He was United States minister to Italy from 1882 to 1885.
"Are you lately from Italy?" he asked.
HERNICI, an ancient people of Italy, whose territory was in Latium between the Fucine Lake and the Trerus, bounded b'y the Volscian on the S., and by the Aequian and the Marsian on the N.
"He was well and happy when we left Italy," they answered.
From that time he resided in Italy; he refused to follow the other Hungarian patriots, who, under the lead of Deak, accepted the composition of 1867; for him there could be no reconciliation with the house of Habsburg, nor would he accept less than full independence and a republic. He would not avail himself of the amnesty, and, though elected to the Diet of 1867, never took his seat.
In a composition which I wrote about the old cities of Greece and Italy, I borrowed my glowing descriptions, with variations, from sources I have forgotten.
Giving him the title of senator, he sent him to Italy with the legate, Cardinal Albornoz, and having collected a few mercenary troops on the way, Rienzi entered Rome in August 13 54.
The theory was that all the imperial business in Germany was supervised by the elector of Mainz, and for Italy by the elector of Cologne.
At Bordeaux Bertrand was formally notified of his election and urged to come to Italy; but he caused his coronation to take place at Lyons on the 14th of November 1305.
Denouncing the temporal power of the pope he implored the emperor to deliver Italy, and especially Rome, from their oppressors; but, heedless of his invitations, Charles kept him in prison for more than a year in the fortress of Raudnitz, and then handed him over to Clement, who had been clamouring for his surrender.
The oldest form of his story is found in the Passio ascribed to Eucherius, bishop of Lyons, c. 450, who relates how the "Theban" legion commanded by Mauritius was sent to north Italy to reinforce the army of Maximinian.
1 in., and in that of Sassari 21.99%, the percentage for ten provinces of south Italy being 24.35.
He alone--with his ideal of glory and grandeur developed in Italy and Egypt, his insane self-adulation, his boldness in crime and frankness in lying--he alone could justify what had to be done.
Autumn is warmer than spring, especially in the coastal regions, and this is exaggerated in the eastern region by local land winds, which replace the cool sea-breezes of summer: overcoats are ordinarily worn in Spain and Italy till July, and are then put aside till October.
Francis entered Italy in August and on the 14th of September won the battle of Marignano.
The king of Spain wrote to his ambassador at Rome "that His Holiness had hitherto played a double game and that all his zeal to drive the French from Italy had been only a mask"; this reproach seemed to receive some confirmation when Leo X.
went to Italy in 1251, Otto remained as his representative in Germany, until his death on the 29th of November 12 53.
Francis entered Italy in August and on the 14th of September won the battle of Marignano.
One day a traveler was walking through a part of Italy where a great many sheep were pasturing.
He wrote letters to the cities of Italy, asking them to send representatives to an assembly which would meet on the 1st of August, when the formation of a great federation under the headship of Rome would be considered.
Jacques was the first outcome of the journey to Italy, and in precision and splendour of style it marks a distinct progress.
The revolutionary and imperial epoch had seen a great development of Italian patriotism, and Santarosa was aggrieved by the great extension given to the Austrian power in Italy in 1815, which reduced his own country to a position of inferiority.
Refusing all honours and recompense, he prepared to return to Italy upon receiving news of the incipient revolutionary movement.
This fungus, Marasmius Oreades, is more universally used in France and Italy than in England, although it is well known and frequently used both in a fresh and in a dry state in England.
This is only one of the many Greek legends adopted by the Romans for the purpose of connecting places in Italy with others of likesounding name in Greece.
SAN GIMIGNANO, a town of Tuscany, Italy, in the province of Siena, 24 m.
Native capital is lacking, and taxation on unremunerative lands is, as elsewhere in Italy, too heavy in proportion to what they may be expected to produce, and not sufficiently elastic in case of a bad harvest.
Still, the percentage of those unable to read and write is 72.8, while for the whole of Italy it is 56 o.
Finally he was sent with a mercenary army to Italy to protect the Tarentines against the attacks of Lucanians or Messapians: he fell together with the greater part of his force at Mandonion 1 on the same day as that on which the battle of Chaeronea was fought.
This fungus, Marasmius Oreades, is more universally used in France and Italy than in England, although it is well known and frequently used both in a fresh and in a dry state in England.
Still, the percentage of those unable to read and write is 72.8, while for the whole of Italy it is 56 o.
In World War II, the United States went to war with Germany, Italy, and Japan, a trio of undemocratic countries.
One summer he went over the sea to Italy; for his name was well known there, and many people wished to hear him sing.
His activity at that time was no less astounding than it was in Egypt, in Italy, in Austria, and in Prussia.
During the war in Italy he is several times on the verge of destruction and each time is saved in an unexpected manner.
On the following day the festival of the unity of Italy was celebrated, but neither this nor the previous meeting had any practical result.
However, the duties of archchancellor for Italy were generally discharged by deputy, and after the virtual separation of Italy and Germany, the title alone was retained by the elector.
A large variety of materials have been used in their manufacture by different peoples at different times - painted linen and shavings of stained horn by the Egyptians, gold and silver by the Romans, rice-paper by the Chinese, silkworm cocoons in Italy, the plumage of highly coloured birds in South America, wax, small tinted shells, &c. At the beginning of the 8th century the French, who originally learnt the art from the Italians, made great advances in the accuracy of their reproductions, and towards the end of that century the Paris manufacturers enjoyed a world-wide reputation.
He sold out his family for money and land in Italy.
He must minimize foreign influence, whether French, Spanish or German, in Italy.
That Leo did not do more to check the tendency toward heresy and schism in Germany and Scandinavia is to be partially explained by the political complications of the time, and by his own preoccupation with schemes of papal and Medicean aggrandizement in Italy.
The revolutionary outbreak of 1820, which extended from Spain to Naples, seemed to afford the patriots an opportunity to secure the independence of Italy.
After the fall of Rome he left the city at the head of 4000 volunteers, with the idea of joining the defenders of Venice, and started on that wonderful retreat through central Italy pursued by the armies of France, Austria, Spain and Naples.
Venice, Istria, the Dalmatian coast and South Italy were assigned to the East, while Rome, Ravenna and the Pentapolis were included in the Western realm.
He was the uncle and guardian of Conradin of Hohenstaufen, whom he assisted to make his journey to Italy in 1267, and accompanied as far as Verona.
Sardegna), an island of the Mediterranean Sea, belonging to the kingdom of Italy.
of Civitavecchia, the nearest point on the mainland of Italy.
The climate of Sardinia is more extreme than that of Italy, but varies considerably in different districts.
Anthropologists, indeed, have recently observed a large proportion of individuals of exceptionally small stature, not found in Sardinia only, but elsewhere in south Italy also; though in Sardinia they are distributed over the whole island, and especially in the southern half.
In 1902 the total production of wheat in the island was 2,946,070 bushels, but in 1903 it rose to 4,823,800 bushels, in 1904 it fell to 4,015,020, and in 1905 rose again to 4,351,987 bushels, 81 of the whole production of Italy.
Sardinia has less convictions for serious crimes than any other compartimento of south Italy.
of Savoy took refuge in Cagliari after his expulsion by the French, but soon returned to Italy.
For Piedmont, completed in 1836 and 1841; was suppressed, like all other Italian concordats, by the formation of the kingdom of Italy.
For Tuscany; lasted until the formation of the kingdom of Italy.
On the formation of the kingdom of Italy he returned to Tuscany and was elected member of parliament; he died in 1862.
The beer of Schweidnitz has long been famous under the name of "Schwarze Schdps," and in the 16th century it was exported as far as Italy.
He was destined by his family for the church, but entered business, and became a partner in a firm at Lyons for which he travelled in the Levant, in Italy, Spain and Portugal.
In the same year he was made a senator of the kingdom of Italy.
Papers by him have appeared in the mathematical journals of Italy, France, Germany and England, and he has published several important works, many of which have been translated into other languages.
His life was devoted to the study of higher geometry and reforming the more advanced mathematical teaching of Italy.
An Angevin fleet and army, under Robert's son Charles, was defeated at Palermo by Giovanni da Chiaramonte in 1325, and in 1326 and 1327 there were further Angevin raids on the island, until the descent into Italy of the emperor Louis the Bavarian distracted their attention.
VARESE, a town of Lombardy, Italy, in the province of Como, 18 m.
But in 1083 he was suddenly disgraced and imprisoned for having planned a military expedition to Italy.
In 1494 he was again in the Netherlands, where he led an expedition against the rebels of Gelderland, assisted Perkin Warbeck to make a descent upon England, and formally handed over the government of the Low Countries to Philip. His attention was next turned to Italy, and, alarmed at the progress of Charles VIII.
The need for help to prosecute the war in Italy caused the king to call the diet to Worms in March 1495, when he urged the necessity of checking the progress of Charles.
Having established his daughter Margaret as regent for Charles in the Netherlands, Maximilian met the diet at Constance in 1507, when the imperial chamber (Reichskammergericht) was revised and took a more permanent form, and help was granted for an expedition to Italy.
After a period of vacillation he deserted Louis and joined the Holy League, which had been formed to expel the French from Italy; but unable to raise troops, he served with the English forces as a volunteer and shared in the victory gained over the French at the battle of the Spurs near Therouanne on the 16th of August 1513.
Having made an alliance with Christian II., king of Denmark, and interfered to protect the Teutonic Order against Sigismund I., king of Poland, Maximilian was again in Italy early in 1516 fighting the French who had overrun Milan.
For absurd and impracticable schemes in Italy and elsewhere he neglected Germany, and sought to involve its princes in wars undertaken solely for private aggrandizement or personal jealousy.
On that occasion all Europe united to do him honour, many learned societies sent delegates to express their congratulations, the king of Italy gave him his own portrait on a gold medallion, and among the numerous addresses he received was one from Kaiser Wilhelm II., who took the opportunity of presenting him with the Grand Gold Medal for Science.
As to the introduction of domesticated cats into Europe, the opinion is very generally held that tame cats from Egypt were imported at a relatively early date into Etruria by Phoenician traders; and there is decisive evidence that these animals were established in Italy long before the Christian era.
Its geographical range was formerly very extensive, and included Great Britain, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, Bohemia, Hungary, Poland, Transylvania, Galicia, the Caucasus as far as the Caspian, southern Russia, Italy, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Bulgaria, Servia, and portions of central and northern Asia.
VOLTURNO (anc. Volturnus, from volvere, to roll), a river of central Italy, which rises in the neighbourhood of Alfedena in the central Apennines of Samnium, runs S.
VIA LABICANA, an ancient highroad of Italy, leading E.S.E.
ARCOLA, a village of northern Italy, 16 m.
Towards the end of the year Descartes was on his way to Italy.
But I have just been at Leyden and Amsterdam to ask after Galileo's cosmical system as I imagined I had heard of its being printed last year in Italy.
In Italy the effects were more permanent.
OSTIA, an ancient town and harbour of Latium, Italy, at the mouth of the river Tiber on its left bank.
Until Trajan formed the port of Centumcellae (Civitavecchia) Ostia was the best harbour along the low sandy coast of central Italy between Monte Argentario and Monte Circeo.
In 1257, along with his friend Bonaventura, he was created doctor of theology, and began to give courses of lectures upon this subject in Paris, and also in Rome and other towns in Italy.
coast of Italy, 69 m.
It was one of the eighteen richest cities of Italy which the triumviri selected as a reward for their troops.
The first book also relates his conquests in Italy, Africa, Syria and Asia Minor; his return to Macedonia and the submission of Greece.
The term tertia minore, or inferiore, is used by Praetorius to describe a low pitch, often preferred in England and the Netherlands, in Italy and in some parts of Germany.
In 392 Valentinian was secretly put to death at Vienne (in Gaul), and Arbogast, naming as his successor Eugenius, a rhetorician, descended into Italy to meet the expedition which Theodosius was heading against him.
His defeat in the hardfought battle of the Frigidus saved Italy from these dangers.
Albania is perhaps the least-known region in Europe; and though more than a hundred years have passed since Gibbon described it as "a country within sight of Italy, which is less known than the interior of America," but little progress has yet been made towards a scientific knowledge of this interesting land and its inhabitants.
The summer temperature in the plains is that of southern Italy; in the mountain district& it is high during the day, but falls almost to freezing-point at night.
The Albanians in Greece and Italy, though separated for six centuries from the parent stock, have not yet been absorbed by the surrounding populations.
The Albanian settlements in southern Italy and Sicily were founded in 1444, 1464 and 1468; minor immigrations followed in the three succeeding centuries.
In southern Italy there are 72 Albanian communes, with 154,674 inhabitants; in Sicily 7 communes, with 52,141 inhabitants.
Of the Albanians in Sicily the great majority (4479 1) remain faithful to the Greek Church; in Italy 116,482 follow the Latin ritual, and 38,192 the Greek.
In the absence of literary culture the Albanian dialects, as might be expected, are widely divergent; the limits of the two principal dialects correspond with the racial boundaries of the Ghegs and Tosks, who understand each other with difficulty; the Albanians in Greece and Italy have also separate dialects.
The literature of the last two centuries consists mainly of translations and religious works written by ecclesiastics, some of whom were natives of the Albanian colonies in Italy.
In 1081 the Normans under Robert Guiscard possessed themselves of Durazzo; Guiscard's son Bohemund defeated the Greeks in several battles and again (i 107) laid siege to Durazzo, which had been surrendered to them by treachery; failing to take the city, he retired to Italy in 1109.
Many of its native Christian defenders emigrated to Dalmatia and Italy; others took refuge in the mountains with the Roman Catholic Ghegs.
/ ait and John Lydgates Bearbeitungen von Boccaccios De Casibus, Munich, 1885) has thrown much doubt on this statement as regards Italy, but Lydgate knew France and visited Paris in an official capacity in 1426.
After the restoration of the temple the senate sent ambassadors in 76 to Erythrae to collect the oracles afresh and they brought back about 1000 verses; others were collected in Ilium, Samos, Sicily, Italy and Africa.
Although there is no direct evidence of the fact, there can be no doubt that he left St Andrews to complete his education abroad, and that he probably studied at the university of Paris, and visited Italy and Germany.
He retained this position until 1517, wrote a Latin grammar, and other manuals for the use of his pupils, and in 1515 travelled in Italy with Ernest.
PARMA, a town and episcopal see of Emilia, Italy, capital of the province of Parma, situated on the Parma, a tributary of the Po, 55 m.
Parma, one of the finest cities of northern Italy, lies in a fertile tract of the Lombard plain, within view of the Alps and sheltered by the Apennines, 170 ft.
Francesco, probably the earliest Franciscan church in northern Italy (1230-1298; now a prison), is a Gothic building in brick with a fine rose-window.
The grana cheese known as Parmesan is not now so well made at Parma as in some other parts of Italy - Lodi, for example.
In 1860 his possessions were formally incorporated with the new kingdom of Italy.
At this time the Ostrogothic kingdom, founded in Italy by Theodoric the Great, was shaken by internal dissensions, of which Justinian resolved to avail himself.
Etsch, anc. Athesis), a considerable river in North Italy.
After traversing North Italy, in a direction first southerly and then easterly, it falls into the Adriatic at Porto Fossone, a few miles north of the mouth of the Po.
The most considerable towns on its banks (south of Botzen) are Trent and Rovereto, in Tirol, and Verona and Legnago, in Italy.
In Lombardy it has a breadth of 200 yds., and a depth of 10 to 16 ft., but the strength of the current renders its navigation very difficult, and lessens its value as a means of transit between Germany and Italy.
The Adige has a course of about 220 m., and, after the Po, is the most important river in Italy.
It may be compared in some degree to such European societies as the Carbonara, Young Italy, the Tugendbund, the Confreries of France, the Freemasons in Catholic countries, and the Vehmgericht.
It establishes communication hetwee1f France and Switzerland and Italy via Macon and Culoz (for the Mt.
The other chief customers of France were Switzerland and Italy, whose imports from France averaged in 1901-1905 nearly 10,000,000 and over 7,200,000 respectively in value.
CARROCCIO, a war chariot drawn by oxen, used by the medieval republics of Italy.
Previously French had gone to Florence, Italy, where he spent a year with Thomas Ball.
From England he passed to the Low Countries, Germany, Switzerland and Italy, and on his return to the Peninsula in 1796 was appointed official translator to the foreign office.
From 1814 to 182S Moratin lived in Italy and France, compiling a work on the early Spanish drama (Origenes del teatro espanol).
He lectured in the schools on natural philosophy, and on Greek in his own rooms. In 1540 Smith went abroad, and, after studying in France and Italy and taking a degree of law at Padua, returned to Cambridge in 1542.
CALATIA, an ancient town of Campania, Italy, 6 m.
Hardly a noble house of Spain or Italy was not represented in the fleet, and the princes headed the boarders.
He went to Italy as president of the commission, carrying to the prince at Florence the official news of his election.
He was wounded at Wagram, and distinguished during the operations in Italy in 1813 and 1814.
When the insurrectionary movements of 1848 broke out in Italy, his known zeal for the cause of legitimacy, as much as his reputation as an officer, marked him out for command.
He fought with success in Italy, but was chiefly noted for the severity he showed in suppressing and punishing a rising in Brescia.
In Hungary, as in Italy, he was accused of brutality.
Till middle life he was also lieutenant-general in Aragon for his brother and predecessor Alphonso V., whose reign was mainly spent in Italy.
Lines of steamers connect Australia with London and other British ports, with Germany, Belgium, France, Italy, Japan, China, India, San Francisco, Vancouver, New York and Montevideo, several important lines being subsidized by the countries to which they belong, notably Germany, France and Japan.
His first years were spent in Italy, where his father was occupied with his consular duties.
Aenaria, in poetry Inarime), an island off the coast of Campania, Italy, 16 m.
After the fall of Rome it suffered attacks and devastations from the successive masters of Italy, until it was finally taken by the Neapolitans in 1299.
In the following year, by the death, of Ferdinand of Aragon, his maternal grandfather, and the incapacity of his mother Joanna, who had become hopelessly insane, he succeeded to the crowns of Castile and Aragon, which carried with them large possessions in Italy and the dominion, of the New World of America.
But Philip's preparations were now complete, and Alva set out from Italy at the head of a force of some io,000 veteran troops, Spaniards and Italians, afterwards increased by a body of Germans, with which, after marching through Burgundy, Lorraine and Luxemburg, he reached the Netherlands (August 8), and made his entry into Brussels a fortnight later.
The German army invaded Italy in August 1132, and occupied Rome, all except St Peter's church and the castle of St Angelo which held out against them.
A second expedition of Lothair expelled Roger of Sicily (to whom Anacletus had given the title of king in return for his support) from southern Italy, but a quarrel with Innocent prevented the emperor attacking Rome.
BOLSENA (anc. Volsinii),' a town of the province of Rome, Italy, 12 m.
Gaeta), an ancient harbour of Latium adiectum, Italy, in the territory of Formiae, from which it is 5 m.
BENEVENTO, a town and archiepiscopal see of Campania, Italy, capital of the province of Benevento, 60 m.
In 1815 it returned to the papacy, but was united to Italy in 1860.
SESSA AURUNCA, a town and episcopal see of Campania, Italy, in the province of Caserta, on the S.W.
The wood is very heavy and hard, weighing 70 lb the cubic foot; the colour is dark brown; it is used in Spain and Italy for furniture, and in the former country for firewood and charcoal.
In 1869 he visited Europe, painting much in Italy.
Peter began the long strife of the Angevine and Aragonese parties in southern Italy.
that Siger and Boetius fled to Italy and, according to John Peckham, archbishop of Canterbury, perished miserably.
ARNO (anc. Arnus), a river of Italy which rises from the Monte Falterona, about 25 m.
In 1835 Jouffroy's health failed and he went to Italy, where he continued to translate the Scottish philosophers.
In France it was abolished in 1867, in Belgium in 1871, in Switzerland and Norway in 187 4, and in Italy in 1877.
From Italy the practice spread to France, Spain, England and other countries.
chiche beau, with same meaning), the term in Italy from the 17th century onwards for a dangler about women.
PERUGIA (anc. Perusia), a city and archiepiscopal see of Italy, the capital of the province of Perugia (which forms the entire compartimento of Umbria) situated 1444 ft.
As emperor of the West, Valentinian took Italy, Illyricum.
Hodgkin, Italy and her Invaders, bk.
They made Milan their home; and the empire was nominally divided between them, Gratian taking the trans-Alpine provinces, whilst Italy, Illyricum in part, and Africa were to be under the rule of Valentinian, or rather of his mother, Justina.
coast of Italy, belonging to the province of Leghorn, from which it is 45 m.
After his fall it was restored to Tuscany, and passed with it to Italy in 1860.
Marconi's earliest experiments with this apparatus were made in Italy.
In 1906 there were 30,551, equal to 7.2 per cent., more telephone stations in the United Kingdom than in the ten European countries of Austria, Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, Holland, Italy; Norway, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland, having a combined population of 288 millions as against a population of 42 millions in the United Kingdom.
As the friars became more and more numerous their missionary labours extended wider and wider, spreading first over Italy, and then to other countries.
After another period of preaching in Italy and watching over the development of the order, Francis once again set out for the East (1219).
3, 1899) is very remarkable; indeed, though this writer is as little ecclesiastically-minded as Sabatier himself, his general picture of the state of religion in Italy at the time is far truer; here also Sabatier has given way to the usual temptation of biographers to exalt their hero by depreciating everybody else.
His far-reaching hand even extended to Italy.
ITALY (Italia), the name1 applied both in ancient and in modern times to the great peninsula that projects from the mass of central Europe far to the south into the Mediterranean Sea, where the island of Sicily may be considered as a continuation of he continental promontory.
Northern Italy 1.2 2.
Central Italy 1.3 3.
Southern Italy 1.4 Lakes 1.5 Islands
Consolidation of Italy 27.3 C. From 476 to 1796
Italy in the Napoleonic Period, 1796-1814 27.5 E.
But the peninsula of Italy, which forms the the largest portion of the country, nowhere exceeds 150 m.
Though the Alps form throughout the northern boundary of Italy, the exact limits at the extremities of the Alpine chain are not clearly marked.
Ancient geographers appear to have generally regarded the remarkable headland which descends from the Maritime Alps to the sea between Nice and Monaco as the limit of Italy in that direction, and in a purely geographical point of view it is probably the best point that could be selected.
But Augustus, who was the first to give to Italy a definite political organization, carried the frontier to the river Varus or Var, a few miles west of Nice, and this river continued in modern times to be generally recognized as the boundary between France and Italy.
The only other part of the northern frontier of Italy where the boundary is not clearly marked by nature is Tirol or the valley of the Adige.
Tridentum or Trent was in the time of Pliny included in the tenth region of Italy or Venetia, but he tells us that the inhabitants were a Raetian tribe.
At the present day the frontier between Austria and the kingdom of Italy crosses the Adige about 30 m.
One chief result of the manner in which the Apennines traverse Italy from the Mediterranean to the Adriatic is the marked division between Northern Italy, including the region north of the Apennines and extending thence to the foot of the Alps, and the central and more southerly portions of the peninsula.
No such line of separation exists farther south, and the terms Central and Southern Italy, though in general use among geographers and convenient for descriptive purposes, do not correspond to any natural divisions.
By far the larger portion of Northern Italy is occupied by the basin of the Po, which comprises the whole of the broad plain extending from the foot of the Apennines to that of the Alps, together with the valleys and slopes on both sides of it.
The geography of Northern Italy is described in several popular guide books.
The Adige, formed by the junction of two streams—the Etsch or Adige proper and the Eisak, both of which belong to Tirol rather than to Italy—descends as far as Verona, where it enters the great plain, with a course from north to south nearly parallel to the rivers last described, and would seem likely to discharge its waters into those of the Po, but below Legnago it turns eastward and runs parallel to the Po for about 40 m., entering the Adriatic by an independent mouth about 8 m.
The river Marecchia, which enters the sea immediately north of Rimini, may be considered as the natural limit of Northern Italy.
From the proximity of the mountains to the sea none of the rivers in this part of Italy has a long course, and they are generally mere mountain torrents, rapid and swollen in winter and spring, and almost dry in summer.
The Magra (Macra), in ancient times the boundary between Liguria and Etruria, may be considered as constituting on this side the limit of Northern Italy.
The Apennines (q.v.), as has been already mentioned, here traverse the whole breadth of Italy, cutting off the peninsula properly so termed from the broader mass of Northern Italy by a continuous barrier of considerable breadth, though of far inferior elevation to that of the Alps The Ligurian Apennines may be considered as taking their rise in the neighborhood of Savona, where a pass of very moderate elevation connects them with the Maritime Alps, of which they are in fact only a continuation.
in width, between the crest of the Apennines and the plain of the Po, is one of the least known and at the same time least interesting portions of Italy.
The geography of Central Italy is almost wholly determined by the Apennines, which traverse it in a direction from about north-north-east to south-south-west, almost precisely parallel to that of the coast of the Adriatic from Rimini to Pescara.
Farther south no very lofty summits are found till we come to the group of Monti del Matese, in Samnium (6660 ft.), which according to the division here adopted belongs to Southern Italy.
But the Apennines of Central Italy, instead of presenting, like the Alps and the northern Apennines, a definite central ridge, with transverse valleys leading down from it on both sides, in reality constitute a mountain mass of very considerable breadth, composed of a number of minor ranges and groups of mountains, which preserve a generally parallel direction, and are separated by upland valleys, some of them of considerable extent as well as considerable elevation above the sea.
This communicates with the upper valley of the Sangro by a level plain called the Piano di Cinque Miglia, at an elevation of 4298 ft., regarded as the most wintry spot in Italy.
This constitution of the great mass of the central Apennines has in all ages exercised an important influence upon the character of this portion of Italy, which may be considered as divided by nature into two great regions, a cold and barren upland country, bordered on both sides by rich and fertile tracts, enjoying a warm but temperate climate.
The district west of the Apennines, a region of great beauty and fertility, though inferior in productiveness to Northern Italy, coincides in a general way with the countries familiar to all students of ancient history as Etruria and Latium.
Until the union of Italy they were comprised in Tuscany and the southern Papal States.
Besides these offshoots of the Apennines there are in this part of Central Italy several detached mountains, rising almost like islands on the seashore, of which the two most remarkable are the Monte Argentaro on the coast of Tuscany near Orbetello (2087 ft.) and the Monte Circello (1771 ft.) at the angle of the Pontine Marshes, by the whole breadth of which it is separated from the Volscian Apennines.
Tevere) may be considered as furnishing the key to the geography of all this portion of Italy west of the Apennines.
The Tiber, a much more important river than the Arno, and the largest in Italy with the exception of the Po, rises in the Apennines, about 20 m.
It is a singular fact in the geography of Central Italy that the valleys of the Tiber and Arno are in some measure connected by that of the Chiana, a level and marshy tract, the waters from which flow partly into the Arno and partly into the Tiber.
They may be enumerated, proceeding from Rimini southwards: (1) the Foglia; (2) the Metauro, of historical celebrity, and affording access to one of the most frequented passes of the Apennines; (3) the Esino; (4) the Potenza; (5) the Chienti; (6) the Aso; (7) the Tronto; (8) the Vomano; (9) the Aterno; (10) the Sangro; (11) the Trigno, which forms the boundary of the southernmost province of the Abruzzi, and may therefore be taken as the limit of Central Italy.
The whole of this portion of Central Italy is a hilly country, much broken and cut up by the torrents from the mountains, but fertile, especially in fruit-trees, olives and vines; and it has been, both in ancient and modern times, a populous district, containing many small towns though no great cities.
Its chief disadvantage is the absence of ports, the coast preserving an almost unbroken straight line, with the single exception of Ancona, the only port worthy of the name on the eastern coast of Central Italy.
The great central mass of the Apennines, which has held its course throughout Central Italy, with a general direction from north-west to south-east, may be considered as continued in the same direction for about 100 m.
The whole of the district known in ancient times as Samnium (a part of which retains the name of Sannio, though officially designated the province of Campobasso) is occupied by an irregular mass of mountains, of much inferior height to those of Central Italy, and broken up into a number of groups, intersected by rivers, which have for the most part a very tortuous course.
On the east side in like manner the Monte Gargano (3465 ft.), a detached limestone mass which projects in a bold spur-like promontory into the Adriatic, forming the only break in the otherwise uniform coast-line of Italy on that sea, though separated from the great body of the Apennines by a considerable interval of low country, may be considered as merely an outlier from the central mass.
The range is, however, continued through the province now called Calabria, to the southern extremity or toe of Italy, but presents in this part a very much altered character, the broken limestone range which is the true continuation of the chain as far as the neighbourhood of Nicastro and Catanzaro, and keeps close to the west coast, being flanked on the east by a great mass of granitic mountains, rising to about 6000 ft., and covered with vast forests, from which it derives the name of La Sila.
A similar mass, separated from the preceding by a low neck of Tertiary hills, fills up the whole of the peninsular extremity of Italy from Squillace to Reggio.
Eastward from this the ranges of low bare hills called the Murgie of Gravina and Altamura gradually sink into the still more moderate level of those which constitute the peninsular tract between Brindisi and Taranto as far as the Cape of Sta Maria di Leuca, the south-east extremity of Italy.
This projecting tract, which may be termed the "heel" or "spur" of Southern Italy, in conjunction with the great promontory of Calabria, forms the deep Gulf of Taranto, about 70 m.
None of the rivers of Southern Italy is of any great importance.
Proceeding south from the Trigno, already mentioned as constituting the limit of Central Italy, there are (1) the Biferno and (2) the Fortore, both rising in the mountains of Samnium, and flowing into the Adriatic west of Monte Gargano; (3) the Cervaro, south of the great promontory; and (4) the Ofanto, the Aufidus of Horace, whose description of it is characteristic of almost all the rivers of Southern Italy, of which it may be taken as the typical representative.
The Crati, which flows from Cosenza northwards, and then turns abruptly eastward to enter the same gulf, is the only stream worthy of notice in the rugged peninsula of Calabria; while the arid limestone hills projecting eastwards to Capo di Leuca do not give rise to anything more than a mere streamlet, from the mouth of the Ofanto to the south-eastern extremity of Italy.
The lakes of Central Italy, which are comparatively of trifling dimensions, belong to a wholly different class.
All the other lakes of Central Italy, which are scattered through the volcanic districts west of the Apennines, are of an entirely difierent formation, and occupy deep cup-shaped hollows, which have undoubtedly at one time formed the craters of extinct volcanoes.
The only lake properly so called in southern Italy is the Lago del Matese, in the heart of the mountain group of the same name, of small extent.
The three great islands of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica are closely connected with Italy, both by geographical position and community of language, but they are considered at length in separate articles.
Of the smaller islands that lie near the coasts of Italy, the most considerable is that of Elba, off the west coast of central Italy, about 50 m.
The Aeolian or Lipari Islands, a remarkable volcanic group, belong rather to Sicily than to Italy, though Stromboli, the most easterly of them, is about equidistant from Sicily and from the mainland.
The geology of Italy is mainly dependent upon that of the Apennines (q.v.).
On each side of that great chain are found extensive Tertiary deposits, sometimes, as in Tuscany, the district of Monferrat, &c., forming a broken, hilly country, at others spreading into broad plains or undulating downs, such as the Tavoliere of Puglia, and the tract that forms the spur of Italy from Bari to Otranto.
The geographical position of Italy, extending from about 46° to 38° N., renders it one of the hottest countries in Europe.
Great differences also exist with regard to climate between northern and southern Italy, due in great part to other circumstances as well as to differences of latitude.
Thus the great plain of northern Italy is chilled by the cold winds from the Alps, while the damp warm winds from the Mediterranean are to a great extent intercepted by the Ligurian Apennines.
Central Italy also presents striking differences of climate and temperature according to the greater or less proximity to the mountains.
But it is when we reach the central range of the Apennines that we find the coldest districts of Italy.
The district from the south-east of Lake Fucino to the Piano di Cinque Miglia, enclosing the upper basin of the Sangro and the small lake of Scanno, is the coldest and most bleak part of Italy south of the Alps.
The shores, especially on the Tyrthenian Sea, present almost a continued grove of olive, orange, lemon and citron trees, which attain a size unknown in the north of Italy.
Southern Italy indeed has in general a very different climate from the northern portion of the kingdom; and, though large tracts are still occupied by rugged mountains of sufficient elevation to retain the snow for a considerable part of the year, the districts adjoining the sea enjoy a climate similar to that of Greece and the southern provinces of Spain.
The tarantula spider and the scorpion are found in the south of Italy.
The number of foreigners in Italy in 1901 was 61,606, of whom 37,762 were domiciled within the kingdom.
This is 490,251 higher than the actual population, 32,475,253, ascertained by the census of the 10th of February 1901; the difference is due to temporary absences from their residences of certain individuals on military service, &c., who probably were counted twice, and also to the fact that 469,020 individuals were returned as absent from Italy, while only 61,606 foreigners were in Italy at the date of the census.
The actual (not the resident or "legal") population of Italy since 1770 is approximately given in the following table (the first census of the kingdom as a whole was taken in 1871):—
in Venetia, Emilia, the Marches, Umbria and Tuscany the proportion of concentrated population is only from 40 to 55%; in Piedmont, Liguria and Lombardy the proportion rises to from 70 to 76%; in southern Italy, Sicily and Sardinia it attains a maximum of from 76 to 93%.
The population of the different parts of Italy differs in character and dialect; and there is little community of sentiment between them.
The modes of life and standards of comfort and morality in north Italy and in Calabria are widely different; the former being far in front of the latter.
They, and also the inhabitants of central Italy, are more industrious than the inhabitants of the southern provinces, who have by no means recovered from centuries of misgovernment and oppression, and are naturally more hot-blooded and excitable, but less stable, capable of organization or trustworthy.
Emigration has, however, recently assumed such proportions as to lead to scarcity of labor and rise of wages in Italy itself.
Of the total area of Italy, 70,793,000 acres, 71% are classed as productive.
Some districts of the olive region ara near the lakes of upper Italy and in Venetia, and the territories of Verona, Vicenza, Treviso and Friuli.
The area is about 0.5% of the total of Italy.
Millet, however, is still cultivated in the north of Italy, and is used as bread for agricultural laborers, and as forage when mixed with buckwheat (Sorghum saccaratum).
The principal are: white beans, largely consumed by the working classes; lentils, much less cultivated than beans; and green peas, largely consumed in Italy, and exported as a spring vegetable.
profitably be extended in Italy.
The yield for 1901 was 5528 tons, but a large increase took place subsequently, eleven million new plants having been added in southern Italy in 1905.
The vine is cultivated throughout the length and breadth of Italy, but while in some of the districts of the south and centre it occupies from 10 to 20% of the cultivated area, in some of the northern provinces, such as Sondrio, Belluno, Grosseto, &c., the average is only about I or 2% The methods of cultivation are varied; but the planting of the vines by themselves in long rows of insignificant bushes is the exception.
In the rest of Italy the elm and the maple are the trees mainly employed as supports.
In the olive there is great variety of kinds, and the methods of cultivation differ greatly in different districts; in Ban, Chieti and Lecce, for instance, there are regular woods of nothing but olive-trees, while in middle Italy there are olive-orchards with the interspaces occupied by crops of variotis kinds.
In northern and central Italy, except in the province of Brescia, the agrumi are almost non-existent.
If the available water-power of Italy, already very considerable, be harnessed, converted into electric power (which is already being done in some districts), and further increased by reafforestation, the effect upon the industries of Italy will be incalculable, and the importation of coal will be very materially diminished.
Buffaloes are kept in several districts, more particularly of southern Italy.
In upper Italy cattle are principally reared in pens and stalls; in central Italy cattle are allowed to run half wild, the stall system being little practised; in the south and in the islands cattle are kept in the open air, few shelters being provided.
In 1905 Italy exported 32,786 and imported 17,766 head of cattle; exported 33,574 and imported 6551 sheep; exported 95,995 and imported 1604 swine.
The north of Italy has long been known for its great dairy districts.
Gruyre, extensively manufactured in Switzerland and France, is also produced in Italy in the Alpine regions and in Sicily.
Co-operative dairy farms are numerous in north Italy, and though only about half as many as in 1889 (114 in 1902) are better organized.
Large farms are f&und in certain of the more open districts; but in Italy generally, and especially in Sardinia, the land is very much subdivided.
In Venetia it is more common than elsewhere in Italy for owners to till their own soil.
The chief minerals are sulphur, in the production of which Italy holds one of the first places, iron, zinc, lead; these, and, to a smaller extent, copper of an inferior quality, manganese and antimony, are successfully mined.
There is good travertine below Tivolj and elsewhere in Italy; the finest granite is found at Baveno.
Mtich of Italy contains Pliocene clay, which is good for pottery and brickmaking.
The industrial progress of Italy has been great since 1880.
Italy has only unimportant lignite and anthracite mines, but water power is abundant and has been largely applied to industry, especially in generating electricity.
The manufacture of steel rails, carried on first at Terni and afterwards at Savona, began in Italy in 1886.
Great progress has been made in the manufacture of machinery; locomotives, railway carriages, electric tram-cars, &c., and machinery of all kinds, are now largely made in Italy itself, especially in the north and in the neighborhood of Naples.
Handlooms and small spinTextiles ning establishments have, in the silk industry, given place to large establishments with steam looms. The production of raw silk at least tripled itself between 1875 and 1900, and the value of the silks woven in Italy, estimated in 1890 to be 2,200,000, is now, on account of the development of the export trade calculated to be almost 4,000,000.
There are several public assay offices in Italy for silk; the first in the world was established in Turin in 1750.
In 1902-1903 there were 219 match factories scattered throughout Italy, but especially in Piedmont, Lombardy and Venetia.
Furniture-making in different styles is carried on all over Italy, especially as a result of the establishment of industrial schools.
In the various ceramic arts Italy was once unrivalled, but the ancient tradition for a long time lost its primeval impulse.
A vast variety of trinketsin coral, glass, lava, &c.is exported from Italy, or carried away by the annual host of tourists.
The production of mosaics is an industry still carried on with much success in Italy, which indeed ranks exceedingly high in th department.
Wages vary greatly in different parts of Italy, according to the cost of the necessaries of life, the degree of development of working-class needs and the state of working-class organization, which in some places has succeeded in increasing the rates of pay.
The greatest proportion of strikes takes place in northern Italy, especially Lombardy and Piedmont, where manufacturing industries are most developed.
Agricultural strikes, though less frequent than those in manufacturing industries, have special importance in Italy.
Labor legislation is backward in Italy, on account of the late development of manufacturing industry and of working-class organization.
The French institution of Prudhommes was introduced into Italy in 1893, under the name of Coltegi di Probiviri.
In Italy, people can apply for loans through savings banks, assurance companies and mutual benefit societies.
Co-operation, for the various purposes of credit, distribution, production and labor, has attained great development in Italy.
They are to be found mainly in the fertile plains of north Italy, where they enjoy considerable success, removing the cause of labor troubles and strikes, and providing for cultivation on a sufficiently large scale.
Co-operation in general is most widely diffused, in proportion to population, in central Italy; less so in northern Italy, and much less so in the south and the islands.
The first railway in Italy, a line I6 m.
Lombardy and Piedmont are much better provided with railways in proportion to their area than any other parts of Italy; next come Venetia, Emilia and the immediate environs of Naples.
Besides these international lines the most important are those from Milan to Turin (via Vercelli and via Alessandria), to Genoa via Tortona, to Bologna via Parma and Modena, to V~rona, and the shorter lines to the district of the lakes of Lombardy; from Turin to Genoa via Savona and via Alessandria; from Genoa to Savona and Ventimiglia along the Riviera, and along the south-west coast of Italy, via Sarzana (whence a line runs to Parma) to Pisa (whence lines run to Pistoia and Florence) and Rome; from Verona to Modena, and to Venice via Padua; from Bologna to Padtia, to Rimini (and thence along the north-east coast via Ancona, Castellammare Adriatico and Foggia to Brindisi and Otranto), and to Florence and Rome; from Rome to Ancona, to Castellammare Adriatico and to Naples; from Naples to Foggia, via Metaponto (with a junction for Reggio di Calabria), to Brindisi and to Reggio di Calabria.
These lines exist principally in Lombardy (especially in the province of Milan), in Piedmont, especially in the province of Turin, and in other regions of northern and central Italy.
In the south they are rare, on account partly of the mountainous character of the country, and partly of the scarcity of traffic. All the important towns of Italy are provided with internal electric tramways, mostly with overhead wires.
In north Italy there are 1480 yds.
m.; in central Italy 993; in southern Italy 405; in Sardinia 596, and in Sicily only 244.
They are as a rule well kept up in north and central Italy, less so in the south, where, especially in Calabria, many villages are inaccessible by road and have only footpaths leading to them.
International communication between Rome and Paris, and Italy and Switzerland also exists.
The value of the foreign orders paid in Italy increased from 1,280,000 to ~2,356,oo0owing to the increase of emigration and of the savings sent home by emigrants.
At the end of 1907 Italy was among the few Countries that had not adopted the reduction of postage sanctioned at the Postal Union congress, held in Rome in 1906, by which the rates became 23/4d.
Another source of weakness is the fact that Italy is a country of transit and the Italian mercantile marine has to enter into competition with the ships of other countries, which call there in passing.
Libraries are numerous in Italy, those even of small cities being often rich in manuscripts and valuable works.
The exportation of works of art and antiquities from Italy without leave of the ministry is forbidden (though it has in the past been sometimes evaded).
In Italy there is no legal right in the poor to be supported by the parish or commune, nor any obligation on the commune to relieve the poorexcept in the case of forsaken children and the sick poor.
The average mortality under one year for the whole of Italy in 1893I 896 was only 16-66%.
There are, besides, in Italy some 2500 members of the Greek Orthodox Church.
There were in 1901 20,707 parishes in Italy, 68,444 secular clergy and 48,043 regulars (monks, lay brothers and nuns).
The size of parishes varies from province to province, Sicily having larger parishes in virtue of the old Sicilian church laws, and Naples, and some parts of central Italy, having the smallest.
Senators and deputies receive no salary but have free passes on railways throughout Italy and on certain lines of steamers.
The judiciary system of Italy is mainly framed on the French model.
Italy has courts of cassation at Rome, Naples, Palermo, Ttirin, Florence, 20 appeal court districts, I62 tribunal districts and 1535 mandamenti, each with its own magistracy (pretura).
Notwithstanding the construction of new prisons and the transformation of old ones, the number of cells for solitary confinement is still insufficient for a complete application of the penal system established by the code of 1890, and the moral effect of the association of the prisoners is not good, though the system of solitary confinement as practised in Italy is little better.
The increase is partly covered by contravvenzioni, but almost every class of penal offence shows a rise except homicide, and even in that the diminution is slow, 5418 in 1880, 3966 in 1887, 4408 in 1892, 4005 in 1897, 3202 in 1902; and Italy remains, owing to the frequent use of the knife, the European country lit which it is most frequent.
As in most civilized countries, the number of suicides in Italy has increased from year to year.
The Italian army grew o~it of the old Piedmontese army with which in the main the unification of Italy was brought about.
This unification meant for the army the absorption of contingents from all parts of Italy and presenting serious differences in physical and moral aptitudes, political opinions and education.
To secure fairly uniform efficiency in the various corps, and also as a means of unifying Italy, Piedmontese, Umbrians and Neapolitans are mixed in the same corps and sleep in the same barrack room.
Thus in Italy the universal service system, though probably the best organization both for the army and the nation, works with a maximum of friction.
The law of f875 therefore still regulates the principles of military service in Italy, though an important modification was made in 190719o8.
Like almost all Universal Service countries, Italy only drafts a small proportion of the available recruits into the army.
The recruits due to join in November were not incorporated till the following March, and thus in the winter months Italy was defenceless.
The army is organized in 12 army corps (each of 2 divisions), 6 of which are quartered on the plain of Lombardy and Venetia and on the frontiers, and 2 more in northern Central Italy.
The fortresses in the basin of the Po chiefly belong to the era of divided Italy and are now out of date; the chief coast fortresses are Vado, Genoa, Spezia, Monte Argentaro, Gacta, Straits of Messina, Taranto, Maddalena.
e The external taxation is not only strongly protectionist, but i applied to goods which cannot be made in Italy; hardly anything comes in duty free, even such articles as second-hand furniture paying duty, unless within six months of the date at which the importer has declared domicile in Italy.
In 1893 the Roman Bank was put into liquidation, and the other three limited companies were fused, so as to create the Bank of Italy, the privilege of issuing bank notes being thenceforward confined to the Bank of Italy, the Bank of Naples and the Bank of Sicily.
After being depressed between 5885 and 1894, the prices in Italy and abroad reached, in 1899, on the Rome Stock Exchange, the average 01 100.83 and of 94.8 on the Paris Bourse.
Rates of exchange, or, in other words the gold premium, favored Italy during the yearr immediately following the abolition of the forced currency in 1881
There are in Italy six clearing houses, namely, the ancient one at Leghorn, and those of Genoa, Milan, Rome, Florence and Turin, founded since 1882.
It was not till 1865 that the administrative unity of Italy was realized.
The extent to which communal independence had been maintained in Italy through all the centuries of its political disintegration was strongly in its favor.
The juntas are in this respect organs of~the administrative jurisprudence created in Italy by the law of the 1st of May 1890, in order to provide juridical protection for those rights and interests outside the competence of the ordinary tribunals.
Okey, Italy to-day (London, 1901); E.
Split up into numerous and mutually hostile communities, they never, through the fourteen centuries which have elapsed since the end of the old Western empire, shook off the yoke of foreigners completely; they never until lately learned to merge their local and conflicting interests in the common good of undivided Italy.
The early history of Italy will be found under ROME and allied headings.
Prefixed to this are two sections dealing respectively with (A) the ethnographical and philological divisions of ancient Italy, and (B) the unification of the country under Augustus, the growth of the road system and so forth.
The ethnography of ancient Italy is a very complicated and difficult subject, and notwithstanding the researches of modern scholars is still involved in some obscurity.
Ancient writers are agreed as to the composite character of the population of Italy, and the diversity of races that were found within the limits of the peninsula.
1), the name of Italy was first still more limited, being applied only to the southern portion of the Bruttium peninsula (now known as Calabria).
Taking the term Italy to comprise the whole peninsula with the northern region as far as the Alps, we must first distinguish the tribe or tribes which spoke Indo-European languages from those who did not.
(~) It is difficult to point to any definite evidence by which we may determine the dates of the earliest appearance of Gallic tribes in the north of Italy.
Writers on the ethnology of Italy have been hitherto content with the first, namely, the broad distinction.
Except, therefore, for a very small and apparently isolated area in the north of Latium and south of Etruria, all the tribes of Italy, though their idioms differed in certain particulars, are left undiscriminated.
Latin will be counted the language of the earlier plebeian stratum of the population of Rome and Latium, probably once spread over a large area of the peninsula, and akin in sijme degree to the language or languages spoken in north Italy before either the Etruscan or the Gallic invasions began.
We have seen that the name of Italy was originally applied only to the southernmost part of the peninsula, and was only gradually extended so as to comprise the central regions, such as Latium and Campania, which were designated by writers as late as Thucydides and Aristotle as in Opicia.
At first, indeed, the term was apparently confined to the regions of the central and southern districts, exclusive of Cisalpine Gaul and the whole tract north of the Apennines, and this continued to be the official or definite signification of the name down to the end of the republic. But the natural limits of Italy are so clearly marked that the name came to be generally employed as a geographical term at a much earlier period.
Cisalpine Gaul, including the whole of northern Italy, still constituted a province, an appellation never applied to Italy itself.
As such it was assigned to Julius Caesar, together with Transalpine Gaul, and it was not till he crossed the Rubicon that he entered Italy in the strict sense of the term.
Augustus was the first who gave a definite administrative organization to Italy as a whole, and at the same time gave official sanction to that wider acceptation of the name which had already established itself in familiar usage, and which has continued to prevail ever since.
The division of Italy into eleven regions, instituted by Augustus for administrative purposes, which continued in official use till the reign of Constantine, was based mainly on the territorial divisions previously existingi and preserved with few exceptions the ancient limits.
The mainstay of the Roman military control of Italy first, and of the whole empire afterwards, was the splendid system of roads.
As the supremacy of Rome extended itself Roads, over Italy, the Roman road system grew step by step, each fresh conquest being marked by the pushing forward of roads through the heart of the newly-won territory, and the establishment of fortresses in connection with them.
It was in Italy that the military value of a network of roads was first appreciated by the Romans, and the lesson stood them in good stead in the provinces.
of Capua, the second city in Italy in the 3rd century B.C., and the centre of the road system of Campania.
As to the roads leading out of Italy, from Aquileia roads diverged northward into Raetia, eastward to Noricum and Pannonia, and southwards to the Istrian and Dalmatian coasts.
At Pavia the barbarian conquerors of Italy proclaimed him king, and he received from Zeno the dignity of Roman patrician.
Thus began that system of mixed government, Teutonic and Roman, which, in the absence of a national monarch, impressed the institutions of new Italy from the earliest date with dualism.
Odoacer inaugurated that long series of foreign rulersGreeks, Franks, Germans, Spaniards and Austrians who have successively contributed to the misgovernment of Italy from distant seats of empire.
In 488 Theodoric, king of the East Goths, received commission from the Greek emperor, Zeno, to undertake the affairs of Italy.
He settled at Ravenna, which had been the capital of Italy since the days of Honorius, and which still testifies by its monuments to the Gothic chieftains Romanizing policy.
Though their rule was favorable to the Romans, they were Arians; and religious differences, combined with the pride and jealousies of a nation accustomed to imperial honors, rendered the inhabitants of Italy eager to throw off their yoke.
When, therefore, Justinian undertook the reconquest of Italy, his generals, Belisarius and Narses, were supported by the south.
At its close the provinces of Italy were placed beneath Greek dukes, controlled by a governor-general, entitled exarch, who ruled in the Byzantine emperors name at Ravenna.
message from the empress in 565, he is said to have invited this fiercest and rudest of the Teutonic clans to seize the spoils of Italy.
In order to understand the future history of Italy, it is necessary to form a clear conception of the method pursued by the Lombards in their conquest.
Italy was broken up into districts, each offering points for attack from without, and fostering the seeds of internal revolution.
We must, however, be cautious to remember that the south of Italy was comparatively unaffected.
The relations between the new emperor and the pope were ill defined; and this proved the source of infinite disasters to Italy and Europe in the sequel.
Charles took possession of the kingdom of Italy, as limited by Pippins settlement.
The kingdom of Italy, transmitted on his death by Charles the Great, and afterwards Confirmed to his grandson Lotbar by the peace of Verdun in 843, stretched from the Alps to Terracina.
It should also here be noticed that the changes introduced into the holding of the fiefs, whether by altering their boundaries or substituting Frankish for Lombard vassals, were chief among the causes why the feudal system took no permanent hold in Italy.
Among the many miseries .nflicted upon Italy by the frequent changes of her northern rulers, this at least may be reckoned a blessing.
A fourth humiliating episode in this period was the invasion of the Magyar barbarians, who overran the north of Italy, and reduced its fairest provinces to the condition of a wilderness.
Through the almost impenetrable darkness and confusion we only discern this much, that Italy was powerless to constitute herself a nation.
The discords which followed on the break-up of the Carolingian power, and the weakness of the so-called Italian emperors, who were unable to control the feudatories (marquises of Ivrea and Tuscany, dukes of Friuli and Spoleto), from whose ranks they sprang, exposed Italy to ever-increasing misrule.
Thus the titular king of Italy found himself simultaneously at war with those great vassals who had chosen him from their own class, with the turbulent factions of the Roman aristocracy, with unruly bishops in the growing cities and with the multitude of minor counts and barons who occupied the open lands, and who changed sides according to the interests of the moment.
The last king of the quasi-Italian succession, Berengar II., marquis of Ivrea (951961), made a vigorous effort to restore the authority of the regno; and had he succeeded, it is not impossible that now at the last moment Italy might have become an independent nation.
In Italy, divided between feudal nobles and almost hereditary ecclesiastics, of foreign blood and alien sympathies, there was no national feeling.
The king of Germany descended into Italy, and took Adelheid in marriage.
By this slender tie the crown of Italy was joined to that of Germany; and the formal right of the elected king of Germany to be considered king of Italy and emperor may be held to have accrued from this epoch.
Henceforward ~ Italy changed masters according as one or other of the German families assumed supremacy beyond the Alps.
It was merged in the German kingdom; and, since for the German princes Germany was of necessity their first care, Italy from this time forward began to be left more and more to herself.
In this way, Qwing to the dislocation of the ancient aristocracy, to the enlarged jurisdiction,of a power so democratic as the episcopate, and to the increased privileges of the burghs, feudalism received a powerful check in Italy.
(married to Theophano of the imperial Byzantine house) and his grandson, Otto III., who descended into Italy in 996, found that the affairs of Rome and of the southern provinces were more than even their imperial powers could cope with.
After this event Heribert, the archbishop of..Milan, invited Conrad, the Franconian king of Germany, into Italy, and crowned him with the iron crown of the kingdom.
The intervention of this man, Heribert, compels us to turn a closer glance upon the cities of North Italy.
employed the Pisans in 980 against the Greeks in Lower Italy, and the Pisans and Genoese together attacked the Saracens of Sardinia in 1017.
The destinies of Italy depended upon the character which Rome.
Her ancient prestige, her geographical position and the intellectual primacy of her most noble children rendered Italy the battleground of principles that set all Christendom in motion, and by the clash of which she found herself for ever afterwards divided.
It was Hildebrands policy throughout three papacies, during which he controlled the counsels of the Vatican, and before he himself assumed the tiara, to prepare the mind of Italy and Europe for a mighty change.
Sicily in the hands ot the Mussulmans, the Theme of Lombardy abandoned to the weak suzerainty of the Greek catapans, the Lombard duchy of Benevento slowly falling to pieces and the maritime republics of Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi extending their influence by commerce in the Mediterranean, were in effect detached from the Italian regno, beyond the jurisidiction of Rome, included in no parcel of Italy proper.
From this station as a centre the little band of adventurers, playing the Greeks off against the Lombards, and the Lombards against the Greeks, spread their power in all directions, until they made themselves the most considerable force in southern Italy William of Hauteville was proclaimed count of Apulia.
By the consolidation of Apulia, Calabria and Sicily into a powerful kingdom, by checking the growth of the maritime republics and by recognizing the over-lordship of the papal see, the house of Hauteville influenced the destinies of Italy with more effect than any of the princes who had previously dealt with any portion of the peninsula.
With unbroken spirit, though the objects of his life were unattained, though Italy and Europe had been thrown into confusion, and the issue of the conflict was still doubtful, Gregory expired in 1085 with these words on his lips: I loved justice, I hated iniquity, therefore in banishment I die.
A new descent into Italy, a new seizure of Rome, proved of no avail.
Massive walls, substantial edifices, commodious seaports, good roads, were the benefits conferred by this new government on Italy.
The title of patrician was revived and offered to Conrad, king of Italy, but not crowned emperor.
The pope was unable to check this revolution, which is now chiefly interesting as further proof of the insurgence of the Latin as against the feudal elements in Italy at this period.
It inflicted upon Italy the ineradicable pal wars.
Italy was, in.
But in Italy, although they were severally identified with the papal and imperial parties, they really served as symbols for jealousies which altered in complexion from time to time and place to place, expressing more than antagonistic political principles, and involving differences vital enough to split the social fabric to its foundation.
had no influence in Italy, and the latter never entered Italy at all.
The name of Italy is never mentioned.
The emperor retained the supreme courts of appeal within the cities, and his claim for sustenance at their expense when he came into Italy.
Meanwhile the Guelph and Ghibelline factions were beginning to divide Italy into minute parcels.
pero~ In his single person he combined the prestige of empire with the crowns of Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Germany and Burgundy; and in 1225, by marriage with Yolande de Brienne, he added that of Jerusalem.
Italy seemed to lie prostrate before the emperor, who commanded her for the first time from the south as well as from the north, In 1227 Frederick, who h1d promised to lead a crusade, was excommunicated by Gregory IX.
The only prince who could, with any probability of success, have established the German rule in Italy, his ruin proved the impossibility of that long-cherished scheme.
Yet from many points of view it might be regretted that Frederick was not suffered to rule Italy.
He was capable of givingto Italy a large and noble culture.
The cause of his son Conrad was sustained in Lower Italy by Manfred, one of Fredericks many natural children; and, when Frede- Conrad died in 1254, Manfred still acted as vicegerent ricks for the Swabians, who were now represented by a boy SUCCCS Conradin.
invited Charles of Arijou to enter italy and take the Guelph command.
Charles accepted these terms, and was welcomed by the Guelph party as their chief throughout Italy.
thus bettered the position of the church in Italy, the Guelph party grew stronger than ever, through the crushing defeat of the Pisans by the Genoese at Meloria in 1284.
A network of party policy embraces and dominates the burghs of Italy, bringing the most distant centres into relation, and by the very division of the country augmenting the sense of nationality.
There is not a burgh of northern Italy but can trace the rise of a dynastic house to the vicissitudes of this period.
In I309 Robert, grandson of Charles, the first Angevine sovereign, succeeded to the throne of Naples, and became the leader of the Guelphs in Italy.
Italy had entered on a new phase of her existence, and the great poets De monarchia represented a dream of the past which could not be realized.
They conferred the signory upon him for life; and, had he not mismanaged matters, he might have held the city in his grasp. Italy was settling cown and turning her attention to home comforts, arts and literature.
The most marked proof of the change which came over Italy towards the middle of the I4th century is furnished by the companies of adventure.
In his school the great condottieri Braccio da Montone and Sforza Attendolo were formed; and henceforth the battles of Italy were fought by Italian generals commanding native troops.
The purely selfish bond between condottieri and their employers, whether princes or republics, involved intrigues and treachery, checks and counterchecks, secret terror on the one hand and treasonable practice on the other, which ended by making statecraft in Italy synonymous with perfidy.
At the end of this century and a half, five principal powers divided the peninsula; and their confederated action during the next forty-five years (1447-1492) secured for Italy a season of peace and brilliant pro,sperity.
Durazzo, the last male scion of the Angevine house in Lower Italy, murdered Joan in 1382, and held the kingdom for five years.
Alfonso reigned alone and undisturbed in Lower Italy, combining for the first time since the year 1282 the crowns of Sicily and Naples.
Lucchinos brother John, arch bishop of Milan, now assumed the lordship of the city, and extended the power of the Visconti over Genoa and the whole of north Italy, with the exception of Piedmont, Verona, Mantua, Ferrara and Venice.
Immured in his castle at Pavia, accumulating wealth by systematic taxation and methodical economy, he organized the mercenary troops who eagerly took service under so good a paymaster; and, by directing their operations from his cabinet, he threatened the whole of Italy with conquest.
Seven years before his death Gian Galeazzo bought the title of duke of Milan and count of Pavia from the emperor Wenceslaus, and there is no doubt that he was aiming at the sovereignty of Italy.
The conception of confederated Italy found in him a vigorous supporter.
Instead of opposing Francesco Sforza in Milan, he lent him his prestige and influence, foreseeing that the dynastic future of his own family and the pacification of Italy might be secured by a balance of power in which Florence should rank on equal terms with Milan and Naples.
The republic of Venice differed essentially from any other state in Italy; and her history was so separate that, up to this Venice point, it would have been needless to interrupt the narrative by tracing it.
Their career of conquest, and their new policy of forming Italian alliances and entering into the management of Italian affairs were confirmed by the long dogeship of Francesco Foscari (1423-1457), who must rank with Alfonso, Cosimo de Medici, Francesco Sforza and Nicholas V., as a joint-founder of confederated Italy.
They gradually entered into the spirit of their age, assumed the style of despots and made use of the humanistic movement, then at its height, to place themselves in a new relation to Italy.
Italy was now for a brief space independent.
The five great powers, with their satellitesdukes of Savoy and Co~n~ede~ Urbino, marquesses of Ferrara and Mantua, republics Italy.
When Italy had reached this point, Constantinople was taken by the Turks.
Between 1453 and 1492 Italy continued to be prosperous and tranquil.
The year 1492 opened a new age for Italy.
In this year the short-lived federation of the five powers was shaken, and Italy was once more drawn into the vortex of Europe~n affairs.
Little remained to him of his light acquisitions; but he had convulsed Italy by this invasion, destroyed her equilibrium, exposed her military weakness and political disunion, and revealed her wealth to greedy and more powerful nations.
Quarrelling with the Venetians In 1508, he combined the forces of all Europe by the league of Cambray against them; and, when he had succeeded in his first purpose of humbling them even to the dust, he turned round in 1510, uttered his famous resolve to expel the barbarians from Italy, and pitted the Spaniards against the French.
He only exchanged one set of foreign masters for another, and taught a new barbarian race how pleasant were the plains of Italy.
was elected in 1513, Rome and Florence rejoiced; but Italy had no repose.
Leo for a while relied on Francis; for the vast power of Charles V., who succeeded to the empire in 1519, as in 1516 he had succeeded to the crowns of Spain and Lower Italy, threatened the whole of Europe.
During the next four years the Franco-Spanish war dragged on in Lombardy until the decisive battle of Pavia in 1525, when Francis was taken prisoner, and Italy lay open to the Spanish armies.
An army of mixed German and Spanish troops, pretending to act for the emperor, but which may rather be regarded as a vast marauding party, entered Italy under their leader Frundsberg.
By the treaty of Barcelona in 1529 the pope and emperor made terms. By that of Cambray in the same year France relinquished Italy to Spain.
The rest of Italy, however parcelled, henceforth became but a dependence upon Spain.
Italy only too often became the theatre of desolating and distracting wars.
Italy, intellectually first among the peoples, was now politically and practically last; and nothing to her historian is more heartrending than to watch the gradual extinction of her spirit in this age of slavery.
The Inquisition was established with almost unlimited powers in Italy, and the press was placed under its jurisdiction.
The French, meanwhile, had not entirely abandoned their claims on Italy.
The peace of Cteau Cambresis, signed in 1559, left the Spanish monarch undisputed lord of Italy.
The tuture hope of Italy, however, was growing in a remote and hitherto neglected corner.
Emmanuel Philibert, duke of Savoy, represented the oldest and not the least illustrious reigning house in Europe, and his descendants were destined to achieve for Italy the independence which no other power or prince had given her since the fall of ancient Rome.
Venice offered the single instance in Italy of a national church.
This decline of vigour was felt, with the customary effects of discord and bad government, in Lower Italy.
The destinies of Italy were decided in the cabinets and on the battlefields of northern Europe.
Italy, handled and rehandled, settled and resettled, upon each of these occasions, changed masters without caring or knowing what befell the principals in any one of the disputes.
The French armies were more than once defeated by Prince Eugene of Savoy, who drove them out of Italy in 1707.
Philip founded the Bourbon line of Spanish kings, renouncing in Italy all that his Habsburg predecessors had gained.
In 1748 the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which put an end to the War of the Austrian Succession, once more redivided Italy.
The papacy, during this period, had to reconsider the question of the Jesuits, who made themselves universally odious, not only in Italy, but also in France and Spain.
It is desirable in the first place to realize the condition of Italy at the time when the irruption of the French and the expulsion of the Austrians opened up a new political vista for that oppressed and divided people.
The small states, Lucca and San Marino, completed the map of Italy.
While the French directory saw in that province little more than a district which might be plundered and bargained for, Bonaparte, though by no means remiss in the exaction of gold and of artistic treasures, was laying the foundation of a friendly republic. During his sojourn at the castle of Montebello or Mombello, near I\Iilan, he commissioned several of the leading men of northern Italy to draw up a project of constitution and list of reforms for that province.
These events brought revolution to the gates of the kingdom of Naples, the worst-governed part of Italy, where the boorish king, Ferdinand IV.
of an Austro-Russian army, led by that strange but magnetic being, Suvarov, decided the campaign in northern Italy.
That general, Championnets successor, had been compelled by these reverses and by the threatening pressure of Nelsons fleet to evacuate Naples and central Italy.
Meanwhile Macdonald, after struggling through central Italy, had defeated an Austrian force at Modena (June 12, 1799), but Suvarov was able by swift movements utterly to overthrow him at the Trebbia (June 1719).
But in Italy the Austrian successes continued.
The tricolour which floated triumphantly over all the strongholds of Italy early in the year, at its close waved only over Genoa, wher Massna prepared for a stubborn defence.
fatal to that body and to popular institutions in France After the coup detat of Brumaire (November 1799) he as First Con~uI, began to~ organize an expedition against th~ Atistrians (Russia having now retired from the coalition), ii northern Italy.
By that triumph (due to Desaix and Kellermani rather than directly to him), Bonaparte consolidated his owi position in France and again laid Italy at his feet.
Ten days earlier, namely on the 4th of June, Massna had been compelled by hunger to capitulate at Genoa; but the success at Marengo, followed up by that of Macdonald in north Italy, and Moreat~ at Hohenlinden (December 2, 1800), brought the emperor Francis to sue for peace which was finally concluded -.
Finally, after the proclamation of the French empire (May 18, 1804) Napoleon proposed to place his brother Joseph over the Italian state, which now took the title of kingdom of Italy.
After Austerlitz (December 2, 1805) Austria made peace by the treaty of Pressburg, ceding to the kingdom of Italy her part of Venetia along with the provinces of Istria and Dalmatia.
The Spanish national rising of 1808 and thereafter the Peninsular War diverted Napoleons attention from the affairs of south Italy.
It is now time to turn to the affairs of central Italy.
For some time past the relations between Napoleon and the pope, Pius VII., had been Napoleon severely strained, chiefly because the emperor insisted ~pacj~ on controlling the church, both in France and in the kingdom of Italy, in a way inconsistent with the traditions of the Vatican, but also because the pontiff refused to grant the divorce between Jerome Bonaparte and the former Miss Patterson on which Napoleon early in the year 1806 laid so much stress.
Napoleon sought to push matters to an extreme, and on the 2nd of April Annexa- he adopted the rigorous measure of annexing to the tion of the kingdom of Italy the papal provinces of Ancona, Papal Urbino, Macerata and Camerina.
There is no need to detail the fortunes of the Napoleonic states in Italy.
That campaign marked the beginning of the end for the Napoleonic domination in Italy as else- Collapse where.
Eugene Beauharnais, viceroy of the kingdom of Italy, showed both constancy and courage; but after the battle of Leipzig (October 1619, 1813) his power crumbled away under the assaults of the now victorious Austrians.
Amidst these schisms the defence of Italy collapsed.
The arrangements made by the allies in accordance with the treaty of Paris (June I 2, 1814) and the Final Act of the congress of Vienna (June 9, 1815), imposed on Italy boundaries which, roughly speaking, corresponded to those of the pre-Napoleonic era.
To the kingdom of Sardinia, now reconstituted under Victor Emmanuel I., France ceded its old provinces, Savoy and Nice; and the allies, especially Great Britain and Austria, insisted on the addition to that monarchy of the territories of the former republic of Genoa, in respect of which the king took the title of duke of Genoa, in order to strengthen it for the duty of acting as a buffer state between France and the smaller states of central Italy.
By an instrument signed on the 24th of April 1815, the Austrian territories in north Italy were erected into the kingdom of Lombardo-Venetia, which, though an integral part of the Austrian empire, was to enjoy a separate administration, the symbol of its separate individuality being the coronation of the emperors with the ancient iron crown of Lombardy (Proclamation de lempereur dAutriche, &c., April 7, 1815, State Papers, ii.
The reaction, which was dull and heavy in the dominions of the pope and of Victor Emmanuel, systematically harsh in the Austrian states of the north, and comparatively mild in Parma and Tuscany, excited the greatest loathing in southern Italy and Sicily, because there it was directed by a dynasty which had aroused feelings of hatred mingled with contempt.
As the result of the Vienna treaties, Austria became the real mistress of Italy.
Austria also concluded offensive and defensive alliancqs with Sardinia Tuscany and Naples; and Metternichs ambition was to make Austrian predominance over Italy still more absolute, by placing an Austrian archduke on the Sardinian throne.
the Troppau Protocol, but the special right of Austria to safeguard her interests in Italy.
Confalonieri, who was in favor of an Italian federation composed lEngelsm of northern Italy under the house of Savoy, central bardy.
Italy under the pope, and the kingdom of Naples.
During the next few years order reigned in Italy, save for a few unimportant outbreaks in the Papal States; there was, however, perpetual discontent and agitation, especially The Papal in Romagna, where misgovernment was extreme.
and his minister Cardinal Consalvi oppression had not been very severe, and Metternichs proposal to establish a central inquisitorial tribunal for political offences throughout Italy had been rejected by the papal government.
took place, and Biagio Nardi, having been elected dictator, proclaimed that Italy is one; the Italian nation one sole nation.
Shortly afterwards he received Mazzini a letter from an unknown person, in which he was and exhorted with fiery eloquence to place himself at the Young head of the movement for liberating and uniting italY.
Italy and expelling the foreigner, and told that he was free to choose whether he would be the first of men or the last of Italian tyrants.
Young Italy spread to all centres of Italian exiles, and by means of literature carried on an active propaganda in Italy itself, where the party came to be called Ghibellini, as though reviving the traditions of medieval anti-Papalism.
It is noteworthy that Romagna was the only part of Italy where the revolutionary movement was accompanied by murder.
Liberalism In Piedmont, in spite of the governments reactionary and methods, a large part of the population were genuinely ~ attached to the Savoy dynasty, and the idea of a regenera- meat tion of Italy under its auspices began to gain ground.
Like Gioberti he advocated a federation of Italian states, but he declared that before this could be achieved Austria must be expelled from Italy and compensation found for her in the Near East by making her a Danubian powera curious forecast that Italys liberation would begin with an eastern war.
All these forces were equally necessarythe revolutionists to keep up agitation and make government by bayonets impossible; the moderates to curb the impetuosity of the revolutionists and to present a scheme of society that was neither reactionary nor anarchical; the volunteers abroad to gain military experience; and the more peaceful exiles to spread the name of Italy among foreign peoples.
All the while a vast amount of revolutionary literature was being printed in Switzerland, France and England, and smuggled into Italy; the poet Giusti satirized the Italian princes, the dramatist G.
There was great resentment throughout Italy, and in answer to the popes request Charles Albert declared that he was with him in everything, while from South America Giuseppe Garibaldi wrote to offer his services to Hi~ Holiness.
In Rome the pope gave way to popular clamour, granting one concession after another, and on the 8th of February he publicly called down Gods blessing on Italythat Italy hated by the Austrians, whose name it had hitherto been a crime to mention.
There were now three main political tendencies, viz, the union of north Italy under Charles Albert and an alliance with the pope and Naples, a federation of the different states under their present rulers, and a united republic of all Italy.
Then came the news of the Five Days of Milan, which produced the wildest excitement in Turin; unless First war the army were sent to assist the struggling Lombards of Italy at once the dynasty was in jeopardy.
Charles Albert could dispose of 90,000 men, including some 30,000 from central Italy, but he took the field with only half his force.
On receiving -the order to return, Pepe, after hesitating for some time between his oath to the king and his desire to fight for Italy, finally resigned his commission and crossed the P0 with a few thousand men, the rest of his force returning south.
Capponi resigned in October 1848, and Leopold reluctantly consented to a democratic ministry led by Guerrazzi and Montanelli, the former a very ambitious and unscrupulous man, the latter honest but fantastic. Following the Roman example, a constituent assembly was demanded to vote on union with Rome and eventually with the rest of Italy.
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