His hair was tied back, his jaw and chin scruffy from a couple days' growth of hair.
What is this? shouted the regimental commander, thrusting forward his jaw and pointing at a soldier in the ranks of the third company in a greatcoat of bluish cloth, which contrasted with the others.
He clamped his jaw shut.
His jaw clenched at the question.
Lisa snapped her sagging jaw shut.
Alex's head jerked up and his jaw dropped.
My jaw dropped as she continued.
Carmen set her jaw and challenged them each with a stern look.
Dusty's jaw clenched until he felt the muscles tick.
Davis rubbed his jaw reflectively.
Yancey's yes flashed and his jaw tightened.
She set her jaw and said nothing for several minutes.
His jaw muscles worked.
His jaw ticked, and his fists were clenched.
His jaw muscles worked as he spun on one heel and marched to the outside door, slamming it as he left.
Gabriel listened, jaw clenched.
He scratched his jaw reflectively and his eyes brightened with an idea.
He rubbed his jaw reflectively.
Deidre clenched her jaw in irritation.
Chiseled to perfection, covered in olive-hued skin, with a low brow, piercing gaze and strong jaw …His nearness made her feel hot.
His lips traced the line from her neck to her jaw with small, hot kisses, sending exquisite shivers through her.
His jaw tightened and his eyes flashed a warning.
His jaw clenched as he thought again of Bianca.
She touched his jaw with cold fingertips, and the bond between them opened.
His silver eyes were molten, his rugged jaw line shaded by two days. growth.
What was going on behind those fantastic eyes, she couldn't say, but Pete's jaw must have dropped a mile.
His features were partially illuminated by the moonlight: a chiseled jaw and cheekbones, dark eyes and neatly trimmed, dark hair.
Talon's jaw was lax, his eyes wide.
His jaw was roughened from a five o'clock shadow.
Gladys waddled down, her jaw set like a drill Sergeant, looking as if she'd like to spit in Jerome's coffee.
Bordeaux frowned and then his jaw tightened.
The tick in his jaw belied how tightly his teeth were clamped.
His thumb brushed her jaw line.
The skin against his jaw was rough.
Edith Shipton's jaw dropped and a panicked look spread across her white face.
She brushed water from his face and traced a finger along his jaw.
She clenched her jaw.
He rubbed his jaw.
Their faces were inches away, his fingers tracing a line of warm electricity down her jaw.
Gabriel rubbed his rough jaw.
Gabe clenched his jaw.
Gabe watched him, rubbing his rough jaw.
His thumb traced the line of her jaw lightly, and heat skittered through her.
This process is, however, less fully developed than in elephants, and as many as three teeth may be in place in each jaw at one time.
The lower jaw is extrem:.ly narrow, and 1 See Schiemann, op. cit., i.
He rubbed his jaw and stared absently at the spot.
His thumb caressed her jaw as he gazed down into her face.
His blue eyes were sharp, his jaw clenched.
He clenched his jaw, torn between his heart and his duty.
Her hands were soon roaming his body curiously, resting on his jaw and trailing along his neck.
His jaw was clenching and unclenching.
Gabriel rubbed his jaw and strode out of the Oracle's small room.
His jaw clenched, his piercing gaze making her want to crawl back into his arms.
Gabriel's jaw ticked as held her gaze for a long moment.
Jade's jaw grew lax before he managed to speak.
His jaw was clenched and ticking as the muscles jumped.
Rhyn clenched his jaw, hearing the truth in Kiki's words.
The jaguar launched itself at the child, and Toby.s scream shattered the quiet morning as its jaw clamped on his arm.
Katie clenched her jaw, realizing just how sugar-coated the Immortals. world around her would look to her sister.
He clenched his jaw, his pain deep and hidden as he thought of his people and his planet.
He could think of one solution to his problem, and his jaw clenched.
One eyebrow rose in challenge, and her jaw clenched.
His gaze was cold, his jaw ticking.
Pierre noticed that he was pale and that his jaw quivered and shook as if in an ague.
With one hand he supported the other; he was pale and his jaw trembled, shivering feverishly.
The doctor with his shirt sleeves tucked up, without a coat, pale and with a trembling jaw, came out of the room.
"I don't know that and don't want to," he said, not looking at Pierre and with a slight tremor of his lower jaw, "but you have used such words to me--'mean' and so on--which as a man of honor I can't allow anyone to use."
The lower jaw of an old Frenchman with a thick mustache trembled as he untied the ropes.
A paper has come from the Tsar!' so they began looking for him," here Karataev's lower jaw trembled, "but God had already forgiven him--he was dead!
His long fingers traced her jaw to the hair on the back of her neck.
He glanced at the whip and his jaw muscles worked.
He closed his eyes, his jaw clenched hard enough for the muscles to tick.
His jaw was ticking.
Sobering, he folded his arms across his chest and rubbed his jaw.
Gabriel rubbed his jaw.
Nishani's eyes narrowed, and she clenched her jaw.
His face was more handsome than she remembered, more rugged with a two days' growth covering his neck and jaw.
The ache returned to his jaw as he swallowed venom, and the fangs painfully emerged.
From the set of her jaw, he sensed she would not move on this.
She traced his jaw line from temple to chin with her index finger.
They were quiet for a long time until Elisabeth propped up on her elbow, tracing his jaw line with her finger.
He turned his attention back to the blood and what he found made his jaw drop.
Venom replaced saliva and his jaw began to ache.
Jackson sat rubbing his jaw wondering what the hell just happened.
She finally turned to him, and by the set of her jaw he knew he was fighting a losing battle.
He ran a finger along her jaw line.
Carmen clamped her sagging jaw shut and tore her gaze from him, an uncomfortable warmth flooding her neck and face.
He traced her jaw line with a finger.
He traced her jaw with a finger and his gaze became tender.
She rubbed his jaw.
He rubbed his jaw and eyed her reflectively.
The woman before him was younger than he expected and cute in an elfin way, with large eyes, a tapered chin, delicate jaw line, and expressive brow.
The general's jaw clenched, but he said nothing.
Unaccustomed to the abrupt treatment, he clenched his jaw and obeyed.
Her jaw clenched, then she yielded with a sigh.
Rhyn's jaw clenched, and he fought the raw feeling inside him, the one that betrayed him every time he tried to convince himself he'd survived worse.
He rubbed his stubble-roughed jaw.
His teeth were grinding loudly enough for her to hear, and his face was ashen and drawn in a look of pain. He couldn't answer – that much she discerned at the rippling muscles of his clenched jaw.
Rhyn's jaw clenched, and he looked up at the sky. He stood and hauled Kris to his feet, indicating the forest.
With one motion he struck downward with his right arm and swung his left elbow with all his might on a level line at the man's jaw.
He reached out and traced her jaw with an index finger, his gaze becoming sultry.
His finger left her jaw and softly followed the curve of her neck.
She tried to turn her face, but he held her lower jaw in a firm grip.
He released her jaw and took her into his arms.
He stroked her cheek with the back of his fingers and ran a thumb along her jaw.
Snapping her sagging jaw up, she pulled the strap up on her shoulder and forced a smile.
On the way home Alex was unusually quiet, his lips a thin line and his jaw rigid.
Carmen regained control of her gaping jaw.
The muscles worked in his jaw and he glanced away.
He rubbed his jaw with one hand.
There was something else in her gaze and the firm set of her jaw that bothered him.
She was almost too still to be breathing, her jaw clenched.
Her jaw clenched again.
He grabbed her arm, and she twisted, punching him hard in the jaw before tearing away.
Taran's jaw tightened as he took in the right side of her face, which blazed red as if struck.
He paused, his jaw clenching and his grip on her wrist tight enough to hurt.
She opened her eyes and clenched her jaw, intent on forgetting him.
Vara's jaw clenched hard enough for muscles on either side to tick.
His jaw ticked again, and she held her breath, waiting.
The vision of her dropping beneath his arrows replaced it, and he clenched his jaw.
Memon, obsessed with the writhing creature, unhinged his jaw and swallowed it slowly, his eyes closed.
His jaw worked and he lowered his voice.
His eyes flashed and his jaw worked.
He brushed a lock of hair back from her face and then traced her jaw with a finger.
He rubbed his jaw and eyed her reflectively for a few moments.
His jaw tightened and his voice was low and threatening.
Denton crammed his hands into his pockets and his jaw muscles worked as he glared at her.
Megan snapped her sagging jaw shut and ran to get a wet rag.
He was heavy of jaw with a wide forehead and an aquiline nose set between two large eyes.
Jessi's attention was on Gerry, who was smiling politely while his jaw ticked.
She shivered at the sensation of his roughened jaw against her cheek and the heat of his bare chest.
"I don't want you to swoon or to fear me," he said and trailed kisses down her jaw.
His jaw was roughened, his red eyes glowing.
His jaw was ticking, his eyes rimmed with red.
Mastodons, like elephants, always have a pair of upper tusks, while the earlier ones likewise have a short pair in the lower jaw, which is prolonged into a snout-like symphysis for their support.
In the winter coat the hair is long and pendent, elongated into a short beard on the sides of the lower jaw behind the chin; and it is also longer than elsewhere on the neck and the chest; at the base of the long hair is a thick growth of short and woolly under-fur.
In all cases a more or less full series of teeth is developed, these being differentiated into incisors, canines, premolars and molars, when all are present; but only a single pair of teeth in each jaw has deciduous predecessors.
- Teeth of Upper Jaw of Opossum (Didelphys marsupialis), all of which are unchanged, except the third premolar, the place of which is occupied in the young animal by a molariform tooth, represented in the figure below the line of the other teeth.
In addition to this replacement of a single pair of functional teeth in each jaw, it has been discovered that marsupials possess rudimentary tooth-germs which never cut the gum.
According to one theory, these rudimentary teeth, together with the one pair of functional teeth in each jaw that has vertical successors, represent the milk-teeth of placental mammals.
s = 46; with the incisors small and vertical, the outer one in the upper jaw being larger than the others.
In the upper jaw the first two with crowns having a triangular free surface; the last small, simple, narrow and placed transversely.
In the lower jaw the molars more compressed, with longer cusps; the last not notably smaller than the others.
From all other members of the family the marsupial, or banded, ant-eater (Myrmecobius fasciatus) differs by the presence of more than seven pairs of cheek-teeth in each jaw, as well as by the exceedingly long and protrusile tongue.
On the other hand, it is noteworthy that this marsupial retains in its lower jaw the so-called mylo-hyoid groove, which is found in the aforesaid Jurassic mammals.
In the pig-footed bandicoot (Choeropus castanotis) the dentition generally resembles that of Perameles, but the canines are less developed, and in the upper jaw two-rooted.
8) has four pairs of upper incisors and long upper canines, while in the lower jaw there is a single pair of procumbent incisors, After Thomas.
The three pairs of molars in each jaw are, like the last premolar, quadritubercular oblong teeth.
The tail is rudimentary, the first hind-toe opposable, the first pair of upper incisors very large, but the second and third either absent or small and placed partially behind the larger pair; and only five pairs of cheek-teeth in each jaw.
Cheek-teeth in continuous series, as in the upper jaw.
In the lower jaw there are also one or two small and early deciduous premolars; third premolars of both jaws formed on the same type as that of the rat-kangaroos, but relatively much larger; molars rudimentary, tubercular.
The tail is long and in some cases prehensile; the first hind-toe may be either large, small or absent; the dentition usually includes three pairs of upper and one of lower incisors, and six or seven pairs of cheekteeth in each jaw; the stomach is either simple or sadculated, without a cardiac gland; and there are four teats.
With the exception of the aberrant long-snouted phalanger, the members of the family Phalangeridae have the normal number of functional incisors, in addition to which there may be one or two rudimentary pairs in the lower jaw.
The first in the upper jaw is strong, curved and cutting, the other two generally somewhat smaller; the single lower functional incisor large, more or less.
The lower jaw has no pocket on the outer side.
All the other teeth are simple, conical, minute and placed at considerable and irregular intervals apart in the jaws, the number appearing to vary in different individuals and even on different sides of the jaw of the same indi viduals.
The lower jaw is slender, nearly straight, 2-3 and without a coronoid process or inflected angle.
3; the incisors being sharp and cutting, o, 3, 3 and those of the lower jaw frequently having a scissor-like action against one another.
The broad molars are either bluntly tuberculated or transversely ridged; the outer side of the hind part of the lower jaw has a deep pocket; and the hind-limbs are generally very long, with the structure of the foot similar to that of the bandicoots.
- Lower Jaw and Teeth of Phascolotherium bucklandi (nat.
- Lower Jaw and Teeth of Amphilestes broderipi (twice nat.
The lower jaw is heavy; the cheekbones somewhat high, and the chin small and receding.
In view of these differences from the domesticated breed, and the resemblance of the skull or lower jaw to that of the extinct European species, it becomes practically impossible to regard the wild camels as the offspring of animals that have escaped from captivity.
It grows in small rings, which give it the appearance of growing in tufts, though it is really closely and evenly distributed over the whole scalp. The figures of the men are muscular and well-formed and generally pleasing; a straight, well-formed nose and jaw are by no means rare, and the young men are often distinctly good-looking.
In the more typical Lemuridae there are two pairs of upper incisor teeth, separated by a gap in the middle line; the premolars may be either two or three, but the molars, as in the lower jaw, are always three on each side.
In the lower jaw the incisors and canines are directed straight forwards, and are of small size and nearly similar form; the function of the canine being discharged by the first premolar, which is larger than the other teeth of the same series.
The maximum number of teeth is 36, there being typically two pairs of incisors and three of premolars in each jaw.
The skeleton is cartilaginous, and the skull is remarkable for the very elongate suspensorium of the lower jaw; the tail remains in the notochordal condition, no cartilages being formed in this organ, which is destined to disappear with the gills.
Additional splints rest on the inner side of the jaw.
Much difference of opinion obtains as to the affinities of these birds, which were far larger than an ostrich; they were undoubtedly incapable of flight and there are indications of teeth in the upper jaw.
Tremors of the muscles more or less violent accompany the cold sensations, beginning with the muscles of the lower jaw (chattering of the teeth), and extending to the extremities and trunk.
Jaw simple, without a superior appendage.
Radula with elongated and pointed teeth, like those of the Agnatha; a jaw present.
Jaw formed of folds imbricated externally and meeting at an acute angle near the base.
Jaw with a well-developed dorsal appendage.
3 In reply to some critical remarks (Ibis, 1868, pp. 8 5-9 6), chiefly aimed at showing the inexpediency of relying solely on one set of characters, especially when those afforded by the palatal bones were not, even within the limits of families, wholly diagnostic, the author (Ibis, 1868, pp. 357-362) announced a slight modification of his original scheme, by introducing three more groups into it, and concluded by indicating how its bearings upon the great question of " genetic classification" might be represented so far as the different groups of Carinatae are concerned: - 1 These names are compounded respectively of Dromaeus, the generic name applied to the emeu, 7xQ-a, a split or cleft, SEVµa, a bond or tying, a finch, and, in each case, yvaBos, a jaw.
In the adult of both sexes there are only two teeth, both in the upper jaw, which lie horizontally side by side, and in the female remain throughout life concealed in cavities of the bone.
Dogs were first classified into three groups: - (i) Those having the head more or less elongated, and the parietal bones of the skull widest at the base and gradually approaching towards each other as they ascend, the condyles of the lower jaw being on the same line with the upper molar teeth.
The lower jaw should be strongly protruding, the ears should be small and erect, the forehead deeply wrinkled with an indentation between the eyes, known as the "stop."
There are but three pairs of incisor teeth in each jaw, and the upper molars are tricuspid.
The hair on the lower jaw, throat and chest is long and straight, and hangs down like a beard or dewlap, though there is no loose fold of skin in this situation.
In Europe the group is represented by the long-known and typical genus Lophiodon with three premolars in each jaw, of which the upper are simpler than the molars.
The under jaw projects about half an inch beyond the upper.
Usually it passes from the throat (the anterior part of which, with the whole of the under jaw, is dark) above the origin of the flipper, along the middle of the flank, and descends again to the middle line before reaching the tail.
They differ from the other American monkeys in having one pair less of molar teeth in each jaw.
The lower jaw projects more or less beyond the upper, the mental barble is small, sometimes rudimentary, the vent is below the posterior half of the first dorsal fin, and there is a dark spot in the axil of the pectoral fin.
- Lower Jaw and Teeth of Megatherium.
The tail is short or rudimentary, the incisors are short, and the outer surface of the lower jaw is marked by a distinct ridge.
They include a skull and several large adult bones and a child's jaw.
The avicularium can move as a whole by means of special muscles, and its chitinous lower jaw m- ect.
Maxillary bordering the mouth, forming sutures with the premaxillary, prefrontal and frontal, toothless; lower jaw toothed; pubis and ischium present, the latter forming a symphysis: Glauconiidae.
Eyes vestigial or hidden; lower jaw toothless; without enlarged ventral scales: Typhlopidae.
Eyes vestigial; teeth restricted to the lower jaw; without en- larged ventral scales: Glauconiidae.
- Burrowing like the Typhlopidae, which they much resemble externally, but the maxillaries retain their normal position and are toothless, teeth being restricted to the lower jaw, which is short, stout, and not distensible.
- Maxillaries horizontal and forming the greater portion of the upper jaw, which is toothed like the lower jaw; coronoid of mandible absent.
The tongue is short, and the sheath in which it lies concealed opens near to the front margin of the lower jaw; scarcely more than the two terminating points are exserted from the mouth when the animal is in the water.
The canines are somewhat elongated, and were followed by a short gap in each jaw, and the cheek-teeth were adapted for succulent food.
-; the upper canines being long sabre-like weapons, protected by a descending flange on each side of the front of the lower jaw.
The skull generally lacks a sagittal crest; and the condyle of the lower jaw is transversely elongated.
Odontoid process of second vertebra semi-cylindrical; skull with a sagittal crest; and the condyle of the lower jaw rounded.
The cheek-teeth are selenodont, as in the two preceding groups; there are no upper incisors, but there are long, narrow and pointed upper canines, which attain a large size in the males; the lower canines are incisor-like, as in the Pecora, and there are no caniniform premolars in either jaw.
The hinder end of the lower jaw is provided with a deep descending flange.
They agree, for instance, with that family in the presence of a descending flange at the hinder end of each side of the lower jaw; but their dentition is of a more generalized type, comprising the full series of 44 teeth, among which the incisors and canines are of normal form, but specially enlarged, and developing roots in the usual manner.
The molars are partially selenodont in the typical genus Anthracotherium, with five cusps, or columns, on the crowns of those of the upper jaw, which are nearly square.
It shows the characteristic hippopotamus-flange to the lower jaw, but has also a large descending process from the jugal bone of the zygomatic arch of the skull.
In certain species of mylodon the front pair of teeth in each jaw is placed some distance in front of the rest and has the crown surface obliquely bevelled by From Owen.
wearing against the corresponding teeth in the opposite jaw.
The skull is shorter and lower than in Megatherium, without any vertical expansion of the middle of the lower jaw, and the teeth also extend nearly to the front of the jaws; both these features being sloth-like.
Beavers are nearly allied to the squirrels (Sciuridae), agreeing in certain structural peculiarities of the lower jaw and skull.
It has also one premolar tooth less in the lower jaw.
The East African gerenuk, or Waller's gazelle (Lithocranius walleri), of which two races have been named, is a very remarkable ruminant, distinguished not only by its exceedingly elongated neck and limbs, but also by the peculiar hooked form of the very massive horns of the bucks, the dense structure and straight profile of the skull, and the extreme slenderness of the lower jaw.
(A) With a great anterior prolongation of the ossification of the nasal partition, extending in the adult far beyond the nasal bones, and supported and embraced at the base by ascending plates from the upper jaw, forming the genus or sub-genus Tapirella.
- The teeth of Heloderma are recurved, with slightly swollen bases, loosely attached to the inner edge of the jaws; each tooth is grooved, and those of the lower jaw are in close vicinity of the series of labial glands which secrete a poison; the only instance among lizards.'
It was observed that ten of the caudal vertebrae of the latter skeleton bore tooth marks and grooves corresponding exactly with the sharp pointed teeth in the jaw of the carnivorous dinosaur.
One of the causes of these sudden advances is undoubtedly to be found in the acquisition of a new and extremely useful character., Thus the perfect jaw and the perfect pair of lateral fins when first acquired among the fishes favoured a very rapid and for a time unchecked development.
It by no means follows, however, from this incontrovertible evidence that the acquisition either of the jaw or of the lateral fins had not been in itself an extremely gradual process.
The Maltese goat has the ears long, wide and hanging down below the jaw.
persistent roots and a partial enamel covering, those of the upper jaw not having the usual downward direction, but curving outwards, upwards and finally inwards, while those of the lower jaw are directed upwards and outwards with a gentle backward curve, their hinder edges working and wearing against the front edges of the upper pair.
The lower molars resemble generally those of the upper jaw, but are narrower.
Bottlenoses feed on cuttle-fishes and squills, and are practically toothless; the only teeth which exist in the adult being a small pair at the front of the lower jaw, concealed beneath the gum during life.
RODENTIA, or Glires, an order of placental mammals characterized by the peculiar form and structure of their front or incisor teeth, which are reduced to a single functional chisellike pair in each jaw, specially adapted for gnawing, and growing throughout the entire life of their owners.
Rodents may be characterized as terrestrial, or in some cases arboreal or aquatic, placental mammals of small or medium size, with a milk and a permanent series of teeth, plantigrade or partially plantigrade, and generally five-toed, clawed (rarely nailed or semi hoofed) feet, clavicles or collar-bones (occasionally imperfect or rudimentary), no canine teeth, and a single pair of lower incisors, opposed by only one similar and functional pair in the upper jaw.
The condyle of the lower jaw is antero-posteriorly elongated.
- The rodent skull is characterized by the great size of the premaxillae, which completely separate the nasals from the maxillae; by the presence of zygomatic arches; and by the wide unoccupied space existing between the incisors and the cheek-teeth; and (except in the Duplicidentata) by the antero-posteriorly elongated glenoid cavity for the articulation of the lower jaw.
The lower jaw is characterized by its abruptly narrowed and rounded front part supporting the pair of large in cisors, as well as by the small size of the coronoid process, and the great development of the lower hind, or angular, portion.
Both upper and lower incisors are regularly curved, the upper ones: slightly more so than the lower; and, their growth being continuous, should anything prevent the normal wear by which their length is regulated - as by the loss of one of them, or by displacement owing to a broken jaw or other cause - the unopposed incisor may gradually curve upon itself until a complete circle or more has, been formed, the tooth sometimes passing through some part of the animal's head.
The digastric muscles also are remarkable for their well-defined central tendon, and in many species their anterior bellies are united between the two halves of the lower jaw.
In the latter there is only one pair of incisor teeth in the upper jaw, in which the enamel is confined to the front surface.
The projection at the right-hand lower corner of the figure is the angular process of the lower jaw.
Sewellels are medium-sized terrestrial rodents, with no postorbital process to the skull, which is depressed in form, and rootless cheek-teeth, among which the premolars number I, the first in the upper jaw being very small.
The second section, Castoroidea, of the present group includes only the family Castoridae, represented by the beavers, which are large aquatic rodents characterized by their massive skulls, devoid of post-orbital processes, with the angle of the lower jaw rounded, the molars rootless or semi-rooted, with re-entering enamel-folds, and one pair of premolars above and below.
There is a single pair of premolars in each jaw.
The Anomaluridae are characterized by having rooted cheek-teeth with shallow transverse enamel-folds, the two halves of the lower jaw movably articulated in front, very small post-orbital processes to the skull, and the presence of two rows of scales on the under surface of the base of the tail (figs.
angular process of the lower jaw has the same relations as in the sewellels and the allied groups.
- Zenker's Scaly-tailed Squirrel of the lower jaw is twisted (Zenkerella insignis).
13, A) are rooted and have a plate-like structure, with the cusps or tubercles forming three longitudinal rows in those of the upper jaw, but only two distinct ones in the lower.
The spiny mice, Acornys (or Acanthomys), of Western Asia, Cyprus and Africa, take their name from the fur being almost entirely replaced by flattened spines, and are further distinguished by the rudimentary coronoid process of the lower jaw.
The last representatives of the Muridae are confined to Australasia and the Philippines, and constitute the sub-family Hydromyinae, characterized by the very general presence of only two pairs of molars in each jaw.
- With the so-called strand-moles of South Africa, forming the section Bathyergoidea, and the family Bathyergidae, which were formerl y placed with the Spalacidae, we come to the first of two sections in which the lower jaw has a totally different form to that obtaining in all the preceding groups.
In the rodents now to be considered, the angular process of the lower jaw arises from the outer side of the sheath of the incisor.
At least one pair of premolars is present in each jaw; and these teeth and the molars typically have one outer and one inc_e.
In both genera there is only a single pair of premolars in each jaw, but in the smaller Myoscalops there are usually three pairs of these teeth.
The remaining and more typical members of the family, one of which is aquatic, are characterized by their short incisors, the strong masseteric ridges on the sides of the lower jaw, the long and curved par-occipitals and the palate contracted in front.
The jugal is without an inferior angle, and extends forwards to the lachrymal; the palate is contracted in front and deeply emarginate behind; the incisors are short, and the molars divided by continuous folds into transverse plates; and the two halves of the lower jaw are welded together in front.
The remaining rodents, which include two families - the picas (Ochotonidae) and the hares and rabbits (Leporidae) - constitute a second sub-order, the Duplicidentata, differing from all the foregoing groups in possessing two pairs of incisors in the upper jaw (of which the second is small, and placed directly behind the large first pair), the enamel of which extends round to their postericr surfaces.
On the other hand, the American forms, which have one pair of large chisel-like incisors in the lower jaw, also possess a lower canine, and show no marked gap in front of the cheek-teeth, nor any indication of the characteristic rodent backwards movement of the lower jaw.
Associated with this is the strength and sharpness of the lower jaw, the prominence and anterior pcsition of the masseteric ridge, and the depth of the ramus from the alveolar line to the angle.
These are regarded as representing a distinct family, the Saghatheriidae, characterized by the possession of the full series of twenty-two teeth in the upper jaw, among which the first pair of incisors was modified to form trihedral rootless tusks, while the two remaining pairs were separated from one another and from the teeth in front by gaps.
in length, of a blackish colour, with the lips and lower jaw white.
The upper jaw is apparently destitute of incisor and canine teeth, but possesses five molars on each side, with a corresponding number in the jaw beneath.
The most remarkable feature, however, consists in the front part of the lower jaw being bent downwards and bearing two tusk-like incisors also directed downwards and backwards.
He fired a pistol at the prince close to his head, and the ball passed under the right ear and out at the left jaw.
The members of the typical genus have the lower jaw so articulated to the upper, by means of a transverse condyle firmly locked into a long cavity of the cranium, that dislocation of the jaw is all but impossible, and this enables those creatures to maintain their hold with the utmost tenacity.
In the cheekteeth the sectorial or scissor-like cutting function is developed at the expense of the tubercular or grinding, there being only one rudimentary tooth of the latter form in the upper jaw, and none in FIG.
Although toad-like it is not really related to the toads proper, but belongs to the family Discoglossidae, characterized by a circular, adherent tongue, teeth in the upper jaw and on the palate, short but distinct ribs on the anterior vertebrae, and convex-concave vertebrae.
Those of the upper jaw are directed upwards from their bases, so that they never enter the mouth, but pierce the skin of the face, thus resembling horns rather than teeth; they curve backwards, downwards, and finally often forwards again, almost or quite touching the forehead.
GUENON (from the French, = one who grimaces, hence an ape), the name applied by naturalists to the monkeys of the African genus Cercopithecus, the Ethiopian representative of the Asiatic macaques, from which they differ by the absence of a posterior heel to the last molar in the lower jaw.
It is distinguished from other species of the genus Gadus by its long pointed snout, which is twice as long as the eye, with projecting lower jaw, and without a barbel at the chin.
The teeth form a complete series in the under jaw, and in the upper jaw on the premaxillary and maxillary bones.
Especially in alligators the upper teeth overlap laterally those of the lower jaw, whilst in most crocodiles the overlapping is less marked and the teeth mostly interlock, a feature which increases with the slenderness of the snout.
In old specimens some of the longer, lower teeth work their tips into deep pits, and ultimately even perforate the corresponding parts of the upper jaw.
All the Crocodilia possess two pairs of musk-glands in the skin; one is situated on the inner side of the lower jaw.
(a) The fourth mandibular tooth fits into a notch in the upper jaw.
(b) Fourth mandibular tooth fitting into a pit in the upper jaw.
The under jaw, from the chin about as far back as the angle of the mouth, is generally white.
In the upper jaw the first molar has 5, the second 4 and the third 4 prisms, of which the last is irregular and sometimes divided into two, making 5.
In the lower jaw the first molar has 7 prisms, of which the 3 anterior are generally not fully separated from one another, the second 5 and the third 3.
There is generally no sagittal crest to the skull; and the condyle of the lower jaw is transversely elongated.
Upper canines are wanting; the cheek-teeth are small and low-crowned, with the third lobe of the last molar in the lower jaw minute.
The pointed snout extends beyond the lower jaw.
- In the skull there is a sagittal crest; the tympanic bulla is filled with cancellous tissue; the condyle of the lower jaw is rounded; and the premaxillae, or anterior bones of the upper jaw, have the full number of incisor teeth in the young state, the outermost of these being persistent through life as an isolated tooth.
The tusk-like canines are present in both jaws, those of the lower jaw 1 Mr F.
In the upper jaw there is a compressed, sharp-pointed, tusk-like incisor near the hind edge of the premaxilla, followed in the male at least by a moderate-sized, pointed, curved canine in the anterior part of the maxilla.
In the lower jaw the three incisors are long, spatulate and horizontal, with the outer one the smallest.
The species of Camelops were probably fully as large as llamas, and some, at any rate, resembled these animals as regards the number of teeth, the incisors being reduced to one upper and three lower pairs, and the cheekteeth to four or five in the upper and four in the lower jaw; the total number of teeth thus being 28 or 30 in place of the 44 of Poebrotherium.
A lower jaw from the Pleistocene deposits of that continent has, however, been referred to the Old World Camelus.
In the Oreodontinae or typical section of the family, which includes several genera nearly allied to Oreodon, the skull is shorter and higher than in the camels, with a swollen brain-case, a preorbital glandpit, the condyle of the lower jaw transversely elongated, the tympanic bulla hollow, and the orbit surrounded by bone.
The dentition comprises the typical 44 teeth, of which the molars are short-crowned, with four crescentic cusps on those of the upper jaw (selenodont type).
Homacodon was an animal of the size of a rabbit, with five toes (of which only five were functional to each foot) and 44 teeth, of which the molars are tuberculated (bunodont), with six columns on those of the upper jaw; the premolars being of a cutting type.
If the crocodile moves its upper, not its lower, jaw, we may not say that all animals move the lower jaw.
When the second division of the nerve is affected the pain is chiefly in the cheek and upper jaw, the painful points being immediately below the lower eyelid, over the cheek bone, and about the upper lip. When the third division of the nerve suffers the pain affects the lower jaw, and the chief painful points are in front of the ear and about the chin.
The three incisors of the upper jaw are arranged in a continuous arched series, and have crowns with broad cutting edges; the first or middle incisor is often larger than the others.
Corresponding to these in the lower jaw is but one tooth on each side, which is of great size, directed horizontally forwards, narrow, lanceolate and pointed with sharp edges.
Owing to the slight union of the two halves of the lower jaw in front in many species the two lower incisors work together like the blades of a pair of scissors.
The canines are absent or rudimentary in the lower, and often deciduous at an early age in the upper jaw.
The milk-dentition, as in other marsupials, is confined to a single tooth on each side of each jaw, the other molars and incisors being never changed.
The last, not fully developed, is nearly concealed by the ascending part of the lower jaw.
The skull has a remarkably narrow and pointed muzzle and much inflated auditory bullae; while the two halves of the lower jaw are firmly welded together at their junction, thus effectually preventing the scissor-like action of the lower incisors distinctive of Macropus and its immediate allies.
More remarkable is Peltephilus, on account of the fact that the teeth, which are simple, with a chevronshaped section, form a continuous series from the front of the jaw backwards, the number of pairs being seven.
The snout is long, and the upper jaw longer than the lower.
It differs from the true crocodile principally in having the head broader and shorter, and the snout more obtuse; in having the fourth, enlarged tooth of the under jaw received, not into an external notch, but into a pit formed for it within the upper one; in wanting a jagged fringe which appears on the hind legs and feet of the crocodile; and in having the toes of the hind feet webbed not more than half way to the tips.
For the chronic form of industrial poisoning in the manufacture of lucifer matches - a form of necrosis, known in England as " phossy jaw " and in France as " mal chimique," a localized inflammatory infection of the periosteum, ending with the death and exfoliation of part of the bone - see Match.
From both birds and reptiles the class is distinguished, so far at any rate as existing forms are concerned, by the following features: the absence of a nucleus in the red corpuscles of the blood, which are nearly always circular in outline; the free suspension of the lungs in a thoracic cavity, separated from the abdominal cavity by a muscular partition, or diaphragm, which is the chief agent in inflating the lungs in respiration; the aorta, or main artery, forming but a single arch after leaving the heart, which curves over the left terminal division of the windpipe, or bronchus; the presence of more or fewer hairs on the skin and the absence of feathers; the greater development of the bridge, or commissure, connecting the two halves of the brain, which usually forms a complete corpus callosum, or displays an unusually large size of its anterior portion; the presence of a fully developed larynx at the upper end of the trachea or windpipe, accompanied by the absence of a syrinx, or expansion, near the lower end of the same; the circumstance that each half of the lower jaw (except perhaps at a very early stage of development) consists of a single piece articulating posteriorly with the squamosal element of the skull without the intervention of a separate quadrate bone; the absence of prefrontal bones in the skull; the presence of a pair of lateral knobs, or condyles (in place of a single median one), on the occipital aspect of the skull for articulation with the first vertebra; and, lastly, the very obvious character of the female being provided with milk-glands, by the secretion of which the young (produced, except in the very lowest group, alive and not by means of externally hatched eggs) are nourished for some time after birth.
The tympanum itself has been regarded as representing one of the elements - probably the supra-angular - of the compound reptilian lower jaw.
In mammals with two sets of teeth the number of those of the permanent series preceded by milk-teeth varies greatly, being sometimes, as in marsupials and some rodents, as few as one on each side of each jaw, and in other cases including the larger portion of the series.
Those of each jaw are placed in continuous series without intervals between them; and, although the anterior teeth are simple and single-rooted, and the posterior teeth complex and with several roots, the transition between the two kinds is gradual.
The first step towards a classification rests on the fact that the upper jaw is composed of two bones, the premaxilla and the maxilla, and that the division or suture between these bones separates the three front teeth from the rest.
The eight remaining teeth of the upper jaw offer a natural division, inasmuch as the three hindmost never have milk-predecessors; and, although some of the anterior teeth may be in the same case, the particular one preceding these three always has such a predecessor.
With regard to the lower teeth the difficulties are greater, owing to the absence of any suture corresponding to that which defines the incisors above; but since the number of the teeth is the same, since the corresponding teeth are preceded by milk-teeth, and since in the large majority of cases it is the fourth tooth of the series which is modified in the same way as the canine (or fourth tooth) of the upper jaw, it is reasonable to adopt the same divisions as with the upper series, and to call the first three, which are implanted in the part of the mandible opposite to the premaxilla, the incisors, the next the canine, the next four the premolars, and the last three the molars.
It may be observed that when the mouth is closed, especially when the opposed surfaces of the teeth present an irregular outline, the corresponding upper and lower teeth are not exactly opposite, otherwise the two series could not fit into one another, but as a rule the points of the lower teeth shut into the interspaces in front of the corresponding teeth of the upper jaw.
For the sake of brevity the complete dentition is described by the following formula, the numbers above the line representing the teeth of the upper, those below the line those of the lower jaw: incisors 3-31-1 4-4 3-3 _ 11-11 total 44.
It is sometimes convenient to refer to all the seven cheek-teeth as members of a single continuous series (which they undoubtedly are), and for this purpose the following nomenclature has been proposed: Upper Jaw.
The most remarkable feature about the marsupial dentition is that, at most, only a single pair of teeth is replaced in each jaw; this pair, on the assumption that there are four premolars, representing the third of that series.
With the exception of this replacing pair of teeth in each jaw, it is considered by many authorities that the marsupial dentition corresponds to the deciduous, or milk, dentition of placentals.
In the insectivorous type, as exemplified in moles and shrew-mice, the middle pair of incisors in each jaw are long and pointed so as to have a forceps-like action for seizing insects, the hard coats of which are broken up by the numerous sharp cusps surmounting the cheek-teeth.
In the herbivorous modification, as seen in three distinct phases in the horse, the kangaroo, and in ruminants, the incisors are generally well developed in one or both jaws, and have a nipping action, either against one another or against a toothless hard pad in the upper jaw; while the canines are usually small or absent, at least in the upper jaw, but in the lower jaw may be approximated and assimilated to the incisors.
A more generally accepted view - especially among palaeontologists - is the tritubercular theory, according to which the most generalized type of tooth consists of three cusps arranged in a triangle, with the apex pointing inwards in the teeth of the upper jaw.
Each cusp of the primitive triangle has received a separate name, both in the teeth of the upper and of the lower jaw, while names have also been assigned to super-added cusps.
In the floor of the mouth, between the two branches of the lower jaw, and supported behind by the hyoid apparatus, lies the tongue, an organ the free surface of which, especially in its posterior part, is devoted to the sense of taste, but which by reason of its great mobility (being composed almost entirely of muscular fibres) performs important mechanical functions connected with masticating and procuring food.
The fate of the reptilian quadrate bone (which is reduced to very small dimensions in the Anomodontia) has been referred to in an earlier section of the present article, where some mention has also been made of the disappearance in mammals of the hinder elements of the reptilian lower jaw, so as to leave the single bone (dentary) of each half of this part of the skeleton in mammals.
Although mouse-like in general appearance, these rodents are distinguished by their elongated hind limbs, and, typically, by the presence of four pairs of cheek-teeth in each jaw.
toothed so as to act as a biting jaw in the Hexapod Mantis, the Crustacean Squilla and others); with the last joint produced into a needle-like stabbing process in spiders.
(8) The gnathobase becomes greatly enlarged and not separated by a joint from the corm; it acts as a hemignath or half jaw working against its fellow of the opposite side.
had a gnathobase or jaw process on every parapodium.
As many as six pairs of appendages following the mouth may have an enlarged gnathobase actually functional as a jaw or hemignath, but a ramus is well developed on each of these appendages either as a simple walking leg, a palp or a chela.
Robespierre, whose jaw had been shattered by a pistol shot, was left in agony for the night.
The jaw projects and the lips are full.
in the upper jaw.
The lower jaw is large, especially the region of the angle, which is expanded and flattened, giving great surface for the attachment of the masseter muscle.
The incisors of each jaw are placed in close contact, forming a semicircle.
Its duct leaves the inferior anterior angle, at first descends a little, and runs forward under cover of the rounded inferior border of the lower jaw, then curves up along the anterior margin of the masseter muscle, becoming superficial, pierces the buccinator, and enters the mouth by a simple aperture opposite the middle of the crown of the third premolar tooth.
Its posterior end rests against the anterior surface of the transverse process of the atlas, from which it extends forwards and downwards, slightly curved, to beneath the ramus of the jaw.
jaw, oral papillae, legs 1-17.
The jaw somite also disappears; the oral papilla somite forms ventrally the salivary glands, which are thus serially homologous with nephridia.
A and feet with two primary papillae on the anterior side and one on the posterior side; outer jaw with one minor tooth at the base of the main tooth, inner jaw with no interval between the large tooth and the series of small ones; last fully developed leg of the male with enlarged crural gland opening on a large papilla placed on its ventral surface; coxal organs absent; the nephridial openings of the 4th and 5th pairs of legs are placed in the proximal spinous pad.
- With three to five spinous pads on the legs, nephridial opening of the 4th and 5th legs usually proximal to the 3rd pad, and feet either with two primary papillae on the anterior side and one on the posterior, or with two on the anterior and two on the posterior; outer jaw with small minor tooth or teeth at the base of the main tooth, inner jaw with diastema.
- With 22 to 24 pairs of claw-bearing legs, with three spinous pads on the legs, and nephridial openings of legs 4 and 5 (sometimes of 6 also) on the proximal pad; feet with one primary papilla on the anterior, one on the posterior side, and one on the dorsal side (median or submedian); outer jaw with a minor tooth, inner jaw without diastema; crural glands absent; well-developed coxal organs absent.
With 23 to 25 pairs of claw-bearing legs, four spinous pads on the legs, and nephridial openings of legs 4 and 5 in the middle of the proximal pad or on its proximal side; feet with two primary papillae, one anterior and one posterior; outer jaw with two, inner jaw with two or three minor teeth at the base of the main tooth, separated by a diastema from the row of small teeth; crural glands present in the male only, in the two pairs of legs preceding the generative opening; coxal glands present.
The genus Rana may be defined as firmisternal Ecaudata with cylindrical transverse processes to the sacral vertebra, teeth in the upper jaw and on the vomer, a protrusible tongue which is free and forked behind, a horizontal pupil and more or less webbed toes.
Dimorphognathus, from West Africa, is the unique example of a sexual dimorphism in the dentition, the males being provided with a series of large sharp teeth in the lower jaw, which in the female, as in most other members of the family, is edentulous.
The curious horned frog of the Solomon Islands, Ceratobatrachus guentheri, which can hardly be separated from the Ranidae, has teeth in the lower jaw in both sexes, whilst a few forms, such as Dendrobates and Cardioglossa, which on this account have been placed in a distinct family, have no teeth at all, as in toads.
A few of the blubber oils, like dolphin jaw and porpoise jaw oils (used for lubricating typewriting machines), have exceedingly high saponification values ` owing to their containing volatile fatty acids with a small number of carbon atoms. Notable also are coco-nut and palm-nut oils, the saponification numbers of which vary from 240 to 260, and especially butter-fat, which has a saponification value of about 227.
In the lower jaw of most of the Ecaudata the symphysial cartilages ossify separately from the dentary bones, forming the so-called mento-meckelian bones; but these symphysial bones, so distinct in the frog, are less so in the Hylidae and Bufonidae, almost indistinguishable in the Pelobatidae and Discoglossidae, whilst in the Aglossa they do not exist any more than in the other orders of batrachians.
The general characteristics of this progenitor of the horses are those given above as distinctive of the group. The cheek-teeth are, however, much simpler than those of Anchitherium; the transverse crests of the upper molars not being fully connected with the outer wall, while the premolars in the upper jaw are triangular, and thus unlike the molars.
The incisors are small and the canines scarcely enlarged; the latter having a gap on each side in the lower, but only one on their hinder aspect in the upper jaw.
Where Gabriel was always clean-shaven, Darkyn's strong jaw was shaded by a day or two of growth, lending danger to his appearance.
Rhyn released her and locked the door behind him then paced, rubbing his jaw.
I mean, as soon as Darkyn's name was on my back, it shifted, like none of the emotions I felt for Gabriel were real â€¦ and now with the blood bondâ€¦" "Gods. I'm the last person to ask this touchy-feely stuff," Rhyn said and rubbed his jaw again.
Chiseled to perfection, covered in olive-hued skin, with a low brow, piercing gaze and strong jaw â€¦His nearness made her feel hot.
Gabriel trailed kisses down her jaw line and to the sensitive skin of her neck.
He began with soft warm kisses along her jaw line and followed her neck all the way down to the first button of her blouse before traveling back up again.
Everything from his unshaven jaw to his crooked nose drew her hungry gaze, and she took him in, feeling as if she'd never truly seen him before.
The aroma from the goblets invaded Jackson's senses causing the burning in his throat to intensify, and his jaw to throb with pain.
She set her jaw and growled, "You are not, under any circumstance, going to touch him!"
His teeth were grinding loudly enough for her to hear, and his face was ashen and drawn in a look of pain. He couldn't answer â€“ that much she discerned at the rippling muscles of his clenched jaw.
Dangerously sexy, his shoulder length dark hair tousled and his heavy, clean-cut jaw shaded by several days of growth.
Your jaw aches from holding a flashlight in your teeth, well those days are over!
archway formed by the jaw bones of a large whale.
From the simple but necessary Chuck Jaw to the totally automated Fixture for flexible manufacturing cells.
The lower jaw of the haddock is slightly shorter than the upper jaw and the fish has a small single barbel.
bleached bones, a fragment of a jaw.
bolt upright with her jaw set in a tight line, desperately trying not to laugh.
On the third day I started to notice tenderness around the rear left side of the jaw bone.
buck teeth or a very small lower jaw can mean that the tongue is too large for the space available.
The throat chakra is just behind the jaw at the top of the neck.
They had small eyebrow ridges and their lower jaw ended in a prominent chin.
Attachments for tool post, Travel stops Three & four jaw chucks, sliding chuck guard with view window.
The Boxford lathe with long base The four jaw chuck is an extremely useful addition to the standard three jaw type.
clenched jaw on Angel; that's a bonus.
Lessens the risk of jaw fractures, and brain concussion.
The joint between the skull and the lower jaw is formed by a mandibular condyle.
We are hoping to show a diagram showing the typical sites where jaw cysts form in the syndrome.
deformitythe Moscow operations have been carried out to correct jaw or skull deformities.
dislocated jaw is regarded a being a level 5 case with a standard amount awarded of £ 2,000.
facial deformity At least 4,000 teenagers every year develop facial disproportion during their growth spurt which requires corrective jaw surgery.
Each examined tooth was carefully dissected from the upper jaw.
edentulous lower jaw and can be used to treat most mandibles.
fascinated horror, her lower jaw elongated, taking the bottom part of her face with it.
adult females had a distinctly strong jaw, present in some modern islanders.
fibrous tissue which helps the jaw to move smoothly.
She had a swollen jaw and swollen front right flipper and was obviously in a lot of pain.
gape you want moves that leave your jaw gaping open then look no further.
gnawing marks on the bison's jaw are either from wolf or hyena, probably the former.
Be very gentle when you do this, and don't suddenly grab the puppy's jaw.
This is the lower jaw of a cave hyena.
incisors in the middle of the lower jaw and the first permanent molar teeth.
The clenched jaw on Angel; that's a bonus.
For example a dislocated jaw is regarded a being a level 5 case with a standard amount awarded of £ 2,000.
The animal has a protruding lower jaw with small blunt teeth.
She also took Seb to the vet where it was confirmed he had a fractured jaw.
But you don't expect to be out of football with a broken jaw.
In the upper jaw six to eight implants are used to replace twelve to fourteen teeth.
The victim suffered a swollen jaw, a missing tooth and a cut to the back of his head.
Instead firm pressure on the lower jaw, or cheeks, or putting them in a time out, will achieve much more.
jaw chuck ).
jaw cyst is by x-ray.
jaw aches from holding a flashlight in your teeth, well those days are over!
jaw bones to move into the ear?
Already the cartoonists are portraying Brown as a kind of Dr. Hyde figure Ã a dark and threatening character with a lantern jaw.
I have a twelve year old female llama with a bad abscess in the bone of her jaw.