Ixodidae (Ixodes, Rhipicephalus).
The ticks (Ixodes) are not only injurious as blood-suckers, but are now credited with carrying the germs of Texas cattle-fever, just as mosquitoes carry those of malaria.
p. 289, 1892; Wagner, Embryonal Entwick, von Ixodes (St Petersburg, 1893); 41.
Insects abound in great numbers, the most troublesome and destructive being the tick (Ixodes natalensis), which infests the pasturage, and the white ant (Termes mordax).
The common sheep-tick (Ixodes vicinus) of England, for example, infects cattle and dogs as well as sheep; and the pathogenetic Ixodidae above mentioned occur parasitically upon other mammals than those to which they convey the diseases specified.
Examples of Ixodes vicinis have been kept for two years and three months without feeding, and specimens of Argas persicus were still alive after four years' starvation.
One of the most troublesome pests of the interior is a minute degenerate spider of the genus Ixodes, called carrapato, or bush-tick, which breeds on the ground and then creeps up the grass blades and bushes where it waits for some passing man or beast.
The " carrier " of a Trypanosome of warmblooded vertebrates is, in all instances so far described, an insect, generally a member of the Diptera; in the case of parasites of cold-blooded vertebrates the same role is usually played by an ichthyobdellid leech (piscine forms), but possibly, now and again, by an Ixodes (amphibian or reptilian forms).
In the United States, the deer tick in the genus Ixodes is the vector for Borrelia burgdorferi and Lyme disease transmission.
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