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jacobins

jacobins Sentence Examples

  • It consisted of a short skirted coat with rows of metal buttons, a tricoloured waistcoat and red cap, and became the popular dress of the Jacobins.

  • Then Chalier became the orator and leader of the Jacobins of Lyons, and induced the other revolutionary clubs and the commune of his city to arrest a great number of Royalists in the night of the 5th and 6th of February 1793.

  • On the 29th and 30th of May 1793 the sections rose; the Jacobins were dispossessed of the municipality and Chalier arrested.

  • Meanwhile he took care to curb the excesses of the Italian Jacobins and to encourage the Moderates, who were favorable to the French connection as promising a guarantee against Austrian domination and internal anarchy.

  • The blow to the republican cause was most serious: for from Toulon as a centre the royalists threatened to raise a general revolt throughout the south of France, and Pitt cherished hopes of dealing a death-blow to the Jacobins in that quarter.

  • Bernadotte, Jourdan and Augereau had compromised themselves by close association with the Jacobins.

  • A fortnight passed before he decided to support Sieyes in effecting a change in the constitution; and by then he had captivated all men except Bernadotte and a few intransigeant Jacobins.

  • The Rump proceeded to expel sixty-one Jacobins from the Council of Five Hundred, adjourned its sessions until the 19th of February 1800, and appointed a commission of twenty-five members with power to act in the meantime.

  • She added that all the parties except the Jacobins were full of confidence; and that the nobles now cherished hopes of a reaction, seeing that the reduction of the number of rulers from five to three pointed towards monarchy.

  • It purported to be an undertaking entered into by a few Jacobins, among them Arena, a Corsican, for the murder of Bonaparte at the opera.

  • The measure proved to be the deportation of the leading Jacobins; and a cloak of legality was cast over this extraordinary proceeding by a special decree of the senate (avowedly the guardian of the constitution) that this act of the government was a "measure tending to preserve the constitution" (5th of January 1801).

  • For the present the connivance of the senate at his coup d'etat of Nivose led to the deportation of one hundred and thirty Jacobins; some were interned in the islands of the Bay of Biscay, while fifty were sent to the tropical colonies of France, whence few of them ever returned.

  • True to his Corsican instinct of attachment to the family, and contempt for legal and dynastic claims, he now began to plant his brothers and other relatives in what had been republics established by the French Jacobins.

  • But even before Trafalgar he had begun to strike at that most vulnerable form of wealth, as the Jacobins had done before him.

  • In the strife which soon broke out between the Girondins and the Jacobins he took no decided part, but occupied himself mainly with the legal and legislative work which went on almost without intermission even during the Terror.

  • He gathered round him a small circle of his immediate followers known as the Societe des Egaux, soon merged with the rump of the Jacobins, who met at the Pantheon; and in November 1795 he was reported by the police to be openly preaching "insurrection, revolt and the constitution of 1793."

  • (11th of May 1796), in which Jacobins and socialists were combined.

  • The attempt of five or six hundred Jacobins (7th of September) to rouse the soldiers at Grenelle met with no better success.

  • There are several other churches, among them the church of the Jacobins, a brick building of the 13th century, and the church of St Hilaire of the 16th century, which has a modern tower.

  • Nominated president of the Academical commission for the reform of weights and measures, his services were retained when its "purification" by the Jacobins removed his most distinguished colleagues.

  • For a time Maret betook himself to journalism; but he played a useful part in the negotiations for a peace with Great Britain which went on at Lille during the summer of 1797, until the victory of the Jacobins at Paris in the coup d'etat of Fructidor (Sept.

  • Ignaz Jozsef Martinovics (1755-1795) and his associates, the Hungarian Jacobins, vainly attempted a revolutionary propaganda (1795), and Napoleon's mutilations of the ancient kingdom of St Stephen did not predispose the Hungarian gentry in his favour.

  • He took his seat upon the Mountain, and showed himself one of the most vigorous Jacobins, particularly in his defence of Marat, on the 26th of February 1793; he voted for the execution of the king, and was elected a member of the Committee of General Security on the 21st of January 1793.

  • The Jacobins >>

  • Aulard, Soc. des Jacobins, vi.

  • He was full of the idea of a league of republics against the league of sovereigns; but he was unaware that the Jacobins themselves were already considering the best mode of detaching Prussia, Poland's worst enemy, from the anti-French coalition.

  • The whole Prussian army would be put in motion, and all Europe would resound with the alarm of the danger to be apprehended from the Jacobins in France."

  • Though he approved of the French Revolution, his sympathies were with the more moderate party, and he became a member of the "club of 1789," instituted to support the new form of constitutional monarchy in opposition to the anarchical attempts of the Jacobins.

  • See also the articles Jacobins, Girondists and French Revolution.

  • At the Jacobins at Paris, a cloister lay to the north of the long narrow church of two parallel aisles, while the refectory - a room of immense length, quite detached from the cloister - stretched across the area before the west front of the church.

  • Here his conduct was anything but diplomatic. He at once announced himself as the protector of the extreme Jacobins in Rome, demanded the expulsion of the French emigres who had taken refuge there, including the "demoiselles Capet," and ordered the fleur-de-lys on the escutcheon of the French embassy to be replaced by a picture of Liberty painted by a French art student.

  • Ill-disposed as Bernstorff was towards the Jacobins, he now condemned on principle any interference in the domestic affairs of France, and he was persuaded that Denmark's safest policy was to keep clear of every anti-French coalition.

  • The documents are mostly to be found in Nelson and the Neapolitan Jacobins; (Navy Records Society, London, 1903), edited by H.

  • The emperor Paul raised him to the rank of field-marshal (1796), and, in 1798, sent him on a diplomatic mission to Berlin and Vienna in order to detach Prussia from France and unite both Austria and Prussia against the Jacobins.

  • Other noteworthy buildings are the picturesque weigh-house (1595), the town hall (1715), the provincial courts (1850), and the great church of St Jacob, once the church of the Jacobins, and the largest monastic church in the Netherlands.

  • Three years later the triumph of the Jacobins brought with it the " abolition of Christianity," and a spell of violent persecution, which gradually slackened under the Directory (1795-99) In 1799 Napoleon became First Consul, and at once set himself to deal with the ecclesiastical problem.

  • As a member of the Council of Five Hundred, Du Pont carried out his policy of resistance to the Jacobins, and made himself prominent as a member of the reactionary party.

  • He was thus led to separate himself from the Jacobins and to join the Feuillant party.

  • HUGH OF ST CHER (c. 1 200-1263), French cardinal and Biblical commentator, was born at St Cher, a suburb of Vienne, Dauphine, and while a student in Paris entered the Dominion convent of the Jacobins in 1 225.

  • The aristocratic classes loudly complained that the young king, Gustavus IV., Gustavus still a minor, was being brought up among crypto IV., 1792- Jacobins; while the middle classes, deprived of 1809.

  • Gustavus now aimed at forming a league of princes against the Jacobins, and every other consideration was subordinated thereto.

  • The editors worked under the inspiration of a strong admiration of the principles of Robespierre and the Jacobins, and in the belief that the French Revolution was an attempt to realize Christianity.

  • He had always divined by the instinct of hatred that the French moderates must gradually be swept away by the Jacobins, and now it was all coming true.

  • The humiliation of the king and queen after their capture at Varennes; the compulsory acceptance of the constitution; the plain incompetence of the new Legislative Assembly; the growing violence of the Parisian mob, and the ascendency of the Jacobins at the Common Hall; the fierce day of the 20th of June (1792), when the mob flooded the Tuileries, and the bloodier day of the 10th of August, when the Swiss guard was massacred and the royal family flung into prison; the murders in the prisons in September; the trial and execution of the king in January (1793); the proscription of the Girondins in June, the execution of the queen in October - if we realize the impression likely to be made upon the sober and homely English imagination by such a heightening of horror by horror, we may easily understand how people came to listen to Burke's voice as the voice of inspiration, and to look on his burning anger as the holy fervour of a prophet of the Lord.

  • xvi., 1904); La Societe des Jacobins; recueil de documents pour l'histoire du club des Jacobins de Paris (6 vols., 1889-1897); and Paris pendant la reaction thermidorienne et sous le directoire, recueil de documents pour l'histoire de l'esprit public e Paris (5 vols., 1898-1902), which was followed by an analogous collection for Paris sous le consulat (2 vols., 1903-1904).

  • The political clubs which sprang up all over the country often presumed to act as though they were public authorities (see Jacobins).

  • The Left consisted of the Jacobins, a term which still included the party afterwards known as the Girondins or Girondists - so termed because several of their leaders came from the region of the Gironde in southern France.

  • The Jacobins tried to frighten the king into accepting the decrees and recalling his ministers.

  • His refusal united all the Jacobins in the project of overturning the monarchy by force.

  • Volunteers and federes were constantly arriving in Paris, and, although most went on to join the army, the Jacobins enlisted those who were suitable for their purpose, especially some 500 whom Barbaroux, a Girondin, had summoned from Marseilles.

  • As the preparations of the Jacobins had been notorious, some Rng of the isi fOth of measures of defence had been taken.

  • Little more than a third of the deputies were present and they were almost all Jacobins.

  • The success of the Jacobins in overthrowing the monarchy had ended their union.

  • The Jacobins, about ioo strong, formed the Left of the Convention, afterwards known from the raised benches on which they sat as the Mountain.

  • Whichever side prevailed destroyed its adversaries Jacobins only to divide afresh and renew the strife until the and Girondins.

  • Although the leaders on both sides were of the middle class, the Girondins represented the bourgeoisie, the Jacobins represented the populace.

  • The Girondins desired a speedy return to law and order; the Jacobins thought that they could keep power only by violence.

  • The Jacobins leant on the revolutionary commune and the mob of Paris; the Girondins leant on the thriving burghers of the provincial cities.

  • Despite their smaller number the Jacobins were victors.

  • The Jacobins controlled the parent club with its affiliated societies and the whole machinery of terror.

  • The Jacobins perpetuated in a new form the old centralization of power to which France was accustomed.

  • The Jacobins desired the death of Louis, partly because they hated kings and deemed him a traitor, partly because they wished to envenom the Revolution, defy Europe and compromise their more temperate colleagues.

  • The galleries of the Convention were packed with adherents of the Jacobins, whose fury, not confined to words, struck terror into all who might incline towards mercy.

  • Administrative confusion had been heightened by the triumph of the Jacobins.

  • The disastrous effects of the Terror were heightened by the financial mismanagement of the Jacobins.

  • Thus the Jacobins became all-powerful.

  • It included old followers of Danton like Tallien, independent Jacobins like Cambon, some of the worst Terrorists like Fouche, and such a consummate time-server as Barere.

  • The trial of 130 prisoners sent up from Nantes led to so many terrible disclosures that public feeling turned still more fiercely against the Jacobins; Carrier himself was condemned and executed; and in November the Jacobin Club was closed.

  • The so-called Independents, such as Barras and Merlin of Douai, who were all Jacobins, but had stood aloof from the internal conflicts of the party, hated Royalism as much as ever and desired the continuance of the war which was essential to their power.

  • Lastly, those members who had never been Jacobins wanted a speedy return to legal government at home and therefore wished for peace abroad.

  • The Jacobins were strong enough to carry a decree for keeping the anniversary of the execution of Louis XVI.

  • The despair of the Jacobins produced a second rising in Paris on the 1st Prairial (May 20).

  • The new one-third were, as a rule, enemies of the Jacobins, but not of the Revolution.

  • When the new legislature was complete, the Jacobins had a majority, although a weak one.

  • But among the Jacobins themselves there had arisen an extreme party hostile to the directors.

  • With the support of many who were not Jacobins but detested the government, it bade fair to gain a majority.

  • In the elections of April 1799 a large number of Jacobins gained seats.

  • He hoped to concentrate power in his own hands,to bridle the Jacobins,and to remodel the constitution.

  • The same conditions explain the triumph of the Jacobins.

  • Assignats, Con Vention, The National, Jacobins.

  • The most notable Jacobins have seldom left memoirs, but the works of Robespierre and St Just enable us to form a clearer conception of the authors.

  • Returning to Paris, he was received with a popular ovation; but he was out of sympathy with the extremists in power, his old-fashioned methodical method of conducting war exposed him to the criticism of the ardent Jacobins, and a defeat would mean the end of his career.

  • The real Jacobins are few, but the masses groan and submit."

  • The Jacobins, on the contrary, considered that the king should merely be hereditary president of the Republic, to be deposed if he attempted to violate the constitution, and that universal suffrage should be established.

  • Their chief was not so much Robespierre, president of the parliamentary and bourgeois club of the Jacobins (q.v.), which had acquired by means of its two thousand affiliated branches great power in the provinces, as the advocate Danton, president of the popular and Parisian club of the Cordeliers.

  • Between the Feuillants and the Jacobins, the independents, incapable of keeping to any fixed programme, vacillated sometimes to the right, sometimes to the left.

  • Paris, on the other hand, had elected only deputies of the Mountain, as the more advanced of the Jacobins were called, that party being no more settled and united than the others.

  • Between the two came the Flame, the Marais, the troop of trembling bourgeois, sincerely attached to the Revolution, but very moderate in the defence of their ideas; some seeking a refuge from their timidity in hard-working committees, others partaking in the violence of the Jacobins out of weakness or for reasons of state.

  • Girondins and Jacobins unjustly accused one ar.other of leaving the traitors, the conspirators, the stipendiaries of Coblenz unpunished.

  • Power reverted to the Girondins and Dantonists, who reentered the Convention on the 18th of December; but with them re-entered likewise the royalists of Lyons, Resuscita Marseilles and Toulon, and further, after the peace of tion of the Basel, many young men set free from the army, hostile royalist to the Jacobins and defenders of the now moderate ~~Y

  • The former had united the Jacobins and the more violent members of the Convention in their club, the Socit du Pantheon; and their fusion, after the closing of the club, with the the zesecret society of the Babouvists lent formidable publicanstrength to this party, with which Barras was secretly ~7ats in league.

  • He was already known as one of the influential members of the Cordeliers club and of that of the Jacobins.

  • The government under him was thoroughly bad, and the persecution of the Jacobins, that is of all those suspected of Liberal sentiment, ferocious.

  • An anonymous pamphlet of 1792 which plays on British fears of the popular uprisings in France to link slave trade abolitionists with French Jacobins.

  • It consisted of a short skirted coat with rows of metal buttons, a tricoloured waistcoat and red cap, and became the popular dress of the Jacobins.

  • Then Chalier became the orator and leader of the Jacobins of Lyons, and induced the other revolutionary clubs and the commune of his city to arrest a great number of Royalists in the night of the 5th and 6th of February 1793.

  • On the 29th and 30th of May 1793 the sections rose; the Jacobins were dispossessed of the municipality and Chalier arrested.

  • This consisted in opposing everything not contained in the Constitution; in their opinion, the latter was in need of no modification, and they hated alike all those who were opposed to it, whether émigrés or Jacobins; they affected to avoid all political discussion, and called themselves merely a "conservative assembly."

  • It had made an attempt, though a weak one, to oppose the forward march of the Revolution, but, unlike the Jacobins, had never sent out branches into the provinces.

  • The act of separation of the Feuillants from the Jacobins was published in a pamphlet dated the 16th of July 1791, beginning with the words, Les Membres de l'assemblee nationale .

  • Meanwhile he took care to curb the excesses of the Italian Jacobins and to encourage the Moderates, who were favorable to the French connection as promising a guarantee against Austrian domination and internal anarchy.

  • The blow to the republican cause was most serious: for from Toulon as a centre the royalists threatened to raise a general revolt throughout the south of France, and Pitt cherished hopes of dealing a death-blow to the Jacobins in that quarter.

  • On the night of the 16th-17th December, Dugommier, Bonaparte, Victor and Muiron headed the storming column which forced its way into the chief battery thrown up by the besieged on the height behind l'Eguillette; and on the next day Hood and Langara set sail, leaving the royalists to the vengeance of the Jacobins.

  • Bernadotte, Jourdan and Augereau had compromised themselves by close association with the Jacobins.

  • A fortnight passed before he decided to support Sieyes in effecting a change in the constitution; and by then he had captivated all men except Bernadotte and a few intransigeant Jacobins.

  • The Rump proceeded to expel sixty-one Jacobins from the Council of Five Hundred, adjourned its sessions until the 19th of February 1800, and appointed a commission of twenty-five members with power to act in the meantime.

  • She added that all the parties except the Jacobins were full of confidence; and that the nobles now cherished hopes of a reaction, seeing that the reduction of the number of rulers from five to three pointed towards monarchy.

  • It purported to be an undertaking entered into by a few Jacobins, among them Arena, a Corsican, for the murder of Bonaparte at the opera.

  • Despite the evidence which Fouche and others brought forward to incriminate the royalists, the First Consul persisted in attributing the outrage to the Jacobins, had a list of suspects drawn up, and caused the Council of State to declare that a special precautionary measure was necessary.

  • The measure proved to be the deportation of the leading Jacobins; and a cloak of legality was cast over this extraordinary proceeding by a special decree of the senate (avowedly the guardian of the constitution) that this act of the government was a "measure tending to preserve the constitution" (5th of January 1801).

  • For the present the connivance of the senate at his coup d'etat of Nivose led to the deportation of one hundred and thirty Jacobins; some were interned in the islands of the Bay of Biscay, while fifty were sent to the tropical colonies of France, whence few of them ever returned.

  • True to his Corsican instinct of attachment to the family, and contempt for legal and dynastic claims, he now began to plant his brothers and other relatives in what had been republics established by the French Jacobins.

  • But even before Trafalgar he had begun to strike at that most vulnerable form of wealth, as the Jacobins had done before him.

  • In the strife which soon broke out between the Girondins and the Jacobins he took no decided part, but occupied himself mainly with the legal and legislative work which went on almost without intermission even during the Terror.

  • He gathered round him a small circle of his immediate followers known as the Societe des Egaux, soon merged with the rump of the Jacobins, who met at the Pantheon; and in November 1795 he was reported by the police to be openly preaching "insurrection, revolt and the constitution of 1793."

  • (11th of May 1796), in which Jacobins and socialists were combined.

  • The attempt of five or six hundred Jacobins (7th of September) to rouse the soldiers at Grenelle met with no better success.

  • He said among other things: " The Jacobins of contemporary social democracy - the Bolsheviks - desire that the people, that is the proletarians and peasants, should settle the reckoning of Monarchy and Aristocracy in plebeian fashion - by ruthlessly annihilating the enemies of freedom."

  • There are several other churches, among them the church of the Jacobins, a brick building of the 13th century, and the church of St Hilaire of the 16th century, which has a modern tower.

  • Nominated president of the Academical commission for the reform of weights and measures, his services were retained when its "purification" by the Jacobins removed his most distinguished colleagues.

  • For a time Maret betook himself to journalism; but he played a useful part in the negotiations for a peace with Great Britain which went on at Lille during the summer of 1797, until the victory of the Jacobins at Paris in the coup d'etat of Fructidor (Sept.

  • Ignaz Jozsef Martinovics (1755-1795) and his associates, the Hungarian Jacobins, vainly attempted a revolutionary propaganda (1795), and Napoleon's mutilations of the ancient kingdom of St Stephen did not predispose the Hungarian gentry in his favour.

  • He continued, however, as an 1 Michel Gerard was+a popular Breton peasant deputy (see Jacobins).

  • He took his seat upon the Mountain, and showed himself one of the most vigorous Jacobins, particularly in his defence of Marat, on the 26th of February 1793; he voted for the execution of the king, and was elected a member of the Committee of General Security on the 21st of January 1793.

  • While excelling him in suppleness and dexterity, he lacked the force of character possessed by the great "tribune of the people"; and his influence was gradually eclipsed by that of the more ardent and determined champions of democracy, the Girondins and the Jacobins.

  • The Jacobins >>

  • After spending a short time in Paris, where he was disgusted with the excesses of the Jacobins, he settled at Marseilles and married Mlle Julie Clary, daughter of a merchant of that town.

  • Aulard, Soc. des Jacobins, vi.

  • They were allpowerful in the Jacobin Club (see Jacobins), where Brissot's influence had not yet been ousted by Robespierre, and they did not hesitate to use this advantage to stir up popular passion and intimidate those who sought to stay the progress of the Revolution.

  • He was full of the idea of a league of republics against the league of sovereigns; but he was unaware that the Jacobins themselves were already considering the best mode of detaching Prussia, Poland's worst enemy, from the anti-French coalition.

  • The whole Prussian army would be put in motion, and all Europe would resound with the alarm of the danger to be apprehended from the Jacobins in France."

  • Though he approved of the French Revolution, his sympathies were with the more moderate party, and he became a member of the "club of 1789," instituted to support the new form of constitutional monarchy in opposition to the anarchical attempts of the Jacobins.

  • See also the articles Jacobins, Girondists and French Revolution.

  • At the Jacobins at Paris, a cloister lay to the north of the long narrow church of two parallel aisles, while the refectory - a room of immense length, quite detached from the cloister - stretched across the area before the west front of the church.

  • Here his conduct was anything but diplomatic. He at once announced himself as the protector of the extreme Jacobins in Rome, demanded the expulsion of the French emigres who had taken refuge there, including the "demoiselles Capet," and ordered the fleur-de-lys on the escutcheon of the French embassy to be replaced by a picture of Liberty painted by a French art student.

  • Ill-disposed as Bernstorff was towards the Jacobins, he now condemned on principle any interference in the domestic affairs of France, and he was persuaded that Denmark's safest policy was to keep clear of every anti-French coalition.

  • In January 1790 he collaborated with Malouet in founding the Club des Impartiaux and the Journal des Impartiaux, the names of which were changed in November to the Societe des Amis de la ConstitutionMonarchique and Journal de la Societe, £.9'c., in order to emphasize their opposition to the Jacobins (Societe des Amis de la Constitution).

  • The documents are mostly to be found in Nelson and the Neapolitan Jacobins; (Navy Records Society, London, 1903), edited by H.

  • The emperor Paul raised him to the rank of field-marshal (1796), and, in 1798, sent him on a diplomatic mission to Berlin and Vienna in order to detach Prussia from France and unite both Austria and Prussia against the Jacobins.

  • Other noteworthy buildings are the picturesque weigh-house (1595), the town hall (1715), the provincial courts (1850), and the great church of St Jacob, once the church of the Jacobins, and the largest monastic church in the Netherlands.

  • Three years later the triumph of the Jacobins brought with it the " abolition of Christianity," and a spell of violent persecution, which gradually slackened under the Directory (1795-99) In 1799 Napoleon became First Consul, and at once set himself to deal with the ecclesiastical problem.

  • As a member of the Council of Five Hundred, Du Pont carried out his policy of resistance to the Jacobins, and made himself prominent as a member of the reactionary party.

  • He was thus led to separate himself from the Jacobins and to join the Feuillant party.

  • HUGH OF ST CHER (c. 1 200-1263), French cardinal and Biblical commentator, was born at St Cher, a suburb of Vienne, Dauphine, and while a student in Paris entered the Dominion convent of the Jacobins in 1 225.

  • The aristocratic classes loudly complained that the young king, Gustavus IV., Gustavus still a minor, was being brought up among crypto IV., 1792- Jacobins; while the middle classes, deprived of 1809.

  • The negotiations with the French Jacobins exacerbated the hatred which the Gustavians already felt for the Jacobin councillors of the duke-regent (see CHARLES XIII., king of Sweden).

  • Gustavus now aimed at forming a league of princes against the Jacobins, and every other consideration was subordinated thereto.

  • Until 1791 he was one of the principal members of the club known later as the Jacobins, of which he drew up the manifesto and first rules (see Jacobins).

  • The editors worked under the inspiration of a strong admiration of the principles of Robespierre and the Jacobins, and in the belief that the French Revolution was an attempt to realize Christianity.

  • He had always divined by the instinct of hatred that the French moderates must gradually be swept away by the Jacobins, and now it was all coming true.

  • The humiliation of the king and queen after their capture at Varennes; the compulsory acceptance of the constitution; the plain incompetence of the new Legislative Assembly; the growing violence of the Parisian mob, and the ascendency of the Jacobins at the Common Hall; the fierce day of the 20th of June (1792), when the mob flooded the Tuileries, and the bloodier day of the 10th of August, when the Swiss guard was massacred and the royal family flung into prison; the murders in the prisons in September; the trial and execution of the king in January (1793); the proscription of the Girondins in June, the execution of the queen in October - if we realize the impression likely to be made upon the sober and homely English imagination by such a heightening of horror by horror, we may easily understand how people came to listen to Burke's voice as the voice of inspiration, and to look on his burning anger as the holy fervour of a prophet of the Lord.

  • xvi., 1904); La Societe des Jacobins; recueil de documents pour l'histoire du club des Jacobins de Paris (6 vols., 1889-1897); and Paris pendant la reaction thermidorienne et sous le directoire, recueil de documents pour l'histoire de l'esprit public e Paris (5 vols., 1898-1902), which was followed by an analogous collection for Paris sous le consulat (2 vols., 1903-1904).

  • The political clubs which sprang up all over the country often presumed to act as though they were public authorities (see Jacobins).

  • The Left consisted of the Jacobins, a term which still included the party afterwards known as the Girondins or Girondists - so termed because several of their leaders came from the region of the Gironde in southern France.

  • The Jacobins tried to frighten the king into accepting the decrees and recalling his ministers.

  • His refusal united all the Jacobins in the project of overturning the monarchy by force.

  • Volunteers and federes were constantly arriving in Paris, and, although most went on to join the army, the Jacobins enlisted those who were suitable for their purpose, especially some 500 whom Barbaroux, a Girondin, had summoned from Marseilles.

  • As the preparations of the Jacobins had been notorious, some Rng of the isi fOth of measures of defence had been taken.

  • Little more than a third of the deputies were present and they were almost all Jacobins.

  • The success of the Jacobins in overthrowing the monarchy had ended their union.

  • The Jacobins, about ioo strong, formed the Left of the Convention, afterwards known from the raised benches on which they sat as the Mountain.

  • Whichever side prevailed destroyed its adversaries Jacobins only to divide afresh and renew the strife until the and Girondins.

  • Although the leaders on both sides were of the middle class, the Girondins represented the bourgeoisie, the Jacobins represented the populace.

  • The Girondins desired a speedy return to law and order; the Jacobins thought that they could keep power only by violence.

  • The Jacobins leant on the revolutionary commune and the mob of Paris; the Girondins leant on the thriving burghers of the provincial cities.

  • Despite their smaller number the Jacobins were victors.

  • The Jacobins controlled the parent club with its affiliated societies and the whole machinery of terror.

  • The Jacobins perpetuated in a new form the old centralization of power to which France was accustomed.

  • The Jacobins desired the death of Louis, partly because they hated kings and deemed him a traitor, partly because they wished to envenom the Revolution, defy Europe and compromise their more temperate colleagues.

  • The galleries of the Convention were packed with adherents of the Jacobins, whose fury, not confined to words, struck terror into all who might incline towards mercy.

  • Administrative confusion had been heightened by the triumph of the Jacobins.

  • The disastrous effects of the Terror were heightened by the financial mismanagement of the Jacobins.

  • Thus the Jacobins became all-powerful.

  • It included old followers of Danton like Tallien, independent Jacobins like Cambon, some of the worst Terrorists like Fouche, and such a consummate time-server as Barere.

  • The trial of 130 prisoners sent up from Nantes led to so many terrible disclosures that public feeling turned still more fiercely against the Jacobins; Carrier himself was condemned and executed; and in November the Jacobin Club was closed.

  • The so-called Independents, such as Barras and Merlin of Douai, who were all Jacobins, but had stood aloof from the internal conflicts of the party, hated Royalism as much as ever and desired the continuance of the war which was essential to their power.

  • Lastly, those members who had never been Jacobins wanted a speedy return to legal government at home and therefore wished for peace abroad.

  • The Jacobins were strong enough to carry a decree for keeping the anniversary of the execution of Louis XVI.

  • The despair of the Jacobins produced a second rising in Paris on the 1st Prairial (May 20).

  • The new one-third were, as a rule, enemies of the Jacobins, but not of the Revolution.

  • When the new legislature was complete, the Jacobins had a majority, although a weak one.

  • But among the Jacobins themselves there had arisen an extreme party hostile to the directors.

  • With the support of many who were not Jacobins but detested the government, it bade fair to gain a majority.

  • In the elections of April 1799 a large number of Jacobins gained seats.

  • He hoped to concentrate power in his own hands,to bridle the Jacobins,and to remodel the constitution.

  • The same conditions explain the triumph of the Jacobins.

  • Assignats, Con Vention, The National, Jacobins.

  • The most notable Jacobins have seldom left memoirs, but the works of Robespierre and St Just enable us to form a clearer conception of the authors.

  • Returning to Paris, he was received with a popular ovation; but he was out of sympathy with the extremists in power, his old-fashioned methodical method of conducting war exposed him to the criticism of the ardent Jacobins, and a defeat would mean the end of his career.

  • The real Jacobins are few, but the masses groan and submit."

  • The Jacobins, on the contrary, considered that the king should merely be hereditary president of the Republic, to be deposed if he attempted to violate the constitution, and that universal suffrage should be established.

  • Their chief was not so much Robespierre, president of the parliamentary and bourgeois club of the Jacobins (q.v.), which had acquired by means of its two thousand affiliated branches great power in the provinces, as the advocate Danton, president of the popular and Parisian club of the Cordeliers.

  • Between the Feuillants and the Jacobins, the independents, incapable of keeping to any fixed programme, vacillated sometimes to the right, sometimes to the left.

  • Paris, on the other hand, had elected only deputies of the Mountain, as the more advanced of the Jacobins were called, that party being no more settled and united than the others.

  • Between the two came the Flame, the Marais, the troop of trembling bourgeois, sincerely attached to the Revolution, but very moderate in the defence of their ideas; some seeking a refuge from their timidity in hard-working committees, others partaking in the violence of the Jacobins out of weakness or for reasons of state.

  • Girondins and Jacobins unjustly accused one ar.other of leaving the traitors, the conspirators, the stipendiaries of Coblenz unpunished.

  • Power reverted to the Girondins and Dantonists, who reentered the Convention on the 18th of December; but with them re-entered likewise the royalists of Lyons, Resuscita Marseilles and Toulon, and further, after the peace of tion of the Basel, many young men set free from the army, hostile royalist to the Jacobins and defenders of the now moderate ~~Y

  • The former had united the Jacobins and the more violent members of the Convention in their club, the Socit du Pantheon; and their fusion, after the closing of the club, with the the zesecret society of the Babouvists lent formidable publicanstrength to this party, with which Barras was secretly ~7ats in league.

  • He was already known as one of the influential members of the Cordeliers club and of that of the Jacobins.

  • The government under him was thoroughly bad, and the persecution of the Jacobins, that is of all those suspected of Liberal sentiment, ferocious.

  • Paris Jacobins refused to prosecute septembriseurs and found it ever easier to adopt sans-culottes solutions.

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