From the real or fancied rapprochements between Cartesianism and Jansenism, it became for a while impolitic, if not dangerous, to avow too loudly a preference for Cartesian theories.
CORNELIUS JANSEN (1585-1638), bishop of Ypres, and father of the religious revival known as Jansenism, was born of humble Catholic parentage at Accoy in the province of Utrecht on the 28th of October 1585.
By concluding concordats with all the important Catholic powers save Austria he made it possible to crush Jansenism, Febronianism and Gallicanism.
It does not appear that up to this time the Pascal family had been contemners of religion, but they now eagerly embraced the creed, or at least the attitude of Jansenism, and Pascal himself showed his zeal by informing against the supposed unorthodoxy of a Capuchin, the Pere Saint-Ange.
While the authority of Augustine received lip-homage, the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church became more Pelagian, and in the Tridentine decrees and still more in the ethics of the Jesuits, in spite of the opposition of Jansenism, Pelagianism at last triumphed.
In 1700 he published his history of Jansenism (Histoire generale du Jansenisme), a dry work, by which, however, he is best remembered.
Still, Joseph only touched the surface; his brother, the grand-duke Leopold of Tuscany, aspired to cut deeper, and provoke a religious revival on the lines of Jansenism.
The publication of an anonymous pamphlet in 1697, entitled "A Short Memoir on the State and Progress of Jansenism in Holland" (Kort gendenkschrift van den staat en voortgang van het Jansenisme in Holland), gave the latter their opportunity.
Codde was accused of being its author, and though he successfully refuted this charge, he was ultimately deposed for Jansenism (1702), his opponent, Theodor de Kock, being appointed in his place.
In 1723 the chapter of Utrecht, in order to preserve the canonical succession of the Dutch clergy, elected Cornelius Steenoven archbishop. He was consecrated (15th October 1724) by Dominique Varlet, bishop of Babylon in partibus, who, having been deposed by the pope for Jansenism, had settled in Amsterdam in 1720.
Leighton had, during a stay in the Spanish Netherlands, assimilated something of the ascetic and pietistic spirit of Jansenism, and was devoted to the interests of peace in the church.
All the more remarkable spirits of the time, like prophets in Israel, denounced a tyranny which put Chamillart at the head of the finances because he played billiards well, and Villeroy in command of the armies although he was utterly untrustworthy; which sent the patriot Vauban into disgrace, banished from the court Catinat, the Pre Ia Pense, exiled to Cambrai the too clear sighted Fnelon, and suspected Racine of Jansenism and La Fontaine of independence.
Fleury found no other remedy for this agitationin which appeal was made even to miraclesthan lits de justice and leUres de cachet; Jansenism remained a potent source of trouble within the heart of Catholicism.
Thus all the buttresses of the monarchical institution began to fall to pieces: the Church, undermined by the heresy of Jansenism, weakened by the inroads of philosophy, Ancient discredited by evil-livers among the priesthood, and Influcn~t divided against itself, like all losing parties; the and last!nobility of the court, still brave at heart, though ~~1tb0u1&
JANSENISM, the religious principles laid down by Cornelius Jansen in his Augustinus.
This book was the first manifestation of Jansenism to the general public in France, and raised a violent storm.
wrote to Pope Clement XI., proposing that they should take joint action to make an end of Jansenism for ever.
In 1711 he asked the pope for a second, and still stronger bull, that would tear up Jansenism by the roots.
Here they met with a warm welcome from the Dutch Catholic body, which had always been in close sympathy with Jansenism, although without regarding itself as formally pledged to the Augustinus.
Meanwhile genuine Jansenism survived in many country parsonages and convents, and led to frequent quarrels with the authorities.
On the Jansenism of the 18th century no single work exists, though much information will be found in the Gallican Church of Canon Jervis (2 vols., London, 1872).
Though rejected by the Jesuits, who found peripatetic formulae a faithful weapon against the enemies of the church, Cartesianism was warmly adopted by the Oratory, which saw in Descartes something of St Augustine, by Port Royal, which discovered a connexion between the new system and Jansenism, and by some amongst the Benedictines and the order of Ste Genevieve.
In the West, Gallican and Febronian Episcopacy are represented by two ecclesiastical bodies: the Jansenist Church under the archbishop of Utrecht (see JANSENISM and UTRECHT), and the Old Catholics.
The rejection of this bull by certain bishops led to a new party division and a further prolonging of the controversy (see Jansenism and Quesnel, Pasquier).
(1643-1715); its main causes were the Jansenist and the Gallican controversies (see Jansenism and Gallicanism).
Side by side with the Roman Catholic hierarchy are the congregations of the Old Catholics or Old Episcopalian Church (Oud Bisschoppelijke Clerezie), and the Jansenists (see Jansenism).
against Jansenism (1696); and, in 1699, under pressure from Louis XIV., condemned certain of Fenelon's doctrines which Bossuet had denounced as quietistic (see Fenelon).
Urban also denounced the doctrines of Jansen, 1644 (see Jansenism).
His condemnation of Jansenism (1653) was met with the denial of papal infallibility in matters of fact, and the controversy entered upon a new phase (see Jansenism).
The Molinist subsequently passed into the Jansenist controversy (see Jansenism) .
Moreover, a Catholic lnovement for religious reform in the Church of France began during the i7th century, marked by the creation of seminaries, the foundation of new orthodox religious orders, and the organization of public relief by Saint Vincent de Paul, Jansenism was the most vigorous contemporary effort to renovate not only morals but Church doctrine (see JANSENISM).
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