Thus, for want of funds, Alexander was unable to assist the Grand Master of the Order of the Sword against Muscovite aggression, or prevent Tsar Ivan III.
After this, Ivan was obliged to help himself as best he could.
In 1555 he sent Ivan Sheremetev against Perekop, and Sheremetev routed the Tatars in a great two days' battle at Sudbishenska.
Ivan IV., like Peter I.
Ivan intervened in 1558 and quickly captured Narva, Dorpat and a dozen smaller fortresses; then, in 1560, Livonia placed herself beneath the protection of Poland, and King Sigismund II.
Warned Ivan off the premises.
By this time, Ivan had entered upon the second and evil portion of his reign.
The same society which produced his infamous favourites also produced St Philip of Moscow, and by refusing to listen to St Philip Ivan sank below even the not very lofty moral standard of his own age.
Personally, Ivan was tall and well-made, with high shoulders and a broad chest.
"It's all very well for you, Ivan Sidorych, to talk," said the first tradesman angrily.
IVAN IV., called "the Terrible" (1530-1584), tsar of Muscovy, was the son of Vasily [[[Basil]]] III.
The decennium extending from 1550 to 1560 was the good period of Ivan IV.'s reign, when he deliberately broke away from his disreputable past and surrounded himself with good men of lowly origin.
Ivan was also the first tsar who dared to attack the Crimea.
The death of his deeply beloved consort Anastasia and his son Demetrius, and the desertion of his one bosom friend Prince Kurbsky, about the same time, seem to have infuriated Ivan against God and man.
Ivan had stopped at Tver, to murder St Philip, while on his way to destroy the second wealthiest city in his tsardom - Great Novgorod.
Ivan was also unfortunate in having for his chief antagonist Stephen Bathory, one of the greatest captains of the age.
Towards the end of his life Ivan was partially consoled for his failure in the west by the unexpected acquisition of the kingdom of Siberia in the east, which was first subdued by the Cossack hetman Ermak or Yermak in 1581.
In November 1580 Ivan in a fit of ungovernable fury at some contradiction or reproach, struck his eldest surviving son Ivan, a prince of rare promise, whom he passionately loved, a blow which proved fatal.
Tikhomirov, The first Tsar of Moscovy, Ivan IV.
Waliszewski, Ivan le terrible (Paris, 1904); R.
Ivan V >>
STRELITZ (Strjeltsi), a body of Russian household troops originally raised by the tsar Ivan the Terrible in the middle of the 16th century.
They originated in 1645, when, according to their belief, God the Father descended in a chariot of fire on Mount Gorodim, in the province of Vladimir, and took up his abode in a peasant named Daniel Philippov, who chose another peasant, named Ivan Suslov, for his son, the Christ.
The complete suppression of these small moribund states and the creation of the autocratic tsardom of Muscovy were the work of Ivan III., surnamed the Great, his son Basil and his grandson Ivan IV., commonly known as Ivan the Terrible, whose united reigns cover a period of 122 years (1462-1584).
- What may be called the home policy of these three remarkable rulers consisted in absorbing the few principalities which still remained indepen- Ivan III.
When Ivan III.
Cessor Basil followed in his footsteps, and dealt with 1505the municipal republic of Pskov was Ivan had dealt 1533.
Thus all the principalities were brought under the power of Moscow, and in that respect there remained nothing for Ivan the Terrible to do.
With a view to strengthen this claim Ivan III.
Ivan III., notwithstanding the influence of his Greek consort, showed some respect for the ancient traditions and the susceptibilities of those around him, but his successor Basil did not follow his father's example.
That opportunity came when Basil died in 1533, leaving as successor a child only three years old, and the chances seemed all on the side of the nobles; but the result belied the current expectations, for the child came to be known in history as Ivan the Terrible, and died half a century later in the full enjoyment of unlimited autocratic power.
From the earliest times the term tsar - a contraction of the word Caesar - had been applied to the kings in Biblical history and the Byzantine emperors, and Ivan III.
On the death of Casimir, king of Poland and grand-prince of Lithuania, in 1492, the kingdom and the principality ceased to be united and Ivan III.
On the contrary it served as a pretext for Ivan to interfere in Lithuanian affairs.
The policy of expansion westwards, inaugurated by Ivan III., was modified and enlarged by Ivan the Terrible.
This was precisely the reason why Ivan IV.
Ivan did not display much military talent, but he showed a remarkable amount of tenacity.
In reality the younger son of Ivan the Terrible had been strangled before his brother's death - by orders, it was said, of Godunov - and the mysterious individual who was impersonating him was an impostor; but he was regarded as the rightful heir by a large section of the population, and immediately after Boris's death in 1605 he made his triumphal entry into Moscow.
The chief con spirator, Shuiski, seized the power and was elected tsar by an Assembly composed of his faction, but neither Shuiski, the ambitious boyars, nor the pillaging Cossacks, nor the German mercenaries were satisfied with the change, and soon a new impostor, likewise calling himself Dimitri, son of Tsar Ivan, came forward as the rightful heir.
Before reaching the new order of things, the country had to pass through an internal crisis similar to that which followed the death of Ivan the Terrible, but not nearly so severe.
As the second son, Ivan, next in 1676-82.
An ambitious, energetic sister of Ivan, well known in Russian history as Sophia Alexeyevna,instigated the stryeltsi(strelitz), as the troops Sophia of the unreformed standing army were called, to upset Alexey- the arrangement.
Lin and assassinating several of the men in power, they insisted that Ivan should be proclaimed tsar conjointly with Ivan V.
The problem of obtaining a firm footing on the Baltic coast, on which Ivan the Terrible had squandered his resources to no purpose, was now solved satisfactorily.
Having no male issue, she chose as her successor the infant son of her niece, Anna Leopoldovna, duchess of Brunswick, and at her death the child was duly proclaimed emperor, under the name of Ivan VI., but in little more than a year he was dethroned by the partisans of the Princess Elizabeth, a daughter of Peter the Great and Catherine I.
(III.) Theodore (IV.) Ivan V.
(VIII.) Ivan VI.
Ivan the Terrible in 1561 made it the centre of the ecclesiastical province of Moscow.
Ivan Turgueniev >>
But the idea of a retreat was intolerable to him, so he determined to march southwards instead of northwards as suggested by his generals, and join his forces with those of the hetman of the Dnieperian Cossacks, Ivan Mazepa, who had 100,000 horsemen and a fresh and fruitful land at his disposal.
It also saw the first intercourse between a Russian tsar and an Ottoman sultan, Ivan III.
Kuchum fled to the steppes, abandoning his domains to Yermak, who, according to tradition, purchased by the present of Siberia to Ivan IV.
Of France took the Hungarian mining system as the model for his metallurgical reforms, and Hungarian master-miners were also in great demand at the court of Ivan the Terrible.
"Let us go, Ivan Lukich," he said to the captain.
However far he has walked, whatever strange, unknown, and dangerous places he reaches, just as a sailor is always surrounded by the same decks, masts, and rigging of his ship, so the soldier always has around him the same comrades, the same ranks, the same sergeant major Ivan Mitrich, the same company dog Jack, and the same commanders.
"That's Ilagin's huntsman having a row with our Ivan," said Nicholas' groom.
The Kremlin, which was not destroyed, gleamed white in the distance with its towers and the belfry of Ivan the Great.
Once or twice Pierre was carried away and began to speak of these things, but Nicholas and Natasha always brought him back to the health of Prince Ivan and Countess Mary Alexeevna.
Is the movement of the Russian people eastward to Kazan and Siberia expressed by details of the morbid character of Ivan the Terrible and by his correspondence with Kurbski?
Then the dispute about the Crimea arose, and Ivan became convinced that they were mediocre politicians as well as untrustworthy friends.