular or pastoral clergy, whose position seemed to be threatened by the growing ascendancy of the regulars, and especially of the Jesuits, whom, as a practically distinct organization within the Church, he steadily opposed.
Against the Calvinists the synod of 1672 therefore aimed its rejection of unconditional predestination and of justification by faith alone, also its advocacy of what are substantially the Roman doctrines of transubstantiation and of purgatory; the Oriental hostility to Calvinism had been fanned by the Jesuits.
In colonial times Maracaibo had a famous Jesuits' college (now gone) and was one of the educational centres of Spanish America; the city now has a national college and a nautical school.
The Jesuits had fallen upon evil days; in 1758 Pombal expelled them from Portugal; his example was followed by the Bourbon countries - France, Spain, the Two Sicilies and Parma (1764-1768).
The Bourbon kings espoused their relative's quarrel, seized Avignon, Benevento and Ponte Corvo, and united in a peremptory demand for the suppression of the Jesuits (January 1769).
The Jesuits established a university, but they were expelled and their property confiscated in 1768.
This view was originated by the monk Molina (1528-1581), and has been widely employed by the Jesuits.
He entrusted the government to the Jesuits; refused either to summon the Cortes or to marry, although the Portuguese crown would otherwise pass to a foreigner, and devoted himself wholly to hunting, martial exercises and the severest forms of asceticism.
She was claimed as a convert by the Jesuits.'
With the aid of the Jesuits, whose privileges he multiplied, he conducted a vigorous propaganda.
The Reformation found only temporary acceptance at 'Regensburg, and was met by a counter-reformation inspired by the Jesuits.
However, he took an active part in the university's resistance to the Jesuits; for these had established a theological school of their own in Louvain, which was proving a formidable rival to the official faculty of divinity.
He warmly supported the Catholic missionary bishop of Holland, Rovenius, in his contests with the Jesuits, who were trying to evangelize that country without regard to the bishop's wishes.
Antipathy to the Jesuits brought Jansen no nearer.
Before entering on his new duties he travelled through the greater part of Germany, studying the systems of education which were in use, and visiting the seminaries of the Jesuits as well as those of the Lutheran and Reformed churches.
The new society of the Jesuits, as being the forerunners of Antichrist, also met with his violent opposition; and he was not grateful to them when, after attending the council of Trent in 1545, he was sent, by their influence, in 1552, as bishop of the far-off see of the Canaries.
Close by are the old church of the Jesuits and the mechanics' school (arres y oficios) with its large and well-equipped shops.
The Jesuits, whose first appearance in New France dates from 1611, were active and devoted.
The archbishop was a strenuous upholder of episcopal independence in the Gallican sense, and involved himself in a controversy with Rome by his endeavours to suppress the jurisdiction of the Jesuits and other religious orders within his diocese.
Salt was discovered by the Jesuits in Western New York about the middle of the 17th century, and was manufactured by the Indians in the Onondaga region.
It was chiefly through his influence, and through the letter he wrote to the pope against the Jesuits, that they were prevented from establishing their schools at Cracow.
Finally, in the Vatican Council, the Jesuits saw another of their favourite theories - that of papal infallibility - elevated to the status of a dogma of the Church.
It was not till ten years later, in 1685, that the festival was first celebrated at Paray, and not till after the death of Marguerite, on the 17th of October 1690, that the cult of the Sacred Heart, fostered by the Jesuits and the subject of violent controversies within the church, spread throughout France and Christendom.
He also kept up his activity as a publicist, in 1814 defending in a detailed and somewhat biassed pamphlet the policy of the minister Montgelas, and he undertook critical studies in the history of the Jesuits.
The senate did most of the current business; Peter Vasilevich Zavadovsky, a pupil of the Jesuits, was minister of education.
It was not, indeed, till the settlement of Westphalia in 1648, after the Thirty Years' War, that this territorial division of Christendom became stereotyped, but the process had been going on for a hundred years previously; in some states, as in England and Scotland, it had long been completed; in others, as in South Germany, Bohemia and Poland, it was defeated by the political and missionary efforts of the Jesuits and other agents of the counter-Reformation.
But, at the beginning of the 17th century, when the current of the Catholic reaction was running very strongly and the Jesuits, after subduing the Protestants, began to undermine the position of the Orthodox Church in Lithuania, a more intolerant spirit 1 Cf.
The Jesuits made their appearance in Poland in 1564, and soon succeeded in getting the schools of the country into their hands.
But now, owing to the frivolous studies introduced by the Jesuits, the so-called macaronic period supervened, which lasted from 1606 to 1764, and was a time of great degradation for the language and literature.
Popayan is the seat of a bishopric dating from 1547, whose cathedral was built by the Jesuits; and in the days of its prosperity it possessed a university of considerable reputation.
The freedom he claimed for the Church was freedom to manage her affairs without the interference of the state; the champions of the papal monarchy, and notably the Jesuits, desired freedom in order to put a stop to the dissemination of modern ideas.
In 1633 the Jesuits were expelled and allegiance to Alexandria resumed.
In and after the middle of the 16th century a correct and pure Latinity was promoted by the educational system of the Jesuits; but with the growth of the vernacular literatures Latin became more and more exclusively the language of the learned.
Meanwhile, in 1563, notwithstanding the opposition of the university of Paris, the Jesuits had succeeded in founding the Collegium Claromontanum.
The Jesuits, on the other hand, claimed Corneille and Moliere, as well as Descartes and Bossuet, Fontenelle, Montesquieu and Voltaire.
In 1762 the Jesuits were suppressed, and more than one hundred schools were thus deprived of their teachers.
The expulsion of the Jesuits gave a new impulse to the attacks directed against all schemes of education in which Latin held a prominent position.
In accordance The Germany were Jesuits.
The old bishop's palace is now the courthouse, and the old Jesuits' monastery with its fine gardens a higher-burgher school.
The Jesuits, who formerly exercised widespread influence, were expelled in 1884.
This bulwark against the encroachments of the Jesuits and the Reformed Church was standardized by the synod of Jerusalem in 1672.
The Jesuits had to find their all such external peculiarities of dress or rule as tended to put obstacles way of his followers acting freely as emissaries, agents or missionaries in the most various places and circumstances.
As Ignatius said, the ancient monastic communities were the infantry of the Church, whose duty was to stand firmly in one place on the battlefield; the Jesuits were to be her light horse, capable of going anywhere at a moment's notice, but especially apt and designed for scouting and skirmishing.
This class was styled in France "Jesuits of the short robe," and there is some evidence in support of its actual existence under Louis XV.
The Jesuits themselves deny the existence of any such body, and are able to adduce the negative disproof that no provision for it is to be found in their constitutions.
These he cannot remove nor select; and he is bound, in certain circumstances, to listen to their advice, although he is It is said that the general of the Jesuits is independent of the pope; and his popular name, "the black pope," has gone to confirm this idea.
On their arrival at Rome the three Jesuits were favourably received by Paul III., who at once appointed Faber to the chair of scripture and Laynez to that of scholastic theology in the university of the Sapienza.
Both from the original scheme and from the foundation at Coimbra it is clear that the original idea of the colleges was to provide for the education of future Jesuits.
In Germany, the Jesuits were eagerly welcomed as the only persons able to meet the Lutherans on equal terms. Only in France, among the countries which still were united with the Roman Church, was their advance checked, owing to political distrust of their Spanish origin, together with the hostility of the Sorbonne and the bishop of Paris.
The German college, for the children of poor nobles, was founded in 1552; and in the same year Ignatius firmly settled the discipline of the Society by putting down, with promptness and severity, some attempts at independent action on the part of Rodriguez at Coimbra - this being the occasion of the famous letter on obedience; while 1553 saw the despatch of a mission to Abyssinia with one of the fathers as patriarch, and the first rift within the lute when the pope thought that the Spanish Jesuits were taking part with the emperor against the Holy See.
Claude Acquaviva, the fifth general, held office from 1581 to 1615, a time almost coinciding with the high tide of the successful reaction, chiefly due to the Jesuits.
In France the Jesuits joined, if they did not originate, the league against Henry of Navarre.
The Jesuits were banished from France in 1594, but were allowed to return by Henry IV.
It would have been well had Acquaviva enforced this decree; but Parsons was allowed to keep on with his work, and other Jesuits in France for many years after directed, to the loss of religion, affairs of state.
That the Jesuits were the instigators of the plot there is no evidence, but they were in close touch with the conspirators, of whose designs Garnet had a general knowledge.
Gregory XIV., by the bull Ecclesiae Christi (July 28, 1591), again confirmed the Society, and granted that Jesuits might, for true cause, be expelled from the body without any form of trial or even documentary procedure, besides denouncing excommunications against every one, save the pope or his legates, who directly or indirectly infringed the constitutions of the Society or attempted to bring about any change therein.
The Japanese mission had vanished in blood in 1651; and though many Jesuits died with their converts bravely as martyrs for the faith, yet it is impossible to acquit them of a large share in the causes of that overthrow.
The general's supremacy received a shock when the eleventh general congregation appointed Oliva as vicar, with the right of succession and powers that practically superseded those of the general Goswin Nickel, whose infirmities, it is said, did not permit him to govern with the necessary application and vigour; and an attempt was made to depose Tirso Gonzalez, the thirteenth general, whose views on probabilism diverged from those favoured by the rest of the Jesuits.
The Jesuits abandoned the system of free education which had won them so much influence and honour; by attaching themselves exclusively to the interests of courts, they lost favour with the middle and lower classes; and above all, their monopoly of power and patronage in France, with the fatal use they had made of it, drew down the bitterest hostility upon them.
The inhabitants of the "reductions," whom the Jesuits had trained in the use of European arms and discipline, naturally rose in defence of their homes, and attacked the troops and authorities.
Their previous docility and their entire submission to the Jesuits left no possible doubt as to the source of the rebellion, and gave the enemies of the Jesuits a handle against them that was not forgotten.
The pope, who knew the situation, committed a visitation of the Society to Cardinal Saldanha, an intimate friend of Pombal, who issued a severe decree against the Jesuits and ordered the confiscation of all their merchandise.
But at this juncture Benedict XIV., the most learned and able pope of the period, was succeeded by a pope strongly in favour of the Jesuits, Clement XIII.
The duke of Aveiro and other high personages were tried and executed for conspiracy; while some of the Jesuits, who had undoubtedly been in communication with them, were charged, on doubtful evidence, with complicity in the attempted assassination.
Losing his cause, he appealed to the parlement of Paris, and it, to decide the issue raised by Ricci, required the constitutions of the Jesuits to be produced in evidence, and affirmed the judgment of the courts below.
Ricci replied with the historical answer, Sint ut sunt, aut non sint; and after some further delay, during which much interest was exerted in their favour, the Jesuits were suppressed by an edict in November 1764, but suffered to remain on the footing of secular priests, a grace withdrawn in 1767, when they were expelled from the kingdom.
The Bourbon sovereigns threatened to make war on the pope in return (France, indeed, seizing on the county of Avignon), and a joint note demanding a retractation, and the abolition of the Jesuits, was presented by the French ambassador at Rome on the 10th of December 1768 in the name of France, Spain and the two Sicilies.
It then briefly sketches the objects and history of the Jesuits themselves.
It advanced steadily under Gregory XVI., and, though it was at first shunned by Pius IX., it secured his entire confidence after his return from Gaeta in 1849, and obtained from him a special breve erecting the staff of its literary journal, the Civiltd Cattolica, into a perpetual college under the general of the Jesuits, for the purpose of teaching and propagating the faith in its pages.
The numbers of the Society are not accurately known, but are estimated at about 20,000, in all parts of the world; and of these the English, Irish and American Jesuits are under 3000.
The Jesuits established themselves in 1572, devoting themselves actively to the education both of whites and of natives, and were a powerful factor in the exploring and civilizing of the northern districts.
Some years later the bishop of Puebla, Juan de Palafox y Mendoza, transferred many native congregations from the friars to secular priests, and subsequently, in 1647, came into conflict with the Jesuits, whom he excommunicated, but who eventually triumphed with the aid of the Dominicans and the archbishop. The power of the church may be judged from the petition of the Ayuntamiento of Mexico to Philip IV.
But the great event of the 18th century was the expulsion of the Jesuits from Mexico, as from the other Spanish dominions, in 1767, under orders from Charles III.
His last novel, Despotism, or the Fall of the Jesuits, appeared in 1811, but none of his romances was, popular.
In the same county, on or near the site of the present city of Niles (pop. 1910, 5156), French Jesuits established an Indian mission in 1690, and the French government in 1697 erected Fort St Joseph, which was captured from the English by the Indians in 1763, and in 1781 was seized by a Spanish party from St Louis.
Kepler immediately fled to the Hungarian frontier, but, by the favour of the Jesuits, was recalled and reinstated in his post.
The archbishop of Guatemala and the Jesuits were driven into exile as intriguers in the interests of the Clericals.
Rufino Barrios (1835-1885), elected in 1873, governed the country after the manner of a dictator; he expelled the Jesuits, confiscated their property and disestablished and disendowed the church.
The Jesuits have attracted chief attention, not merely on account of their superior zeal and numbers, but also because of the tragic fate of some of their missionaries in Canada.
He was educated by the Jesuits at Rome till his seventeenth year, when he accompanied Jerome Colonna as chamberlain to the university of Alcala in Spain.
In spite of his youth he was made prefect of studies in the English college of the Jesuits at Rome, and was ordained priest in 1584..
The emigres were awarded a milliard as compensation for their confiscated lands; and Gallicans and Liberals alike were offended by measures which threw increased power into the hands of the Jesuits and Ultramontanes.
At an early age his father sent him to the Jesuits' college at Amiens, where he greatly distinguished himself.
In 1678, in a Discourse of Idolatry, he had endeavoured to fasten the practices of heathenish idolatry on the Church of Rome, and in a sermon which he published in 1681 on Discretion in Giving Alms was attacked by Andrew Pulton, head of the Jesuits in the Savoy.
Returning to Europe on the expulsion of the Jesuits from South America, he settled at Vienna, obtained the friendship of Maria Theresa, survived the extinction of his order, composed the history of his mission, and died on the 17th of July 1791.
He joined the Jesuits in 1551, and in 1571 was sent as a missionary to Peru; he acted as provincial of his order from 1576 to 1581, was appointed theological adviser to the council of Lima in 1582, and in 1583 published a catechism in Quichua and Aymara - the first book printed in Peru.
Returning to Spain in 1587, and placing himself at the head of the opposition to Acquaviva, Acosta was imprisoned in 1592-1593; on his submission in 1594 he became superior of the Jesuits at Valladolid, and in 1598 rector of the Jesuit college at Salamanca, where he died on the 15th of February 1600.
In this period, the newly created religious orders were the right arm of the papacy, especially the Jesuits and the Capuchins.
In Rome he founded the splendid College of the Jesuits; and he patronized the Collegium Germanicum of St Ignatius; while, at the same time, he found means for the endowment of English and Irish colleges.
While the majority of Protestant leaders left the conversion of the heathen to some remote and inscrutable interposition of Providence, the Jesuits, Franciscans, Dominicans and kindred orders were busily engaged in making Roman Catholics of the nations brought by Oriental commerce or American colonial enterprise into contact with Spain, Portugal and France.
From slow beginnings these factors kept gaining momentum until they compassed the overthrow of the mighty order of the Jesuits, and culminated in the revolutionary spoliation of the Church.
In France agitation was directed chiefly against the Jesuits, active in the movement to displace ancient local catechisms and liturgies by the Roman texts, to enroll the laity in Roman confraternities, and to induce the bishops to visit Rome more frequently.
In November of that year he fled in disguise from his capital to Gaeta, in the kingdom of Naples, and when French arms had made feasible his restoration to Rome in April 1850 he returned in a temper of stubborn resistance to all reform; henceforth he was no longer open to the influence of men of the type of Rossi or Rosmini, but took the inspiration of his policy from Cardinal Antonelli and the Jesuits.
This amazing reversal of policy was procured by the intrigues of Catholic diplomatists and German French Jesuits, conveyed to Paris by Prince de la Tour d'Auvergne.
This did not by any means represent all the demands of the Jesuits, and it was couched in terms which appeared not unacceptable to the majority of the Catholics.
Whilst not openly repelling the tendencies of the Jesuits, Leo yet showed himself well disposed towards, and even amenable to, views of a diametri- The Papacy cally opposite kind; and as soon as the Vatican and the threw itself into the arms of France, and bade fare Modern well to the idea of a national Italy, the policy of Democracy.
The second phase in Leo's policy could only be accomplished with the aid of the Jesuits, or rather, it required the submission of the ecclesiastical hierarchy to the mandates of the Society of Jesus.
He appears to have been well educated; he was certainly clever, and after coming to London in 1670 he became acquainted with some Jesuits and was occasionally employed by them.
In 1716 two Jesuits, P. Ipolito Desideri, of Pistoia, and P. Freyre, a Portuguese, reached Lhasa by way of Kashmir, Ladak, and the enormous journey from Ladak by the holy lakes and the valley of the Tsangpo.
His departure was due to controversies between the Jesuits and Capuchins at Rome, which caused an order to be issued for his retirement from Tibet.
He published, besides several theological works, A Translation from the Italian of the Life of Donna Olympia Maladichini, who governed the Church during the time of Pope Innocent X., which was from the year 1644 to 1655 (1667), and A Translation from the French of the Jesuits' Intrigues (1669).
He received his education in France at the hands of the Jesuits,.
He was educated by the Jesuits, entered the order at the age of eighteen, and became superior at Paris.
The successor of Xavier, Antonio Criminalis, was regarded by the Jesuits as the first martyr of their society (1562).
There was little of the zeal which had carried the Franciscans all over Asia in the 13th century, and the Jesuits to South America, India and Japan in the 16th.
Such are the Franciscans, Dominicans, Jesuits, Lazarists, Augustinians, Marists, &c. Besides the above orders of priests, an immense number of religious societies of women are engaged in works of education and charity throughout the whole of the foreign mission field.
The Jesuits, Recollets and Augustinians also worked in Mariana, Pelews and Caroline Islands, though the two latter were soon abandoned.
The Jesuits came in the r6th century, but were more successful quantitatively than qualitatively; in the 18th century the Danish coast mission on the coast of Tranquebar made the first Protestant advance, Bartholomaus, Ziegenbalg (1683-1719), Plutschau and Christian Friedrich Schwartz (1726-1798) being its great names.
The next attempt was that of the French Jesuits, following on the visit and death of Xavier.
Friction between Jesuits and Dominicans led to the proscription of Christianity by the emperor in 1724,.
The Franciscans, Dominicans, Lazarists and Jesuits are engaged in all these works.
About 1600 the Franciscans and French Jesuits began their work in North America and.
Besides the Oblates many are Jesuits from French Canada.
The reformed doctrines had made considerable progress in the duchy when the duke obtained from the pope extensive rights over the bishoprics and monasteries, and took measures to repress the reformers, many of whom were banished; while the Jesuits, whom he invited into the duchy in 1541, made the university of Ingolstadt their headquarters for Germany.
As education passed by degrees into the hands of the Jesuits the progress of Protestantism was effectually arrested in Bavaria.
The succeeding duke was Albert's son, William V (called the Pious), who was educated by the Jesuits and was keenly attached to their tenets.
The Jesuits now gained the upper hand; one by one the liberal provisions of the constitution were modified or annulled; the Protestants were harried and oppressed; and a rigorous censorship forbade any free discussion of internal politics.
The federal law expelling the Jesuits was proclaimed in Bavaria on the 6th of September 1871 and was extended to the Redemptorists in 1873.
It was for a long time the seat of Spanish rule in this region, and later the scene of a bitter struggle between the church authorities and Jesuits.
This fell to the lot of the second band of Jesuits, Cataldino, Mazeta and Lorenzana, who began work in 1605.
Though they succeeded in establishing a kind of imperium in imperio, and were allowed to drill the natives to the use of arms, the Jesuits never controlled the government of Paraguay; indeed they had nearly as often to defend themselves from the hostility of the governor and bishop at Asuncion as from the invasions of the Paulistas or Portuguese settlers of Sao Paulo.
The Jesuits resisted the transference, and it was only after several engagements that they were defeated by the combined forces of Spain and Portugal.
The treaty was revoked by Spain in 1761, but the missions never recovered their prosperity, and the Jesuits were finally expelled in 1769.
The Jesuits were suppressed by Pope Clement XIV.
The Philippine government also maintains here a bureau of science which publishes the monthly Philippine Journal of Science, and co-operates with the Jesuits in maintaining, in Ermita, the Manila observatory (meteorological, seismological and astronomical), which is one of the best equipped institutions of the kind in the East.
Other educa tional institutions are the (Dominican) San Jose medical and pharmaceutical college, San Juan de Letran (Dominican), which is a primary and secondary school, the ateneo municipal, a corresponding secondary and primary school under the charge of the Jesuits, and the college of St Isabel, a girls' school.
The university, founded in 1389 by the sole efforts of the citizens, soon gained a great reputation; in the 15th century its students numbered much more than a thousand, and its influence extended to Scotland and the Scandinavian kingdoms. Its decline began, however, from the moment when the Catholic sentiment of the city closed it to the influence of the Reformers; the number of its students sank to vanishing point, and though, under the influence of the Jesuits, it subsequently revived, it never recovered its old importance.
The Jesuits were much mortified by this Jansenist miracle, which, as it was officially recognized, they could not openly deny.
The Jesuits of St Omer, after emigrating to Bruges and Liege, were disorganized by the revolutionary troubles at the close of the 18th century, and a large body came to England, when Thomas Weld, in 1795, conferred his property of Stonyhurst upon them.
Ferdinand sought earnestly to reform the church from within, and before he died in July 1564 the CounterRef ormation, fortified by, the entrance of the Jesuits into Germany and by the issue of the decrees of the council of Trent, had begun.
This was due The mainly to the persistent zeal of the Jesuits.
They made it the occasion for an attack on the Jesuits; even in 1869 there had been almost a riot in Berlin when a chapel belonging to a religious order was opened thee.
During 1870 and 1871 meetings were held by the Gustavus Adolphus Verein, and a great Protestant conference was called, at which resolutions were passed demanding the expulsion of the Jesuits and condemning the Vatican decrees.
The hope that this might bring about some agreement was frustrated by the sudden death of the cardinal, and his successor was more under the influence of the Jesuits and the more extreme party.
As permanent results of the conflict there remain only the alteration in the Prussian constitution and the expulsion of the Jesuits; the Centre continued to demand the repeal of this, and to make it the price of their support of government measures; in 1897 the, Bundesrat permitted the return of the Redemptorists, an allied order.
In 1615 a mission among these Indians was founded by the Recollet friars, and carried on with great success and devotion by the Jesuits, but in1648-1650the Huron nation was almost utterly destroyed by an invasion of their hereditary foes, the Iroquois.
He was educated by the Jesuits, and at the age of fifteen took the habit of that order.
The Jesuits Sixtus regarded with disfavour and suspicion.
He was a pupil of the Jesuits at the college of Clermont, then studied law at Bourges.
In the age succeeding the Reformation there was no disposition on the part of the English Church to emulate the wonderful activity of the Jesuits.
The devotion has been particularly fostered by the Jesuits, St Ignatius Loyola having expressly ordered its use.
Diego Noboa, elected in 1850 after a period of great confusion, recalled the Jesuits, produced a rupture with New Granada by receiving conservative refugees, and thus brought about his own deposition and exile.
After such preliminary explorations, the French made permanent settlements, which had their origin in the missions of the Jesuits and the bartering posts of the French traders.
In 1607 he was attached to the archbishop of Esztergom, and in the following year attracted attention by his denunciation, in the Diet, of the 8th point of the peace of Vienna, which prohibited the Jesuits from acquiring landed property in Hungary.
Although he displayed a loyal attachment to the Catholic Church, especially owing to his artistic sympathies, he none the less opposed all its more exaggerated pretensions, especially as represented by the Jesuits, whom he condemned as un-German.
The fate of the Jesuits hung in the balance; and the Bourbon princes were determined to have a pope subservient to their hostile designs.
At length, on the 19th of May 1769, Ganganelli was chosen, not as a declared enemy of the Jesuits, but as being least objectionable to each of the contending factions.
But the powers were bent upon the destruction of the Jesuits, and they had the pope at their mercy.
His works, The Five Wounds of the Holy Church and The Constitution of Social Justice, aroused great opposition, especially among the Jesuits, and in 1849 they were placed upon the Index.
Lucaris was several times temporarily deposed and banished at the instigation of his orthodox opponents and of the Jesuits, who were his bitterest enemies.
The present one, originally the church of the Jesuits, was erected in 1656-1724.
The former monastery of the Jesuits, now the Jesuit church of Belen (1704), at the corner of Luz and Compostela Streets, is one of the most elegant and richly ornamented in Cuba.
After these come the Roman Catholics, who trace their origin to the teaching of St Francis Xavier and the Madura Jesuits.
Just as two centuries earlier the Jesuits at Madura, in the extreme south, composed works in Tamil, which are still acknowledged as classical by native authors, so did the Baptist mission at Serampur, near Calcutta, first raise Bengali to the rank of a literary dialect.
He had been educated at Winchester, and became rector of the Jesuits' College in Goa.
In 1534 a cathedral was founded at Bonza Congo (renamed Sao Salvador), and in 1560 the Jesuits arrived with Paulo Diaz de Novaes.
In 1753 he was appointed to the chair of humanity at Pignerol, but he was soon compelled by the influence of the Jesuits to retire from it.
In 1601 the Jesuits had opened a college in Manila for the education of Spanish youth.
While the authority of Augustine received lip-homage, the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church became more Pelagian, and in the Tridentine decrees and still more in the ethics of the Jesuits, in spite of the opposition of Jansenism, Pelagianism at last triumphed.
It is difficult to connect this historical event with the legend of St John of Nepomuk, who was canonized by the church of Rome in 1729, mainly by the influence of the Jesuits, who hoped that this new cult would obliterate the memory of Hus.
The cemetery of Pere-la-Chaise in Paris stands on property acquired by the Jesuits in 1826, and not, as is often stated, on property personally granted to him.
He had by this time aroused against him the full fury of the Jesuits, and at their instigation a royal provost was sent to Corbie to arrest him.
The boy was early sent to the college of the Jesuits at Limoges, and soon achieved distinction.
Jesuit missionaries entered Lower California as early as 1697, maintaining themselves there until Charles III.'s expulsion in 1767 of all Jesuits from his dominions; but not until Russian explorations in Alaska from 1745-1765 did the Spanish government show interest in Upper California.
He joined the Jesuits in 1826, and for some time was devoted to educational work and the care of the poor and prisoners.
He was educated first at the college of the Oratory in Marseilles, and afterwards at that of the Jesuits in the same city.
For eight years he canvassed for signatures to this address, but in spite of considerable support the strenuous opposition of the Jesuits and Dominicans deterred the clergy and nearly wrecked the scheme.
He accordingly returned to India in 1640, and was elected rector, and afterwards provincial, of the Jesuits at Goa.
By far the most powerful of the religious orders are the Jesuits.
Obedience accordingly became the typical virtue of Ignatius's society (see Jesuits).
On the other hand, these " Escobarine morals " by no means passed unchallenged; ever since the foundation of the society the aims and methods of the Jesuits had called forth lively opposition in many parts of Catholic Europe, and not least in Loyola's native land of Spain.
The whole system of the Jesuits rested on a basis of free-will.
Thus the Jesuits saw themselves menaced by a grave revolt.
Led by his Jesuits, Louis wrung from the unwilling Clement XI.
This feeling was intensified by the conviction that every blow struck against the bull was a blow against the Jesuits, its authors.
Nor were the Jesuits in much better odour among other nations.
He refused; but his successor, Clement XIV., was more pliable, and in 1773 the Jesuits ceased to be.
It found what it asked for, when the Jesuits, whom Pius VII.
The Jesuits were banished from the German Empire, and most of the other orders from Prussia.
A secretary of state, being a Protestant, was empowered to grant licences to Jesuits, &c., to come into the United Kingdom and remain there for a period not exceeding six months.
It was not, however, until the 18th of July 1679 that the slaughter of Jesuits and other Roman Catholics upon Oates's testimony and that of his accomplices was to some extent checked.
It is the seat of an archbishop and possesses an interesting cathedral, built in the 14th century and the richly decorated church of St Ignatius, built in the 17th century by the Jesuits.
A greater dramatist was Johannes Messenius (1579-1636), who was the son of a miller near Vadstena and had been carefully educated abroad by the Jesuits.
The Araucanians, however, continued to preserve their independence; they jealously resented the introduction of Spanish influence, and the missionary efforts of the Jesuits met with little success.
At the same time the monks and Jesuits did useful work in teaching industrial and agricultural arts, and in giving the people a certain degree of education; but the influence of the Church was used to bolster up the traditional narrow colonial system, and the constant quarrels between the clergy and the secular powers often threw the country into confusion.
The first to enter the field were the Jesuits and Dominicans, who laboured on the south-east coast and among the subjects of the monomotapa (see Portuguese East Africa).
Already in 1662 the king had sent Sir Richard Bellings to Rome to arrange the terms of England's conversion, and now in 1668 he was in correspondence with Oliva, the general of the Jesuits in Rome, through James de la Cloche, the eldest of his natural sons, of whom he had become the father when scarcely sixteen during his residence at Jersey.
He was in the fullness of his powers, his studies had fed his natural aversion to the principles of authority and ecclesiasticism, and at a moment when the revived activity of the Jesuits caused some real and more pretended alarm he was appointed to the chair of history at the College de France.
The Jesuits, who aspired to be the source of all scholarship and criticism, perceived that the writings and authority of Scaliger were the most formidable barrier to their claims. It was the day of conversions.
In 1607 Gaspar Scioppius, then in the service of the Jesuits, whom he afterwards so bitterly libelled, published his Scaliger hypobolimaeus (" The Supposititious Scaliger"), a quarto volume of more than four hundred pages, written with consummate ability, in an admirable and incisive style, with the entire disregard for truth which Scioppius always displayed, and with all the power of his accomplished sarcasm.
But whether complete or not, the Confutatio had no success; the attack of the Jesuits was successful, far more so than they could possibly have hoped.
To suppress them, and to gain a better market for his own ideas, he was even ready to strike up an alliance with the Jesuits, and force on a reluctant France the-doctrine of papal' infallibility.
Quite as serious, in their effects upon national life, were the severe censorship to which all printed matter was liable before publication and the control of education by the Jesuits.
But the discipline of the university needed reform, and the task was entrusted to the Jesuits.
The king was a strong-willed and weak-minded ascetic, who entrusted his empire to the Jesuits, refused to marry, although the dynasty was threatened with extinction, and Disaster spent years in preparing for a crusade against the Al Kasr. Moors.
Even the Jesuits, whose influence in Portugal had steadily increased since 1555, were now prepared to act in the interests of Cardinal Richelieu, and therefore against Philip IV.
Various charges were brought against the Society by Pombal, and in September 1759, after five years of heated controversy (see JEsuITs), he published a decree of expulsion against all its members in the Portuguese dominions.
Pombal appointed a special tribunal to judge the case; many of the accused, including those already mentioned, were found guilty and executed; and an attempt was made to implicate the Jesuits.
The expulsion of the Jesuits involved Portugal in a dispute with Pope Clement XIII.; in June 1760 the papal nuncio was ordered to leave Lisbon, and diplomatic relations with the Vatican were only resumed after the condemnation of the Jesuits by Clement XIV., in July 1773.
His victory over the Jesuits left Pombal free to develop his plans fox reform.
Funds for these reforms were to a great extent provided out of the sequestrated property of the Jesuits; Pombal also effected great economies in internal administration.
Tithes, many hereditary privileges and all monopolies were abolished; every convent was closed and its property nationalized; the Jesuits, who had returned after the death of Pombal, were again expelled; the charter of 1826 was restored.
The way was thus clear for the Jesuits, who, with their Latin tragi-comedies or dramatized allegories written to commemorate saints or for scholastic festivals, succeeded for a time in supplanting both the popular pieces of the old school and the plays modelled on the masterpieces of Greece and Rome.
In 1536 the Inquisition began its work, while between 1552 and 1555 the control of higher education passed into the hands of the Jesuits.
Following the Inquisition and the Jesuits came two other obstacles to the cultivation of letters, the censorship of books and the Indexes, and, as if these plagues were not enough, the Spanish domination followed.
In the 17th century the religious orders and especially the Jesuits absorbed even more of the activities and counted for more in the public affairs of Portugal than in the preceding age.
He joined the Jesuits in 1719, was banished from Spain with his brethren in 1767, and settled at Bologna, where he died on the 2nd of November 1781.
The buildings of the church and college (St Ignatius) of the Jesuits cover more than a city block; those of the Dominicans are equally extensive, and are architecturally imposing.
The Indian population (920,860) is largely composed of the so-called civilized tribes of the Andes, which once formed part of the nationality ruled by the Incas, and of those of the Mojos and Chiquitos regions, which were organized into industrial communities by the Jesuits in the 17th century.
The Mojos and Chiquitos tribes, also, have been less prosperous since the expulsion of the Jesuits, but they have remained together in organized communities, and have followed the industries and preserved the religion taught them as well as circumstances permitted.
Contrary to venerable traditions there is no evidence that mining was practised beyond the most inconsiderable extent by aborigines, Spanish conquistadores, or Jesuits.
Following 1680 came a great Indian revolt in New Mexico and Arizona, and thereafter the Moquis remained independent of Spanish and Christian domination, although visited fitfully by rival Jesuits and Franciscans.
The Inquisition never had any jurisdiction whatever over the Indians; compulsory labour by the Indians was never legalized except on the missions, and the law was little violated; they were never compelled to work mines; of mining by the Indians for precious metals there is no evidence; nor by the Jesuits (expelled in 1767, after which their missions and other properties were held by the Franciscans), except to a small extent about the presidio of Tubac, although they did some prospecting.
After a time, however, the colonists, attributing the shortage of slaves and the consequent diminution in their profits to the Jesuits, began actively to oppose Vieira, and they were joined by members of the secular clergy and the other Orders who were jealous of the monopoly enjoyed by the Company in the government of the Indians.
In 1741 he issued the bull Immensa pastorum principis, demanding more humane treatment for the Indians of Brazil and Paraguay, and in the bulls Ex quo singulari (1742) and Omnium sollicitudinum (1744) he rebuked the missionary methods of the Jesuits in accommodating their message to the heathen usages of the Chinese and of the natives of Malabar.
Ferdinand had only to deal with the nobles and knights, and he hoped that the influence of his court, and yet more that of the Jesuits, whom he established in Bohemia about this time, would gradually render them amenable to the royal will.
Though he published new decrees against the Bohemian Brethren, he generally refused to sanction any measures against the Protestants, in spite of the advice of the Jesuits, who were gradually obtaining great influence in Bohemia.
They further demanded that the Protestants - as it now became customary to call jointly the Utraquists, Lutherans and Bohemian Brethren - and the Roman Catholics should have an equal right to hold all the offices of state, and that the power of the Jesuits to acquire land should be limited.
Unfortunately in consequence of the systematic destruction of all Bohemian writings which took place through the agency of the Jesuits, after the battle of the White Hill (1620), a large part of this controversial literature has perished.
Two Jesuits, Raymbault and Jogues, visited the site of Sault Sainte Marie as early as 1641 for the conversion of the Chippewas; in 1668 Marquette founded there the first permanent settlement within the state; three years later he had founded a mission among the Hurons at Michilimackinac; La Salle built a fort at the mouth of the Saint Joseph in 1679; and in 1701 Cadillac founded Detroit as an important point for the French control of the fur trade.
The silver mines near La Paz were worked by the Jesuits as early as 1700.
His scheme of reform was opposed chiefly by the intrigues of the Jesuits, who in the end brought about his death.
His father was bailli of the Cotentin, and Saint-Pierre was educated by the Jesuits.
In the Church of Rome the Dominicans favoured Augustinianism, the Jesuits Semi-Pelagianism; the work of Molina on the agreement of free-will with the gifts of grace provoked a controversy, which the pope silenced without deciding; but which broke out again a generation later when Jansen tried to revive the decaying Augustinianism.
The brother of Ferdinand, Don Carlos, the first pretender, fought seven years, during the minority of Isabella, to dispute her title, and her rights were only maintained through the gallant support of the army, the Cortes and the Liberals and Progressists, who at the same time established constitutional and parliamentary government, dissolved the religious orders, confiscated the property of the orders and of the Jesuits, disestablished the Church property, and attempted to restore order in finances.
In the old town, which contains the government-house and Jesuits' College, the streets are not so regularly and well built as in the new.
Unfortunately, about this time the Jesuits, who thus thrived on political intrigue, and who were deeply implicated in treasonable correspondence with Spain, had obtained a complete ascendancy over the secular priests, who were for obeying the civil government as far as possible and keeping free from politics.
But James's expectations that the pope would prevent dangerous and seditious persons from entering the country were unfulfilled and the numbers of the Jesuits and the Roman Catholics greatly increased.
In addition a new, increased and long-enduring hostility was aroused in the country against the adherents of the old faith, not unnatural in the circumstances, but unjust and undiscriminating, because while some of the Jesuits were no doubt implicated, the secular priests and Roman Catholic laity as a whole had taken no part in the conspiracy.
Jean Mabillon's treatise, De re diplomatica (1 681), was due to the criticisms of that group of Belgian Jesuits whose Acta Sanctorum quotquot toto orbe coluntur (1643, &c., see Bollandists) was destined to grow into the greatest repository of legend and biography the world has seen.
Mold county gaol, bought in 1880 by Jesuits expelled from France, was by them named St Germanus's House.
The controversy was renewed in 1503 and again in 1578; but the general support of the Jesuits and the staunch fidelity of the Majorcans saved Lull from condemnation.
The Jesuits who had accompanied or followed the da Gama expedition into Abyssinia, and fixed their headquarters at Fremona (near Adowa), were oppressed and neglected, but not actually expelled.
Charles was a thorough despot of the benevolent order, and had been deeply offended by the real or suspected share of the Jesuits in the riot of 1766.
His quarrel with the Jesuits, and the recollection of some disputes with the pope he had had when king of Naples, turned him towards a general policy of restriction of the overgrown power of the church.
Although his father was a Protestant, St Andre was brought up by the Jesuits at Marseilles and took orders.
Originally erected in 1557 for the use of the Jesuits, the university buildings are regarded as the best work of Marco di Pino; the quadrangle, surrounded by a simple but effective peristyle, contains statues of Pietro della Vigna (Frederick's chancellor), Thomas Aquinas and Giordano Bruno.
In 1611 Donne wrote a curious and bitter prose squib against the Jesuits, entitled Ignatius his Conclave.
In the dispute between the Jesuits and the secular clergy known as the " Wisbech Stirs " (1595-1596) he zealously supported Weston in his resistance to any compromise with the civil government.
His antagonism to the secular clergy was also shown later, when in 1603 he, with other Jesuits, was the means of betraying to the government the " Bye Plot," contrived by William Watson, a secular priest.
The result was that he gained many converts, while the number of Jesuits in England increased during his tenure of office from three to forty.
The rules of evidence which now govern the procedure in criminal cases did not then exist, and Garnet's trial, like many others, was influenced by the political situation, the case against him being supported by general political accusations against the Jesuits as a body, and with evidence of their complicity in former plots against the government.
The northern districts were divided among the Franciscans and Jesuits, who built a number of churches, some of which still survive.
Both statue and chalice were removed by the Jesuits in 1623.
This building was formerly a college of the Jesuits, who established themselves in Prague in 1556 and erected these extensive buildings at various periods between 1578 and 1715.
After being educated by the Jesuits of Rouen, Corneille at the age of eighteen was entered as avocat, and in 1624 took the oaths, as we are told, four years before the regular time, a dispensation having been procured.
His minority ended in 1767, and his first act was the expulsion of the Jesuits.
During his latter years indeed he showed more intolerance towards the Protestants, and favoured the teaching of the Jesuits in his dominions.
He spent, however, the last twenty-five years of his life in regretting the frivolity which enabled him to produce this most charming of poems. He was brought up by the Jesuits of Amiens.
In 1610 a Catholic reaction began, led by Jesuits.
After several changes of ownership, Komotau came in 1588 to Popel of Lobkovic, who established the Jesuits here, which led to trouble between the Protestant burghers and the over-lord.
His position enabled him to procure from the emperor permission for the Jesuits to build churches and to preach throughout the country.
He was invited by the Royal Society of London to undertake an expedition to California to observe the transit of Venus in 1769; but this was prevented by the recent decree of the Spanish government for the expulsion of the Jesuits from its dominions.
To the Jesuits, the foremost champions in this struggle, it seemed indis pensable that the confessional should be made attrac tive; for this purpose ecclesiastico-moral law must be somehow " accommodated " to worldly needs; and the theory of " Probabilism " supplied a plausible method for effecting this accommodation.
Catholic France was a school for Englishmen in many subjects, but not in morality; the great struggle between Jansenists and Jesuits had a very remote interest for them.
The decipherment and interpretation by the learned Jesuits, Fathers Epping and Strassmeier, of a number of clay tablets preserved in the British Museum, have supplied detailed knowledge of the methods practised in Mesopotamia in the 2nd century B.C. 5 They show no trace of Greek influence, and were doubtless the improved outcome of an unbroken tradition.
Teresa herself was very humble, and thought their explanation might be true; she took her case to her confessor and to the provincial-general of the Jesuits, who put her under a course of discipline.
In 1883 the direction of the college was entrusted to the Jesuits.
The Jesuits, placed by Paul III.
In all wild parts divine service was neglected, and wandering friars or subtle Jesuits, supported by every patriotic or religious feeling of the people, kept Ireland faithful to Rome.
He became professor of mathematics in the Jesuits' college at Cologne in 1817 and in the polytechnic school of Nuremberg in 1833, and in 1852 professor of experimental physics in the university of Munich, where he died on the 7th of July 1854.
The Jesuits could not understand how spherical bodies like sun and moon could be mistaken for human beings.
The Red Men accounted to the Jesuits for the spherical forms of sun and moon by saying that their appearance was caused by their bended bows.
This must be remembered in considering nearly all his writings, and also in estimating his position, both in relation to the ruling clerical party - the Jesuits - and also to the politics of the court of Piedmont after the accession of Charles Albert in 1831.
Del primato morale e civile degli Italiani and the Prolegomeni to the same, and soon afterwards his triumphant exposure of the Jesuits, Il Gesuita moderno, no doubt hastened - the transfer of rule from clerical to civil hands.
The fame of the presents which they carried had, however, reached the court, and the Jesuits were summoned north again, and on the 24th of January 1601 they entered the capital.
When the missionaries of other Roman Catholic orders made their way into China, twenty years later, they found great fault with the manner in which certain Chinese practices had been dealt with by the Jesuits, a matter in which Ricci's action and policy had given the tone to the mission in China - though in fact that tone was rather inherent in the Jesuit system than the outcome of individual character, for controversies of an exactly parallel nature arose two generations later in southern India, between the Jesuits and Capuchins, regarding what were called "Malabar rites."
The chief points were (I) the lawfulness and expediency of certain terms employed by the Jesuits in naming God Almighty, such as Tien, " Heaven," and Shang-ti, " Supreme Ruler" or "Emperor," instead of Tien-Chu, " Lord of Heaven," and in particular the erection of inscribed tablets in the churches, on which these terms were made use of; 2 (2) in respect to the ceremonial offerings made in honour of Confucius, and of personal ancestors, which Ricci had recognized as merely "civil" observances; (3) the erection of tablets in honour of ancestors in private houses; and (4), more generally,- sanction and favour accorded to ancient Chinese sacred books and philosophical doctrine, as not really trespassing;on Christian faith.
The rupture seemed irremediable when the assembly of Poissy recognized the order of the Jesuits, which the French church had held in suspicion since its foundation.
Catholic propaganda, revived by the monks and the Jesuits, and backed by the armed confraternities and by Catherines favorite son, the duke of Anjou, now entrusted with a prominent part by the cardinal of Lorraine; Catherines complicity in the duke of Alvas terrible persecution in the Netherlands; and her attempt to capture Coligny and Cond at Noyers all combined to cause a fresh outbreak of hostilities in the west.