Jena sentence example

jena
  • From 1816 to 1819 Leo studied at the universities of Breslau, Jena and Göttingen, devoting himself more especially to history, philology and theology.
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  • Leaving the service after the war, he studied jurisprudence at Heidelberg, Göttingen and Jena, and in 1819 went for a while to Geneva to complete his studies.
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  • At Jena, where he lectured as a Privatdozent at the university, he contributed to the Athenaeum the aphorisms and essays in which the principles of the Romantic school are most definitely stated.
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  • Fichte, was born at Jena on the 18th of July 1797.
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  • Eine durch eine Art unvollstandiger Theilung entstehende Medusen-Kolonie," Jena Zeitschr.
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  • He was ably followed by Strasburger (Ueber den Bau und die Verrichtungen der Leitungsbahnen in den Pfianzen, Jena, 1891), Haberlandt and others.
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  • See C. Gegenbaur, " Uber die Nasenmuscheln der Vogel," Jena Zeitschr.
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  • Having studied at Marburg and Jena, he for some time lived at Leipzig as a private tutor; but in 1802 he was appointed professor at Marburg, and two years later professor of philology and ancient history at Heidelberg.
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  • Empfindungen (Jena, 1886), 5th ed., 1906, entitled Die Analyse d.
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  • After studying medicine at Jena, he graduated doctor at Gottingen in 1775, and was appointed extraordinary professor of medicine in 1776 and ordinary professor in 1778.
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  • In 1789 he was chosen professor ordinarius of Oriental languages at Jena.
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  • He is said to have remarked with an oath after Jena that he would make the Spanish Bourbons pay for their recent bellicose proclamation.
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  • Austria now proposed the terms named above with the addition that the Confederation of the Rhine must be dissolved, and that Prussia should be placed in a position as good as that which she held in 1805, that is, before the campaign of Jena.
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  • In 1899 the university of Jena gave him the honorary degree of Doctor of Philosophy for his work on Hegel.
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  • In 1806, as a general of brigade, and commander of the artillery of an army corps, he took part in the Jena.
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  • At Göttingen he remained, declining all further calls elsewhere, as to Erlangen, Kiel, Halle, Tubingen, Jena and Leipzig, until his death, which occurred on the 4th of February 1855.
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  • An offensive move into Franconia was under discussion, and for this purpose the Prussian staff had commenced a lateral concentration about Weimar, Jena and Naumburg when the storm burst upon them.
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  • In the meanwhile, however, the Saxons had been moving from Naumburg through Gera on' Jena, Hohenlohe was near Weimar, and all the other divisions of the army had closed in a march eastwards, the idea of an offensive to the southward which Napoleon had himself attributed to them having already disappeared.
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  • The main body were between Weimar and Apolda during the 12th, and the Saxons duly effected their junction with Hohenlohe in the vicinity of Vierzehnheiligen, whilst the latter had withdrawn his troops all but some outposts from Jena to the plateau about Capellendorf, some 4 m.
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  • The defeats undergone by their outpost detachment had profoundly affected the nerves of the troops, and on the afternoon of the 11th, on the false alarm of a French approach, a panic broke out in the streets of Jena, and it took all the energy of Hohenlohe and his staff to restore order.
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  • On the road from Gera to Jena Napoleon was met by intelligence from Lannes announcing his occupation of Jena and the discovery of Prussian troops to the northward.
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  • The emperor rode forward rapidly, reached Jena about 3 P.M., and with Lannes proceeded to the Landgrafenberg to reconnoitre.
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  • At this moment the Prussians were actually on parade and ready to move off to attack, but just then the " evil genius " of the Prussian army, von Massenbach, an officer of the Headquarter Staff, rode up and claiming to speak with the authority of the king and commander-in-chief, induced Hohenlohe to order his troops back to camp. Of all this Napoleon saw nothing, but from all reports he came to the conclusion that the whole Prussian army was actually in front of him, and at once issued orders for his whole army to concentrate towards Jena, marching all night if need be.
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  • Meanwhile rumours from the battle-field at Jena, magnified as usual, began to reach the staff, and these may possibly have influenced Kalckreuth, for when appealed to to attack with his eighteen battalions and win the day, he declined to move without the direct order of the commander-in-chief to do so, alleging that it was the duty of a reserve to cover the retreat and he considered himself personally responsible to the king for the guards entrusted to his care.
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  • But with the struggle raging before him he remained undecided, until at Jena the decision had clearly fallen, and then he crossed the river and arrived with fresh troops too late for their services to be required.
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  • The wars which ensued, the closing of continental ports against English trade, the occupation of the city after the disastrous battle of Jena, and pestilence within its walls brought about a severe commercial crisis and caused a serious decline in its prosperity.
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  • William refused, however, in 1806, in which year by the death of his father he became prince of Orange, to separate his interests from those of his Prussian relatives, and fought bravely at Jena.
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  • For the practical measurement of field intensity du Bois has used plates of the densest Jena flint glass.
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  • As a result of the Letters, Reinhold received a call to the university of Jena, where he taught from 1787 to 1 794.
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  • Lombroso, Antropometria di 400 delinquenti (1872); Roberts, Manual of Anthropometry (1878); Ferri, Studi comparati di antropometria (2 vols., 1881-1882); Lombroso, Rughe anomale speciali ai criminali (1890); Bertillon, Instructions signaletiques pour l'identification anthropometrique (1893); Livi, Anthropometria (Milan, D900); Furst, Indextabellen zum anthropometrischen Gebrauch (Jena, 1902); Report of Home Office Committee on the Best Means of Identifying Habitual Criminals (1893-1894).
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  • It appears that Prince Charles wished to march via Jena and Gera into Prussia, as Napoleon had done sixty years before, but the scheme was negatived by the Austrian government, which exercised the supreme command of the allies.
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  • He studied with great distinction at Greif swald and at Wittenberg, and having made a special study of languages, theology and history, was appointed professor of Greek and Latin at Coburg in 1692, professor of moral philosophy in the university of Halle in 1693, and in 1705 professor of theology at Jena.
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  • From 1581 he studied at the universities of Strassburg, Leipzig, Heidelberg and Jena.
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  • In 1594 he began to give theological lectures at Jena, and in 1596 accepted a call as professor of theology at Wittenberg, where he died on the 23rd of October 1616.
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  • Having graduated and begun to give lectures at Jena in 1605, he in 1606 accepted the invitation of John Casimir, duke of Coburg, to the superintendency of Heldburg and mastership of the gymnasium; soon afterwards he became general superintendent of the duchy, in which capacity he was engaged in the practical work of ecclesiastical organization until 1616, when he became theological professor at Jena, where the remainder of his life was spent.
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  • He died in Jena on the 10th of August 1637.
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  • Special glasses have therefore been produced by Tonnelot in France and at the Jena glassworks in Germany expressly for the manufacture of thermometers for accurate physical measurements; the analyses of these are shown in Table III.
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  • Among the many developments of the Jena Works, not the least important are the glasses made in the form of a tube, from which gas-chimneys, gauge-glasses and chemical apparatus are fashioned, specially adapted to resist sudden changes of temperature.
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  • He studied at Leipzig and Erlangen, and in 1829 was called to Jena as professor of theology.
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  • He died at Jena on the 3rd of January 1890.
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  • See Schmidt, Dissertatio de Anaximensis psychologia (Jena, 1869); Ritter and Preller, Historia Phil.
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  • He obtained his early education at Marburg and Jena, and returning to France continued his studies at Orleans and Bourges.
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  • He was destined for the church, and graduated at the university of Jena in 1718.
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  • A new era in German periodical literature began when Bertuch brought out at Jena in 1785 the Allgemeine Literaturzeitung, to which the leading writers of the country were contributors.
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  • The battles of Jena and Auerstadt were lost, and the capitulation of Prince Hohenlohe's army was negotiated.
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  • From 1871 to 1874 Eucken taught philosophy at Basel, and in 5874 became professor of philosophy at the university of Jena.
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  • It was the beginning of the process that ended in 1806 at Jena.
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  • At Ludwigslust he fell in love with a young girl, and followed her to Weimar; but failing in his suit, he went next to Jena.
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  • Having married a Roman lady, he returned in 1802 to Germany, and was appointed in the following year professor extraordinary of Italian literature at Jena.
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  • In 1780 he entered the university of Jena as a student of theology.
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  • At Schulpforta he had read with delight Lessing's Anti-Goeze, and during his Jena days had studied the relation between philosophy and religion.
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  • The years spent at Jena were unusually productive; indeed, the completed Fichtean philosophy is contained in the writings of this period.
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  • During this period Fichte's academic career had been troubled by various storms, the last so violent as to put a close to his professorate at Jena.
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  • Some misunderstanding caused an outburst of ignorant ill-feeling on the part of the students, who proceeded to such lengths that Fichte was compelled to reside out of Jena.
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  • Pressure was put by the German powers on Charles Augustus, grand-duke of Saxe-Weimar, in whose dominions Jena university was situated, to reprove and dismiss the offenders.
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  • The philosophy of Fichte, worked out in a series of writings, and falling chronologically into two distinct periods, that of Jena and that of Berlin, seemed in the course of its development to undergo a change so fundamental that many critics have sharply separated and opposed to one another an earlier and a later phase.
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  • On only one point, the position assigned in the Wissenschaftslehre to the absolute ego, is there any obscurity; but the relative passages are far from decisive, and from the early work, Neue Darstellung der Wissenchaftslehre, unquestionably to be ins uded in the Jena period, one can see that from the outset the doctrine of the absolute ego was held in a form differing only in statement from the later theory.
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  • The most important works for (a) are the "Review of Aenesidemus," and the Second Introduction to the Wissenschaftslehre; for (b) the great treatises of the Jena period; for (c) the Thatsachen des Bewusstseyns of 1810.
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  • It had previously narrowly escaped absorption by Napoleon, who passed through the town during the pursuit of the Prussians after the battle of Jena in 1806, and was only dissuaded from abolishing the duchy by the tact and courage of the duchess Louisa.
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  • See Scholl Weimar's Merkwil y digkeiten einst and jetzt (Weimar, 1857); Springer, Weimar's klassische Statten (Berlin, 1868); Ruland, Die Scheitze des Goethe National-Museums in Weimar (Weimar and Leipzig, 1887); Francke, Weimar and Umgebungen (3rd ed., Weimar, 1900); Kuhn, Weimar in Wort and Bild (4th ed., Jena, 1905).
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  • Praetorius, in his Ludicrum chiromanticum (Jena, 1661) 3 has collected the titles of 77.
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  • Of the four universities founded by the Saxon electors at Leipzig, Jena, Wittenberg, later transferred to Halle, and Erfurt, now extinct, only the first is included in the present kingdom of Saxony.
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  • The country had four universities, those of Leipzig, Wittenberg, Jena and Erfurt; books began to increase rapidly, and, by virtue of Luther's translation of the Bible, the Saxon dialect became the ruling dialect of Germany.
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  • When war broke out in 1806 against Napoleon, 22,00022,000 Saxon troops shared the defeat of the Prussians at Jena, but the elector immediately afterwards snatched at Napoleon's offer of neutrality, and abandoned his former ally.
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  • In 1547 the exelector John Frederick the Magnanimous was allowed to retain Weimar, Jena, Eisenach, Gotha, Henneberg and Saalfeld.
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  • In addition to the statues in Juneau Park there is a statue of Kosciusko in the park of that name; one of Washington and a soldiers' monument on Grand Avenue; a statue of Henry Bergh in front of the city hall; one of Robert Burns in the First Ward Park, and, in Washington Park, a replica of Ernst Rietschel's Schiller-Goethe monument in Jena, given to the city in 1908 by the Germans of Milwaukee.
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  • He studied at Berlin and Halle, and in 1890 became professor ordinarius of theology at Jena.
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  • After 1851 it was impossible for him to remain at Kiel, and he was appointed to a professorship at Jena; in 1859 he was called to Berlin, where he remained till his death.
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  • From Saalberg the Saale enters the dreary limestone formation of Thuringia, sweeps beneath the barren, conical hills lying opposite to the university town of Jena, passes the pleasant watering-place of Kosen, washes numerous vine-clad hills and, after receiving at Naumburg the deep and navigable Unstrut, flows past Weissenfels, Merseburg, Halle, Bernburg and Kalbe, and joins the Elbe just above Barby, after traversing a distance of 226 m.
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  • After Jena, Jerome received the surrender of several Prussian towns.
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  • The Montpellier garden was founded in 1592, that of Giessen in 1605, of Strassburg in 1620, of Altdorf in 1625, and of Jena in 1629.
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  • Wernicke, System der nationalen Schutzpolitik nach aussen (Jena, 1896).
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  • After teaching in Heidelberg and Berlin, he became professor of philosophy at Jena (1846), a post which he held till his death.
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  • The university of Jena, led by Matthias Flacius, was the headquarters of the stricter Lutherans, while Wittenberg and Leipzig were the centres of the Philippists or followers of Melanchthon.
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  • He was rewarded for his services at Austerlitz (December 2, 1805) by the principality of Ponte Corvo (June 5,18°6), but during the campaign against Prussia, the same year, was severely reproached by Napoleon for not participating with his army corps in the battles of Jena and Auerstalt, though close at hand.
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  • For details the reader may refer to Diestel, Geschichte des Alten Testaments (Jena 1869), and for the final form of orthodox Protestant views to Witsius, De prophetis et prophetia.
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  • Two years later he became professor extraordinarius of philosophy at Jena.
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  • His Son, Johann Ernst Immanuel (1725-1778), studied Semitic languages at Jena, and also natural science and mathematics.
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  • Another SOn, Christian Wilhelm Franz (1726-1784), was educated at Jena under his father's direction, and as early as 1 7451 747 lectured in the university in branches of exegesis, philosophy and history.
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  • On his return he was in 1750 made professor extraordinarius of philosophy in Jena, but in 1753 he accepted an invitation to become professor ordinarius at Gottingen.
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  • For his life, see the article in the Allgemeine deutsche Biographic. A third son, Karl Friedrich (1734-1799), devoted himself to the study of law, and became professor of law at Jena in 1759.
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  • His most important works were Introductio in controversies juris civilis recentioris (Jena, 1771) and Geschichte der in Deutschland geltenden Rechte (Jena, 1780).
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  • The results of this infirmity of purpose are written large on the history of Prussia from the treaty of Luneville in 1801 to the downfall that followed the campaign of Jena in 1806.
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  • After two years as tutor to two youths of noble family, Schelling was called as extraordinary professor of philosophy to Jena in midsummer 1798.
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  • The philosophical renown of Jena reached its culminating point during the years (1798-1803) of Schelling's residence there.
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  • On the 2nd of June 1803 Schelling and Caroline were married, and with the marriage Schelling's life at Jena came to an end.
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  • It was full time, for Schelling's undoubtedly overweening self-confidence had involved him in a series of disputes and quarrels at Jena, the details of which are important only as illustrations of the evil qualities in Schelling's nature which deface much of his philosophic work.
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  • He arrived in Prussia on the eve of the catastrophe of Jena.
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  • After the battle of Jena she went with her husband to Konigsberg, and when the battles of Eylau and Friedland had placed Prussia absolutely at the mercy of France, she made a personal appeal to Napoleon at his headquarters in Tilsit, but without success.
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  • Besides taking a share in the first collected or Jena edition of Luther's works (1556), Aurifaber sought out and published at Eisleben in 1564-1565 several writings not included in that edition.
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  • He was held responsible not only for the occupation itself, but for every untoward incident to which it gave rise; even Blucher's attempt to blow up the Pont de Jena, which he had prevented, was laid to his charge.
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  • The formation of the third coalition against France in 1805 induced Napoleon to purchase the support of Prussia by allowing her troops to seize Hanover; but in 1807, after the defeat of Prussia at Jena, he incorporated the southern part of the electorate in the kingdom of Westphalia, adding the northern portion to France in 1810.
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  • Educated at first at Eisenberg, he proceeded to Jena, where he studied philosophy under Hegel and Fichte and became privatdozent in 1802.
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  • He studied theology at Jena, and eventually became (1841) pastor, member of the consistory, and superintendent at Hanover.
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  • Having, however, in consequence, lost his professorship at Jena, he gradually altered his views, until at length he decided that God is not mere moral order, but also reason and will, yet without consciousness and personality; that not mankind but God is the absolute; that we are only its direct manifestations, free but finite spirits destined by God to posit in ourselves Nature as the material of duty, but blessed when we relapse into the absolute; that Nature, therefore, is the direct manifestation of man, and only the indirect manifestation of God; and, finally, that being is the divine idea or life, which is the reality behind appearances.
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  • As minister-plenipotentiary at Cassel, between the years 1804 and 1806, he took a prominent share in the formation of the confederation of the Rhine; and after the battle of Jena he returned to Prussia as administrator of the public domains and finances.
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  • Left an orphan at the early age of thirteen, he was sent to the gymnasium at Ilefeld, and passed thence (1722), in poorest circumstances, to the university of Jena to study law.
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  • He also took an active part in a religious union of students, in the support of the free schools for poor children established by them in the suburbs of Jena, and in the training of teachers.
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  • In 1728 Count Zinzendorf visited Jena, and Spangenberg made his acquaintance; in 1730 he visited the Moravian colony at Herrnhut.
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  • A "collegium pastorale practicum" for the care of the sick and poor was in consequence founded by him at Jena, which the authorities at once broke up as a "Zinzendorfian institution."
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  • Meanwhile his free lectures in Jena met with much acceptance, and led to an invitation from Gotthilf Francke to the post of assistant professor of theology and superintendent of schools connected with his orphanage at Halle.
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  • At first he went to Jena, but Zinzendorf at once sought to secure him as a fellow labourer, though the count wished to obtain from him a declaration which would remove from the Pietists of Halle all blame with regard to the disruption.
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  • Having studied law at Leipzig, Helmstadt and Jena, and mathematics, especially geometry and mechanics, at Leiden, he visited France and England, and in 1636 became engineer-in-chief at Erfurt.
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  • In 1796 he lectured at Kiel, and a year later went to Jena to study the natural philosophy of Schelling.
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  • In 1806 he made a treaty of neutrality with Napoleon, but after the battle of Jena the latter, suspecting William's designs, occupied his country, and expelled him.
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  • Berlin (Jena, 1902); revised in Essays on Evolution, 271-292; id.
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  • The campaign of Jena and the battle of Eylau followed; and Napoleon, though still intent on the Russian alliance, stirred up Poles, Turks and Persians to break the obstinacy of the tsar.
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  • The earlier part of it has been translated into German (Jena, 1560-1565).
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  • He was present with Napoleon at the battle of Jena, and at Eylau won the cross of the Legion of Honour.
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  • It obtained for him, on the recommendation of Goethe, a professorship in the university of Jena, and in November 1789 he delivered his inaugural lecture, Was heisst and zu welchem Ende studiert man Universalgeschichte?
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  • In the summer of 1790 he had lectured in Jena on the aesthetics of tragedy, and in the following year he studied carefully Kant's treatise on aesthetics, Kritik der Urteilskraft, which had just appeared and appealed powerfully to Schiller's mind.
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  • He studied theology, ancient languages, and philosophy at Jena, became Privatdozent in the university of Wittenberg in 1716, and in 1720-21 visited Holland and England.
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  • Having studied theology in the academy of the Moravian brethren at Niesky, and philosophy at Leipzig and Jena, he travelled for some time, and in 1806 became professor of philosophy and elementary mathematics at Heidelberg.
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  • In 1816 he was invited to Jena to fill the chair of theoretical philosophy (including mathematics and physics, and philosophy proper), and entered upon a crusade against the prevailing Romanticism.
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  • The grand-duke, however, continued to pay him his stipend, and in 1824 he was recalled to Jena as professor of mathematics and physics, receiving permission also to lecture on philosophy in his own rooms to a select number of students.
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  • Meanwhile, Holderlin in Jena had been following Fichte's career with an enthusiasm with which he infected Hegel.
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  • The upshot was that Hegel arrived at Jena in January 1801.
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  • An end had already come to the brilliant epoch at Jena, when the romantic poets, Tieck, Novalis and the Schlegels made it the headquarters of their fantastic mysticism, and Fichte turned the results of Kant into the banner of revolutionary ideas.
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  • Meanwhile, after the departure of Schelling from Jena in the middle of 1803, Hegel was left to work out his own views.
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  • On the 14th of October 1806 Napoleon was at Jena.
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  • He had already tried to get away from Jena.
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  • The Prussian offer expressed a doubt that his long absence from university teaching might have made him rusty, so he accepted the post at Heidelberg, whence Fries had just gone to Jena (October 1816).
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  • On the other hand, his interest in Minna Herzlieb, foster-daughter of the publisher Frommann in Jena, was of a warmer nature, and has left its traces on his sonnets.
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  • From 1839 to 1845 Wolfgang studied law at Bonn, Jena, Heidelberg and Berlin, taking his degree of doctor juris at Heidelberg in 1845.
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  • His Studenten-Briefe (Jena, 1842), a medley of letters and lyrics, are wholly conventional.
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  • The outcome of all his labours was, however, only the first part of Studies and Researches in the Times and Life of Cardinal Bessarion, embracing the period of the council of Florence (privately printed at Jena, 1871), a catalogue of the MSS.
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  • He studied at Wittenberg under Reinhard and Jehnichen, at Jena under Reinhold, and at Göttingen.
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  • On his return to Halle, he acted for some time as Privatdozent, but in 1773 was appointed to a professorial chair; in 1775 he was translated to Jena, where the rest of his life was spent (though he received calls to other universities).
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  • Among the other works of Griesbach (which are comparatively unimportant) may be mentioned his university thesis De codicibus quatuor evangelistarum Origenianis (Halle, 1771) and a work upon systematic theology (Anleitung zur Kenntniss der popularen Dogmatik, Jena, 1779).
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  • His Opuscula, consisting chiefly of university "Programs" and addresses, were edited by Gabler (2 vols., Jena, 1824).
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  • But in November 1806, when Blucher, retiring from the catastrophe of Jena, had to capitulate in the vicinity of Lubeck, the town was sacked by the French.
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  • The chief towns are Weimar, the capital, on the Ilm; Jena, with the common university of the Thuringian states, on the Saale; Apolda, the "Manchester of Weimar," to the east; and Ilmenau, lying among the hills on the edge of the Thuringian Forest to the S.W.
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  • Fruit grows in abundance, especially around Jena, and vines are cultivated with great success on the banks of the Saale.
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  • The optical instruments of Jena and the scientific instruments of Ilmenau are well known.
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  • The diet consists of one chamber with thirty-eight members, of whom five are chosen by owners of land worth at least i 50 a year, five by those who derive a similar income from other sources, five by the university of Jena and other public bodies, and twenty-three by the rest of the inhabitants.
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  • Justice is administered by two high courts (Landesgerichte), at Weimar and Eisenach respectively; the district of Neustadt falling under the jurisdiction of the Landesgericht at Gera; while the supreme court of appeal for the four Saxon duchies, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt and Reuss, together with portions of Prussia, is the Oberlandesgericht at Jena.
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  • The war between France and Prussia in 1806 was fraught with danger to the existence of the principality, and after the battle of Jena it was mainly the skilful conduct of the duchess Louise, the wife of Charles Augustus, that dissuaded Napoleon 1 See Goethe's famous lines, Epigramme (35): "Klein ist unter den Fiirsten Germaniens freilich der meine; Kurz and schmal ist sein Land, massig nur, was er vermag.
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  • He studied at Halle, Jena and Heidelberg, and became an adherent of the party which sought to create a free and united Germany.
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  • The most complete medical history of epidemics is Haser's Geschichte der epidemischen Krankheiten (3rd ed., Jena, 1882), forming the third volume of his History of Medicine.
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  • In 1856 he became a Privat-docent, and in 1858 extraordinary professor at Leipzig; in 1861 professor of philology and archaeology at Tubingen; in 1864 professor of classical antiquities at Zurich; in 1869 at Jena, where he was also director of the archaeological museum; in 1874 at Munich, where he remained until his death on the 21st of September 1883.
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  • At Prenzlau Prince Hohenlohe, with his corps of 12,000 men, surrendered to Murat on the retreat after the battle of Jena in October 1806.
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  • During the French Revolution the property passed into the hands of the prince of Orange, but after the battle of Jena, Napoleon deprived him of it and presented it to Marshal Kellermann.
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  • After studying philology, philosophy and theology at Helmstadt, Jena, Giessen, Tubingen and Heidelberg, he travelled through Holland, France and England, where he became acquainted with the leading Reformers.
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  • Educated there and at the university of Jena, he became privat-docent at Jena in 1802.
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  • After his death the young widow (still under forty), leaving Arthur at Hamburg, proceeded with her daughter Adele in the middle of 1806 to Weimar, where she arrived only a fortnight before the tribulation which followed the victory of Napoleon at Jena.
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  • On the 2nd of October 1813 he received his diploma from Jena; and in the same year from the press at Rudolstadt there was published - without winning notice or readers - his first book, Ober die vierfache Wurzel des Satzes vom zureichenden Grunde, trans.
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  • Friedrich Wilhelm Krummacher (1796-1868), son of Friedrich Adolf, studied theology at Halle and Jena, and became pastor successively at Frankfort (1819), Ruhrort (1823), Gemarke, near Barmen in the Wupperthal (1825), and Elberfeld (1834).
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  • After Jena Napoleon attempted to win over Sweden, but Gustavus rejected every overture.
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  • To the north lies the plateau, descending steeply to the valley, famous as the scene of the battle of Jena.
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  • Thus the seven marvels of Jena are summed up in the Latin lines: - Ara, caput, draco, mons, pons, vulpecula turris, Weigeliana domus; septem miracula Jenae.
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  • In 1547 the elector John Frederick the Magnanimous of Saxony, while a captive in the hands of the emperor Charles V., conceived the plan of founding a university at Jena, which was accordingly established by his three sons.
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  • At the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century, the opening of new universities, co-operating with the suspicions of the various German governments as to the democratic opinions which obtained at Jena, militated against the university, which has never regained its former prosperity.
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  • The manufactures of Jena are not considerable.
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  • Jena appears to have possessed municipal rights in the 13th century.
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  • Bernhard's line having become extinct in 1690, Jena was united with Eisenach, and in 1741 reverted with that duchy to Weimar.
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  • In more modern times Jena has been made famous by the defeat inflicted in the vicinity, on the 14th of October 1806, by Napoleon upon the Prussian army under the prince of Hohenlohe (see Napoleonic Campaigns).
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  • See Schreiber and Farber, Jena von seinem Unsprung bis zur neuesten Zeit (2nd ed., 1858); Ortloff, Jena and Umgegend (3rd ed., 1875); Leonhardt, Jena als Universitat and Stadt (Jena, 1902); Ritter, Fiihrer durch Jena and Umgebung (Jena, 1901); Biedermann, Die Universitdt Jena (Jena, 1858); and the Urkundenbuch der Stadt Jena.
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  • He studied at Jena, where he became extraordinary professor in 1869.
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  • In 1774 he received the rectorship of the gymnasium at Ohrdruf, in the duchy of Gotha, and in the following year was made professor of Oriental languages at Jena.
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  • In his memory a Karl- Schwarz-stiftung was founded in connexion, with the theological faculty at Jena.
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  • He distinguished himself at the battles of Austerlitz and Jena,.
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  • The number of matriculated students is usually greater in winter than in summer; the reason of the disproportion being that in the summer university towns having pleasant surroundings, such as Bonn, Heidelberg, Kiel and Jena, are more frequented.
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  • After the disastrous campaign of Jena, Berlin suffered much during the French occupation (24th October 1806 to 1st December 1808).
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  • In 1656 he was made judge in the ducal court at Jena, and took the leading part in the numerous beneficent reforms of the duke.
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  • The entrance is at the Ospizio dei Poveri di San Gennaro (see Schulze's monograph, Jena, 1877).
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  • In 1772 he entered the university of Jena as a theological student.
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  • After having beedsuccessively Repetent in Gottingen and teacher in the public schools of Dortmund (Westphalia) and Altdorf (Bavaria), he was, in 1785, appointed second professor of theology in the university of Altdorf, whence he was translated to a chair in Jena in 1804, where he succeeded Griesbach in 1812.
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  • He founded the university of Jena and was a benefactor to that of Leipzig.
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  • He soon after this obtained a government appointment in connexion with the newly-acquired Polish provinces, but in consequence of the battle of Jena (1806) he lost this office, and remained in very needy circumstances until 1809, when he was summoned to St Petersburg by Alexander I., to fill the post of court councillor, and the professorship of oriental languages and philosophy at the Alexander-Nevski Academy.
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  • During the same period the excitement caused by the accusation of atheism brought against Fichte at Jena led to the publication of Jacobi's Letter to Fichte (1799), in which he made more precise the relation of his own philosophic principles to theology.
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  • The new ministry remained in office for a year, a disastrous year which saw the culmination of Napoleons power: the ciushing of Prussia in the campaign of Jena, the formation of the Confederation of the Rhine and the end of the Holy Roman Empire.
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  • After studying theology at Leipzig, Göttingen and Tubingen, he became in 1885 professor ordinarius of systematic theology at Heidelberg, and in 1893 was called to Jena.
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  • He went so far as to quit Leipzig altogether, and betook himself to Jena, where he formed an intimate friendship with Erhard Weigel the mathematician, whose influence helped to develop his remarkable independence of character.
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  • Pufendorf quitted Jena in 1637 and became a tutor in the family of Petrus Julius Coyet, one of the resident ministers of Charles Gustavus, king of Sweden, at Copenhagen.
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  • In 1612 he entered the university of Jena.
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  • In consequence of an illness, however, he returned to Jena after a year.
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  • From 1625 to 1638 he was superintendent in Sondershausen; but shortly after the death of Gerhard (1637) he was, in accordance with Gerhard's last wish, appointed to succeed him at Jena.
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  • After being educated at Berlin, Gottingen and Jena, in the last of which places he formed a close and lifelong friendship with Schiller, he married Fraulein von Dacherode, a lady of birth and fortune, and in 1802 was appointed by the Prussian government first resident and then minister plenipotentiary at Rome.
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  • His Son, Ernst Ludwig Theodor Henke (1804-1872), after studying at the university of Jena, became professor extraordinarius there in 1833, and professor ordinarius of Marburg in 1839.
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  • After holding chairs at Kiel (1866), Konigsberg (1873), and Jena (1876), he was finally appointed professor of history at Tubingen, where he died on the 2nd of March 1887.
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  • After the battle of Jena he returned to Berlin (1807), was soon appointed pastor of the Trinity Church there, and the next year married the widow of his friend Willich.
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  • See Rabe, Die Luneburger Heide and die Bewirthschaftung der Heidhofe (Jena, 1900); Kniep, Fuhrer durch die Luneburger Heide (Hanover, 1900); Linde, Die Luneburger Heide (Luneburg, 1905), and Kuck, Das alte Bauernleben der Luneburger Heide (Leipzig, 1906).
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  • In a second campaign he lestroyed at Jena both the army and the state of Frederick William III., who could not make up his mind between the Napoleonic treaty of SchOnbrunn and Russias counter-proposal at Potsdam (October 14, 1806).
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  • After studying under Fichte at Jena he gave his first philosophical lectures at Gottingen in 1805, whence he removed in 1809 to occupy the chair formerly held by Kant at Konigsberg.
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  • He studied at Jena, Halle and Leipzig, and took a degree at the last-named university.
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  • The new glasses produced at Schott's glass works, Jena, possessed in part optical qualities which differed considerably from those of the older kinds of glass.
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  • Abbe overcame this defect by using the so-called compensation ocular, made with Jena glasses.
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  • Born at Miinchengosserstadt on the Saale on the 24th of September 1791, he received his early education at Altenburg, and after a course of theology at Jena, devoted some time to archaeology and the history of art.
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  • After the battle of Jena (1806) it fell into the hands of the French; and was gallantly held by Laplane, against the Russian and Prussian besiegers, after the battle of Katzbach in August 1813 until the 17th of the following April.
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  • Schmid in Jena, Buhle in Gottingen, Tennemann in Marburg, and Snell in Giessen, with many others, made it the basis of their philosophical teaching, while theologians like Tieftrunk, Staudlin, and Ammon eagerly applied it to Christian doctrine and morality.
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  • Abbe, after the founding of -the glassworks at Jena, who effected, independently of his predecessors,.
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  • From 1816 to 1819 Leo studied at the universities of Breslau, Jena and Göttingen, devoting himself more especially to history, philology and theology.
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  • At this time the universities were still agitated by the Liberal and patriotic aspirations aroused by the War of Liberation; at Breslau Leo fell under the influence of Jahn, and joined the political gymnastic association (Turnverein); at Jena he attached himself to the radical wing of the German Burschenschaft, the so-called "Black Band," under the leadership of Karl Follen.
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  • Leaving the service after the war, he studied jurisprudence at Heidelberg, Göttingen and Jena, and in 1819 went for a while to Geneva to complete his studies.
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  • See Statistik des Herzogtums Sachsen-Meiningen (Meiningen, 1892 fol.); Bruckner, Landeskunde des Herzogtums Sachsen-Meiningen (Meiningen, 1853); Goeckel, Das Staatsrecht des Herzogtums SachsenMeiningen (Jena, 1904); Anschutz, Industrie, Handel and Verkehr im Herzogtum Sachsen-Meiningen (Sonneberg, 1904); and the publications of the Verein fur sachsen-meiningische Geschichte and Landeskunde (Hildburghausen, 1888 fol.).
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  • C. Schlosser to give it up for history, and after continuing his historical work at Jena and teaching in the gymnasium at Wertheim he made his mark by his Die teutschen Geschichtsschreiber vom Anfang des Frankenreichs bis auf die Hohenstaufen (1839).
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  • At Göttingen he remained, declining all further calls elsewhere, as to Erlangen, Kiel, Halle, Tubingen, Jena and Leipzig, until his death, which occurred on the 4th of February 1855.
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  • In this mission Gentz had no official mandate from the Austrian government, and whatever hopes he may have cherished of privately influencing the situation in the direction of an alliance between the two German powers were speedily dashed by the campaign of Jena.
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  • The manufacture of the new varieties of glass, originally known as " Jena " glasses, is now carried out extensively and with a considerable degree of commercial success in France, and also to a less extent in England, but none of the other makers of optical glass has as yet contributed to the progress of the industry to anything like the same extent as the Jena firm.
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  • On the capitulation of the Hanoverian army in 1803 Hameln fell into the hands of the French; it was retaken by the Prussians in 1806, but, after the battle of Jena, again passed to the French, who dismantled the fortifications and incorporated the town in the kingdom of Westphalia.
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  • The grand-duke accepted his threat as a request to resign, passed censure, and extended to him permission to withdraw from his chair at Jena; nor would he alter his decision, even though Fichte himself endeavoured to explain away the unfortunate letter.
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  • Here he took part in founding Jena University (1548); opposed the "Augsburg Interim" (1548); superintended the publication of the Jena edition of Luther's works; and debated on the freedom of the will, original sin,'and, more noticeably, on the Christian value of good works, in regard to which he held that they were not only useless, but prejudicial.
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  • It is supposed that this use arose in 1693 in Jena after a " town and gown " row in which a student had been killed and a sermon preached on the text " the Philistines be upon you, Samson " (see Quarterly Review, April 18 99, 43 8, note, quoted in the New English Dictionary).
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  • He was rewarded for his services at Austerlitz (December 2, 1805) by the principality of Ponte Corvo (June 5,18°6), but during the campaign against Prussia, the same year, was severely reproached by Napoleon for not participating with his army corps in the battles of Jena and Auerstalt, though close at hand.
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  • Such being the case, the relationship between the two religions remains a mere possibility, a possibility which the inquiry of Geyler (Das System des Manichaeismus and sein Verhi ltniss zum Buddhismus, Jena, 1875) has not been able to elevate into a probability.and this religion is very confusing?????
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  • Among his more important works may be mentioned: - Der Mensch in der Geschichte (Leipzig, 1860); Die V olker des ostlichen Asien (Jena, 1866-1871); Ethnologische Forschungen (Leipzig, 1871-1873); Die Kulturldnder des alten Amerika (Berlin 1878); Der Buddhismus in seiner Psychologie (Berlin, 1881); Indonesien (Leipzig, 1884); Der Fetisch an der Kiiste Guineas (Berlin, 1885); Die mikronesischen Kolonien (1899-1900); Die wechselnden Phasen ins geschichtlichen Sehkreis and ihre Riickwirkung auf die V olkerkunde (1900) .
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  • See Regel, Thüringen, ein landeskundlicher Grundriss (Jena, 1897); Trinius, Thüringer Wanderbuch (8 vols., Minden, 1896-1902); Prescholdt, Der Thüringer Wald und seine nÃchste Umgebung, in Forschungen zur deutschen Landes- und Volkskunde, vol.
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  • He studied at Wittenberg under Reinhard and Jehnichen, at Jena under Reinhold, and at Göttingen.
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  • After studying theology at Leipzig, Göttingen and Tubingen, he became in 1885 professor ordinarius of systematic theology at Heidelberg, and in 1893 was called to Jena.
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  • The victories of the French at Jena and Auerstadt destroy the independent existence of Prussia.
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  • In many botanical gardens in Germany a feature is made of these hardy Cacti, and their value is well seen at Giessen, Jena, Leipzig, Magdeburg, Dusseldorf, and many other places.
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