During the same year in which De Torres sailed through the strait destined to make him famous, a little Dutch vessel called the " Duyfken," or " Dove," set sail from Bantam, in Java, on a voyage of discovery.
The two which drain the largest basin are the Chi Manuk and the Chi Tarum, both rising in the eastern end of the province and flowing northeast and north-west respectively to the Java Sea.
America), the four-day week of the Chibchas, the five-day week of Persia, Malaysia, Java, Celebes, New Guinea and Mexico; in ancient Scandinavia a five-day period was in use, but markets were probably unknown.
Perry commanded the "Java" in the Mediterranean expedition of 1815-1816, and he died at Port of Spain in Trinidad on the 23rd of August 1819, of yellow fever contracted on the coast of Brazil.
He was in the Persian Gulf, India and Java, and resided for more than two years in Japan, of which he wrote a history.
of Java, from which it is separated by Bali Strait, which is shallow, and scarcely over a mile in width at its narrowest point.
PREANGER, a residency of the island of Java, Dutch East Indies, bounded S.
In 1595 the first Dutch expedition sailed from the Texel, but it took a more southerly course than its predecessors and confined its operations to Java and the neighbouring islands.
The rivers of the province belong to the basins of the Indian Ocean and the Java Sea respectively, the water-parting being formed by the western and eastern ends respectively of the northern and southern lines of mountain peaks.
Among them was Nicolo Conti, who passed through Persia, sailed along the coast of Malabar, visited Sumatra, Java and the south of China, returned by the Red sea, and got home to Venice in 1444 after an absence of twenty-five years.
The ships touched at Achin in Sumatra and at Java, returning with full ladings of pepper in 1603.
In 1882, for administrative purposes, Bali was separated from Java and combined with the island of Lombok to form the Dutch residency of Lombok and Bali.
Bali belongs physically to Java; the climate and soil are the same and it has mountains of proportionate height.
The geological formation includes (like that of Java) three regions - the central volcanic, the southern peninsula of Tertiary limestone, and alluvial plains between the older formations.
As regards flora and fauna Bali is associated with Java.
Hinduism, which was once the religion of Java, but has been extinct there for four centuries, is still in vogue in the islands of Bali and Lombok, where the cruel custom of widow-burning (suttee) is still practised, and the Hindu system of the four castes, with a fifth or Pariah caste (called Chandala), adhered to.
The sacred literature of the Balinese is written in the ancient Javanese or Kawi language, which appears to be better understood here than it is in Java.
The oldest tradition they possess refers to a time shortly after the overthrow of the Majapahit dynasty in Java, about the middle of the 15th century; but it has been supposed that there must have been Indian settlers here before the middle of the 1st century, by whom the present name, probably cognate with the Sanskrit balin, strong, was in all likelihood imposed.
It has a population of about 5000, almost wholly occupied with the manufacture and sale of rose-water, which is largely exported to many parts of Persia as well as to Arabia, India and Java.
It has a wide geographical distribution, being found in Europe (including England), Asia Minor, Burma, Straits Settlements, Java, China, Formosa, Egypt; west, south and Central Africa; Australia, South America, West Indies, United States and Canada, but is generally confined to local centres in those countries.
The southern group of the Malay Archipelago, from Sumatra to Java and Timor, extends in the arc of a circle between 95° and 127° E., and from 5° to 10° S.
Java is the most thickly peopled, best cultivated and most advanced island of the whole Eastern archipelago.
The highest land does not rise to a greater height than 10,250 ft.; the climate is well suited for agriculture, and the islands generally are fertile and fairly cultivated, though not coming up to the standard of Java either in wealth or population.
At Singapore the range is less than 5°; and at Batavia in Java, and Galle in Ceylon, it is about the same.
At Batavia in Java the fall is about 78 in.; at Singapore it is nearly 100 in.
The liquidambar and nutmeg may be noticed among the former; the first is one of the most conspicuous trees in Java, on the mountains of the eastern part of which the casuarina, one of the characteristic forms of Australia, is also abundant.
On the mountains of Java there appears to be no truly alpine flora; Saxifrage is not found.
The south-eastern portion of Asia, with the adjacent islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo and the Philippines, form his Indian region.
The occurrence of mammals of the Marsupial order in the Molucca Islands and Celebes, while none have been found in the adjacent islands of Java and Borneo, lying on the west of Wallace's line, or in the Indian region, shows that the margin of the Australian region has here been reached.
Indian alphabets have spread to Tibet, Cambodia, Java and Korea.
At present it occupies the extremity of the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines and other islands of the Malay Archipelago as well as Madagascar, while the inhabitants of most islands in the South Seas, including New Zealand and Hawaii, speak languages which if not Malay have at least undergone a strong Malay influence.
It would seem from this distribution that the Malays are not continental, but a seafaring race with exceptional powers of dispersal, who have spread over the ocean from some island centre - perhaps Java.
In the second, Hindu civilization reached the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and other islands.
At the present time the Arabic alphabet is used on the mainland, but Indian alphabets in Java, Sumatra, &c.
The extensive Sanskrit literature, which has reached in translations China, Japan and Java, is chiefly theological and poetical, history being conspicuously absent.
At the end of the Napoleonic wars Portugal had Macao and Goa, Holland Java, Sumatra and other islands, France some odds and ends in India, while England emerged with Hong Kong, Singapore, Ceylon and a free hand in India.
The range of the genus extends from the southern bank of the Bramaputra in Assam to southern China, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.
In Java and other Dutch possessions in the East cotton is cultivated.
France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Rumania, Turkey-in-Europe, Styria, Slavonia, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Lower Austria, Wurttemberg, Brandenberg, West Prussia, Crimea, Kuban, Terek, Kutais, Tiflis, Elizabetpol, Siberia, Transcaspia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Assam, Burma, Anam, Japan, Philippine Islands, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Algeria, Egypt, British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, California, Colorado, Texas, Louisiana, Barbados, Trinidad, Venezuela, Peru, South Australia, Victoria, New Zealand.
The former of Systems. is not only employed in the United States, but is in use in Upper Burma, Java, Rumania and elsewhere.
Broadly speaking, all the brown races which inhabit the portion of Asia south of Siam and Indo-China, and the islands from the Philippines to Java, and from Sumatra to Timor, may be described as belonging to the Malayan family, if the aboriginal tribes, such as the Sakai and Semang in the Malay Peninsula, the Bataks in Sumatra, and the Muruts in Borneo, be excepted.
These people inhabit the whole of the Malayan Peninsula to the borders of lower Siam, the islands in the vicinity of the mainland, the shores of Sumatra and some portions of the interior of that island, Sarawak and Brunei in Borneo, and some parts of Dutch Borneo, Batavia and certain districts in Java, and some of the smaller islands of the archipelago.
The best cotton cloths are those manufactured by the Bugis people in Celebes, and the batek cloths which come from Java and are stamped with patterns.
The area over which it is spoken comprises the peninsula of Malacca with the adjacent islands (the Rhio-Lingga Archipelago), the greater part of the coast districts of Sumatra and Borneo, the seaports of Java, the Sunda and Banda Islands.
Hindus appear to have settled in Sumatra and Java as early as the 4th century of our era, and to have continued to exercise sway over the native populations for many centuries.
This has its origin in the names Great Java and Lesser Java, by which the medieval Java and Sumatra were called, and it accordingly means the language spoken along the coasts of the two great islands.
Java coffee has been grown with success in Porto Rico.
Of Java we possess an excellent topographical map based upon surveys made1850-1887(I:100,000).
In the southern chain is found a limestone formation analogous to that in Bali, Lombok and Java.
Between these two chains are round hills consisting of lavas or sometimes of volcanic tuffs, covered with the long silvery grass which also clothes vast prairies in Java and Sumatra.
There are no navigable streams. The climate and productions are not unlike those of Java, though the rains are heavier, the drought more severe, and the fertility less.
It furnishes most of the lubber of India, Sumatra and Java.
Successful plantations of Hevea have also been established in Java, Sumatra and Borneo.
It has been found that although the tree grows well in many different countries and different localities, it only furnishes a satisfactory yield of rubber in mountainous districts, such as those of Assam and certain parts of Ceylon and Java.
BANTIN, or BANTING, the native name of the wild ox of Java, known to the Malays as sapi-utan, and in zoology as Bos (Bibos) sondaicus.
Bulls of the typical bantin of Java and Borneo are, when fully adult, completely black except for the white rump and legs, but the cows and young are rufous.
Tame bantin are bred in Bali, near Java, and exported to Singapore.
Thus although the rocks of the southern coast of Java in their general character and succession resemble those of Christmas Island, there lies between them an abysmal trough 18,000 ft.
Leyds, a Hollander born in Java in 1859, went out to the Transvaal in 1884 as attorney-general and was, in 1887, made government commissioner for the Netherlands (S.
kinnamon), the Cinnamomum zeylanicum of the Somali country, but cultivated largely in Ceylon, where also it runs wild, and in Java; costus (Heb.
olibanum of Java), corrupted in the parlance of Europe into benjamin and benzoin; camphor, produced by Cinnamomum Camphora, the "camphor laurel" of China and Japan, and by Dryobalanops aromatica, a native of the Indian Archipelago, and widely used as incense throughout the East, particularly in China; elemi, the resin of an unknown tree of the Philippine Islands, the elemi of old writers being the resin of Boswellia Frereana; gumdragon or dragon's blood, obtained from Calamus Draco, one of the ratan palms of the Indian Archipelago, Dracaena Draco, a liliaceous plant of the Canary Island, and Pterocarpus Draco, a leguminous tree of the island of Socotra; rose-malloes, a corruption of the Javanese rasamala, or liquid storax, the resinous exudation of Liquidambar Altingia, a native of the Indian Archipelago (an American Liquidambar also produces a rose-malloes-like exudation); star anise, the starlike fruit of the Illicum anisatum of Yunan and south-western China, burnt as incense in the temples of Japan; sweet flag, the root of Acorus Calamus, the bath of the Hindus, much used for incense in India.
From India he sailed in a junk to Sumatra, visiting various ports on the northern coast of that island, and thence to Java, to the coast (it would seem) of Borneo, to Champa (South Cochin-China), and to Canton, at that time known to western Asiatics as Chin-Kalan or Great China (Mahachin).
Though cultivated in sub-tropical countries such as Natal and the Southern states of the Union, it is essentially tropical in its requirements and succeeds best in warm damp climates such as Cuba, British Guiana and Hawaii, and in India and Java in the Old World.
In Australia, Demerara, Cuba, Java and Peru double crushing and maceration (first used on a commercial scale in Demerara by the late Hon.
Extraction of cane juice by diffusion (a process more fully described under the head of beetroot sugar manufacture) is adopted in a few plantations in Java and Cuba, in Louisiana Etr cti o n and the Hawaiian Islands, and in one or two factories y f i in Egypt; b u t hitherto, except under exceptional conditions (as at Aska, in the Madras Presidency, where the local price for sugar is three or four times the London price), it would not seem to offer any substantial advantage over double or triple crushing.
The best results from extraction by diffusion have been obtained in Java, where there is an abundance of clear, good water; but in the Hawaiian Islands, and in Cuba and Demerara, diffusion has been abandoned on several well mounted estates and replaced by double and triple crushing; and it is not likely to be resorted to again, as the extra cost of working is not compensated by the slight increase of sugar produced.
In Java and Mauritius, where very clean canes are grown, double-bottomed defecators are generally used, and to them, perhaps as much as to the quality of the canes, may be attributed the very strong, fine sugars made in those islands.
Of the 178 factories at work in Java in 1908-1909, nearly all had most efficient plant for treating the excellent canes grown in that favoured island.
(See Jaarboek voor suikerfabrikanten op Java, 13 e Jaargang 1908-1909, pp. 22-61, Amsterdam, J.
The whole of the sugar produced in India is consumed in the country and sugar is imported, the bulk of it being cane sugar coming from Mauritius and Java, and about 85% of the import is of high quality resembling refined sugar.
Java and Borneo tobacco is very similar to that of Sumatra.
The pilgrim traffic increased largely in 1904 as compared with previous years; 74,600 persons landed at Jidda, 18,000 of whom were from British India, 13,000 from Java and the Straits Settlements, and the remainder from Turkish territory, Egypt and other countries: 235 out of a total of 334 steamships engaged in this traffic were British.
Bushire carries on a considerable trade, particularly with India, Java and Arabia.
This species has a more extensive geographical range than the last, being found in the Bengal Sundarbans near Calcutta, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.
It is the smallest of all the species, and its geographical range is nearly the same as that of the Javan species, though not extending into Java; it has been found in Assam, Chittagong, Burma, the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo.
flavigula), found from the Himalaya and Ceylon to Java.
In November 1692 he left Japan for Java and Europe, and in October 1693 he landed at Amsterdam.
On the north this depression sinks into the long and narrow Sunda Trench south of Java, and here in 10 15' S., 108° 5' E., the German surveying-ship " Planet " obtained a sounding of 3828 fathoms in 1906.
The Austral-Asiatic or Malay Sea is occupied by a great shelf in the region west of Borneo and north of Java, while in the east there are eight abruptly sunk basins of widely different size.
BUITENZORG, a hill station in the residency of Batavia, island of Java, Dutch East Indies.
luban, frankincense, the first syllable being dropped in Romanic as if it were the article), a balsamic resin obtained from Styrax benzoin, a tree of considerable size, native to Sumatra and Java, and from other species of Styrax.
By 1642 they had spread to South Island, for there Abel Jansen Tasman found them when, in the course of his circuitous voyage from Java in the "Heemskirk," he chanced upon the archipelago, coasted along much of its western side, though without venturing to land, and gave it the name it still bears.
The cubebs of pharmacy are produced by Piper Cubeba, a climbing woody shrub indigenous to south Borneo, Sumatra, Prince of Wales Island and Java.
The cubeb is cultivated in Java and Sumatra, the fruits are gathered before they are ripe, and carefully dried.
260), and was felt even in Java.
Sumatra is about equal in extent to Great Britain; Java, Luzon, and Celebes are each about the size of Ireland.
In Sumatra and in the islands between Sumatra and Borneo the former direction is distinctly marked, and the latter is equally noticeable in Java and the other southern islands.
Running south-east through Sumatra, east through Java and the southern islands to Timor, curving north through the Moluccas, and again north, from the end of Celebes through the whole line of the Philippines, they follow a line roughly resembling a horseshoe narrowed towards the point.
An important fact in the physical geography of the archipelago is that Java, Bali, Sumatra and Borneo, and the lesser islands between them 1 For more detailed information respecting the several islands and groups of the archipelago, see the separate articles Borneo; Java; Philippine Islands; Sumatra, &C.
The most notable fact in the geological history of the archipelago is the discovery in Java of the fossil remains of Pithecanthropus erectus, a form intermediate between the higher apes and man.
Petroleum is a valuable product of Sumatra and Java, and is also found in Borneo.
The east end of Java, e.g.
(For details concerning flora and fauna, see separate articles, especially Java.) Inhabitants.-The majority of the native inhabitants of the Malay Archipelago belong to two races, the Malays and the Melanesians (Papuans).
A Hindu strain is evident in Java and others of the western islands; Moors and Arabs (that is, as the names are used in the archipelago, Mahommedans from various countries between Arabia and India) are found more or less amalgamated with many of the Malay peoples; and the Chinese form, from an economical point of view, one of the most important sections of the community in many of the more civilized districts.
The islands are often described as of two groups, Java and Madura forming one, and the other consisting of Sumatra, Borneo, Riouw-Lingga Archipelago, Banka, Billiton, Celebes, Molucca Archipelago, the small Sunda Islands, and a part of New Guinea-the Outposts as they are collectively named.
In Surakarta and Jokjakarta in Java, and in many parts of the Outposts, native princes preserve their positions as vassals; they have limited power, and act generally under the supervision of a Dutch official.
Population.-The following table gives the area and population of Java (including Madura) and of the Outposts: In no case are the above figures for population more than fairly accurate, and in some instances they are purely conjectural.
Large sums have been voted in Holland for the establishment of primary and secondary schools, and the government has undertaken to assist in the establishment of parochial schools, the object being that every village, at least in Java, should possess one.
For European justice the High Court of Justice is established at Batavia; there are councils of justice at Batavia, Semarang and Surabaya,with authority not only over Java but over parts of the Outposts; there is a resident court of justice in each residency.
The Java Bank, established in 1828, with headquarters at Batavia, is the only bank issuing notes, two-fifths of the amount of which must be covered by specie or bullion.
The principal private agricultural estates are in the west of Java, in which island the greater part of the soil is government property.
Such estates have increased greatly in number and extent, not only in Java but elsewhere, since the agrarian law of 1870, under which it became possible for settlers to obtain waste lands on hereditary lease for 75 years.
The average annual production of tobacco is about fifty million pounds from each of the islands of Java and Sumatra.
There are upwards of 3000 miles of railways and steam tramways in Netherlands India, but these are almost entirely in Java; elsewhere only Sumatra has a few short lines.
It visited Madura, and came into conflict with the Portuguese at Bantam in Java, returning to Holland in 1597.
At this period a civilization, largely of Hindu origin, had flourished and decayed in Java, where, as in all the more important islands, Mahommedanism had afterwards become the dominant creed.
But the smaller islands and the remoter districts, even of Java and Sumatra, remained in a condition of complete savagery.
The explorers reached Amboyna and Ternate, after gaining some knowledge of Java, Madura, Sumbawa and other islands, possibly including New Guinea.
Though the Portuguese traders frequented the coast of Java, they annexed no territory either there or in Sumatra; but farther east they founded numerous forts and factories, notably in Amboyna, the Banda Island, Celebes and Halmahera.
Rebellions in Java (1629) and the Moluccas (1650) were suppressed with great severity, but in 1662 the company suffered a heavy reverse in Formosa, all its colonists being expelled from the island.
The hardship inflicted on the native races provoked an insurrection throughout Java, in which the Chinese settlers participated; but the Dutch maintained naval and military forces strong enough to crush all resistance, and a treaty between the company and the Susuhunan in November 1749 made them practically supreme throughout the island.
In 1811 a strong fleet was equipped by Lord Minto, then governor-general of India, for the conquest of Java; a British force was landed on the 4th of August; Batavia was captured on the 26th, and on the 1 8th of September Janssens and the remnant of his army surrendered.
Various disputes between Great Britain and the Netherlands, arising chiefly out of the transfer of power in Java and the British occupation of Singapore (1819), were settled by treaty between the two powers in 1824.
In 1825-30 a serious rebellion in Java involved the despatch of a large military force from the Netherlands, and was with difficulty suppressed.
They reformed the judicature, introduced elementary education for the natives, and abolished slavery in Java as from the 1st of January 1860.
The extension of Dutch political power - notably in Java, Sumatra, Celebes, the Moluccas, Borneo, the Sunda Islands and New Guinea - proceeded simultaneously with the reform movement, and from time to time involved war with various native states.
BATAVIA, a city and seaport on the north coast of the island of Java, and the capital of all the Dutch settlements in the East.
The exports from Batavia to the other islands of the archipelago, and to the ports in the Malay Peninsula, are rice, sago, coffee, sugar, salt, oil, tobacco, teak timber and planks, Java cloths, brass wares, &c., and European, Indian and Chinese goods.
The principal establishment for monetary transactions is the Java Bank, established in 1828 with a capital of 50o,000.
In 1811 a British armament was sent against the Dutch settlements in Java, which had been incorporated by France, and to this force Batavia surrendered on the 8th of August.
- A Freycinetia, native of Java, and a species of Bauhinia in Trinidad are visited by bats which transfer the pollen.
It is a regular constituent of the atmosphere, and is found in many spring waters and in volcanic gases; it also occurs in the uncombined condition at the Grotto del Cane (Naples) and in the Poison Valley (Java).
Amongst the islands of the Malay Archipelago are a number of enclosed areas - the Sulu, Celebes, Java, Banda and Arafura seas.
The geographical range of the leopard embraces practically all Africa, and Asia from Palestine to China and Manchuria, inclusive of Ceylon and the great Malay Islands as far as Java.
==Dog== Actual dog-worship is uncommon; the Nosarii of western Asia are said to worship a dog; the Kalangs of Java had a cult of the red dog, each family keeping one in the house; according to one authority the dogs are images of wood which are worshipped after the death of a member of the family and burnt after a thousand days.
Djokjakarta), a residency of the island of Java, Dutch East Indies, bounded N.
Races of this type are also met with in Java, Cochin-China and Formosa; the pig from the latter island having been named S.
verrucosus, of Java, in which the hinder or upper unenamelled surface of the lower tusk is narrower than the outer, concave, and set nearly in the long axis of the skull.
"Java," a vessel of 1073 tons, formerly the French frigate "Renommee"(40).
In these conditions the fate of the "Java" was soon sealed.
It was at first intended that these troops should act against Java or Mauritius; their destination was, however, altered to Egypt, with a view to co-operation with Sir Ralph Abercromby's expedition, and Baird was placed in command.
The mezankoorie moth of the Assamese, Antheraea mezankooria, yields a valuable cocoon, as does also the Atlas moth, Attacus atlas, which has an omnivorous larva found throughout India, Ceylon, Burmah, China and Java.
Ongtong Java, a coral reef of many islets, lies considerably north of the main group to which, geographically, it can hardly be said to belong.'
The great chain of volcanoes which runs through Sumatra and Java is continued eastwards into the Moluccas, and terminates in a hooklike curve which passes through the Damar Islands to the Banda group. Outside this hook lies a concentric arc of non-volcanic islands, including Tenimber, the Lesser Kei Islands, Ceram and Buru; and beyond is still a third concentric arc extending from Taliabu to the Greater Kei Islands.
It comes, however, within the great volcanic zone which stretches from the north of Sumatra, through Java and the other Sundanese islands, round to Amboyna, Tidore, Ternate, Halmahera and the Philippines.
In Java the new-born babe is placed in a hen-coop, and the mother makes a clucking noise, as if she were a hen, to attract the child's soul.
On the 2gth of December, when off Bahia, he fell in with the British frigate "Java" (38), which was carrying General Hislop, the governor of Bombay, to India, and took her after a sharp action.
A good deal of work was done by Dutch evangelists in Java, the Moluccas, Formosa and Ceylon, but it was not permanent.
In Java the government has favoured Mahommedans (there is active intercourse between the island and Mecca), but there are some 25,000 Christians and a training school and seminary at Depok near Batavia.
The northern half runs roughly parallel to the Malay Peninsula, from which it is separated by the Strait of Malacca, and the southern end is separated by the narrow Sunda Strait from Java.
Unlike Java, Sumatra has a series of considerable islands (Nias Islands, Mentawi Islands, &c.) arranged like outworks in front of the west coast, which faces the open Indian Ocean.
Though Sumatra is separated from Java by so narrow a strait, both the zoologist and the botanist at once find that they have broken new ground on crossing to the northern island.
sumatranus), the Sus vittatus, and the tapir common, but the elephant, altogether absent from Java, is represented in Sumatra by a species considered by some to be peculiar.
Rank grasses (lalang, glaga), which cover great areas in Java, have an even wider range in Sumatra, descending to within 700 or Boo ft.
Among the orders more strongly represented in Sumatra than in Java are the Dipterocarpaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, sclerocarp 1Vlyrtaceae, Melastomaceae, Begonias, Nepenthes, Oxalidaceae, Myristicaceae, Ternstrbmiaceae, Connaraceae, Amyridaceae, Cyrtandraceae, Epacridaceae and Eriocaulaceae.
Many of the Sumatran forms which do not occur in Java are found in the Malay Peninsula.
The distribution of species does not depend on elevation to the same extent as in Java, where the horizontal zones are clearly marked; and there appears to be a tendency of all forms to grow at lower altitudes than in that island.
- Forests and natural vegetation cover a much larger part of Sumatra than of Java.
Whereas in Java tall timber on the mountains keeps to altitudes of not less than 3000 f t., the tall timber on the mountains of Sumatra commonly descends below moo ft., and in many cases right down to the coast.
In Sumatra, as in Java, the vegetation of the lowlands up to nearly moo ft.
In these inscriptions Sumatra is called the " first Java."
The traces of Hindu influence still to be found in the island are extremely numerous, though far from being so important as those of Java.
At a later period the Hindu influence in Sumatra was strengthened by an influx of Hindus from Java, who settled in Palembang, Jambi and Indragiri, but their attachment to Sivaism prevented them from coalescing with their Buddhist brethren in the north.
The bulk of trade is carried on with Germany and England; then follow Java, Belgium, Russia, the United States, &c. In the last half of the 19th century the total value of the foreign commerce was more than trebled.
The Malay badger (Mydaus meliceps) is confined to the mountains of Java (where it is called the teledu), Sumatra and Borneo.
by the Java Sea.
It also comprises a number of small islands in the Java Sea, including the Thousand Islands group, with a total area of 24 sq.
It was not till the middle of the century that the English began to use tea, and they also received their supplies from Java till in 1686 they were driven out of the island by the Dutch.
The first direct purchase in China was made at Amoy, the teas previously obtained by the Company's factors having bean purchased in Madras and Surat, whither it was brought by Chinese junks after the expulsion of the British from Java.
A beginning was made in Java in 1826, but probably because of the even more marked influence of Chinese methods and Chinese plant, the progress was slow and the results indifferent.
Of late years, however, by the introduction of fine Assam seed and the adoption of methods similar to those in use in India, a marked improvement has taken place, and there seems little reason to doubt that, with the very rich soil and abundant cheap labour that the island of Java possesses, the relative progress there may be greater in future than in any other producing land.
The Assam Indigenous, in its two sub-races of Singlo and Bazalona, and the Manipur, originally found wild in the jungles of the native state of that name, have, with various intermixtures and crossings, been used to cover the greatest areas of all the more modern planting in India, Ceylon and Java.
It exists in greater percentage in Indian and Ceylon teas than in those from Java, and is lowest in China and Japan teas.
In 1877, except to the initiated, tea meant China tea., India and Java were producing a little, but practically for use only in Great Britain and Holland.
Excluding therefore from any record the quantities produced for internal consumption in China and Japan (that from the former alone has been estimated at a total of 2,000,000,000 lb), the following are the acreage and production of the world as taken from the latest recorded statistics available in 1908: - 726, 601,000 The quantity from China includes about 16,000,000 lb imported from India, Ceylon and Java, and worked up with China teas into bricks and tablets.
The Russians have themselves established several important factories at Hankow, which is the chief seat of this industry, and to which place they import in large quantities tea-dust and small broken tea from India, Ceylon and Java.
As the planting, productive and manufacturing processes of India may be taken to be generally representative of Indian tea Ceylon and Java also, and therefore of the tea of modern trade.
Holland, in Europe, comes next to England, and uses principally the product of her dependency Java.
The Australian demand is fed by steamers from Calcutta and Colombo, with some additions direct from China and Java.
of Java, between 8° 12' and 9°' i' S.
Cool, With the Dutch in the East (Amsterdam and London, 1897), in Dutch and English, is a narrative of the events sketched above, and contains many particulars about the folklore and dual religions of Lombok, which, with Bali, forms the last stronghold of Hinduism east of Java.
The slow loris (Nycticebus tardigradus) is a heavier built and larger animal, ranging from eastern Bengal to Cochin China, Siam, the Malay Peninsula, Java and Sumatra.
The tree is grown at Tellicherry, in Java, the West Indies, Brazil and Egypt, but the produce of none of these places approaches in quality that grown in Ceylon.
A black variety, as beautiful as it is rare, is sometimes found in the extreme south of the peninsula, and also in Java.
The total import of sugar in1905-1906was valued at £5,182,000, chiefly from Java and Mauritius.
In 1603 and 1639 the Dutch blockaded Goa; during the first half of the 17th century they routed the Portuguese everywhere in India, Ceylon and Java.
In 1618 they laid the foundation of the city of Batavia in Java, to be the seat of the supreme government of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies.
In the great French war from 1781 to 1811 England wrested from Holland every one of her colonies, though Java was restored in 1816 and Sumatra in exchange for Malacca in 1824.
His only military exploits were the occupation of the island of Mauritius, and the conquest of Java by an expedition which he accompanied in person.
When he does not wear a skull-cap his amamah is made after the arched Arab form, or is a Kashmir scarf wound round a skull-cap made of Java straw.
CHERIBON, a residency of the island of Java, Dutch East Indies, bounded S.
by the Java Sea, and E.
Cheribon has been for many centuries the centre of Islamism in western Java, and is also the seat of a fanatical Mahommedan sect controlled from Mecca.
SURABAYA (Dutch Soerabaja), a seaport of Java, in the eastern division of the island, on the narrow Surabaya strait, which separates the island of Madura from Java, and at the mouth of the Kali Mas River.
Surabaya is the principal mercantile town in Java.
It is also the headquarters of the military authorities for East Java, and has artillery workshops.
In Bali near Java, where the Naga-cult flourishes, a serpent is carried at the funeral ceremonies of the Kshatriya caste and burned with the corpse.
Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Banka and Billiton, with their adjacent islands - and the Little Sunda Islands, of which the more important are Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Sumba and Timor.
Sunda Strait is the channel separating Sumatra from Java and uniting the Indian Ocean with the Java Sea.
broad between the south-eastern extremity of Sumatra and the town of Anjer in Java.
The Barito, which is the principal river of the southern versant, takes its rise in the Kuti Lama Lake, and falls into the Java Sea in 114° 30' E.
Some places, such as Bidi in Sarawak, for instance, are notoriously unhealthy; but from the statistics of the Dutch government, and the records of Sarawak and British North Borneo, it would appear that the European in Borneo has in general not appreciably more to fear than his fellow in Java, or in the Federated Malay States of the Malayan Peninsula.
Ferns are abundant, but not so varied as in Java.
During the occupation of Java by the British an embassy was despatched to Sir Stamford Raffles by the sultan of Banjermasin asking for assistance, and in 1811 Alexander Hare was despatched thither as commissioner and resident.
On the restoration of Java to the Dutch in 1816, all these arrangements were cancelled, and the Dutch government was left in undisputed possession of the field.
The outbreak of war in Java caused Borneo to be more or less neglected by the Dutch for a considerable period, and no effective check was imposed upon the natives with a view to stopping piracy, which was annually becoming more and more unendurable.
Returning to the delta, he took ship at Sunarganw (near Dacca) on a junk bound for Java (i.e.
Java Minor of Marco Polo, or Sumatra).
Confirmation of this is afforded by the occurrence in the mountains of Java of a pariah-like dog which has reverted to an almost completely wild condition; and likewise by the fact that the old voyagers met with dogs more or less similar to the dingo in New Guinea, New Zealand and the Solomon and certain other of the smaller Pacific islands.
The mountain sparrow (Passer montana) is abundant in Java and Singapore in a uniform equatorial climate, and also inhabits Britain and a considerable portion of northern Europe.
Thus, the species inhabiting Sumatra, Java and Borneo are almost always much smaller than the closely allied species of Celebes and the Moluccas; the species or varieties of the small island of Amboyna are larger than the same species or closely allied forms inhabiting the surrounding islands; the species found in Celebes possess a peculiar form of wing, quite distinct from that of the same or closely allied species of adjacent islands; and, lastly, numerous species which have tailed wings in India and the western islands of the Archipelago, gradually lose the tail as we proceed eastward to New Guinea and the Pacific.
The so-called Java sparrow (Munia oryzivora), although a destructive bird to rice, has been widely distributed by accident or design, and is now found in several East Indian islands besides Java, in south China, St Helena, India, Zanzibar and the east African coast.
Its most northern range is the territory of the Amur, its most southern the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali.
He travelled in Mexico, under a commission from the French ministry of education, in 1857-1861; in Madagascar in 1863; in South America, particularly Chile and Argentina, in 1 875; and in Java and Australia in 1878.
Four species of the genus are now recognized, whose range includes the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes and some of the Philippines.
In the environs of Kashan and in Fars, chiefly at Maimand, much rose-water is made, and a considerable quantity of it is exported by way of Bushire to India and Java.
The chief markets for the soft or shipping varieties of opium are, China, Korea, the West Indian Islands, Cuba, British Guiana, Japan and Java; the United States also purchase for re-exportation as well as for home consumption.
BANTAM, the westernmost residency of the island of Java, Dutch East Indies, bounded W.
by the Java sea, E.
He visited Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, the Moluccas, Timor, New Guinea and the Aru and Ke Islands.
After the restoration of Java to the Netherlands in 1816, a good deal of weight was attached by the neighbouring British colonies to the maintenance of influence in Achin; and in 1819 a treaty of friendship was concluded with the Calcutta government which excluded other European nationalities from fixed residence in Achin.
BINTURONG (Arctictis binturong), the single species of the viverrine genus Arctictis, ranging from Nepal through the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra and Java.
At Trinil, in Java, in an equatorial region where, if anywhere, a.
Typically from Java, this deer is also represented in the Moluccas and Timor, and has thus the most easterly range of the whole tribe.
A black coat with white spots distinguishes the Philippine spotted deer, C. alf redi, which is about the size of a roe-buck; while other members of this group are the Calamianes deer of the Philippines (C. culionensis), the Bavian deer (C. kuhli) from a small island near Java, and the well-known Indian hog-deer or para (C. porcinus), all these three last being small, more or less uniformly coloured, and closely allied species.
Since the cultivation of cinchona trees was commenced in Java, India, Ceylon and Jamaica, several other species, as well as varieties and hybrids cultivated in those countries, have been used.'
The first importation from India took place in 1867, since which time the cultivated bark has arrived in Europe in constantly increasing quantities, London being the chief market for the Indian barks and Amsterdam for those of Java.
The yield of quinine has been ascertained to increase annually until the eleventh year, at which it seems to reach its ' In Java, C. Calisaya, vars.
Of public institutions there are baths, ribats, or hospices, for poor pilgrims from India, Java, &c., a hospital and a public kitchen for the poor.
They range all over India and Ceylon, thence northward to Tibet, and eastwards to China, Japan, Formosa, Borneo, Sumatra and Java; while by some naturalists the black ape of Celebes (Cynopithecus ',tiger) is included in the same genus.
For that reason, and also on account of its excellent horses and numerous buffaloes, Saleyer is often compared with Madura, being of the same importance to Celebes as is Madura to Java.
Another work on what has sometimes been termed the metaphysics of language appeared from his pen in 1828, under the title of Ober den Dualis; but the great work of his life, on the ancient Kawi language of Java, was unfortunately interrupted by his death on the 8th of April 183 5.
In 1629 he was able to beat off a formidable attack of the sultan of Mataram, sometimes styled emperor of Java, upon Batavia.
Ross, who had commanded a brig during the English occupation of Java, settled with his family (who continued in the ownership) on Direction Island, and his little colony was soon strengthened by Hare's runaway slaves.
Certain tribes in Java " believe that women when delivered of a child are frequently delivered at the same time of a young crocodile."
Brunei, at this time, was a dependency of Majapahit (Java), and paid a yearly tribute of a jar of areca juice obtained from the young green nuts of the areca palm, and of no monetary value.
The Hindu kingdom of Menjapahit was destroyed by the Mahommedans in 1478, and Brunei is mentioned in the history of Java as one of the countries conquered by Adaya Mingrat, the general of Angka Wijaya.
Sultan Bulkeiah was otherwise known as Nakoda Ragam; he was the greatest warrior of Brunei and made military expeditions to Java, Malacca, Luzon and all the coasts of Borneo.
CLOUDED LEOPARD (Felis nebulosa or macroscelis), a large arboreal cat from the forests of south-east Asia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo and Formosa.
Coco-nut oil and copra, both for edible and technical purposes, are largely shipped to Great Britain from the East Indies and Ceylon, Java and the West Indies.
Vascular Cryptogams still include one or two large horsetails with stems over an inch thick, and also 37 species of Fern, amongst the most interesting of which are 5 species belonging to the climbing Lygodium, a genus now living in Java.
cinerea from India, Java, and Sumatra.
Some of the animals are probably descendants of specimens introduced by man; others are allied in species, but not identical, with mammals of Java and Borneo; others again, including the three just mentioned, are wholly or practically confined to Celebes.
The horses are in high repute in the archipelago; formerly about 700 were yearly exported to Java, but the supply has considerably diminished.
It is held that in the Miocene and Pliocene periods there were land connexions with the Philippines, Java and the Moluccas, and through the last with Australasian lands to the east and south-east.
Some of these selections come from Java and other parts of Indonesia via the fm airwaves of Sumatra's major cities.
JSP can use other Apis in the same way as JAVA.
articulate a detailed technology roadmap for wireless Java.
Now researchers in the US have discovered that good old cup of java may help to boost the brainpower of such people.
Thanks to Jack Fitch, Dave Carlson and Alex Jacobson, property names for reflected Java Beans now use standard capitalization transform.
You need to be aware of this so that style settings in c-mode-common-hook do n't clobber your Java style.
We create the parent compositor that will contain the background image, ripple effect, Java text, and the spaceship compositor.
The module provides an introduction to Java and object oriented programming concepts.
customized extensively without having to work with Java.
delveever, we stopped short of delving down into some of the more esoteric looking aspects of Java Generics.
You might wonder why these methods, now deprecated, were included in Java in the first place.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.