A former Jesuit monastery is now used for a grammar school and seminary.
He was admitted a Jesuit in 1612, and afterwards sent on mission work to Chile and Peru, where he became rector of the college of Cuenca.
But the most celebrated writer of this period was the Jesuit Francis Faludi, the translator, through the Italian, of William Darrell's works.
It is the seat of a Greek bishop, an Armenian archbishop and a Roman Catholic bishop, and there is a Jesuit school.
The Jesuit system of education, set forth in the Ratio studiorum, owes nothing to him.
As a Jesuit father, Courtois painted many works in churches and monasteries of the society.
At the age of fourteen he entered the Jesuit college of St Anna, on the dissolution of which (1774) he joined a similar college of the order of St Barnabas.
JUAN EUSEBIO NIEREMBERG (1595-1658), Spanish Jesuit and mystic, was born at Madrid in, 1595, joined the Society of Jesus in 1614, and subsequently became lecturer on Scripture at the Jesuit seminary in Madrid, where he died on the 7th of April 1658.
It excited the suspicion of the Church, and a Jesuit, by name Baltus, published a ponderous refutation of it; but the peace-loving disposition of its author impelled him to leave his opponent unanswered.
But be this as it may, he had no sooner adopted his new creed than he resolved to profess it; " a momentary glow of enthusiasm " had raised him above all temporal considerations, and accordingly, on June 8, 1753, he records that having " privately abjured the heresies" of his childhood before a Catholic priest of the name of Baker, a Jesuit, in London, he announced the same to his father in an elaborate controversial epistle which his spiritual adviser much approved, and which he himself afterwards described to Lord Sheffield as having been " written with all the pomp, the dignity, and self-satisfaction of a martyr."
And as it always happens in contests of cunning that a stupid person gets the better of cleverer ones, Helene--having realized that the main object of all these words and all this trouble was, after converting her to Catholicism, to obtain money from her for Jesuit institutions (as to which she received indications)-before parting with her money insisted that the various operations necessary to free her from her husband should be performed.
Documentary materials on the greater " Louisiana " between the Gulf of Mexico and Canada will be found in the Jesuit Relations, edited by R.
Influenced by the Jesuit John Ramirez he entered the Society of Jesus in 1564, and after teaching philosophy at Segovia, taught theology at Valladolid, at Alcala, at Salamanca, and at Rome successively.
In theology, Suarez attached himself to the doctrine of Luis Molina, the celebrated Jesuit professor of Evora.
It has been pointed out that this accords well with the Jesuit policy of depreciating the royal while exalting the papal prerogative.
He was educated at the Jesuit college there, and was received into the order at the age of nineteen.
Voltaire described him as "the only Jesuit who has given a reasonable system of philosophy."
The legend of an indecent consecration at the Nag's Head tavern in Fleet Street seems first to have been printed by the Jesuit, Christopher Holywood, in 1604; and it has long been abandoned by reputable controversialists.
The Jesuit Masdeu stoutly denies that he had any real existence, and this heresy has not wanted followers even in Spain.
There are a college, church and schools belonging to the American mission, a native Protestant church and a Jesuit establishment.
The principal other buildings are the court house, government buildings (formerly a Jesuit monastery), episcopal palace, grammar school (once attended by Erasmus), a prison, hospitals, arsenal and barracks.
LOUIS BOURDALOUE (1632-1704), French Jesuit and preacher, was born at Bourges on the 10th of August 1632.
32), delineated the Chinese Empire in accordance with the map based on the surveys conducted during the reign of the emperor Kanghi, with the aid of Jesuit missionaries, and published in 1718; boldly refused to believe in the existence of an Antarctic continent covering half the southern hemisphere, and always brought a sound judgment to bear upon the materials which the ever-increasing number of travellers placed at his disposal.
Lord Berkeley of Stratton, who was the viceroy, showed him much kindness and allowed him to establish a Jesuit school in Dublin.
Educated by his father, a Calvinist minister, and at an academy at Puylaurens, he afterwards entered a Jesuit college at Toulouse, and became a Roman Catholic a month later (1669).
THOMAS FITZHERBERT (1552-1640), English Jesuit, was the eldest son and heir of William Fitzherbert of Swynnerton in Staffordshire, and grandson of Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, judge of the common pleas.
In 1691, however, they made the Jesuit missionaries welcome, and rapidly became civilized.
15th, 1900), the first of a series intended to correct and replace Renan's presentation of that great subject, was promptly censured by Cardinal Richard, archbishop of Paris; and though scholarly and zealous ecclesiastics, such as the Jesuit Pere Durand and Monseigneur Mignot, archbishop of Albi, defended the general method and several conclusions of the article, the aged cardinal never rested henceforward till he had secured a papal condemnation also.
The establishment of the Jesuit college had attracted settlers to its neighbourhood, and frequent marriages had taken place between the Indians of the district and the colonists.
The movement may be said to have begun about 1601, when the great Jesuit preacher and controversialist, Peter Pazmany, first devoted himself to the task of reconverting his countrymen.
The Jesuit programme in Hungary was the same as it had been in Poland a generation earlier, and may be summed up thus: convert the great families and all the rest will follow.
She employed the proceeds of the vast sums coming to her from the confiscation of the property of the suppressed Jesuit order in founding schools and colleges all over Hungary.
version of the Vulgate was published at Vienna by the Jesuit George Kaldi, 8 and another complete translation of the Scriptures, the so-called Komdromi Biblia (Komorn Bible) was made in 1685 by the Protestant George Csipkes, though it was not published till 1717 at Leiden, twenty-nine years after his death., On behalf of the Catholics the Jesuit Peter Pazman, eventually primate, Nicholas Eszterhazy, Sambas, Balasfi and others were the authors of various works of a polemical nature.
Caussin was sent into Brittany, and the judicious and learned Jesuit, Jacques Sirmond, who succeeded him, kept clear of politics.
A Jesuit convent, the theatre, schools and the palace of the dukes of Osuna, are modern.
To the Jesuit missionaries is due the introduction of an ingenious though very complicated system, which has caused remarkable progress to be made in the employment of phonetic characters.
The first Jesuit mission in Sonora, founded among the Mayos in 1613, seems to have been the first permanent settlement in the state, although Coronado passed through it and its coast had been visited by early navigators.
Near the end of the century Sonora and Sinaloa were divided into two districts, in 1767 the Jesuit missions were secularized, in 1779 the government of the province was definitely organized by Caballero de Croix, and in 1783 Arizpe became the provincial capital.
aike Burton he was once an officer in the Indian army, but for some time before his journey he had been connected with the Jesuit mission in Syria.
The invitation was declined, but in the 16th century the Syrian Christians sought the help of the Portuguese settlers against Mussulman oppression, only to find that before long they were subjected to the fiercer perils of Jesuit antagonism and the Inquisition.
John Bolland, the Jesuit who began the collection of the Ada sanctorum, was born here in 1596.
Clement also forbade the practice of the Jesuit missionaries in China of "accommodating" their teachings to pagan notions or customs, in order to win converts.
The church of Santa Maria Maggiore, built in 1627-1682, is a characteristic specimen of Jesuit architecture; the church of Sant' Antonio Nuovo, built in 1827-1849, is in the Greek style, as also the Greek Orthodox church, built in 1782, which is one of the handsomest Byzantine structures in the whole of Austria.
PARSONS (or PERSONS), Robert (1546-1610), English Jesuit and political agitator, son of a blacksmith, was born at Nether Stowey, Somerset, on the 24th of June 1546.
Soon after his resignation he went to London, and thence in June to Louvain, where he entered the Roman Catholic Church and spent some time in the company of Father William Good, a Jesuit.
In July 1575 he entered the Jesuit Society at Rome.
He joined the Company of Jesus on the 19th of December 1759, and became professor in the Jesuit seminaries at Ferrara and Ascoli.
Among the contributors in successive years were Canning, Scott (who reviewed himself), Robert Southey, 1 Archibald Bower (1686-1766) was educated at Douai, and became a Jesuit.
The Anni franciscanorum (1680) was edited by the Jesuit Stiller; and J.
The Journal historique et litteraire (1788-1790) was founded at Luxemburg by the Jesuit De Feller; having been suppressed there, it was transferred to Liege, and subsequently to Maestricht.
PEDRO PAEZ (1564-1622), Jesuit missionary to Abyssinia, was born at Olmedo in Old Castile in 1564.
Having entered the Society of Jesus in 1586, he was successively professor of philosophy at Douai and rector of the Jesuit College at Antwerp. He wrote a treatise on optics in six books (Antwerp, 1613), notable for containing the principles of stereographic projection.
He also acted for a time as chairman of the secret committee of the Commons, and drew up the report on the examination of the Jesuit Coleman, secretary to the duchess of York.
The church of St Paul (1594-1602), the seat of the Jesuit college in the 17th century, was destroyed by fire in 1835.
Jesuit missionaries established themselves on the spot; and in 1580 Gregory XIII.
This practice continued to prevail till the 17th century, when, at the instance of the Jesuit Schall, president of the tribunal of mathematics, they adopted the European method of dividing the day into twenty-four hours, each hour into sixty minutes, and each minute into sixty seconds.
There are a number of interesting old buildings in the city - a government house, several churches, a Jesuit college, a Franciscan convent and a girls' orphanage.
One of them, "John Fisher," who had his sphere at Oxford, succeeded in making a convert of young Chillingworth, and prevailed upon him to go to the Jesuit college at Douai.
It was undertaken in defence of Dr Christopher Potter, provost of Queen's College in Oxford, who had for some time been carrying on a controversy with a Jesuit known as Edward Knott, but whose real name was Matthias Wilson.
Other towns are Castro, the former capital, on the eastern shore of Chiloe, and the oldest town of the island (founded 1566), once the seat of a Jesuit mission, and Melinca on an island of the Guaitecas group.
Sebastian's education was, entrusted to a Jesuit, D.
With the school of Auberlen and Benson it will find in the Apocalypse a Christian philosophy of history; with the ` continuous-historical ' school it can see 2 The Jesuit Juan Mariana was the first after Victorinus to explain" the wounded head "as referring to Nero.
In 1602 he entered the university of Louvain, then in the throes of a violent conflict between the Jesuit, or scholastic, party and the followers of Michael Baius, who swore by St Augustine.
(25th of October 1760), he was for a vigorous prosecution of the war with France; he had written what purported to be a chapter from an old book written by a Spanish Jesuit, On the Meanes of Disposing the Enemie to Peace, which had a great effect; and in the spring of 1760 there had been published a more elaborate paper written by Franklin with the assistance of Richard Jackson, agent of Massachusetts and Connecticut in London, entitled The Interest of Great Britain Considered with Regard to Her Colonies, and the Acquisitions of Canada and Guadeloupe (1760).
Buonanni, a learned Jesuit of Rome) that they are not generated out of the mud or sand found on the seashore or the beds of rivers at low water, but from spawn, by the regular course of generation; and he maintained the same to be true of the fresh-water mussel (Unio), whose ova he examined so carefully that he saw in them the rotation of the embryo, a phenomenon supposed to have been first discovered long afterwards.
In 1840 only a small Indian village marked its site, and its subsequent growth was due to the sugar plantations established by a Jesuit settlement.
Poland, after a defection of years, was ultimately recovered for the papacy by the zeal and devotion of the Jesuit missionaries.
Near the original site of the former, in the town of Santa Clara (pop. 1900, 3650), a suburb of San Jose, now stands Santa Clara College (Jesuit; founded 1851, chartered 1855).
He joined the Society of Jesus and became professor at the Jesuit college at Lyons.
Opposite the south side of the cathedral stands the lycee on the site of a former Jesuit college.
Apart from such a peculiar development as the rise, formation and fall of the Jesuit missions in Paraguay, there was growth and change.
JEAN JOSEPH MARIE AMIOT (1718-1793), French Jesuit missionary, was born at Toulon in February 1718.
In this series the Jesuit fathers Joseph van der Moere, Joseph van Hecke, Benjamin Bossue, Victor and Remi de Buck, Ant.
A quarterly review was established under the title of Analecta Bollandiana by the Jesuit fathers C. de Smedt, G.
The Spanish Jesuit Juan Maldonatus' Latin commentary, published 1596 (critical reprint, edited by Raich, 1874), a pathfinder on many obscure points, is still a model for tenacious penetration of Johannine ideas.
In 1841 Father Peter John De Smet (1801-1872), a Belgian Jesuit missionary established Saint Mary's Mission in Bitter Root Valley, but, as the Indians repeatedly attacked the mission, it was abandoned in 1850.
Religious considerations arising out of the attitude of the government towards the " German Catholics," and a new constitution for the Protestant Church, began to mingle with purely political questions, and Prince John, as the supposed head of the Jesuit party, was insulted at a review of the communal guards at Leipzig in 1845.
He was educated at the Jesuit college of Fulda, and entered upon his noviciate in that order at Mainz in 1618.
The first Europeans known to have visited the site of Milwaukee were Father Jacques Marquette, the Jesuit missionary, and his companion, Louis Joliet, who on their return in the autumn of 1673 to the mission of St Francis Xavier at De Pere from their trip down the Mississippi, skirted the west shore of Lake Michigan in their canoes from Chicago northward.
Milwaukee Bay is distinctly marked in the map attributed to Marquette, the original of which is now in the Jesuit College at Montreal, Canada; it was discovered in a convent in Montreal by Felix Martin (1804-1886), of the Society of Jesus, and was copied by Parkman.
In 1679 La Salle and his party probably stopped here on their way south, and in the Jesuit Relations of that year the name Milwaukee first appears, as "Millioke."
The cathedral or Se Matriz, dating from 1601, was formerly a Jesuit college.
They were transmitted from India by Buddhist missionaries to China, but remained in abeyance until the Jesuit reform of Chinese astronomy in the 17th century.
The curious oak pulpit representing Adam and Eve expelled from the Garden of Eden came originally from the Jesuit church at Louvain, and is considered the masterpiece of Verbruggen.
Among the numerous churches, the largest and most imposing is the Jesuit church of San Juan de Dios, with its double towers and celebrated marble pulpit; an old monastery adjoins.
But these demoralizing and disintegrating influences had been suspended by the religious revival due to the Catholic reaction and the Jesuit propaganda, a revival which reached its height towards the end of the 16th century.
All this, however, was to pass away under the great Jesuit reaction.
This book is now of great rarity because his son Christopher, having been induced to become a Roman Catholic by the Jesuit Skarga, caused all copies of his father's Bible which he could find to be burnt.
A Socinian Bible was issued by Simon Budny in 1570 at Nieswiez, as he professed to find many faults in the version issued under the patronage of Radziwill; in 1597 appeared the Roman Catholic version of the Jesuit Wujek; and in 1632 the so-called Danzig Bible, which is in use among Protestants and is still the most frequently reprinted.
A History of the Lithuanians in Latin was published by the Jesuit Koialowicz; the first volume appeared at Danzig in 1650.
Among the critics of the views put forward in this book was a Jesuit, Franciscus Linus (1595-1675), and it was while answering his objections that Boyle enunciated the law that the volume of a gas varies inversely as the pressure, which among English-speaking peoples is usually called after his name, though on the continent of Europe it is attributed to E.
In April 1622 Laud, by the king's orders, took part in a controversy with Percy, a Jesuit, known as Fisher, the aim of which was to prevent the conversion of the countess of Buckingham, the favourite's mother, to Romanism, and his opinions expressed on that occasion show considerable breadth and comprehension.
It has several old churches, a college, two seminaries founded about 1870 by the French Lazarists, who have restored and occupy the old Jesuit convent, and a mint established in 1749.
He condemned the Bible societies, and under Jesuit influence reorganized the educational system.
Little is known of church history down to the period of Jesuit rule, which broke the connexion with Egypt from about 1500 to 1633.
Fresh Jesuit victories were followed sooner or later by fresh revolt, and Roman rule hardly triumphed when once for all it was overthrown.
Many of the Jesuit schools were transferred to the congregations of the Oratoire and the Benedictines, and to the secular clergy.
The Latin grammar in use was that of the Jesuit rector of the school at Lisbon, Alvarez (1572).
Being uncatechetical in form and addressed to the clergy rather than to the people, it missed its intention, and was superseded by others of less exalted origin, especially by those of the Jesuit Peter Canisius, whose Summa Doctrinae et Institutionis Christianae (1554) and its shorter form (1556) were already in the field.
The ordinary term "Jesuit" was given to the Society by its avowed opponents; it is first found in the writings of Calvin and in the registers of the Parlement of Paris as early as 1552.
As the Jesuit obedience is based law of God, it is clearly impossible that he should be bound to obey in what is directly opposed to the divine service.
A Jesuit lives in obedience all his life, though the yoke is not galling nor always felt.
The Jesuit has no home: the whole world is his parish.
To carry out this view, it was one of his plans to send foreigners as superiors or officers to the Jesuit houses in each country, requiring of these envoys, however, invariably to use the language of their new place of residence and to study it both in speaking and writing till entire mastery of it hadlocality.
After passing five years in arts he has, while still keeping up his own studies, to devote five or six years more to teaching the junior classes in various Jesuit schools or colleges.
The formula of the famous Jesuit vow is as follows: "I, N., promise to Almighty God, before His Virgin Mother and the whole heavenly host, and to all standing by; and to thee, Reverend Father General of the Society of Jesus, holding the place of God, and to thy successors (or to thee, Reverend Father M.
Every Jesuit has not only the right but the duty in certain cases of communicating, directly and privately, with his general.
During his term of office there took place the troubles in Rome concerning the English college and the subsequent Jesuit rule over that institution; and in 1580 the first Jesuit mission, headed by the redoubtable Robert Parsons and the saintly Edmund Campion, set out for England.
He confessed freely that the Society had faults and that there was a great deal of unrest among the members; and he mentioned among the various points calling for reform the education of the novices and students; the state of the lay brother and the possessions of the Society; the spying system, which he declared to be carried so far that, if the general's archives at Rome should be searched, not one Jesuit's character would be found to escape; the monopoly of the higher offices by a small clique: and the absence of all encouragement and recompense for the best men of the Society.
The Jesuit influence at Rome was supported by the Spanish ambassador; but when Henry IV.
took the reins, their star was in the ascendant, and Jesuit confessors, the most celebrated of whom were Francois de La Chaise and Michel Le Tellier (1643-1719), guided the policy of the king, not hesitating to take his side in his quarrel with the Holy See, which nearly resulted in a schism, nor to sign the Gallican articles.
It was also about this same period that the grave scandal of the Chinese and Malabar rites began to attract attention in Europe, and to make thinking men ask seriously whether the Jesuit missionaries in those parts taught anything which could fairly be called Christianity at all.
The first muttering of the storm which was soon to break was heard in a breve issued in 1741 by Benedict XIV., wherein he denounced the Jesuit offenders as "disobedient, contumacious, captious and reprobate persons," and enacted many stringent regulations for their better government.
of Portugal, and an old pupil of the Jesuits at Coimbra, dismissed the three Jesuit chaplains of the king and named three secular priests in their stead.
Pombal charged the whole Society with the possible guilt of a few, and, unwilling to wait the dubious issue of an application to the pope for licence to try them in the civil courts, whence they were exempt, issued on the 1st of September 1759 a decree ordering the immediate deportation of every Jesuit from Portugal and all its dependencies and their suppression by the bishops in the schools and universities.
Thwaites, Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents (73 vols.
Another inundation, in 1604, suggested the transfer of the city to Tacubaya, but the landowners opposing and the city being again inundated in 1607, the Nochistongo tunnel was begun under the auspices of a Jesuit, Enrico Martinez, and roughly completed in eleven months.
Alexander condemned in 1690 the doctrines of so-called philosophic sin, taught in the Jesuit schools.
On the west side of St Stephen's Green is the Catholic University (1854), which is under the Jesuit Fathers and affiliated to the Royal University.
Her influence on him was unfortunate, for she was a strong supporter of the Jesuit party which was in favour of extreme measures.
DANIELLO BARTOLI (1608-1685), Italian Jesuit priest, was born at Ferrara and entered the Society of Jesus in 1623.
The Onondaga salt deposits were mentioned in the journal of the French Jesuit Lemoyne as early as 1653, and before the War of Independence the Indians marketed Onondaga salt at Albany and Quebec. In 1788 the state undertook, by treaty with the Onondaga Indians, to care for the salt springs and manage them for the benefit of both the whites and the Indians.
It was, however, published in France by the Jesuit, Jean Garnier, in 1680, and other editions quickly followed.
ROBERT SOUTHWELL (c. 1561-1595), English Jesuit and poet, son of Richard Southwell of Horsham St Faith's, Norfolk, was born in 1560/61.
He was sent very young to the Roman Catholic college at Douai, and thence to Paris, where he was placed under a Jesuit father, Thomas Darbyshire.
But Southwell at his own request was sent to England in 1586 as a Jesuit missionary with Henry Garnett.
It occupies a building erected in 1687 by Guarini as a Jesuit college.
Canisius College is a Roman Catholic (Jesuit) institution for men (established in 1870 and chartered in 1883), having in 1907 a college department and an academic (or high school) department, and a library of about 26,000 volumes.
The first white men to visit the site of Buffalo were undoubtedly the adventurous French trappers and various Jesuit missionaries.
In 1580 he was removed to Wisbeach Castle, and there exercised such an influence of charity and peace among his fellow-prisoners that was remembered when, in after years, the notorious Wisbeach Stirs broke out under the Jesuit Weston.
For years the subject of prophecy had occupied much of his thoughts, and his belief in the near approach of the second advent had received such wonderful corroboration by the perusal of the work of a Jesuit priest, writing under the assumed Jewish name of Juan Josafat Ben-Ezra, that in 1827 he published a translation of it, accompanied with an eloquent preface.
Returning to Spain in 1587, and placing himself at the head of the opposition to Acquaviva, Acosta was imprisoned in 1592-1593; on his submission in 1594 he became superior of the Jesuits at Valladolid, and in 1598 rector of the Jesuit college at Salamanca, where he died on the 15th of February 1600.
It was he who regenerated the College of Cardinals by leavening it with men of ability, who took in hand the reform of the Curia, confirmed the Jesuit Order, and finally brought the Council of Trent into existence (Sessions I.
The stoppage of payments from Bourbon countries during the Jesuit struggle brought the annual deficit to nearly 50o,000 scudi.
To check this ultramontane propaganda the government secured from the papacy in 1845 the promise to close the Jesuit houses and novitiates in France.
Owing to these circumstances, the rise and further development of the Kulturkampf were viewed in Jesuit and Vatican circles with feelings of the utmost complacency.
These articles, contained in the 5th Scheme, and zealously championed by the sectaries of the Jesuit order, reveal the immediate object for which the council of1869-1870was convened.
The Jesuit Antonio Andrada, a native of Portugal (1580-1634), travelling from India, appears to have entered Tibet on the west, in the Manasarowar Lake region, and made his way across to Tangut and north-western China; in 1661 the Jesuit fathers Johann Grueber (an Austrian) and Albert D 'Orville (a Belgian) travelled from Peking via Tangut to Lhasa, and thence through Nepal to India.
Among the bishops of the see, which still exists, with its seat in Frauenberg, may be mentioned Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, afterwards Pope Pius II., and Cardinal Stanislaus Hosius (1504-1579), the founder of the Jesuit college in Braunsberg.
The Jesuit church and the Protestant Abdinghofkirche are also interesting.
The principal buildings include the Greek Orthodox cathedral, finished in 1864 after the model of the church of St Isaac at St Petersburg; the Armenian church, in a mixed Gothic and Renaissance style, consecrated in 1875; a handsome new Jesuit church, and a new synagogue in Moorish style, built in 1877.
He was educated in the Jesuit college at Parma, and showed at first a great aptitude for mathematics.
GABRIEL DANIEL (1649-1728), French Jesuit historian, was born at Rouen on the 8th of February 1649.
(g) The Jesuit Missions.
In addition to the nine distinct missions (300 workers) in Siberia and the six (with 50 workers) in European Russia, the Orthodox Church (Russian) has three foreign missions: (1) in China, founded at Pekin 1714, in the face of Jesuit opposition; (2) in Japan, established about 1863 by Bishop Nicolai, a chaplain at Nagasaki; (3) in Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, the bishop residing 1 See E.
A mission undertaken by the Church Missionary Society in 1830 was closed by French Jesuit intrigue in 1838.
The Paris Society, represented especially by Francois Coillard, has been successful along the Zambezi, and Scottish, German, Moravian and Jesuit agencies are also well represented.
It was built as a Jesuit college in 1651, but since 1776 has been the seat of the Accademia di Belle Arti, and contains besides the picture gallery a library of some 300,000 volumes, a collection of coins numbering about 60,000, and an excellent observatory founded in 1766.
The revolution in the canton Vaud, brought about by Jesuit intrigue in 1845, brought persecution to the Brethren in the canton and in other parts of French Switzerland, and Darby's life was in great jeopardy.
JACQUES MARQUETTE (1637-1675), French Jesuit missionary and explorer, re-discoverer (with Louis Joliet) of the Mississippi.
In 1604 the Poles founded there a Jesuit college.
(Antonio Pignatelli), pope from 1691 to 1700 in succession to Alexander VIII., was born in Naples on the 13th of March 1615, was educated at the Jesuit College in Rome, entered upon his official career at the age of twenty, and became vice-legate of Urbino, governor of Perugia, and nuncio to Tuscany, to Poland and to Austria.
The De la sagesse, which represented a considerable advance on the standpoint of the Trois Verites, brought upon its author the most violent attacks, the chief being by the Jesuit Francois Garasse (1585-1631), who described him as a "brutal atheist."
Some of these, such as the lapacho and quebracho, are of rare excellence and durability, as is shown by the wonderful state of preservation in which the woodwork of early Jesuit churches still remains.
In 1580 he came to London, attended the court of Elizabeth, and joined the secret society formed that year supporting the Jesuit missionaries.
It is difficult, indeed, to blame the burghers for resisting the dubious reforming efforts of Hermann of Wied, archbishop from 1515 to 1546, inspired mainly by secular ambitions; but the expulsion of the Jews in 1414, and still more the exclusion, under Jesuit influence, of Protestants from the right to acquire citizenship, and from the magistracy, dealt severe blows at the prosperity of the place.
The fine and extensive buildings, of which the nucleus is a mansion of the 17th century, contain a public school for boys and a house of studies for Jesuit ecclesiastics, while there is a preparatory school at a short distance.
The Agrarians asked for restrictions on the importation of food; the Centre for the Lex Heinze and the repeal of the Jesuit law; the Liberals for the right of combination.
The number of his enemies was increased by his successful attack on his Jesuit confessor Ribera, who with other members of the college of Milan was found to be guilty of unnatural offences.
He was educated at the Jesuit school of Pezenas, and received priest's orders, but he was dismissed for unexplained reasons from the parish of Saint-Sulpice, Paris, to which he was attached, and thenceforward he devoted himself to society and literature.
His classical education was chiefly obtained at a Jesuit college at Amiens, and after studying in Paris he entered the Jesuit college at Rome and was admitted into the Society of Jesus.
He studied at the Jesuit college at Monza, entered the order, and was appointed in 1755 professor of eloquence in the university of Milan.
The city is the seat of the Wesleyan female college (1836), which claims to be the first college in the world chartered to grant academic degrees to women; Mercer University (Baptist), which was established in 1833 as Mercer Institute at Penfield, became a university in 1837, was removed to Macon in 1871, and controls Hearn Academy (1839) at Cave Spring and Gibson Mercer Academy (1903) at Bowman; the state academy for the blind (1852), St Stanislaus' College (Jesuit), and Mt de Sales Academy (Roman Catholic) for women.
He was educated at the Jesuit College of La Fleche, where he was a fellow-pupil and friend of Descartes.
As a Puritan controversialist he was remarkably active; in 1580 the bishop of Ely appointed him to defend puritanism against the Roman Catholics, Thomas Watson, ex-bishop of Lincoln (1513-1584), and John Feckenham, formerly abbot of Westminster, and in 1581 he was one of the disputants with the Jesuit, Edmund Campion, while in 1582 he was among the clergy selected by the privy council to argue against any papist.
He studied in the Jesuit Gymnasium of Cologne in 1840-1846, and then entered the University of Bonn, where he became a revolutionary, partly through his friendship with Gottfried Kinkel, professor of literature and art-history.
The next year a Jesuit mission from Tahiti reached the island and succeeded in the task of civilization.
Little is known of his personal history except that on May 14, 1619, he entered the Society of Jesus, and that ultimately he became rector of the Jesuit college at Tarazona, where he died on the 6th of December, 1658.
GIULIO ALENIO (1582-1649), Italian Jesuit missionary, was born at Brescia.
In 1672 Jacques Marquette, a Jesuit father, after having established a mission to the Indians at Mackinaw (Michigan) in the preceding year, explored the country around Chicago.
In 1587 he entered the Jesuit order.
Pazmfiny went through his probation at Cracow, took his degree at Vienna, and studied theology at Rome, and finally completed his academic course at the Jesuit college at Graz.
He also built Jesuit colleges and schools at Pressburg, and Franciscan monasteries at Ersekiajvar and Kdrmoczbanya.
It is the seat of the public offices for the district, possesses an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church, a synagogue, and a gymnasium established in the old Jesuit college, and has manufactures of machinery, woollens, tiles, brandy and beer.
The charge of simony was inspired by Jesuit hatred; there is absolutely no evidence that Ganganelli pledged himself to suppress the order.
The former monastery of the Jesuits, now the Jesuit church of Belen (1704), at the corner of Luz and Compostela Streets, is one of the most elegant and richly ornamented in Cuba.
The Jesuit church (Belen) has a large college for boys, laboratories, an observatory, a museum of natural history, and an historical library.
The first person who actually constructed a telescope of this form was the Jesuit Christoph Scheiner, who gives a description of it in his Rosa Ursina (1630).
During a subsequent mission to Lithuania he converted numerous noble families, including the Radziwills, and held for some years the rectorship of the Jesuit Academy at Wilna, where he composed his Lives of the Saints.
In 1584 he was transferred to the new Jesuit College at Cracow.
DENYS PETAU (1583-1652), Jesuit scholar, better known as Dionysius Petavius, was born at Orleans on the 21st of August 1583.
For many years he was professor of divinity at the College de Clermont, the chief Jesuit establishment in Paris; there he died on.
Born in Calainha, in the province of Luzon, of pure Tagalog parentage, he attended the newly reopened Jesuit university in Manila.
After attending the Tagalog school at Cavite he entered the Jesuit College in Manila but did not graduate.
The events following on the murder of the Jesuit father Dom Gongalo da Silveira (cf.
Putting aside the temporary Christian work of a Jesuit chaplain to the Japanese Christian General Konishe, in 1594 during the Japanese invasion, as well as that on a larger scale by students who received the evangel in the Roman form from Peking in 1792, and had made 4000 converts by the end of 1793, the first serious attempt at the conversion of Korea was made by the French Societe des Missions Etrangeres in 1835.
Jesuit missionaries entered Lower California as early as 1697, maintaining themselves there until Charles III.'s expulsion in 1767 of all Jesuits from his dominions; but not until Russian explorations in Alaska from 1745-1765 did the Spanish government show interest in Upper California.
Meanwhile the Jesuit property in the Peninsula had been turned over to Franciscan monks, but in 1772 the Dominicans took over the missions, and the Franciscans not unwillingly withdrew to Upper California, where they were to thrive remarkably for some fifty years.
He became one of the first editors of the Jesuit organ, the Civiltd Cattolica; but then came under the influence of Gioberti, Rosmini and other advocates for reform.
He passed the remainder of his life in retirement at Florence, and, a few months before his death, was readmitted to the Jesuit Society.
The Jesuit Vaniere, who flourished in the early part of the 18th century, in the Praedium rusticum (pp. 12, 13, new ed., Toulouse, 1742) amusingly relates the manner in which he exposed the chicanery of one who pretended by the aid of a hazel divining-rod to point out hidden water-courses and gold.
Humphrey Henchman, bishop of London, employed him to write a vindication of Laud's answer to John Fisher, the Jesuit.
JERONIMO LOBO (1593-1678), Jesuit missionary, was born in Lisbon, and entered the Order of Jesus at the age of sixteen.
It is also said that Akbar employed Jerome Xavier, a Jesuit missionary, to translate the four Gospels into Persian.
The Flemish Jesuit Bolland brought the light of criticism to bear on the legends of the saints (see Bollandists).
The individual Jesuit obeyed his superior, who obeyed the rector, who obeyed the provincial, who obeyed the general, Who obeyed the pope, who took his orders straight from God Almighty.
loomed large on the Jesuit horizon.
The other laid the chief stress on free-will; it was known as Molinism from its inventor, the Jesuit Louis de Molina, and was in great favour with the society.
Thus within the spiritual sphere free-will led up to Jesuit obedience.
In 1625 Catholic Europe was scandalized by the De Schismate of the Jesuit Santarelli, in which he claimed for the pope an absolute right to interfere in the concerns of secular princes, whenever he chose to declare that the interests of religion were in any way concerned.
And his Jesuit confessors had no doubt.
Not only did their doctrine of grace defy the favourite Jesuit principle of obedience to authority, but it bade fair to set aside the whole Catholic machinery of infallibility and sacraments.
La Valette, superior of the Jesuit missions in Martinique, had set up as a West-India merchant on a large scale.
About 1580 Jesuit missionaries began to come, and soon became involved in bitter quarrels with the secular missionaries already at work.
It was enacted by the act of 1829 that " every Jesuit and every member of any other religious order, community or society of the Church of Rome bound by monastic or religious vows " was, within six months after the commencement of the act, to deliver to the clerk of the peace of the county in which he should reside a notice or statement in the form given to the schedule to the act, and that every Jesuit or member of such religious order coming into the realm after the commencement of the act should be guilty of a misdemeanour and should be banished from the United Kingdom for life (with an exception in favour of natural-born subjects duly registered).
The admission of any person as a regular ecclesiastic by any such Jesuit, &c., was made a misdemeanour, and the person so admitted was to be banished for life.
Herbert spent six years at Stonyhurst, and was then sent to study with the Benedictines at Downside, near Bath, and subsequently at the Jesuit school of Brugelette, Belgium, which was afterwards removed to Paris.
Educated at the Jesuit seminary at Kalksburg and at the universities of Vienna and Pesth, a long foreign tour completed his curriculum, and at Paris he made the acquaintance of Montalembert, a kindred spirit, whose influence on the young Apponyi was permanent.
Oates offered his help, and it was arranged that he should pretend to be a Roman Catholic so as the better to unearth the Jesuit.
Accordingly he was received into the church by one Berry, himself an apostate, and entered the Jesuit College of Valladolid as Brother Ambrose.
The actual founder of hagiologic criticism was the Flemish Jesuit, Heribert Rosweyde (d.
On his return in 1614 he was appointed professor of theology at Helmstfidt by the duke of Brunswick, who had admired the ability he displayed when a young man in a dispute with the Jesuit Augustine Turrianus.
His youth is said to have been spent in a Jesuit college, in the office of a Parisian banker, and in that of a Parisian notary, Chapelain, the father of the poet.
The Jesuit missionaries had already been at work in India and China, and a brilliant band of English students, led by Sir William Jones and H.
The Catholic delegates, moreover, discovered a powerful auxiliary when Lainez, the general of the Jesuit order, which had been admitted into France a short time previously, entered the debate; and the acrimony with which he opposed the Protestants was of material service in clarifying the situation.
According to Monsignor Barnes's theory, James de la Cloche, who had been brought up to be a Jesuit and knew his royal father's secret profession of Roman Catholicism, was being employed by Charles II.
- An Answer to a Scottish Jesuit (1572).
But though the Jesuit Antonio Possevino was sent to Stockholm to complete John's " conversion," John would only consent to embrace Catholicism under certain conditions which were never kept, and the only result of all these subterraneous negotiations was to incense the Protestants still more against the new liturgy, the use of which by every congregation in the realm without exception was, nevertheless, decreed by the Riksdag of 1582.
In 1612 an attempt was made by a Jesuit missionary to negotiate a peace, but not till 1640 was the desperate struggle ended by the treaty of Quillin, which left the Indians all the land south of the Bio-bio river.
Amongst its principal buildings are the cathedral, the episcopal palace, several convents, of which the most noteworthy is the Jesuit convent, now a Cistercian secondary school with a handsome church, and the county hall.
He was educated in a Jesuit school at Vannes, and studied law in Paris.
Le Calvaire (1887), a chapter of which on the defeat of 1870 aroused much discussion, was followed by L' Abbe Jules (1888), the story of a mad priest; by Sebastien Roch (1890), a bitter picture of the Jesuit school in which his own early years were spent; Le Jardin des supplices (1899), a Chinese story; Les Memoires d'une femme de chambre (1901); and Les Vingt-et-un jours d'un neurasthenique (1902).
After several scurrilous attacks by the Jesuit party, in which coarseness and violence were more conspicuous than ability, in 1607 a new and more successful attempt was made.
Both were dominated by their Jesuit confessors, and a Jesuit, D.
A school of commerce was founded in 1759; in 1760 the censorship of books was transferred from an ecclesiastical to a lay tribunal; in 1761 the former Jesuit college in Lisbon was converted into a college for the sons of noblemen; in 1768 a royal printing-press was established; in 1772 Pombal provided for a complete system of primary and secondary education, entailing the foundation of 837 schools.
The Jesuit Antonio Vieira, missionary, diplomat and voluminous writer, repeated the triumphs he had gained in Bahia and Lisbon in Rome, which proclaimed him the prince of Catholic orators.
JUAN ANDRES (1740-18r7), Spanish Jesuit, was born at Planes in the province of Valencia, and became professor of literature at Gandia and finally royal librarian at Naples.
A Spanish translation by his brother Carlos appeared at Madrid between 1784 and 1806, and an abridgment in French (1838-1846) was compiled by the Jesuit Alexis Nerbonne.
Contemporary opinion justified Theophile's denial of this ascription, but the Jesuit father, Francois Garasse, published a tract against him entitled La Doctrine curieuse (1623).
It contains rich agricultural districts and extensive open plains where cattle-raising has been successfully followed since the days of the Jesuit missions in that region.
The Jesuit founders of the Mojos missions took cattle with them when they entered that region to labour among the Indians, with the result that the Mojos and Chiquitos llanos were soon well stocked, and have since afforded an unfailing supply of beef for the neighbouring inland markets.
In the Mojos and Chiquitos districts the natives were taught by the Jesuit missionaries to weave an excellent cotton cloth, and the industry still exists.
It was already a ruin when discovered in 1694 by the Jesuit father Kino.
In 1732 (possibly in 1720) regular Jesuit missions were founded at Bac (known as an Indian rancheria since the 17th century) and at Guevavi.
Educated at the Jesuit college at Nancy, he became cure of Embermenil and a teacher at the Jesuit school at Pont-a-Mousson.
ANTONIO VIEIRA (1608-1697), Portuguese Jesuit and writer, the "prince of Catholic pulpit-orators of his time," was born in Lisbon on the 6th of February 1608.
Accompanying his parents to Brazil in 1615 he received his education at the Jesuit college at Bahia.
He entered the Jesuit novitiate in 1625, and two years later pronounced his first vows.
Vieira was accused of want of patriotism and usurpation of jurisdiction, and in 1661, after a popular revolt, the authorities sent him with thirty-one other Jesuit missionaries back to Portugal.
St James (690 ft.) is the Jesuit college of the Holy Cross, with a preparatory school, founded in 1843 by Benedict J.
The church anathematized his doctrines, and in its later testimonies repudiated his confession on the one hand and Jesuit ideas on the other.
LUIS MOLINA (1535-1600), Spanish Jesuit, was born at Cuenca in 1535.
9, 13, 14) to the Jesuit periodical, Stimmen aus Maria-Laach.
EDMUND CAMPION (1540-1581), English Jesuit, was born in London, received his early education at Christ's Hospital, and, as the best of the London scholars, was chosen in their name to make the complimentary speech when Queen Mary visited the city on the 3rd of August 1553.
After being ordained subdeacon, he went to Rome and became a Jesuit in 1573, spending some years at Briinn, Vienna and Prague.
Here he was captured by a spy and taken to London, bearing on his hat a paper with the inscription, "Campion, the Seditious Jesuit."
Of all the Jesuit missionaries who suffered for their allegiance to the ancient religion, Campion stands the highest.
Seckendorf's principal works were the following: - Teutscher Farstenstaat (1656 and 1678), a handbook of German public law; Der Christenstaat (1685), partly an apology for Christianity and partly suggestions for the reformation of the church, founded on Pascal's Pensees and embodying the fundamental ideas of Spener; Commentarius historicus et apologeticus de Lutheranismo sive de Reformatione (3 vols., Leipzig, 1692), occasioned by the Jesuit Maimbourg's Histoire du Lutheranisme (Paris, 1680), his most important work, and still indispensable to the historian of the Reformation as a rich storehouse of authentic materials.
It is probable that these small but practical concessions would have satisfied the lay Roman Catholics and the secular priests, but they were very far from contenting the Jesuits, by whom the results of such leniency were especially feared: "What rigour of laws would not compass in so many years," wrote Henry Tichborne, the Jesuit, in 1598, "this liberty and lenity will effectuate in 20 days, to wit the disfurnishing of the seminaries, the disanimating of men to come and others to return, the expulsion of the society and confusion as in Germany, extinction of zeal and favour, disanimation of princes from the hot pursuit of the enterprise..
The 1 As early as 1613, Captain Samuel Argall, on his way to Virginia, after breaking up some Jesuit settlements at Port Royal, and Mount Desert, passed through the Narrows near the mouth of the Hudson, and finding a group of Dutch traders, made them haul down their flag and replace it with that of England.
In and around Bilbao there are more than thirty convents and monasteries, and at Olaveaga, about a mile off, is the Jesuit university, attended by 850 students.
After spending three years at Rome, he was sent to the Jesuit settlement at Mondovi in Piedmont, where he studied and at the same time taught Greek, and, though not yet in orders, gained some reputation as a preacher.
GARNET, or [[Garnett, Henry]] (1555-1606), English Jesuit, son of Brian Garnett, a schoolmaster at Nottingham, was educated at Winchester and afterwards studied law in London.
Garnet supervised the Jesuit mission for eighteen years with conspicuous success.
A few days later, according to Garnet, the Jesuit, Oswald Tesemond, known as Greenway, informed him of the whole plot " by way of confession," when, as he declares, he expressed horror at the design and urged Green way to do his utmost to prevent its execution.
Father Martin del Rio, a Jesuit, writing in 1600, discusses the exact case of the revelation of a plot in confession.
Garnet a Jesuit and his Confederates (1606, repr.
1679), the official account, but incomplete and inaccurate; Apologia pro Henrico Garneto (1610), by the Jesuit L'Heureux, under the pseudonym Endaemon-Joannes, and Dr Robert Abbot's reply, Antilogia versus Apologiam Eudaemon-Joannes, in which the whole subject is well treated; Henry More, Hist.
There is also a Jesuit school.
His parents were Protestants, and he was educated at the free school at York, where, it is said, John and Christopher Wright and the Jesuit Tesimond alias Greenway, afterwards implicated in the conspiracy, were his schoolfellows.
Three historians had been partly educated in Rome under the protection of Prince Borgia and the influence of the Jesuit Minotto and the College of the Propaganda; they were Samuel Klain, Petru Maior and George Sincai.
Noteworthy, too, is the St Louis University, opened in 1829, the oldest institution for higher learning west of the Mississippi; it is a Jesuit college and the parent school of six other Jesuit institutions in the states of the middle west.
In 1630 it was made the seat of a Roman Catholic mission by Benoit de Mathos, a Portuguese Jesuit, and the old cemetery still contains about 113 Christian graves.
JACQUES SIRMOND (1559-1651), French scholar and Jesuit, was born at Riom, Auvergne, on the 12th or the 22nd of October 1 559 He was educated at the Jesuit College of Billom; having been a novice at Verdun and then at Pont-à-Mousson, he entered into the order on the 26th of July 1576.
He afterwards spent a year in Geneva, and was powerfully influenced by the strict moral life and rigid ecclesiastical discipline prevalent there, and also by the preaching and the piety of the Waldensian professor, Antoine Leger, and the converted Jesuit preacher, Jean de Labadie.
500) translated fifty of the Canons into Latin,' although under the title Canones qui dicuntur Apostolorum, and thus they passed into other Western collections; whilst the Constitutions as a whole remained unknown in the West until they were published in 1563 by the Jesuit Turrianus.
the Jesuit Paul Laymann (1 5751635), the Portuguese Agostinho Barbosa (1590-1649), Manuel Gonzalez Tellez (d.
At the age of fifteen he was sent to the Jesuit college at Reggio di Modena, and was pressed to enter that body.
The first Europeans to visit the state were probably French coureurs des bois or Jesuit missionaries.
Jesuit invasion took place in 1580, and Campion went to the block.
He returned in 1639 with the Jesuit fathers Acuna and Artieda, delegated by the viceroy of Peru to accompany him.
In 1581 he had a controversy with the Jesuit Edmund Campion, and published at Oxford his arguments in 1638 under the title, Piissimi et eminentissimi viri Tobiae Matthew, archiepiscopi olim Eboracencis concio apologetica adversus Campianam.
The persuasion of some of his countrymen in Florence, one of whom is said to have been the Jesuit Robert Parsons, and a story he heard of the miraculous liquefaction of the blood of San Januarius at Naples, led to his conversion in 1606.
The old duke of Newcastle, probably desiring a post for some nominee of his own, conveyed to the ear of the new minister various absurd rumours prejudicial to Burke, - that he was an Irish papist, that his real name was O'Bourke, that he had been a Jesuit, that he was an emissary from St Omer's.
The first of the missionary pioneers was the Jesuit, Father Rene Medard, who in 1661 lost his life on the upper Wisconsin river.
Parkman, The Jesuits in North America (Boston, 1870); and the volumes of the Jesuit Relations, edited by R.
The "Llanos de Mojos," famous for their flourishing Jesuit mission settlements of the 17th and 18th centuries, occupy the eastern part of this department and are still inhabited by an industrious peaceful native population, devoted to cattle raising and primitive methods of agriculture.
The capital, Trinidad (pop. 2556), is situated on the Mamore river in an open fertile country, and was once a flourishing Jesuit mission.
followers of Louis Molina the Jesuit, Catholic not Michael Molinos the mystic) are the leading doctrine.
The warden and chaplain are clergy, and the visitor is commonly a bishop. In one important regard there has been hesitation, and authorities like Dr Littledale and Bishop Grafton contend strongly for the primitive ideal of the convent as family, with a constitutional government, as against the later and widespread Jesuit ideal of the convent as regiment, with a theory of despotic rule and absolute obedience.
The other noteworthy buildings are the bull-ring, capable of seating 10,000 spectators, the theatre, fine provincial and municipal halls, barracks, a hospital, a Jesuit college, the American International School for girls, and many other schools.
JOHANN ADAM VON SCHALL (1591-1666), Jesuit missionary in China, born of noble parents in Cologne.
Having heard the narrative of a Jesuit who had returned from China, Baudier wrote Histoire de la cour du roi de Chine (Paris, 1626; English trans.
Accordingly, in conjunction with Christopher Maire, an English Jesuit, he measured an arc of two degrees between Rome and Rimini.
Hosius had Jesuit sympathies and actively opposed the Protestant reformation, going so far as to desire a repetition of the St Bartholomew massacre in Poland, Apart from its being "the property of the Roman Church," he regarded the Bible as having no more worth than the fables of Aesop. Hosius was not distinguished as a theologian, though he drew up the Confessio fidei christiana catholica adopted by the synod of Piotrkow in 1557.
Of the thirty-seven churches, of which twenty-six are Roman Catholic, the most noticeable are: - St Andrew's, formerly the Jesuit and court church, with frescoes by J.
2 The native astronomy was finally superseded in the 17th century by the scientific teachings of Jesuit missionaries from Europe.
He was originally destined for the church and was brought up at the Jesuit college at Blois, but after the death of his elder brother he entered a cavalry regiment, served in Bohemia and Bavaria and on the Rhine, and in 1747 had attained the rank of colone took part in the siege of Maestricht in 1748, became governor of Vendome in 1749, and after distinguishing himself in 1756 in the Minorca expedition was promoted brigadier of infantry.
Biographies appeared soon after her death by the Jesuit Ribera, who had been her confessor (1602), and by Diego de Yepez, confessor to Philip II.
When he was but nineteen he accepted a challenge put forth by Henry Fitzsimons, a learned Jesuit, then a prisoner in Dublin, inviting discussion of Bellarmine's arguments in defence of Roman Catholicism, and acquitted himself with much distinction.
as queen of Madagascar, and under the Second Empire attempts to establish French political influence were discouraged, and even as late as 1872 the subsidy enjoyed by the Jesuit missionaries was withdrawn.
These demands were refused by the native government, and other conditions were offered; but the French envoy, together French In- with the resident's escort, left the capital, as also did vasion and the French traders and others, including the large Conquest, Jesuit mission.
A Roman Catholic (Jesuit) mission was begun in 1861, and a large force of priests with a bishop and lay brethren and sisters engaged in education, have been at work in the island since then, except during the two FrancoMalagasy wars.'
that Lafitau, a Jesuit missionary in North America, while inclined to take a mystical view of the secrets concealed by Iroquois myths, had also pointed out the savage element surviving in Greek mythology.5 Recent Mythological Systems. - Up to a very recent date students of mythology were hampered by orthodox traditions, and still more by ignorance of the ancient languages and of the natural history of man.
One of the Jesuit missionaries in North America thus describes the Red Man's philosophy: 2 " Les sauvages se persuadent que non seulement les hommes et les autres animaux, mais aussi que toutes les autres choses sont animees."
After some education at a Jesuit college in his native town he went to study law at Rome, where in 1571, in opposition to his father's wishes, he joined the Society of Jesus.
since his death, to introduce the Church into China, - as by Melchior Nunes of the Jesuit Society operating from Sanchian in 1555; by Gaspar da Cruz, a Dominican, in that or the following year; by the Augustinians under Martin Herrada, 1575; and in 1579 by the Franciscans led by Pedro d'Alfaro.
When the missionaries of other Roman Catholic orders made their way into China, twenty years later, they found great fault with the manner in which certain Chinese practices had been dealt with by the Jesuits, a matter in which Ricci's action and policy had given the tone to the mission in China - though in fact that tone was rather inherent in the Jesuit system than the outcome of individual character, for controversies of an exactly parallel nature arose two generations later in southern India, between the Jesuits and Capuchins, regarding what were called "Malabar rites."
An example of these is found in the work called Anecdotes sur l'etat de religion dans la Chine (Paris, 1733-35), the author of which (Abbe Villers) speaks of the T'ien-chu shih-i in this fashion: "The Jesuit was also so ill versed in the particulars of the faith that, as the holy bishop of Conon, Monsgr.
Amid general silence it was a formidable and much dreaded body of opinion; and in order to stifle it Louis XIV., the tool of his confessor, the Jesuit Le Tellier, made use of his usual means.
He was educated at the Jesuit school of Caen, and also received lessons from the Protestant pastor, Samuel Bochart.
All this time he was no mere book-worm or recluse, but was haunting the salons of Mlle de Scudery and the studios of painters; nor did his scientific researches interfere with his classical studies, for during this time he was discussing with Bochart the origin of certain medals, and was learning Syriac and Arabic under the Jesuit Parvilliers.
The first recorded visit of a European to the site of Minneapolis was that of Father Louis Hennepin, the French Jesuit missionary, who discovered and named the Falls of St Anthony in 1680; but it is almost certain that he was preceded by some of the adventurous coureurs des bois, few of whom left records of their extensive wanderings, and Radisson and Groseilliers seem to have visited this region two decades before Hennepin.
At the end of that time he appeared in public with his Saggiatore, a polemical treatise written in reply to the Libra astronomica of Padre Grassi (under the pseudonym of Lotario Sarsi), the Jesuit astronomer of the Collegio Romano.
This contention was again upheld, in the form of a violent polemic against the papacy, by the Centuriators of Magdeburg (Ecclesiastica historia, Basel, 1559-1574); the attempt at refutation by the Jesuit Torres (Adversus Centur.
There are many American and European institutions in the city: the American Presbyterian mission, with a girls' school and a printing office, which published the Arabic translation of the Bible, and now issues a weekly paper and standard works in Arabic; the Syrian Protestant college with its theological seminary, medical faculty, training college and astronomical observatory; the Scottish mission, and St George's institute for Moslem and Druse girls; the British Syrian mission schools; the German hospital, orphanage and boarding school; the French hospital and schools, and the Jesuit "Universite de St Joseph" with a printing office.
Among the institutions affected by this law are numerous Jesuit and other ecclesiastical schools for boys, and a Jesuit university at Deusto, near Bilb~, whose pupils have to pass their final secondary examinations and to take all degrees in the state establishments as free scholars.
During his minority the government was directed by his mother and her successive favorites, the German Jesuit Nithard and the Granadine adventurer Fernando de Valenzuela.
They selected Spain as an excellent field of enterprise; and it must be said that all the governments of the regency showed so much indulgence towards the Catholic revival thus started, that in less than a decade the kingdom, was studded with more convents, monasteries, Jesuit colleges, Catholic schools, and foundations than had existed in the palmy days of the houses of Austria and Bourbon in the 17th and 18th centuries.
So the Jesuit party determined to wreck archbishop and book at the same time.
He disputed at Sedan before the duc de Bouillon with the Jesuit, Jean Maldonat (1534-1583), and wrote in defence of Protestantism.
The government, strikingly unlike the Jesuit autocracy, is of a republican form; and the superior, though first in honour, has to take his turn in discharging all the duties which come to each priest of the society in the order of his seniority, including that of waiting at table, which is not entrusted in the Oratory to lay brothers, according to the practice in most other communities.
When the Jesuit order was banished from Spain in 1767, Hervas settled at Forli, and devoted himself to the first part of his Idea dell' Universo (22 vols., 1778-1792).
Owing to its patronage by the Jesuit missionaries the Guarani language became a widespread medium of communication, and in a corrupted form is still the common language in Paraguay.
The heads of all Jesuit colleges are "rectors."
Salonica is the see of an Orthodox Greek archbishop. Each religious community has its own schools and places of worship, among the most important being the Jewish high-school, the Greek and Bulgarian gymnasia, the Jesuit college, a high-school founded in 1860 and supported by the Jewish Mission of the Established Church of Scotland, a German school, dating from 1887, and a college for boys and a secondary school for girls, both managed by the French Mission Laique and subsidized since 1905 by the French government.
Mercier entered the Jesuit College of St Mary, Montreal, at the age of fourteen, and throughout his life retained a warm friendship for the society.
He succeeded in passing without opposition the Jesuit Estates Act, a measure to compensate the order for the loss of property confiscated by the Crown.
Among public institutions are the university, which occupies part of the old Jesuit college, an astronomical observatory, and eleven large monastic institutions, six of which are for nuns.
LOUIS MAIMBOURG (1610-1686), French Jesuit and historian, was born at Nancy.
He entered the Society of Jesus at the age of sixteen, and after studying at Rome became a classical master in the Jesuit college at Rouen.
chronicles the evolution of Jesuit thinking from their earliest writings, which influenced no less than Descartes, to modern day contributions.
They were religious with one of the girls becoming a nun, two of the boys Jesuit priests, and another a Dominican friar.
headmaster of a Jesuit school, he was educated in Paris.
missionary late Seventeenth Century great areas of the country's eastern lowlands were effectively ruled by Jesuit missionaries.
paternal uncle, then he entered a Jesuit College in Lyon.
The French Jesuit priest Pierre Teilhard de Chardin first postulated the evolution of consciousness in the nineteen thirties.
In October of this last year, the British Province hosted the annual conference of the European Jesuit provincials.
A newer building is the fine municipal Festhalle with magnificent rooms. The only noteworthy churches are the Jesuit church (1737-1760), the interior of which is lavishly decorated with marble and painting; the Koncordienkirche and the Schlosskirche.
In the second edition appeared the seventh - objections from Pere Bourdin, a Jesuit teacher of mathematics in Paris; and subsequently another set of objections, known as those of Hyperaspistes, was included in the collection of Descartes's letters.
Denver is the seat of the Jesuit college of the Sacred Heart (1888; in the suburbs); and the university of Denver (Methodist, 1889), a co-educational institution, succeeding the Colorado Seminary (founded in 1864 by John Evans), and consisting of a college of liberal arts, a graduate school, Chamberlin astronomical observatory and a preparatory school - these have buildings in University Park - and (near the centre of the city) the Denver and Gross College of Medicine, the Denver law school, a college of music in the building of the old Colorado Seminary, and a Saturday college (with classes specially for professional men).
A zealous Calvinist, whose boast it was that he had read the Bible twenty-five times, he was nevertheless no persecutor, and even helped the Jesuit Kaldy to translate and print his version of the Scriptures.
Eu has three buildings of importance - the beautiful Gothic church of St Laurent (12th and 13th centuries) of which the exterior of the choir with its three tiers of ornamented buttressing and the double arches between the pillars of the nave are architecturally notable; the chapel of the Jesuit college (built about 1625), in which are the tombs of Henry, third duke of Guise, and his wife, Katherine of Cleves; and the chÃ¢teau.
At the age of thirteen or fourteen he went to the Jesuit College of Clermont at Paris, where he stayed till the summer of 1588, and where he laid the foundations of his profound knowledge, while perfecting himself in the exercises of a young nobleman and practising a life of exemplary virtue.
Ecclesiastically, he had become the instrument of the triumph of Jesuit influence, and had in turn set hi~ seal upon the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, the Syllabus and Papal Infallibility.
The principles and methods of surveying and position finding had by this time become well advanced, and the most remarkable example of the early application of these improvements is to be found in the survey of China by Jesuit missionaries.
Ignatius succeeded, though in Xavier's case after some opposition, in gaining their sympathy for his missionary schemes (see Loyola, Ignatius Of); and they were among the company of seven persons, including Loyola himself, who took the original Jesuit vows on the 15th of August 1534.
Pinto and some of the Jesuit biographers, who have pilloried Ataide as actuated solely by malice and self-interest.
It seems doubtful if the governor exceeded his legal right in refusing to allow Pereira to proceed; 1 in this attitude he remained firm even when Xavier, if the Jesuit biographers may be trusted, exhibited the brief by which he held the rank of papal nuncio, and threatened Ataide with excommunication.
His Jesuit biographers attribute to him the conversion of more than 700,000 persons in less than ten years; and though these figures are absurd, the work which Xavier accomplished was enormous.
His first tract, De Societatis Jesu Origine, led to his being erroneously presumed a Jesuit (P. Alegambe, Biblioth.
Lord Berkeley of Stratton, the viceroy, showed him much kindness and allowed him to establish a Jesuit school in Dublin.
An acrimonious attack by a young Jesuit, about this time, upon his dissertation on the figure of the earth laid the foundation of his animosity against the Jesuits, with whose enemies, including J.
In Transylvania the princes of the Bathory family (1571-1604) were ardent disciples of the Jesuit fathers, and Sigismund Bathory in particular persecuted fiercely, his fury being especially directed against the queer judaizing sect known as the Sabbatarians, whose tenets were adopted by the Szeklers, the most savage of " the three nations " of Transylvania, many thousands of whom were, after a bloody struggle, forced to emigrate.
The original idea was conceived by a Jesuit father, Heribert Rosweyde (see Hagiology), and was explained by him in a sort of prospectus, which he issued in 1607 under the title of Fasti sanctorum quorum vitae in Belgicis Bibliothecis manuscriptae.
A Jesuit father, John Bolland, was appointed to carry on the project, and was sent to Antwerp. He continued to amass material, and extended the scope of the work.
The text-book used was the Institutiones linguae Graecae of the German Jesuit, Jacob Gretser, of Ingolstadt (c. 1590), and the: reading in the highest class included portions of Demosthenes,.
In France, Madame de Pompadour was their enemy because they had refused her absolution while she remained the king's mistress; but the immediate cause of their ruin was the bankruptcy of Father Lavalette, the Jesuit superior in Martinique, a daring speculator, who failed, after trading for some years, for 2,400,000 francs and brought ruin upon some French commercial houses of note.
But there was relentless war between the Hurons and the Iroquois occupying the southern shore of Lake Ontario, and when in 1649 the Iroquois ruined and almost completely destroyed the Hurons, the Jesuit missionaries also fell victims to the conquerors' rage.
petty or sulphurous polemics, great Jesuit teachers like Bellarmine (d.
But it was a ruse of the Jesuit party, who wished to persuade the public that the opposition to the appointment of Isaac Casaubon did not proceed from theological motives, since they were ready to appoint a Protestant in the person of Grotius.
He was a man of enlightenment, did much to encourage agriculture, industries and the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the country, founded the Academy of Sciences at Munich, and abolished the Jesuit censorship of the press.
Jesuit missionaries after the Reformation stirred up schisms in some parts of the Eastern Church, and in Austria, Poland and elsewhere large numbers of Orthodox Christians submitted, either willingly or under compulsion to the see of Rome (see Roman Catholic Church, section Uniat Oriental Churches).
In 1580 the Jesuit mission to England was begun, and he accompanied Robert Parsons who, as superior, was intended to counterbalance Campion's fervour and impetuous zeal.
JACQUES SIRMOND (1559-1651), French scholar and Jesuit, was born at Riom, Auvergne, on the 12th or the 22nd of October 1 559 He was educated at the Jesuit College of Billom; having been a novice at Verdun and then at Pont-Ã -Mousson, he entered into the order on the 26th of July 1576.
Jacobi was ridiculed as endeavouring to reintroduce into philosophy the antiquated notion of unreasoning belief, was denounced as an enemy of reason, as a pietist, and as in all probability a Jesuit in disguise, and was especially attacked for his use of the ambiguous term "belief."
" Its tiennent les poissons raisonnables, comme aussi les cerfs," says a Jesuit father about the North-American savage Indians (Relations, loc. cit.).
His comrades were Rudolfo Acquaviva, Nicolas Spinola, Francesco Pasio and Michele Ruggieri, all afterwards, like Ricci himself, famous in the Jesuit annals.
The court, whose sentimental history has been related by Madame de Ia Fayette, its official splendours by Loret, and its intrigues by the duc de Saint-Simon, now resembled an infirmary of morose invalid~, presided over by Louis XIV.s elderly wife, Madame de Maintenon, under the domination of the Jesuit le Tellier.
We have yet to witness the evolution of the scientific Sociological Jesuit.
Rubus Giraldianus - No Bramble in cultivation produces so striking an effect, in my opinion, as R. giraldianus, named in honor of Giraldi, an Italian, one of the intrepid Jesuit priests in W.
William Gifford Palgrave (1826-1888) went to India as a soldier after a brilliant career at Charterhouse School and Trinity College, Oxford; but, having become a Roman Catholic, he was ordained priest and served as a Jesuit missionary in India, Syria, and Arabia.
Her elder son resigned his title and estates, and became a Jesuit under the name of the Abbe d'Orleans, while the younger, after leading a debauched life, was killed leading the attack in the passage of the Rhine in 1673.
He was educated at the Jesuit College in Calatayud and afterwards studied law at the university of Valladolid.
Eu has three buildings of importance - the beautiful Gothic church of St Laurent (12th and 13th centuries) of which the exterior of the choir with its three tiers of ornamented buttressing and the double arches between the pillars of the nave are architecturally notable; the chapel of the Jesuit college (built about 1625), in which are the tombs of Henry, third duke of Guise, and his wife, Katherine of Cleves; and the château.
In 1540 this pope approved of Loyolas foundation, and secured the powerful militia of the Jesuit order.
Da Gama was taken prisoner and killed, but his followers enabled the Christians of Abyssinia to regain their power, and a Jesuit mission remained in the country.
The records preserved in each city were examined, topographical information was diligently collected, and the Jesuit fathers checked their triangulation by meridian altitudes of the sun and pole star and by a system of remeasurements.
His first important post was as procurator for the province of Austria, 1847; next year he became rector of the Jesuit college at Louvain, and, after serving as secretary to the provincials of Belgium and Austria, was elected head of the order in 1853.
Molsheim was known in the 9th century as Molleshem, and formerly was the seat of a famous Jesuit college, which in 1702 was removed to Strassburg and united with the university of that city.
by the Jesuit missions.
FRANCISCO DE XAVIER (1506-1552), Jesuit missionary and saint, commonly known in English as St Francis Xavier and also called the "Apostle of the Indies."
After visiting Amboyna, the Moluccas and other isles of the Malay archipelago, he returned to Malacca in July 1547, and found three Jesuit recruits from Europe awaiting him.
This story is open to grave suspicion, as, apart from the miracles recorded, there are wide discrepancies between the secular Portuguese histories and the narratives written or inspired by Jesuit chroniclers of the 17th century.
This quality is nowhere better exemplified than in his letters to Gaspar Baertz (Barzaeus), the Flemish Jesuit whom he sent to Hormuz, or in his suggestions for the establishment of a Portuguese staple in Japan.
The royal lyceum, formerly a Jesuit college, contains notable collections and the royal library of over 300,000 volumes.
During the period of the Jesuit ascendancy in the reign of K'ang-hi (1661-1721), the superintendence of this institution was confided to Roman Catholic missionaries, under whose guidance the bronze instruments formerly existing were constructed.
In bringing about this " fall," however, Parsons the Jesuit appears to have had a considerable share; at least Lord Sheffield has recorded that on the only occasion on which Gibbon talked with him on the subject he imputed the change in his religious views principally to that vigorous writer, who, in his opinion, had urged all the best arguments in favour of Roman Catholicism.
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