Israelites sentence example
The Sabbath did not share the same fate, but with the abolition of local sacrifices it became for most Israelites an institution of humanity divorced from ritual.
This was the first Canaanite city to be attacked and reduced by the victorious Israelites.
The history of the relations of the Edomites and Israelites may be briefly summarized.
Some of the latter were either not conquered by the Israelites until long after the invasion, or, if conquered, were not held by Levites; and names are wanting of places in which priests are actually known to have lived.
With these variations is involved the problem of the early history of the Israelites.Advertisement
A huge car drawn by oxen, bearing the standard of the burgh, and carrying an altar with the host, this carroccio, like the ark of the Israelites, formed a rallying point in battle, and reminded the armed artisans that they had a city and a church to fight for.
To the Israelites, however, it was a miracle, an unexpected intervention on the part of Yahweh, and the first of many marvels which he performed on behalf of the people of his choice.
Hirmas) flows south through the land of Gozan in which Sargon settled the deported Israelites in 721 B.C. At the mouth of the Khabur stood the Roman frontier fortress of Circesium (Assyrian, Sirki; Arab.
Yahweh ceased to be exclusively regarded as god of the atmosphere, worshipped in a distant mountain, Horeb-Sinai, situated in the south country (negebh),and moving in the clouds of heaven before the Israelites in the desert, but he came to be associated with Israel's life in Canaan.
External oppression and internal rivalries rent the Israelites, and in the religious philosophy of a later (Deuteronomic) age the period is represented as one of alternate apostasy from and of penitent return to the Yahweh of the " exodus."Advertisement
The employment of Judaeans and Israelites for Solomon's palatial buildings, and the heavy taxation for the upkeep of a court which was the wonder of the world, caused grave internal discontent.
As regards (b), external evidence has already suggested to scholars that there were Israelites in Palestine before the invasion; internal historical criticism is against the view that all the tribes entered under Joshua; and in (a) there are traces of an actual settlement in the land, entirely distinct from the cycle of narratives which prepare the way for (b).
This is involved with other views of the early history of the Israelites; see further below.
The foundation of the united monarchy was the greatest advance in the whole course of the history of the Israelites, and around it have been collected the hopes and fears which a varied experience of monarchical government aroused.
It is in David's history that the clans of the south first attained prominence, and some of them are known to have been staunch upholders of a purer worship of Yahweh, or to have been associated with the introduction of religious institutions among the Israelites.Advertisement
Along with the Babylonians, Egyptians and Romans, the Israelites are classed as one of the great agricultural nations of antiquity.
The Old Testament depicts the history of the people as a series of acts of apostasy alternating with subsequent penitence and return to Yahweh, and the question whether this gives effect to actual conditions depends upon the precise character of the elements of Yahweh worship brought by the Israelites into Palestine.
Gibeon was the seat of an old Canaanitish sanctuary afterwards used by the Israelites; it was here that Solomon, immediately after his coronation, went to consult the oracles and had the dream in which he chose the gift of wisdom (1 Kings iii.).
Part of the Jewish ritual was the preservation of the Israelites from the idolatry which at that time prevailed among every other people.
Dogs were held in considerable veneration by the Egyptians, from whose tyranny the Israelites had just escaped; figures of them appeared on the friezes of most of the temples, and they were regarded as emblems of the divine being.Advertisement
It was in order to preserve the Israelites from errors and follies of this kind, and to prevent the possibility of such idolatry being established, that the dog was afterwards regarded with utter abhorrence amongst the Jews, and this feeling prevailed during the continuance of the Israelites in Palestine.
In the four last chapters the author, returning to the history, gives a detailed account of the provision made for the Israelites in the wilderness and of the pains and terrors with which the Egyptians were plagued.
The name first appears in Hebrew history in connexion with the wanderings of the Israelites.
The Israelites were commanded to select on the tenth of Abib (Nisan) a he-lamb of the first year, without blemish, to kill it on the eve of the fourteenth and to sprinkle with its blood the lintel and sidepost of the doors of their dwellings so that the Lord should "pass over" them when he went forth to slay the first-born of the Egyptians.
The lamb thus drained of blood was to be roasted and entirely consumed by the Israelites, who should be ready with loins girded, shoes on feet and staff in hand so as to be prepared for the exodus.Advertisement
In memory of this the Israelites were for all time to eat unleavened bread (matzoth) for seven days, as well as keep the sacrifice of the Passover on the eve between the fourteenth and the fifteenth of Nisan.
At midnight all the first-born of the Egyptians are slain and Pharaoh sends the Israelites out of Egypt in haste, and the people took the dough before it was leavened upon kneading troughs upon their shoulders.
Observe the month of Abib and keep the Passover because in that month God brought out the Israelites from Egypt.
A still more vital contrast occurs concerning the place of sacrificing the Passover; as enjoined in Deuteronomy this is to be by the males of the family at Jerusalem, whereas both in the presumably earlier Yahwist and in the later Priestly Code the whole household joins in the festival which can be celebrated wherever the Israelites are settled.
Against this may be urged that, according to the latest inquiries into the pastoral life, there is always connected with it some form of agriculture and a use of cereals, while, historically speaking, the Israelites while in Egypt were dependent on its corn.Advertisement
In Egypt the Israelites, as a pastoral people, sacrificed the firstlings of their flocks in the spring, and, according to tradition, it was a refusal to permit a general gathering for this purpose that caused the Exodus.
When the Israelites settled in Canaan they found there an agricultural festival connected with the beginnings of the barley harvest, which coincided in point of date with the Passover and was accordingly associated with it.
Many different traditions have gathered around the story of the Exodus, and the ark was not the only divinely sent guide or forerunner which led the Israelites.
It begins with a psalm (xc.) ascribed in the title to Moses, and seemingly designed to express feelings appropriate to a situation analogous to that of the Israelites when, after the weary march through the wilderness, they stood on the borders of the promised land.
The periods are externally indicated by the successive names by which the chosen people were called - Hebrews, Israelites, Jews.Advertisement
A more fundamental question is whether the name Yahweh originated among the Israelites or was adopted by them from some other people and speech.'
There is, however, no certain evidence that the Israelites in historical times had any consciousness of the primitive significance of the name.
Arabia (whence the Israelites may have come) and in Canaan prior to the great extension of Babylonian influence.
If, then, an Egyptian inscription of the XIXth dynasty had come to hand in which the names of Joseph and Moses, and the deeds of the Israelites as a subject people who finally escaped from bondage by crossing the Red Sea, were recorded in hieroglyphic characters, such a monument would have been hailed with enthusiastic delight by every champion of the Pentateuch, and a wave of supreme satisfaction would have passed over all Christendom.
Before the departure of the Israelites from Egypt their year commenced at the autumnal equinox; but in order to solemnize the memory of their deliverance, the month of Nisan or Abib, in which that event took place, and which falls about the time of the vernal equinox, was afterwards regarded as the beginning of the ecclesiastical or legal year.Advertisement
But how this part of Palestine came into the hands of the Israelites is not definitely related in the story of the invasion (see Joshua).
I are said to be held fast lest they should break in elemental fury on land and sea, are not let loose or referred to in the subsequent narrative, and also from the mention of the 144,000 Israelites of the twelve tribes, to whom no further reference is made; for these can no more be identified with the countless multitudes in vii.
The student may naturally ask, Whence did the Israelites (a comparatively young people) obtain the original myth ?
When the Israelites entered Canaan, they would learn myths partly of Babylonian origin.
North Arabian influence must also have been strong among the Israelites, at least while they sojourned in North Arabia.Advertisement
We must allow for stages of development both among the Israelites and among their tutors.
That the figures symbolic of Rakab or Hadad were compounded or amalgamated by the Israelites with those symbolic of Nergal (the lion-god) and Ninib (the eagle-god), is not surprising.
But the period of the Israelites' sojourn in Egypt, according to Ex.
To give a name to this new phenomenon the Israelites, it would seem, had to borrow a word from their Canaanite neighbours.
It is true that the prophets absorbed the old seers, and that the Israelites, as we see in the case of the asses of Kish, went to their seers on the same kind of occasions as sent heathen nations to seers or diviners.Advertisement
It has been justly remarked of the Pauline view, that- " The union with the Lord Himself, to which those who partake of the Lord's Supper have, is compared with the union which those who partake of a sacrifice have with the deity to whom the altar is devoted - in the case of the Israelites with God, of the heathen with demons.
Jacob and his twin brother Esau are the eponyms of the Israelites and Edomites.
Consequently, it would appear that these extremely elevated and richly developed narratives of Jacob-Israel embody, among a number of other features, a recollection of two distinct traditions of migration which became fused among the Israelites.
In the story of the Exodus there have been incorporated codes of laws and institutions which were to be observed by the descendants of the Israelites in their future 2 To the same hand are to be ascribed also xxvii.
On these grounds the Exodus may have taken place under one of his successors, and since Mineptah or Merneptah (son of Rameses), in relating his successes in Palestine, boasts that Ysiraal is desolated, it would seem that the Israelites had already returned.
It might be assumed that the Israelites (or at least those who had not remained behind in Palestine) effected their departure at a somewhat later date, and in the time of Mineptah's successor, Seti II., there is an Egyptian report of the pursuit of some fugitive slaves over the eastern frontier.
No allusions to Israelites in Egypt have yet been found on the monuments.
In the absence of external evidence the study of the Exodus of the Israelites must be based upon the Israelite records, and divergent or contradictory views must be carefully noticed.
The latter view implies that the oppressed Israelites left Egypt for one of its dependencies, and both theories find only conjectural identifications in the various stations recorded in Num.
Holofernes now inquires of the chiefs who are with him about the Israelites,and is answered by Achior the leader of the Ammonites, who enters upon a long historical narrative showing the Israelites to be invincible except when they have offended God.
For this Achior is punished ley being handed over to the Israelites, who lead him to the governor of Bethulia.
Achior now publicly professes Judaism, and at the instance of Judith the Israelites make a sudden victorious onslaught on the enemy.
When the policy of transporting people from one part of the empire to another was developed, new elements were introduced into Mesopotamia, amongst them Israelites, of whom perhaps traces have been found in the neighbourhood of IIarran at Kannu'.
In modern usage the name Hebrew is applied to that branch of the northern part of the Semitic family of languages which was used by the Israelites during most of the time of their national existence in Palestine, and in which nearly all their sacred writings are composed.
The supposed connexion with the Israelites has made the problem of the Hyksos attractive, but light is coming upon it very slowly.
The possibility of a connexion between the Hyksos and the Israelites is still admitted in some quarters.
It lay inland and off the main line of traffic. Though included by the Israelites within the limits of the tribe of Judah, and mentioned in Judges xix.
According to the narrative of the Hebrew text, here differing from the Greek text and Josephus (which read Askelon), it was the last town to which the ark was transferred before its restoration to the Israelites.
The Israelites are represented as living among the Egyptians, and enjoy no immunity from the plagues, except that of darkness.
The identity of the Decalogue with the eternal law of nature was maintained in both churches, but it was an open question whether the Decalogue, as such (that is, as a law given by Moses to the Israelites), is of perpetual obligation.
Even among the Israelites, the visitation of certain cult-centres prevailed from remote antiquity; but, when the restriction of Yahwehworship to Jerusalem had doomed the old shrines, the Jewish pilgrimages were directed solely to the sanctuary on Mt Moria.
Yet, apart from the references to cultic prostitution (which was adopted by the Israelites from the Canaanites), the mention of the vice in question is not frequent; in a polygamous society and in a country without great cities it was not likely to grow to great proportions.
The history of the Israelites is only one.
The movement of the Habiru cannot be isolated from that represented in other letters (where the enemy are not described by this term), and their steps do not agree with those of the invading Israelites in the hook of Joshua (q.v.).
In the nature of the case, as time elapsed the new population must have taken root as securely as - one must conclude - the invading Israelites had done some centuries earlier.
Its appearance has been associated with the invasion of the Israelites or with the establishment of the independent monarchy, but on very inadequate grounds; and since it has been independently placed at the latter part of the monarchy, its historical explanation may presumably be found in that break in the career of Palestine when peoples were changed and new organizations slowly grew up. 5 The great significance of these vicissitudes for the course of internal conditions in Palestine is evident when it is observed that the subsequent cleavage between Judah and Samaria, not earlier than the 5th century, presupposes an antecedent common foundation which, in view of the history of the monarchies, can hardly be earlier than the 7th century.
This legislation appears as that of the Israelites, newly escaped from bondage in Egypt, joined by an ethical covenant-relation with Yahweh, and waiting in the desert to enter and conquer the land of their ancestors.
A considerable amount of earlier history and literature has been lost, and it is probable that the traditions of the origins of the composite Israelites, as they are now preserved, embody evidence belonging to the nearer events of the 8th-6th centuries.
This book of the Old Testament, which, as we now read it, constitutes a sequel to the book of Joshua, covering the period of history between the death of this conqueror and the birth of Samuel, is so called because it contains the history of the Israelites before the establishment of the monarchy, when the government was in the hands of certain leaders who appear to have formed a continuous succession, although the office was not hereditary.
In the year 854 B.C. Hamath was taken by Shalmaneser II., king of Assyria, who defeated a large army of allied Hamathites, Syrians and Israelites at Karkor and slew 14,000 of them.
Israel or distinguished Israelites, the root being the same as in Jeshurun; (2) that Jashar (" lc) is a transposition of shir C, song); (3) that it should be pointed Yashir (W, sing; cf.
The Brethren, generally known, from their place of origin, as the Plymouth Brethren, have " rooms " and adherents throughout England; the Catholic Apostolic Church ("Irvingites ") have some 80 churches; the New Jerusalem Church(Swedenborgians) had (1908) 75 " societies "; the Christian Scientists, the Christadelphians, the British Israelites and similar societies, such as the New and Latter House of Israel, the Seventh Day Baptists, deserve mention.
The mixture of the Israelites in Europe by marriage with other nations is probably much greater than is acknowledged by them; yet, on the whole, the race has been preserved with extraordinary strictness, as its physical characteristics sufficiently show.
He aspired to convince the better minds that the only hope for Israelites, as well as for Israel, lay in " returning " to the true Yahweh, a deity who was no mere national god, and was not to be cajoled by the punctual offering of costly sacrifices.
Evidence of the antiquity of the belief in "maternal impressions" we have in Jacob placing peeled rods before Laban's cattle to induce them to bring forth "ring-straked speckled and spotted" offspring; evidence of the antiquity of the "infection" doctrine we have, according to some writers, in the practice amongst the Israelites of requiring the childless widow to marry her deceased husband's brother, that he might "raise up seed to his brother."
Jethro was the priest of Yahweh, and resided at the sacred mountain where the deity commissioned Moses to deliver the Israelites from Egypt.
The B'nai B'rith society has also co-operated largely with other Jewish philanthropic organizations in succouring distressed Israelites throughout the world.
Though situated in the nominal territory of the tribe of Judah, it was never for any length of time in the possession of the Israelites.
Esther is a modification of Ishtar, the name of the Babylonian goddess of fertility and of the planet Venus, whose myth must have been partially known to the Israelites even in pre-exilic times,' and after the fall of the state must have acquired a still stronger hold on Jewish exiles.
A general knowledge of the myth of Marduk among the Israelites cannot indeed be proved.
The second narrative is P l, which tells how Korah, himself a Levite, at the head of 250 Israelites rebelled against the religious authority of Moses.
Thereupon, instead of cursing the Israelites, Balaam blessed them.
There we are told that 12,000 Israelites, without losing a single man, slew every male Midianite, children included, and every Midianite woman that had known a man, and took so much booty that there had to be special legislation as to how is should be divided.
We cannot suppose that these first gained their sacred character in the pre-Mosaic "patriarchal" age; there is in any case the obvious difficulty of bridging the gap between the descent into Egypt and the Exodus, and it is clear that when the Israelites entered Palestine they came among a people whose religion, tradition and thought were fully established.
A venerated tree in modern Palestine will owe its sanctity to some tradition, associating it, it may be, with some saint; the Israelites in their turn held the belief that the sacred tree at Hebron was one beneath which their first ancestor sat when three divine beings revealed themselves to him.
These representations have been subordinated to others, in particular to the descent into Egypt of Jacob (Israel) and his sons, and the Exodus of the Israelites.
Not, as was at first thought by some, specially the Israelites, but all those tribes of land-hungry nomads (" Hebrews ") who were attracted by the wealth and luxury of the settled regions, and sought to appropriate it for themselves.
Among these we may include not only the Israelites or tribes which afterwards became Israelitish, but the Moabites, Ammonites and Edomites.
Over time the Israelites had become idolaters and served and worshiped other deities under the plural name of Baalim, or gods.
It commemorates the liberation of the Israelites from Egyptian slavery.
So they cruelly oppressed the Israelites for twenty years.
Actually, earlier in their wilderness wanderings the Israelites experienced the provision of manna.
The references to it in the Pentateuch are confined to rough geographical indications of the latitude of the transJordanic camp of the Israelites in Moab before their crossing of the river.
We know that diseases were attributed by the Israelites to malignant demons which they, like the Arabs, identified with serpents.
His subsequent advance to the kingship over Judah and Israel at Jerusalem is represented as due to the weak condition of Israel, facilitated by the compliance of Abner; partly, also, to the long-expressed wish of the Israelites that their old hero should reign over them.
But the stories of conflicts in a much larger area than the few cities in the immediate neighbourhood of Jerusalem (see above) can scarcely be read with the numerous narratives which recount or imply relations between the young David of Bethlehem and Saul or the Israelites.
When the Israelites, under Joshua, invaded Canaan, the Gibeonites by a crafty ruse escaped the fate of Jericho and Ai and secured protection from the invaders (Joshua ix.).
The historical review in the second part is coloured by a bitter hatred of the ancient Egyptians; whether this springs from resentment of the former sufferings of the Israelites or is meant as an allusion to the circumstances of the author's own time it is hardly possible to say.
Though we may recognize in this poetical imagery the survival of ancient and, if we please, mythical notions, we should err if we inferred that Yahweh was originally a departmental god, presiding specifically over meteorological phenomena, and that this conception of him persisted among the Israelites till very late times.
Although the traditions regard their efforts as part of a common movement (from Gilgal, see below), it is more probable that these (notably Caleb) escaped the punishment which befell the rest of the Israelites, and made their way direct from Kadesh into the south of Palestine.'
And as the battle spread, they defeated the Israelites, killing about four thousand soldiers on the battlefield.
As it stands it vividly recalls the rebellious Israelites of the wilderness wanderings.
David-Just a boy, David defeated the giant Goliath during a battle in the war between the Israelites and Philistines.
But the proud Israelites did not remain submissive for long; Damascus had indeed fallen, but neither Philistia nor Edom had yet been crushed.