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israelites

israelites Sentence Examples

  • descent through Esau from Abraham, and were acknowledged' by the Israelites (Deut.

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  • Israelites by the Philistines at Ebenezer near Aphek, the loss of the ark (iv.

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  • In one (a) Samuel, after his victory, continues to rule peacefully as a theocratic judge over the Israelites, the people demand a king, and although their request is viewed as hostile to the worship of Yahweh the tribes are summoned at Mizpah and the sacred lot falls upon Saul of Benjamin (vii.

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  • But in the other (b) the Philistines have occupied the heart of the land, the Israelites are thoroughly disorganized, and their miserable condition moves Yahweh to send as a deliverer the otherwise unknown Saul, who is anointed by Samuel, a seer of local renown (ix.

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  • zur Orientalistischen Litteratur-Zeitung) finds contemporary evidence of Israelites settled in the neighbourhood of Edessa in the second half of the 7th century B.C. At the fall of Nineveh many towns in Mesopotamia suffered severely at the hands of the Medes.

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  • - The Israelites appear to have been originally a nomadic tribe akin to the Arabs, whom they resemble in their want of political instinct and in their extraordinary religious genius.

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  • - The Israelites appear to have been originally a nomadic tribe akin to the Arabs, whom they resemble in their want of political instinct and in their extraordinary religious genius.

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  • 14) who refused passage to the Israelites in their wanderings.

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  • The history of the relations of the Edomites and Israelites may be briefly summarized.

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  • " City of Salim" or "City of Peace," many years before the Israelites under Joshua entered Canaan.

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  • Some of the latter were either not conquered by the Israelites until long after the invasion, or, if conquered, were not held by Levites; and names are wanting of places in which priests are actually known to have lived.

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  • With these variations is involved the problem of the early history of the Israelites.

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  • The Sabbath did not share the same fate, but with the abolition of local sacrifices it became for most Israelites an institution of humanity divorced from ritual.

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  • This was the first Canaanite city to be attacked and reduced by the victorious Israelites.

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  • A huge car drawn by oxen, bearing the standard of the burgh, and carrying an altar with the host, this carroccio, like the ark of the Israelites, formed a rallying point in battle, and reminded the armed artisans that they had a city and a church to fight for.

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  • Mwvorts, Mwvrls), the great Jewish lawgiver,, prophet and mediator, and leader of the Israelites from Egypt to the eastern borders of the promised land.

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  • To the Israelites, however, it was a miracle, an unexpected intervention on the part of Yahweh, and the first of many marvels which he performed on behalf of the people of his choice.

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  • 1 Yahweh appears to have been known to them before he revealed himself to Moses, and the ancestors of the Israelites are recognized as worshippers of Yahweh, but are on another level (Exod.

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  • Hirmas) flows south through the land of Gozan in which Sargon settled the deported Israelites in 721 B.C. At the mouth of the Khabur stood the Roman frontier fortress of Circesium (Assyrian, Sirki; Arab.

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  • Yahweh ceased to be exclusively regarded as god of the atmosphere, worshipped in a distant mountain, Horeb-Sinai, situated in the south country (negebh),and moving in the clouds of heaven before the Israelites in the desert, but he came to be associated with Israel's life in Canaan.

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  • Thus He not only brought the Israelites out of Egypt, but also the Philistines from Caphtor and the Syrians from Kir (ix.

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  • 10-12) and earnestly commends its members to the Israelites' benevolence (xii.

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  • External oppression and internal rivalries rent the Israelites, and in the religious philosophy of a later (Deuteronomic) age the period is represented as one of alternate apostasy from and of penitent return to the Yahweh of the " exodus."

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  • The employment of Judaeans and Israelites for Solomon's palatial buildings, and the heavy taxation for the upkeep of a court which was the wonder of the world, caused grave internal discontent.

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  • As regards (b), external evidence has already suggested to scholars that there were Israelites in Palestine before the invasion; internal historical criticism is against the view that all the tribes entered under Joshua; and in (a) there are traces of an actual settlement in the land, entirely distinct from the cycle of narratives which prepare the way for (b).

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  • 1 This is especially true of the various ingenious attempts to combine the invasion of the Israelites with the movements of the Habiru in the Amarna period (§ 3).

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  • But the proud Israelites did not remain submissive for long; Damascus had indeed fallen, but neither Philistia nor Edom had yet been crushed.

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  • It is quite in harmony with this that the same source speaks of the Israelites who joined David at Ziklag (i Chron.

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  • This is involved with other views of the early history of the Israelites; see further below.

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  • So, after David had completed a series of conquests which made Palestine the greatest of the petty states of the age, troubles arose with the Israelites, who in times past had sought for him to be king (iii.

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  • implies that the Israelites had recovered the position they had lost at the battle of Gilboa.

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  • The foundation of the united monarchy was the greatest advance in the whole course of the history of the Israelites, and around it have been collected the hopes and fears which a varied experience of monarchical government aroused.

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  • It is in David's history that the clans of the south first attained prominence, and some of them are known to have been staunch upholders of a purer worship of Yahweh, or to have been associated with the introduction of religious institutions among the Israelites.

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  • Along with the Babylonians, Egyptians and Romans, the Israelites are classed as one of the great agricultural nations of antiquity.

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  • "hard" or "rugged," a name sometimes used, both in earlier and in later writers, to denote the whole of the territory occupied by the Israelites eastward of Jordan, extending from the Arnon to the southern base of Hermon (Deut.

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  • That the Israelites even applied the title of Baal to Yahweh himself is proved by the occurrence of such names as Jerubbaal (Gideon), Eshbaal (one of Saul's sons) and Beeliada (a son of David, 1 Chron.

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  • The Old Testament depicts the history of the people as a series of acts of apostasy alternating with subsequent penitence and return to Yahweh, and the question whether this gives effect to actual conditions depends upon the precise character of the elements of Yahweh worship brought by the Israelites into Palestine.

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  • FEAST OF TABERNACLES, the autumn festival of the Israelites, beginning on the 15th of Tishri and celebrated by residing for the seven succeeding days in rustic booths (Heb.

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  • Gibeon was the seat of an old Canaanitish sanctuary afterwards used by the Israelites; it was here that Solomon, immediately after his coronation, went to consult the oracles and had the dream in which he chose the gift of wisdom (1 Kings iii.).

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  • AMALEKITES, an ancient tribe, or collection of tribes, in the south and south-east of Palestine, often mentioned in the Old Testament as foes of the Israelites.

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  • When the Israelites were journeying from Egypt to the land of Canaan, the Amalekites are said to have taken advantage of their weak condition to harry the stragglers in the rear, and as a judgment for their hostility it was ordained that their memory should be blotted out from under heaven (Deut.

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  • RECHABITES, or Sons Of Rechab, a sort of religious order among the Israelites in some respects analogous to the Nazarites, with whom they shared the rule of abstinence from wine.

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  • Part of the Jewish ritual was the preservation of the Israelites from the idolatry which at that time prevailed among every other people.

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  • Dogs were held in considerable veneration by the Egyptians, from whose tyranny the Israelites had just escaped; figures of them appeared on the friezes of most of the temples, and they were regarded as emblems of the divine being.

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  • It was in order to preserve the Israelites from errors and follies of this kind, and to prevent the possibility of such idolatry being established, that the dog was afterwards regarded with utter abhorrence amongst the Jews, and this feeling prevailed during the continuance of the Israelites in Palestine.

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  • In the four last chapters the author, returning to the history, gives a detailed account of the provision made for the Israelites in the wilderness and of the pains and terrors with which the Egyptians were plagued.

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  • The name first appears in Hebrew history in connexion with the wanderings of the Israelites.

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  • II) are regarded as suggestive of legend; to say nothing of the lateness of all the documents relating to the wars of Og, and the remoteness of Bashan from the regions of the Israelites' wandering.

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  • Og dwelt at Ashteroth, and did battle with the Israelites at Edrei (Deut.

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  • The Israelites were commanded to select on the tenth of Abib (Nisan) a he-lamb of the first year, without blemish, to kill it on the eve of the fourteenth and to sprinkle with its blood the lintel and sidepost of the doors of their dwellings so that the Lord should "pass over" them when he went forth to slay the first-born of the Egyptians.

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  • The lamb thus drained of blood was to be roasted and entirely consumed by the Israelites, who should be ready with loins girded, shoes on feet and staff in hand so as to be prepared for the exodus.

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  • In memory of this the Israelites were for all time to eat unleavened bread (matzoth) for seven days, as well as keep the sacrifice of the Passover on the eve between the fourteenth and the fifteenth of Nisan.

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  • At midnight all the first-born of the Egyptians are slain and Pharaoh sends the Israelites out of Egypt in haste, and the people took the dough before it was leavened upon kneading troughs upon their shoulders.

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  • Observe the month of Abib and keep the Passover because in that month God brought out the Israelites from Egypt.

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  • A still more vital contrast occurs concerning the place of sacrificing the Passover; as enjoined in Deuteronomy this is to be by the males of the family at Jerusalem, whereas both in the presumably earlier Yahwist and in the later Priestly Code the whole household joins in the festival which can be celebrated wherever the Israelites are settled.

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  • Against this may be urged that, according to the latest inquiries into the pastoral life, there is always connected with it some form of agriculture and a use of cereals, while, historically speaking, the Israelites while in Egypt were dependent on its corn.

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  • In Egypt the Israelites, as a pastoral people, sacrificed the firstlings of their flocks in the spring, and, according to tradition, it was a refusal to permit a general gathering for this purpose that caused the Exodus.

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  • When the Israelites settled in Canaan they found there an agricultural festival connected with the beginnings of the barley harvest, which coincided in point of date with the Passover and was accordingly associated with it.

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  • (X.) Ark of the Covenant, Ark of the Revelation, Ark of the Testimony, are the full names of the sacred chest of acacia wood overlaid with gold which the Israelites took with them on their journey into Palestine.

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  • Many different traditions have gathered around the story of the Exodus, and the ark was not the only divinely sent guide or forerunner which led the Israelites.

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  • AMMONITES, or the "children of Ammon," a people of east Palestine who, like the Moabites, traced their origin to Lot, the nephew of the patriarch Abraham, and must have been regarded, therefore, as closely related to the Israelites and Edomites.

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  • From this their original territory they had been in their turn expelled by Sihon, king of the Amorites, who was said to have been found by the Israelites, after their deliverance from Egypt, in possession of both Gilead and Bashan, that is, of the whole country on the left bank of the Jordan, lying to the north of the Arnon (Num.

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  • i i already speaks of Israelites captive in these districts as well as in Egypt, Ethiopia and the East.

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  • It begins with a psalm (xc.) ascribed in the title to Moses, and seemingly designed to express feelings appropriate to a situation analogous to that of the Israelites when, after the weary march through the wilderness, they stood on the borders of the promised land.

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  • 20: "All the Israelites went down to the Philistines to sharpen every man his share and his coulter."

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  • The periods are externally indicated by the successive names by which the chosen people were called - Hebrews, Israelites, Jews.

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  • (1) Yahweh's word is accomplished on Syria-Phoenicia and Philistia; and then the Messianic kingdom begins in Zion, and the Israelites detained among the heathen, Judah and Ephraim combined, receive a part in it.

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  • Here, between Ebal and Gerizim, Joshua made his last speech to the elders of the Israelites (Jos.

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  • " To be " in the Hebrew of the Old Testament is not hawah, as the derivation would require, but hayah; and we are thus driven to the further assumption that hawah belongs to an earlier stage of the language, or to some older speech of the forefathers of the Israelites.

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  • iii., is there the slightest indication that the Israelites connected the name of their God with the idea of " being " in any sense, it may fairly be questioned whether, if the author of Exod.

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  • A more fundamental question is whether the name Yahweh originated among the Israelites or was adopted by them from some other people and speech.'

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  • 13-15), apparently following a tradition according to which the Israelites had not been worshippers of Yahweh before the time of Moses, or, as he conceived it, had not worshipped the god of their fathers under that name.

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  • The revelation of the name to Moses was made at a mountain sacred to Yahweh (the mountain of God) far to the south of Palestine, in a region where the forefathers of the Israelites had never roamed, and in the territory of other tribes; and long after the settlement in Canaan this region continued to be regarded as the abode of Yahweh (Judg.

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  • I); to this mountain he led the Israelites after their deliverance from Egypt; there his father-in-law met him, and extolling Yahweh as " greater than all the gods," offered (in his capacity as priest of the place?) sacrifices, at which the chief men of the Israelites were his guests; there the religion of Yahweh was revealed through Moses, and the Israelites pledged themselves to serve God according to its prescriptions.

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  • There is, however, no certain evidence that the Israelites in historical times had any consciousness of the primitive significance of the name.

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  • THE GOLDEN CALF, a molten image made by the Israelites when Moses had ascended the Mount of Yahweh to receive the Law (Ex.

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  • Arabia (whence the Israelites may have come) and in Canaan prior to the great extension of Babylonian influence.

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  • Again, the common Fatherhood of God should inspire a right relation among fellow Israelites, not such conduct as the divorce of Israelite wives in order to marry non-Israelite women (ii.

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  • the brotherhood of all Israelites under their one Father (ii.

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  • 4-9); with Abishai and Ittai of Gath heed a small army against the Israelites who had rebelled under Absalom (2 Sam.

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  • ABRAHAM, or Abram (Hebrew for "father is high"), the ancestor of the Israelites, the first of the great Biblical patriarchs.

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  • The interpretation of the evil omen is explained by an allusion to the bondage of the Israelites in Egypt and their return in the fourth generation (xv.

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  • As the father of Isaac and Ishmael, he is ultimately the common ancestor of the Israelites and their nomadic fierce neighbours, men roving unrestrainedly like the wild ass, troubled by and troubling every one (xvi.

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  • If, then, an Egyptian inscription of the XIXth dynasty had come to hand in which the names of Joseph and Moses, and the deeds of the Israelites as a subject people who finally escaped from bondage by crossing the Red Sea, were recorded in hieroglyphic characters, such a monument would have been hailed with enthusiastic delight by every champion of the Pentateuch, and a wave of supreme satisfaction would have passed over all Christendom.

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  • Before the departure of the Israelites from Egypt their year commenced at the autumnal equinox; but in order to solemnize the memory of their deliverance, the month of Nisan or Abib, in which that event took place, and which falls about the time of the vernal equinox, was afterwards regarded as the beginning of the ecclesiastical or legal year.

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  • But how this part of Palestine came into the hands of the Israelites is not definitely related in the story of the invasion (see Joshua).

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  • I are said to be held fast lest they should break in elemental fury on land and sea, are not let loose or referred to in the subsequent narrative, and also from the mention of the 144,000 Israelites of the twelve tribes, to whom no further reference is made; for these can no more be identified with the countless multitudes in vii.

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  • Occasionally Israelites as well as aliens fall under the curse (Judg.

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  • 83), it maintained, down even to the days of the Maccabees, a vigorous though somewhat intermittent independence against the power of the Israelites, by whom it was nominally assigned to the territory of Judah.

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  • 32, 34, xxvi.), at the Exodus of the Israelites (Ex.

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  • 20); but they evidently recovered their independence, and we find that twice within a short time the northern Israelites laid siege to the border fortress of Gibbethon (r Kings xv.

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  • Joshua, in his farewell speech to the Israelites, 2 also refers to this episode.

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  • 8 The Mal'akh Yahweh (or Elohim) appears to Abraham, Hagar, Moses, Gideon, &c., and leads the Israelites in the Pillar of Cloud.

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  • The student may naturally ask, Whence did the Israelites (a comparatively young people) obtain the original myth ?

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  • When the Israelites entered Canaan, they would learn myths partly of Babylonian origin.

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  • North Arabian influence must also have been strong among the Israelites, at least while they sojourned in North Arabia.

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  • We must allow for stages of development both among the Israelites and among their tutors.

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  • 20, 25), or the exalted position of the Israelites as officials and overseers, while the remnant of the pre-Israelite inhabitants serve in labour gangs (ix.

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  • On the other hand is the mass of toiling Israelites, whose oppressed condition is a prelude to the later dissensions (1 Kings v.

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  • 3) it is stated that the prohibition against intermarriage with the Moabites, Ammonites, Egyptians and Edomites, though given in the Bible, only applied for a certain number of generations and did not apply at all to their daughters, but, it is added, "Bastards and Nethinim are prohibited (to marry Israelites), and this prohibition is perpetual and applies both to males and females."

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  • That the figures symbolic of Rakab or Hadad were compounded or amalgamated by the Israelites with those symbolic of Nergal (the lion-god) and Ninib (the eagle-god), is not surprising.

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  • - The traditions current among the Israelites respecting the origins and early history of their nation - the patriarchal period, and the times of Moses and Joshua - were probably first cast into a written form in the 10th or 9th century B.C. by a prophet living in Judah, who, from the almost exclusive use in his narrative of the sacred name " Jahveh " (" Jehovah "), - or, as we now commonly write it, Yahweh, - is referred to among scholars by the abbreviation " J."

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  • - lxvi., however, are not by Isaiah, but are the work of a prophet who wrote about 540 B.C., shortly before the conquest of Babylon by Cyrus, and whose aim was to encourage the Israelites in exile, and assure them of the certainty of their approaching restoration to Canaan.

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  • But the period of the Israelites' sojourn in Egypt, according to Ex.

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  • 40, 41 is to describe the Israelites as having dwelt in Egypt for 430 years, which is also in substantial agreement with the earlier passage, Gen.

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  • of the 8th dynasty, which was discovered in 1887 at Tel el-Amarna, makes it evident that Palestine could not yet have been in the occupation of the Israelites.

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  • II that the Israelites built in Egypt for the Pharaoh two store-cities, Pithom and Rameses.

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  • to 1300-1234 B.C. 1 In Merenptah's fifth year the Delta was invaded by a formidable body of Libyans and other foes; 2 and it has been conjectured that the Israelites took the opportunity of escaping during the unsettlement that was thus occasioned.

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  • To give a name to this new phenomenon the Israelites, it would seem, had to borrow a word from their Canaanite neighbours.

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  • It is true that the prophets absorbed the old seers, and that the Israelites, as we see in the case of the asses of Kish, went to their seers on the same kind of occasions as sent heathen nations to seers or diviners.

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  • It has been justly remarked of the Pauline view, that- " The union with the Lord Himself, to which those who partake of the Lord's Supper have, is compared with the union which those who partake of a sacrifice have with the deity to whom the altar is devoted - in the case of the Israelites with God, of the heathen with demons.

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  • Jacob and his twin brother Esau are the eponyms of the Israelites and Edomites.

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  • The close relation between Jacob and Aramaeans confirms the view that some of the tribes of Israel were partly of Aramaean origin; his entrance into Palestine from beyond the Jordan is parallel to Joshua's invasion at the head of the Israelites; and his previous journey from the south finds independent support in traditions of another distinct movement from this quarter.

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  • Consequently, it would appear that these extremely elevated and richly developed narratives of Jacob-Israel embody, among a number of other features, a recollection of two distinct traditions of migration which became fused among the Israelites.

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  • g S obos) of the Israelites from Egypt into Palestine, under the leadership of Moses and Aaron, as described in the books of the Bible from Exodus to Joshua.

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  • In the story of the Exodus there have been incorporated codes of laws and institutions which were to be observed by the descendants of the Israelites in their future 2 To the same hand are to be ascribed also xxvii.

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  • the expulsion of the Hyksos), but if the Israelites built Rameses and Pithom (Ex.

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  • On these grounds the Exodus may have taken place under one of his successors, and since Mineptah or Merneptah (son of Rameses), in relating his successes in Palestine, boasts that Ysiraal is desolated, it would seem that the Israelites had already returned.

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  • It might be assumed that the Israelites (or at least those who had not remained behind in Palestine) effected their departure at a somewhat later date, and in the time of Mineptah's successor, Seti II., there is an Egyptian report of the pursuit of some fugitive slaves over the eastern frontier.

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  • No allusions to Israelites in Egypt have yet been found on the monuments.

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  • the invading Israelites.'

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  • In the absence of external evidence the study of the Exodus of the Israelites must be based upon the Israelite records, and divergent or contradictory views must be carefully noticed.

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  • The latter view implies that the oppressed Israelites left Egypt for one of its dependencies, and both theories find only conjectural identifications in the various stations recorded in Num.

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  • 16 seq., where the Israelites proceed immediately to Kadesh.

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  • 17-19), since on reaching Kadesh the Israelites would be within.

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  • 1-3 the Israelites (a generalizing amplification) captured Hormah, on the way to Beersheba, and subsequently the clan Caleb and the Kenites (the clan of Moses' father-in-law) are found in Judah (Judg.

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  • Thus, although the Israelites possessed cattle (Ex.

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  • Holofernes now inquires of the chiefs who are with him about the Israelites,and is answered by Achior the leader of the Ammonites, who enters upon a long historical narrative showing the Israelites to be invincible except when they have offended God.

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  • For this Achior is punished ley being handed over to the Israelites, who lead him to the governor of Bethulia.

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  • Achior now publicly professes Judaism, and at the instance of Judith the Israelites make a sudden victorious onslaught on the enemy.

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  • When the policy of transporting people from one part of the empire to another was developed, new elements were introduced into Mesopotamia, amongst them Israelites, of whom perhaps traces have been found in the neighbourhood of IIarran at Kannu'.

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  • In modern usage the name Hebrew is applied to that branch of the northern part of the Semitic family of languages which was used by the Israelites during most of the time of their national existence in Palestine, and in which nearly all their sacred writings are composed.

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  • AMORITES, the name given by the Israelites to the earlier inhabitants of Palestine.

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  • The Israelites at Kadesh, almost at the gate of the promised land, incurred the wrath of Yahweh, and, deterred by a defeat at Hormah from pursuing their journey northwards, were obliged to choose another route (Num.

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  • It has indeed been argued that, as the author seems to take no offence at the marriage of Israelites with Moabite women, he must have lived before the time of Ezra and Nehemiah (Ezra ix.; Neh.

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  • 14), who identifies the Hyksos with the Israelites, preserves a passage from the second book of Manetho giving an account of them.

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  • The supposed connexion with the Israelites has made the problem of the Hyksos attractive, but light is coming upon it very slowly.

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  • The possibility of a connexion between the Hyksos and the Israelites is still admitted in some quarters.

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  • It lay inland and off the main line of traffic. Though included by the Israelites within the limits of the tribe of Judah, and mentioned in Judges xix.

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  • According to the narrative of the Hebrew text, here differing from the Greek text and Josephus (which read Askelon), it was the last town to which the ark was transferred before its restoration to the Israelites.

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  • It formed part of the food of the Israelites in Egypt (Numb.

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  • Like Jacob, the ancestor of the Israelites, he had twelve sons (xxv.

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  • In its present form the book sets forth (a) the oppression of the Israelites in Egypt (ch.

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  • 6, 8-12, lob) the Israelites dwell apart in the province of Goshen, and their numbers become so great as to call for severe measures of repression, the method employed being that of forced labour.

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  • Moses and the elders ask leave to go three days' journey into the wilderness to sacrifice to Yahweh, a request which is met by an increase of the burdensome work of brick-making: henceforward the Israelites have to provide their own straw.

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  • The Israelites are represented as living among the Egyptians, and enjoy no immunity from the plagues, except that of darkness.

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  • The Israelites, terrified by the approach of the Egyptians, upbraid Moses, who promises them deliverance by the hand of Yahweh (xiv.

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  • The story, however, has been combined with the somewhat different account of E, which doubtless covered the same ground, and also with that of P. According to the former, Elohim did not permit the Israelites to take the shorter route to Canaan by the Mediterranean coast, for fear of the Philistines, but led them southwards to the Red Sea, whither they were pursued by the Egyptians (xiii.

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  • The identity of the Decalogue with the eternal law of nature was maintained in both churches, but it was an open question whether the Decalogue, as such (that is, as a law given by Moses to the Israelites), is of perpetual obligation.

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  • Even among the Israelites, the visitation of certain cult-centres prevailed from remote antiquity; but, when the restriction of Yahwehworship to Jerusalem had doomed the old shrines, the Jewish pilgrimages were directed solely to the sanctuary on Mt Moria.

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  • Yet, apart from the references to cultic prostitution (which was adopted by the Israelites from the Canaanites), the mention of the vice in question is not frequent; in a polygamous society and in a country without great cities it was not likely to grow to great proportions.

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  • 4 seq., to care for one's enemy's ox or ass likewise refers to Israelites; Proverbs conceives the principle in a higher way and extends it beyond the limits of the nation.

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  • The history of the Israelites is only one.

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  • The movement of the Habiru cannot be isolated from that represented in other letters (where the enemy are not described by this term), and their steps do not agree with those of the invading Israelites in the hook of Joshua (q.v.).

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  • In the nature of the case, as time elapsed the new population must have taken root as securely as - one must conclude - the invading Israelites had done some centuries earlier.

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  • Its appearance has been associated with the invasion of the Israelites or with the establishment of the independent monarchy, but on very inadequate grounds; and since it has been independently placed at the latter part of the monarchy, its historical explanation may presumably be found in that break in the career of Palestine when peoples were changed and new organizations slowly grew up. 5 The great significance of these vicissitudes for the course of internal conditions in Palestine is evident when it is observed that the subsequent cleavage between Judah and Samaria, not earlier than the 5th century, presupposes an antecedent common foundation which, in view of the history of the monarchies, can hardly be earlier than the 7th century.

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  • This legislation appears as that of the Israelites, newly escaped from bondage in Egypt, joined by an ethical covenant-relation with Yahweh, and waiting in the desert to enter and conquer the land of their ancestors.

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  • A considerable amount of earlier history and literature has been lost, and it is probable that the traditions of the origins of the composite Israelites, as they are now preserved, embody evidence belonging to the nearer events of the 8th-6th centuries.

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  • This book of the Old Testament, which, as we now read it, constitutes a sequel to the book of Joshua, covering the period of history between the death of this conqueror and the birth of Samuel, is so called because it contains the history of the Israelites before the establishment of the monarchy, when the government was in the hands of certain leaders who appear to have formed a continuous succession, although the office was not hereditary.

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  • It consists of three main portions: (I) an introduction, presenting one view of the occupation of Palestine by the Israelites (i.

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  • It is impossible to regard the warlike expeditions described in this section as supplementary campaigns undertaken after Joshua's death; they are plainly represented as the first efforts of the Israelites to gain a firm footing in the land (at Hebron, Debir, Bethel), in the very cities which Joshua is related to have subdued (Josh.

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  • 21, and the successors of Jeroboam 2), attacks by nomads and wars with Ammon and Moab; conflicts between newly settled Israelites and indigenous Canaanites have been suspected in the story of Abimelech, and it is not impossible that the post-Deuteronomic writer who inserted ch.

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  • The following deserve special mention: du droit franrois (1674, 12mo); Mceurs des Israelites (1681, 12mo); Mceurs des Chretiens (1682, 12mo); Traits du choix et de la methode des etudes (1686, 2 vols.

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  • AARON, the traditional founder and head of the Jewish priesthood, who, in company with Moses, led the Israelites out of Egypt (see Exodus; Moses).

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  • Hur and Aaron were left in charge of the Israelites when Moses and Joshua ascended the mount to receive the Tables of the Law (xxiv.

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  • The same ideas underlie the story of the Brazen Serpent which cured the Israelites of the bites of the serpents in the Wilderness (Num.

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  • In the year 854 B.C. Hamath was taken by Shalmaneser II., king of Assyria, who defeated a large army of allied Hamathites, Syrians and Israelites at Karkor and slew 14,000 of them.

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  • 12-28, have been taken to refer to an Ammonite occupation of Israelite territory after the deportation of the east Jordanic Israelites in 734, but more probably belong to a later event.

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  • 49); apparently the site of the camp of the Israelites when about to attack the Ammonites under Jephthah's leadership (Judges x.

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  • 31, as one of the places from which the Israelites did not drive out the Canaanite inhabitants.

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  • EDOM, the district situated to the south of Palestine, between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of `Akaba (Aelanitic Gulf), the inhabitants of which were regarded by the Israelites as a "brother" people (see EsAU).

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  • Israel or distinguished Israelites, the root being the same as in Jeshurun; (2) that Jashar (" lc) is a transposition of shir C, song); (3) that it should be pointed Yashir (W, sing; cf.

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  • 35-3 8, 39-4 0a, 43, 47, 53, 55, which show the characteristic marks of H, bear no special relation to the year of Jubilee, but merely inculcate a more humane treatment of those Israelites who are compelled by circumstances to sell themselves either to their brethren or to strangers.

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  • of Akaba, near which is the site, not identified, of the Ezion-Geber of Scripture, another of the ports whence the argosies of the Israelites sailed.

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  • The Brethren, generally known, from their place of origin, as the Plymouth Brethren, have " rooms " and adherents throughout England; the Catholic Apostolic Church ("Irvingites ") have some 80 churches; the New Jerusalem Church(Swedenborgians) had (1908) 75 " societies "; the Christian Scientists, the Christadelphians, the British Israelites and similar societies, such as the New and Latter House of Israel, the Seventh Day Baptists, deserve mention.

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  • The mixture of the Israelites in Europe by marriage with other nations is probably much greater than is acknowledged by them; yet, on the whole, the race has been preserved with extraordinary strictness, as its physical characteristics sufficiently show.

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  • He aspired to convince the better minds that the only hope for Israelites, as well as for Israel, lay in " returning " to the true Yahweh, a deity who was no mere national god, and was not to be cajoled by the punctual offering of costly sacrifices.

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  • Evidence of the antiquity of the belief in "maternal impressions" we have in Jacob placing peeled rods before Laban's cattle to induce them to bring forth "ring-straked speckled and spotted" offspring; evidence of the antiquity of the "infection" doctrine we have, according to some writers, in the practice amongst the Israelites of requiring the childless widow to marry her deceased husband's brother, that he might "raise up seed to his brother."

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  • Jethro was the priest of Yahweh, and resided at the sacred mountain where the deity commissioned Moses to deliver the Israelites from Egypt.

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  • The mount or hill-country in b appears to be that which the Israelites unsuccessfully attempted to take (Num.

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  • 7, 8, as on the northern boundary of the prospective conquests of the Israelites.

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  • The victorious Israelites shall come up on Mount Zion to rule the mountain of Esau, and the kingdom shall be Yahweh's (vers.

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  • The B'nai B'rith society has also co-operated largely with other Jewish philanthropic organizations in succouring distressed Israelites throughout the world.

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  • Though situated in the nominal territory of the tribe of Judah, it was never for any length of time in the possession of the Israelites.

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  • Esther is a modification of Ishtar, the name of the Babylonian goddess of fertility and of the planet Venus, whose myth must have been partially known to the Israelites even in pre-exilic times,' and after the fall of the state must have acquired a still stronger hold on Jewish exiles.

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  • A general knowledge of the myth of Marduk among the Israelites cannot indeed be proved.

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  • 30 we find Moses entreating Hobab, the son of Reuel his father-in-law, to come along with the Israelites to be "eyes" unto them; and in x.

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  • The second narrative is P l, which tells how Korah, himself a Levite, at the head of 250 Israelites rebelled against the religious authority of Moses.

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  • Thereupon, instead of cursing the Israelites, Balaam blessed them.

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  • There we are told that 12,000 Israelites, without losing a single man, slew every male Midianite, children included, and every Midianite woman that had known a man, and took so much booty that there had to be special legislation as to how is should be divided.

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  • HIVITES, an ancient tribe of Palestine driven out by the invading Israelites.

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  • The Israelites are at Abel-Shittim (already reached in Num.

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  • of other conflicting traditions representing independent tribal efforts which were not successful, and the Israelites are even said to live in the midst of Canaanites, intermarrying with them and adopting their cult (Judges i.

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  • The elaborate account of the exodus gives the prevailing views which supersede other traditions of the origin both of the Israelites and of the worship of Yahweh (Gen.

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  • 2-8), the "exodus" of the Israelites to the land promised to their fathers (Ex.

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  • the account of the Israelites in Egypt, where they are in Goshen, unaffected by the plagues (Ex.

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  • 25 sqq.), of Isaac over Esau and Jacob (xxvii.), of Jacob over his sons (xlix.) or grandsons (xlviii.), would have no meaning to Israelites unless they had some connexion with and interest for contemporary life and thought.

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  • i, 9), and that the Levitical priests are later scattered and commended to the benevolence of the Israelites.

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  • Bochim (" weeping") elsewhere receives its name when an angel appeared to the Israelites (Judg.

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  • We cannot suppose that these first gained their sacred character in the pre-Mosaic "patriarchal" age; there is in any case the obvious difficulty of bridging the gap between the descent into Egypt and the Exodus, and it is clear that when the Israelites entered Palestine they came among a people whose religion, tradition and thought were fully established.

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  • A venerated tree in modern Palestine will owe its sanctity to some tradition, associating it, it may be, with some saint; the Israelites in their turn held the belief that the sacred tree at Hebron was one beneath which their first ancestor sat when three divine beings revealed themselves to him.

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  • These representations have been subordinated to others, in particular to the descent into Egypt of Jacob (Israel) and his sons, and the Exodus of the Israelites.

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  • ad loc. ' That there are traditions in Genesis which do not form the prelude to Exodus is very generally recognized by those who agree that the Israelites after entering Palestine took over some of the indigenous lore (whether from the Canaanites or from a presumed earlier layer of Israelites).

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  • Not, as was at first thought by some, specially the Israelites, but all those tribes of land-hungry nomads (" Hebrews ") who were attracted by the wealth and luxury of the settled regions, and sought to appropriate it for themselves.

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  • Among these we may include not only the Israelites or tribes which afterwards became Israelitish, but the Moabites, Ammonites and Edomites.

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  • HEXATEUCH, the name given to the first six books of the Old Testament (the Pentateuch and Joshua), to mark the fact that these form one literary whole, describing the early traditional history of the Israelites from the creation of the world to the conquest of Palestine and the origin of their national institutions.

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  • Israelites by the Philistines at Ebenezer near Aphek, the loss of the ark (iv.

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  • In one (a) Samuel, after his victory, continues to rule peacefully as a theocratic judge over the Israelites, the people demand a king, and although their request is viewed as hostile to the worship of Yahweh the tribes are summoned at Mizpah and the sacred lot falls upon Saul of Benjamin (vii.

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  • But in the other (b) the Philistines have occupied the heart of the land, the Israelites are thoroughly disorganized, and their miserable condition moves Yahweh to send as a deliverer the otherwise unknown Saul, who is anointed by Samuel, a seer of local renown (ix.

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  • zur Orientalistischen Litteratur-Zeitung) finds contemporary evidence of Israelites settled in the neighbourhood of Edessa in the second half of the 7th century B.C. At the fall of Nineveh many towns in Mesopotamia suffered severely at the hands of the Medes.

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  • exodus of the Israelites is widely believed to have occurred in this period.

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  • firstborn male among the Israelites belongs to me, whether human or animal.

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  • No one was left of the Israelites across the Jordan whose right eye Nahash, king of the Ammonites, had not gouged out.

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  • Over time the Israelites had become idolaters and served and worshiped other deities under the plural name of Baalim, or gods.

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  • idolatry of the Israelites.

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  • It commemorates the liberation of the Israelites from Egyptian slavery.

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  • The Israelites were to gather the manna, every man according to his eating (Exodus 16:16 ).

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  • So they cruelly oppressed the Israelites for twenty years.

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  • Actually, earlier in their wilderness wanderings the Israelites experienced the provision of manna.

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  • descent through Esau from Abraham, and were acknowledged' by the Israelites (Deut.

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  • 14) who refused passage to the Israelites in their wanderings.

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  • The history of the relations of the Edomites and Israelites may be briefly summarized.

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  • " City of Salim" or "City of Peace," many years before the Israelites under Joshua entered Canaan.

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  • Some of the latter were either not conquered by the Israelites until long after the invasion, or, if conquered, were not held by Levites; and names are wanting of places in which priests are actually known to have lived.

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  • That these places (in the district of Kadesh) were traditionally associated with the origin of the Levites is suggested by various Levitical stories, although it is in a narrative now in a context pointing to Horeb or Sinai that the Levites are Israelites who for some cause (now lost) severed themselves from their people and took up a stand on behalf of Yahweh (Exod.

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  • With these variations is involved the problem of the early history of the Israelites.

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  • The Sabbath did not share the same fate, but with the abolition of local sacrifices it became for most Israelites an institution of humanity divorced from ritual.

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  • The references to it in the Pentateuch are confined to rough geographical indications of the latitude of the transJordanic camp of the Israelites in Moab before their crossing of the river.

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  • This was the first Canaanite city to be attacked and reduced by the victorious Israelites.

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  • A huge car drawn by oxen, bearing the standard of the burgh, and carrying an altar with the host, this carroccio, like the ark of the Israelites, formed a rallying point in battle, and reminded the armed artisans that they had a city and a church to fight for.

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  • Mwvorts, Mwvrls), the great Jewish lawgiver,, prophet and mediator, and leader of the Israelites from Egypt to the eastern borders of the promised land.

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  • To the Israelites, however, it was a miracle, an unexpected intervention on the part of Yahweh, and the first of many marvels which he performed on behalf of the people of his choice.

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  • 1 Yahweh appears to have been known to them before he revealed himself to Moses, and the ancestors of the Israelites are recognized as worshippers of Yahweh, but are on another level (Exod.

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  • Hirmas) flows south through the land of Gozan in which Sargon settled the deported Israelites in 721 B.C. At the mouth of the Khabur stood the Roman frontier fortress of Circesium (Assyrian, Sirki; Arab.

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  • We know that diseases were attributed by the Israelites to malignant demons which they, like the Arabs, identified with serpents.

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  • Yahweh ceased to be exclusively regarded as god of the atmosphere, worshipped in a distant mountain, Horeb-Sinai, situated in the south country (negebh),and moving in the clouds of heaven before the Israelites in the desert, but he came to be associated with Israel's life in Canaan.

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  • Thus He not only brought the Israelites out of Egypt, but also the Philistines from Caphtor and the Syrians from Kir (ix.

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  • 10-12) and earnestly commends its members to the Israelites' benevolence (xii.

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  • External oppression and internal rivalries rent the Israelites, and in the religious philosophy of a later (Deuteronomic) age the period is represented as one of alternate apostasy from and of penitent return to the Yahweh of the " exodus."

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  • His subsequent advance to the kingship over Judah and Israel at Jerusalem is represented as due to the weak condition of Israel, facilitated by the compliance of Abner; partly, also, to the long-expressed wish of the Israelites that their old hero should reign over them.

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  • The employment of Judaeans and Israelites for Solomon's palatial buildings, and the heavy taxation for the upkeep of a court which was the wonder of the world, caused grave internal discontent.

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  • As regards (b), external evidence has already suggested to scholars that there were Israelites in Palestine before the invasion; internal historical criticism is against the view that all the tribes entered under Joshua; and in (a) there are traces of an actual settlement in the land, entirely distinct from the cycle of narratives which prepare the way for (b).

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  • 1 This is especially true of the various ingenious attempts to combine the invasion of the Israelites with the movements of the Habiru in the Amarna period (§ 3).

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  • But the proud Israelites did not remain submissive for long; Damascus had indeed fallen, but neither Philistia nor Edom had yet been crushed.

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  • The Israelites who had been carried off by the Assyrians were also removed from the cult of the land (cf.

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  • xxxvi.), and suggest that certain members of a closely related collection of groups had separated from the main body and were ultimately enrolled as Israelites.

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  • It is quite in harmony with this that the same source speaks of the Israelites who joined David at Ziklag (i Chron.

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  • This is involved with other views of the early history of the Israelites; see further below.

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  • So, after David had completed a series of conquests which made Palestine the greatest of the petty states of the age, troubles arose with the Israelites, who in times past had sought for him to be king (iii.

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  • implies that the Israelites had recovered the position they had lost at the battle of Gilboa.

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  • The foundation of the united monarchy was the greatest advance in the whole course of the history of the Israelites, and around it have been collected the hopes and fears which a varied experience of monarchical government aroused.

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  • It is in David's history that the clans of the south first attained prominence, and some of them are known to have been staunch upholders of a purer worship of Yahweh, or to have been associated with the introduction of religious institutions among the Israelites.

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  • But the stories of conflicts in a much larger area than the few cities in the immediate neighbourhood of Jerusalem (see above) can scarcely be read with the numerous narratives which recount or imply relations between the young David of Bethlehem and Saul or the Israelites.

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  • Along with the Babylonians, Egyptians and Romans, the Israelites are classed as one of the great agricultural nations of antiquity.

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  • 13), and the extent of her cult among the Israelites is proved as much by the numerous biblical references as by the frequent representations of the deity turned up on Palestinian so11.3 The Moabites formed a compound deity, Ashtar-Chemosh (see Moms), and the absence of the feminine termination occurs similarly in the Babylonian and Assyrian prototype Ishtar.

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  • "hard" or "rugged," a name sometimes used, both in earlier and in later writers, to denote the whole of the territory occupied by the Israelites eastward of Jordan, extending from the Arnon to the southern base of Hermon (Deut.

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  • That the Israelites even applied the title of Baal to Yahweh himself is proved by the occurrence of such names as Jerubbaal (Gideon), Eshbaal (one of Saul's sons) and Beeliada (a son of David, 1 Chron.

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  • The Old Testament depicts the history of the people as a series of acts of apostasy alternating with subsequent penitence and return to Yahweh, and the question whether this gives effect to actual conditions depends upon the precise character of the elements of Yahweh worship brought by the Israelites into Palestine.

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  • FEAST OF TABERNACLES, the autumn festival of the Israelites, beginning on the 15th of Tishri and celebrated by residing for the seven succeeding days in rustic booths (Heb.

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  • When the Israelites, under Joshua, invaded Canaan, the Gibeonites by a crafty ruse escaped the fate of Jericho and Ai and secured protection from the invaders (Joshua ix.).

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  • Gibeon was the seat of an old Canaanitish sanctuary afterwards used by the Israelites; it was here that Solomon, immediately after his coronation, went to consult the oracles and had the dream in which he chose the gift of wisdom (1 Kings iii.).

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  • AMALEKITES, an ancient tribe, or collection of tribes, in the south and south-east of Palestine, often mentioned in the Old Testament as foes of the Israelites.

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  • When the Israelites were journeying from Egypt to the land of Canaan, the Amalekites are said to have taken advantage of their weak condition to harry the stragglers in the rear, and as a judgment for their hostility it was ordained that their memory should be blotted out from under heaven (Deut.

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  • RECHABITES, or Sons Of Rechab, a sort of religious order among the Israelites in some respects analogous to the Nazarites, with whom they shared the rule of abstinence from wine.

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  • Part of the Jewish ritual was the preservation of the Israelites from the idolatry which at that time prevailed among every other people.

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  • Dogs were held in considerable veneration by the Egyptians, from whose tyranny the Israelites had just escaped; figures of them appeared on the friezes of most of the temples, and they were regarded as emblems of the divine being.

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  • It was in order to preserve the Israelites from errors and follies of this kind, and to prevent the possibility of such idolatry being established, that the dog was afterwards regarded with utter abhorrence amongst the Jews, and this feeling prevailed during the continuance of the Israelites in Palestine.

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  • In the four last chapters the author, returning to the history, gives a detailed account of the provision made for the Israelites in the wilderness and of the pains and terrors with which the Egyptians were plagued.

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  • The historical review in the second part is coloured by a bitter hatred of the ancient Egyptians; whether this springs from resentment of the former sufferings of the Israelites or is meant as an allusion to the circumstances of the author's own time it is hardly possible to say.

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  • The name first appears in Hebrew history in connexion with the wanderings of the Israelites.

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  • II) are regarded as suggestive of legend; to say nothing of the lateness of all the documents relating to the wars of Og, and the remoteness of Bashan from the regions of the Israelites' wandering.

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  • Og dwelt at Ashteroth, and did battle with the Israelites at Edrei (Deut.

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  • The Israelites were commanded to select on the tenth of Abib (Nisan) a he-lamb of the first year, without blemish, to kill it on the eve of the fourteenth and to sprinkle with its blood the lintel and sidepost of the doors of their dwellings so that the Lord should "pass over" them when he went forth to slay the first-born of the Egyptians.

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  • The lamb thus drained of blood was to be roasted and entirely consumed by the Israelites, who should be ready with loins girded, shoes on feet and staff in hand so as to be prepared for the exodus.

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  • In memory of this the Israelites were for all time to eat unleavened bread (matzoth) for seven days, as well as keep the sacrifice of the Passover on the eve between the fourteenth and the fifteenth of Nisan.

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  • At midnight all the first-born of the Egyptians are slain and Pharaoh sends the Israelites out of Egypt in haste, and the people took the dough before it was leavened upon kneading troughs upon their shoulders.

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  • Observe the month of Abib and keep the Passover because in that month God brought out the Israelites from Egypt.

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  • A still more vital contrast occurs concerning the place of sacrificing the Passover; as enjoined in Deuteronomy this is to be by the males of the family at Jerusalem, whereas both in the presumably earlier Yahwist and in the later Priestly Code the whole household joins in the festival which can be celebrated wherever the Israelites are settled.

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  • Against this may be urged that, according to the latest inquiries into the pastoral life, there is always connected with it some form of agriculture and a use of cereals, while, historically speaking, the Israelites while in Egypt were dependent on its corn.

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  • In Egypt the Israelites, as a pastoral people, sacrificed the firstlings of their flocks in the spring, and, according to tradition, it was a refusal to permit a general gathering for this purpose that caused the Exodus.

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  • When the Israelites settled in Canaan they found there an agricultural festival connected with the beginnings of the barley harvest, which coincided in point of date with the Passover and was accordingly associated with it.

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  • (X.) Ark of the Covenant, Ark of the Revelation, Ark of the Testimony, are the full names of the sacred chest of acacia wood overlaid with gold which the Israelites took with them on their journey into Palestine.

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  • To presume to fight without it was to invite defeat, and on one notable occasion the Israelites attempted to attack their enemy north of Kadesh without its aid, and were defeated (Num.

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  • Many different traditions have gathered around the story of the Exodus, and the ark was not the only divinely sent guide or forerunner which led the Israelites.

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  • AMMONITES, or the "children of Ammon," a people of east Palestine who, like the Moabites, traced their origin to Lot, the nephew of the patriarch Abraham, and must have been regarded, therefore, as closely related to the Israelites and Edomites.

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  • From this their original territory they had been in their turn expelled by Sihon, king of the Amorites, who was said to have been found by the Israelites, after their deliverance from Egypt, in possession of both Gilead and Bashan, that is, of the whole country on the left bank of the Jordan, lying to the north of the Arnon (Num.

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  • i i already speaks of Israelites captive in these districts as well as in Egypt, Ethiopia and the East.

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  • It begins with a psalm (xc.) ascribed in the title to Moses, and seemingly designed to express feelings appropriate to a situation analogous to that of the Israelites when, after the weary march through the wilderness, they stood on the borders of the promised land.

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  • 20: "All the Israelites went down to the Philistines to sharpen every man his share and his coulter."

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  • The periods are externally indicated by the successive names by which the chosen people were called - Hebrews, Israelites, Jews.

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  • (1) Yahweh's word is accomplished on Syria-Phoenicia and Philistia; and then the Messianic kingdom begins in Zion, and the Israelites detained among the heathen, Judah and Ephraim combined, receive a part in it.

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  • Here, between Ebal and Gerizim, Joshua made his last speech to the elders of the Israelites (Jos.

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  • " To be " in the Hebrew of the Old Testament is not hawah, as the derivation would require, but hayah; and we are thus driven to the further assumption that hawah belongs to an earlier stage of the language, or to some older speech of the forefathers of the Israelites.

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  • iii., is there the slightest indication that the Israelites connected the name of their God with the idea of " being " in any sense, it may fairly be questioned whether, if the author of Exod.

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  • A more fundamental question is whether the name Yahweh originated among the Israelites or was adopted by them from some other people and speech.'

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  • 13-15), apparently following a tradition according to which the Israelites had not been worshippers of Yahweh before the time of Moses, or, as he conceived it, had not worshipped the god of their fathers under that name.

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  • The revelation of the name to Moses was made at a mountain sacred to Yahweh (the mountain of God) far to the south of Palestine, in a region where the forefathers of the Israelites had never roamed, and in the territory of other tribes; and long after the settlement in Canaan this region continued to be regarded as the abode of Yahweh (Judg.

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  • I); to this mountain he led the Israelites after their deliverance from Egypt; there his father-in-law met him, and extolling Yahweh as " greater than all the gods," offered (in his capacity as priest of the place?) sacrifices, at which the chief men of the Israelites were his guests; there the religion of Yahweh was revealed through Moses, and the Israelites pledged themselves to serve God according to its prescriptions.

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  • There is, however, no certain evidence that the Israelites in historical times had any consciousness of the primitive significance of the name.

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  • Though we may recognize in this poetical imagery the survival of ancient and, if we please, mythical notions, we should err if we inferred that Yahweh was originally a departmental god, presiding specifically over meteorological phenomena, and that this conception of him persisted among the Israelites till very late times.

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  • THE GOLDEN CALF, a molten image made by the Israelites when Moses had ascended the Mount of Yahweh to receive the Law (Ex.

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  • Arabia (whence the Israelites may have come) and in Canaan prior to the great extension of Babylonian influence.

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  • Again, the common Fatherhood of God should inspire a right relation among fellow Israelites, not such conduct as the divorce of Israelite wives in order to marry non-Israelite women (ii.

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  • the brotherhood of all Israelites under their one Father (ii.

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  • 4-9); with Abishai and Ittai of Gath heed a small army against the Israelites who had rebelled under Absalom (2 Sam.

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  • ABRAHAM, or Abram (Hebrew for "father is high"), the ancestor of the Israelites, the first of the great Biblical patriarchs.

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  • The interpretation of the evil omen is explained by an allusion to the bondage of the Israelites in Egypt and their return in the fourth generation (xv.

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  • As the father of Isaac and Ishmael, he is ultimately the common ancestor of the Israelites and their nomadic fierce neighbours, men roving unrestrainedly like the wild ass, troubled by and troubling every one (xvi.

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  • The invasion or immigration of certain tribes from the east of the Jordan; the presence of Aramaean blood among the Israelites (see Jacob); the origin of the sanctity of venerable sites, - these and other considerations may readily be found to account for the traditions.

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  • If, then, an Egyptian inscription of the XIXth dynasty had come to hand in which the names of Joseph and Moses, and the deeds of the Israelites as a subject people who finally escaped from bondage by crossing the Red Sea, were recorded in hieroglyphic characters, such a monument would have been hailed with enthusiastic delight by every champion of the Pentateuch, and a wave of supreme satisfaction would have passed over all Christendom.

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  • Before the departure of the Israelites from Egypt their year commenced at the autumnal equinox; but in order to solemnize the memory of their deliverance, the month of Nisan or Abib, in which that event took place, and which falls about the time of the vernal equinox, was afterwards regarded as the beginning of the ecclesiastical or legal year.

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  • But how this part of Palestine came into the hands of the Israelites is not definitely related in the story of the invasion (see Joshua).

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  • I are said to be held fast lest they should break in elemental fury on land and sea, are not let loose or referred to in the subsequent narrative, and also from the mention of the 144,000 Israelites of the twelve tribes, to whom no further reference is made; for these can no more be identified with the countless multitudes in vii.

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  • Occasionally Israelites as well as aliens fall under the curse (Judg.

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  • 83), it maintained, down even to the days of the Maccabees, a vigorous though somewhat intermittent independence against the power of the Israelites, by whom it was nominally assigned to the territory of Judah.

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  • 32, 34, xxvi.), at the Exodus of the Israelites (Ex.

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  • 20); but they evidently recovered their independence, and we find that twice within a short time the northern Israelites laid siege to the border fortress of Gibbethon (r Kings xv.

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  • 2 Hence the two sieges of the Philistine Gibbethon by the Israelites (above) obviously have some significance for Judaean history, but the Judaean annals unfortunately afford no help (see AsA).

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  • Antagonism between Philistines and Israelites was not a persisting feature, and, although the former are styled " uncircumcised " (chiefly in the stories in the book of Samuel), the term gained new force when the expulsion of uncircumcised aliens from the sanctuary of Jerusalem was proclaimed in the writings ascribed to Ezekiel (ch.

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  • Balaam, the son of Beor, was a Gentile seer; he appears in the history of the Israelites during their sojourn in the plains of Moab, east of Jordan, at the close of the Forty Years' wandering, shortly before the death of Moses and the crossing of the Jordan.

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  • Joshua, in his farewell speech to the Israelites, 2 also refers to this episode.

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  • 8 The Mal'akh Yahweh (or Elohim) appears to Abraham, Hagar, Moses, Gideon, &c., and leads the Israelites in the Pillar of Cloud.

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  • "He places the cradle of the Israelites in the south of Arabia, and, like many other critics, makes the historical times begin only with Moses" (F.

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  • The student may naturally ask, Whence did the Israelites (a comparatively young people) obtain the original myth ?

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  • When the Israelites entered Canaan, they would learn myths partly of Babylonian origin.

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  • North Arabian influence must also have been strong among the Israelites, at least while they sojourned in North Arabia.

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  • We must allow for stages of development both among the Israelites and among their tutors.

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  • 20, 25), or the exalted position of the Israelites as officials and overseers, while the remnant of the pre-Israelite inhabitants serve in labour gangs (ix.

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  • On the other hand is the mass of toiling Israelites, whose oppressed condition is a prelude to the later dissensions (1 Kings v.

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  • 3) it is stated that the prohibition against intermarriage with the Moabites, Ammonites, Egyptians and Edomites, though given in the Bible, only applied for a certain number of generations and did not apply at all to their daughters, but, it is added, "Bastards and Nethinim are prohibited (to marry Israelites), and this prohibition is perpetual and applies both to males and females."

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  • That the figures symbolic of Rakab or Hadad were compounded or amalgamated by the Israelites with those symbolic of Nergal (the lion-god) and Ninib (the eagle-god), is not surprising.

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  • - The traditions current among the Israelites respecting the origins and early history of their nation - the patriarchal period, and the times of Moses and Joshua - were probably first cast into a written form in the 10th or 9th century B.C. by a prophet living in Judah, who, from the almost exclusive use in his narrative of the sacred name " Jahveh " (" Jehovah "), - or, as we now commonly write it, Yahweh, - is referred to among scholars by the abbreviation " J."

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  • - lxvi., however, are not by Isaiah, but are the work of a prophet who wrote about 540 B.C., shortly before the conquest of Babylon by Cyrus, and whose aim was to encourage the Israelites in exile, and assure them of the certainty of their approaching restoration to Canaan.

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  • But the period of the Israelites' sojourn in Egypt, according to Ex.

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  • 40, 41 is to describe the Israelites as having dwelt in Egypt for 430 years, which is also in substantial agreement with the earlier passage, Gen.

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  • of the 8th dynasty, which was discovered in 1887 at Tel el-Amarna, makes it evident that Palestine could not yet have been in the occupation of the Israelites.

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  • II that the Israelites built in Egypt for the Pharaoh two store-cities, Pithom and Rameses.

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  • to 1300-1234 B.C. 1 In Merenptah's fifth year the Delta was invaded by a formidable body of Libyans and other foes; 2 and it has been conjectured that the Israelites took the opportunity of escaping during the unsettlement that was thus occasioned.

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  • To give a name to this new phenomenon the Israelites, it would seem, had to borrow a word from their Canaanite neighbours.

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  • It is true that the prophets absorbed the old seers, and that the Israelites, as we see in the case of the asses of Kish, went to their seers on the same kind of occasions as sent heathen nations to seers or diviners.

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  • It has been justly remarked of the Pauline view, that- " The union with the Lord Himself, to which those who partake of the Lord's Supper have, is compared with the union which those who partake of a sacrifice have with the deity to whom the altar is devoted - in the case of the Israelites with God, of the heathen with demons.

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  • Jacob and his twin brother Esau are the eponyms of the Israelites and Edomites.

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  • The close relation between Jacob and Aramaeans confirms the view that some of the tribes of Israel were partly of Aramaean origin; his entrance into Palestine from beyond the Jordan is parallel to Joshua's invasion at the head of the Israelites; and his previous journey from the south finds independent support in traditions of another distinct movement from this quarter.

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  • Consequently, it would appear that these extremely elevated and richly developed narratives of Jacob-Israel embody, among a number of other features, a recollection of two distinct traditions of migration which became fused among the Israelites.

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  • g S obos) of the Israelites from Egypt into Palestine, under the leadership of Moses and Aaron, as described in the books of the Bible from Exodus to Joshua.

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  • In the story of the Exodus there have been incorporated codes of laws and institutions which were to be observed by the descendants of the Israelites in their future 2 To the same hand are to be ascribed also xxvii.

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  • the expulsion of the Hyksos), but if the Israelites built Rameses and Pithom (Ex.

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  • On these grounds the Exodus may have taken place under one of his successors, and since Mineptah or Merneptah (son of Rameses), in relating his successes in Palestine, boasts that Ysiraal is desolated, it would seem that the Israelites had already returned.

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  • It might be assumed that the Israelites (or at least those who had not remained behind in Palestine) effected their departure at a somewhat later date, and in the time of Mineptah's successor, Seti II., there is an Egyptian report of the pursuit of some fugitive slaves over the eastern frontier.

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  • No allusions to Israelites in Egypt have yet been found on the monuments; against the view that the Aperiu (or Apury) of the inscriptions were Hebrews, see S.

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  • the invading Israelites.'

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  • In the absence of external evidence the study of the Exodus of the Israelites must be based upon the Israelite records, and divergent or contradictory views must be carefully noticed.

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  • The latter view implies that the oppressed Israelites left Egypt for one of its dependencies, and both theories find only conjectural identifications in the various stations recorded in Num.

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  • 16 seq., where the Israelites proceed immediately to Kadesh.

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  • the Israelites already reach the wilderness of Shur and accomplish the three days' journey which had been their original aim (cf.

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  • 17-19), since on reaching Kadesh the Israelites would be within.

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  • 1-3 the Israelites (a generalizing amplification) captured Hormah, on the way to Beersheba, and subsequently the clan Caleb and the Kenites (the clan of Moses' father-in-law) are found in Judah (Judg.

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  • Although the traditions regard their efforts as part of a common movement (from Gilgal, see below), it is more probable that these (notably Caleb) escaped the punishment which befell the rest of the Israelites, and made their way direct from Kadesh into the south of Palestine.'

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  • Thus, although the Israelites possessed cattle (Ex.

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  • Holofernes now inquires of the chiefs who are with him about the Israelites,and is answered by Achior the leader of the Ammonites, who enters upon a long historical narrative showing the Israelites to be invincible except when they have offended God.

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  • For this Achior is punished ley being handed over to the Israelites, who lead him to the governor of Bethulia.

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  • Achior now publicly professes Judaism, and at the instance of Judith the Israelites make a sudden victorious onslaught on the enemy.

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  • When the policy of transporting people from one part of the empire to another was developed, new elements were introduced into Mesopotamia, amongst them Israelites, of whom perhaps traces have been found in the neighbourhood of IIarran at Kannu'.

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  • Before this time, indeed, the Phoenicians had no doubt lived on friendly terms with the Israelites (cf.

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  • In modern usage the name Hebrew is applied to that branch of the northern part of the Semitic family of languages which was used by the Israelites during most of the time of their national existence in Palestine, and in which nearly all their sacred writings are composed.

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  • AMORITES, the name given by the Israelites to the earlier inhabitants of Palestine.

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  • The Israelites at Kadesh, almost at the gate of the promised land, incurred the wrath of Yahweh, and, deterred by a defeat at Hormah from pursuing their journey northwards, were obliged to choose another route (Num.

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  • It has indeed been argued that, as the author seems to take no offence at the marriage of Israelites with Moabite women, he must have lived before the time of Ezra and Nehemiah (Ezra ix.; Neh.

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  • 14), who identifies the Hyksos with the Israelites, preserves a passage from the second book of Manetho giving an account of them.

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  • The supposed connexion with the Israelites has made the problem of the Hyksos attractive, but light is coming upon it very slowly.

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  • The possibility of a connexion between the Hyksos and the Israelites is still admitted in some quarters.

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  • It lay inland and off the main line of traffic. Though included by the Israelites within the limits of the tribe of Judah, and mentioned in Judges xix.

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  • According to the narrative of the Hebrew text, here differing from the Greek text and Josephus (which read Askelon), it was the last town to which the ark was transferred before its restoration to the Israelites.

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  • It formed part of the food of the Israelites in Egypt (Numb.

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  • Like Jacob, the ancestor of the Israelites, he had twelve sons (xxv.

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  • In its present form the book sets forth (a) the oppression of the Israelites in Egypt (ch.

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  • 6, 8-12, lob) the Israelites dwell apart in the province of Goshen, and their numbers become so great as to call for severe measures of repression, the method employed being that of forced labour.

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  • Moses and the elders ask leave to go three days' journey into the wilderness to sacrifice to Yahweh, a request which is met by an increase of the burdensome work of brick-making: henceforward the Israelites have to provide their own straw.

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  • The Israelites are represented as living among the Egyptians, and enjoy no immunity from the plagues, except that of darkness.

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  • 2 9-34, 37-39), who clearly sees in the Feast of Mazzoth a perpetual reminder of the haste with which the Israelites fled from Egypt; the editor of JE, however, has included some extracts from E (xii.

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  • The Israelites, terrified by the approach of the Egyptians, upbraid Moses, who promises them deliverance by the hand of Yahweh (xiv.

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  • The story, however, has been combined with the somewhat different account of E, which doubtless covered the same ground, and also with that of P. According to the former, Elohim did not permit the Israelites to take the shorter route to Canaan by the Mediterranean coast, for fear of the Philistines, but led them southwards to the Red Sea, whither they were pursued by the Egyptians (xiii.

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  • The identity of the Decalogue with the eternal law of nature was maintained in both churches, but it was an open question whether the Decalogue, as such (that is, as a law given by Moses to the Israelites), is of perpetual obligation.

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  • Even among the Israelites, the visitation of certain cult-centres prevailed from remote antiquity; but, when the restriction of Yahwehworship to Jerusalem had doomed the old shrines, the Jewish pilgrimages were directed solely to the sanctuary on Mt Moria.

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  • Yet, apart from the references to cultic prostitution (which was adopted by the Israelites from the Canaanites), the mention of the vice in question is not frequent; in a polygamous society and in a country without great cities it was not likely to grow to great proportions.

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  • 4 seq., to care for one's enemy's ox or ass likewise refers to Israelites; Proverbs conceives the principle in a higher way and extends it beyond the limits of the nation.

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  • The history of the Israelites is only one.

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  • The movement of the Habiru cannot be isolated from that represented in other letters (where the enemy are not described by this term), and their steps do not agree with those of the invading Israelites in the hook of Joshua (q.v.).

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  • In the nature of the case, as time elapsed the new population must have taken root as securely as - one must conclude - the invading Israelites had done some centuries earlier.

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  • Its appearance has been associated with the invasion of the Israelites or with the establishment of the independent monarchy, but on very inadequate grounds; and since it has been independently placed at the latter part of the monarchy, its historical explanation may presumably be found in that break in the career of Palestine when peoples were changed and new organizations slowly grew up. 5 The great significance of these vicissitudes for the course of internal conditions in Palestine is evident when it is observed that the subsequent cleavage between Judah and Samaria, not earlier than the 5th century, presupposes an antecedent common foundation which, in view of the history of the monarchies, can hardly be earlier than the 7th century.

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  • This legislation appears as that of the Israelites, newly escaped from bondage in Egypt, joined by an ethical covenant-relation with Yahweh, and waiting in the desert to enter and conquer the land of their ancestors.

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  • A considerable amount of earlier history and literature has been lost, and it is probable that the traditions of the origins of the composite Israelites, as they are now preserved, embody evidence belonging to the nearer events of the 8th-6th centuries.

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  • Indeed, Alcimus and his company did more mischief among the Israelites than the heathen (1 Macc. vii.

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  • This book of the Old Testament, which, as we now read it, constitutes a sequel to the book of Joshua, covering the period of history between the death of this conqueror and the birth of Samuel, is so called because it contains the history of the Israelites before the establishment of the monarchy, when the government was in the hands of certain leaders who appear to have formed a continuous succession, although the office was not hereditary.

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  • It consists of three main portions: (I) an introduction, presenting one view of the occupation of Palestine by the Israelites (i.

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  • It is impossible to regard the warlike expeditions described in this section as supplementary campaigns undertaken after Joshua's death; they are plainly represented as the first efforts of the Israelites to gain a firm footing in the land (at Hebron, Debir, Bethel), in the very cities which Joshua is related to have subdued (Josh.

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  • 21, and the successors of Jeroboam 2), attacks by nomads and wars with Ammon and Moab; conflicts between newly settled Israelites and indigenous Canaanites have been suspected in the story of Abimelech, and it is not impossible that the post-Deuteronomic writer who inserted ch.

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  • The following deserve special mention: du droit franrois (1674, 12mo); Mceurs des Israelites (1681, 12mo); Mceurs des Chretiens (1682, 12mo); Traits du choix et de la methode des etudes (1686, 2 vols.

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  • AARON, the traditional founder and head of the Jewish priesthood, who, in company with Moses, led the Israelites out of Egypt (see Exodus; Moses).

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  • Hur and Aaron were left in charge of the Israelites when Moses and Joshua ascended the mount to receive the Tables of the Law (xxiv.

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  • The same ideas underlie the story of the Brazen Serpent which cured the Israelites of the bites of the serpents in the Wilderness (Num.

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  • In the year 854 B.C. Hamath was taken by Shalmaneser II., king of Assyria, who defeated a large army of allied Hamathites, Syrians and Israelites at Karkor and slew 14,000 of them.

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  • 12-28, have been taken to refer to an Ammonite occupation of Israelite territory after the deportation of the east Jordanic Israelites in 734, but more probably belong to a later event.

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  • 49); apparently the site of the camp of the Israelites when about to attack the Ammonites under Jephthah's leadership (Judges x.

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  • 31, as one of the places from which the Israelites did not drive out the Canaanite inhabitants.

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  • EDOM, the district situated to the south of Palestine, between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of `Akaba (Aelanitic Gulf), the inhabitants of which were regarded by the Israelites as a "brother" people (see EsAU).

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  • Israel or distinguished Israelites, the root being the same as in Jeshurun; (2) that Jashar (" lc) is a transposition of shir C, song); (3) that it should be pointed Yashir (W, sing; cf.

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  • 35-3 8, 39-4 0a, 43, 47, 53, 55, which show the characteristic marks of H, bear no special relation to the year of Jubilee, but merely inculcate a more humane treatment of those Israelites who are compelled by circumstances to sell themselves either to their brethren or to strangers.

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  • of Akaba, near which is the site, not identified, of the Ezion-Geber of Scripture, another of the ports whence the argosies of the Israelites sailed.

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  • The Brethren, generally known, from their place of origin, as the Plymouth Brethren, have " rooms " and adherents throughout England; the Catholic Apostolic Church ("Irvingites ") have some 80 churches; the New Jerusalem Church(Swedenborgians) had (1908) 75 " societies "; the Christian Scientists, the Christadelphians, the British Israelites and similar societies, such as the New and Latter House of Israel, the Seventh Day Baptists, deserve mention.

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  • The mixture of the Israelites in Europe by marriage with other nations is probably much greater than is acknowledged by them; yet, on the whole, the race has been preserved with extraordinary strictness, as its physical characteristics sufficiently show.

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  • He aspired to convince the better minds that the only hope for Israelites, as well as for Israel, lay in " returning " to the true Yahweh, a deity who was no mere national god, and was not to be cajoled by the punctual offering of costly sacrifices.

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  • Evidence of the antiquity of the belief in "maternal impressions" we have in Jacob placing peeled rods before Laban's cattle to induce them to bring forth "ring-straked speckled and spotted" offspring; evidence of the antiquity of the "infection" doctrine we have, according to some writers, in the practice amongst the Israelites of requiring the childless widow to marry her deceased husband's brother, that he might "raise up seed to his brother."

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  • Jethro was the priest of Yahweh, and resided at the sacred mountain where the deity commissioned Moses to deliver the Israelites from Egypt.

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  • The mount or hill-country in b appears to be that which the Israelites unsuccessfully attempted to take (Num.

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  • 7, 8, as on the northern boundary of the prospective conquests of the Israelites.

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  • The victorious Israelites shall come up on Mount Zion to rule the mountain of Esau, and the kingdom shall be Yahweh's (vers.

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  • These primitive stories of the relations between the eponymous heads of the Edomites and Israelites are due to the older (Judaean) sources; the late notices of the Priestly school (see Genesis) preserve a different account of the parting of the two (Gen.

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  • The B'nai B'rith society has also co-operated largely with other Jewish philanthropic organizations in succouring distressed Israelites throughout the world.

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  • Though situated in the nominal territory of the tribe of Judah, it was never for any length of time in the possession of the Israelites.

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  • Esther is a modification of Ishtar, the name of the Babylonian goddess of fertility and of the planet Venus, whose myth must have been partially known to the Israelites even in pre-exilic times,' and after the fall of the state must have acquired a still stronger hold on Jewish exiles.

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  • A general knowledge of the myth of Marduk among the Israelites cannot indeed be proved.

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  • 30 we find Moses entreating Hobab, the son of Reuel his father-in-law, to come along with the Israelites to be "eyes" unto them; and in x.

    0
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  • The second narrative is P l, which tells how Korah, himself a Levite, at the head of 250 Israelites rebelled against the religious authority of Moses.

    0
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  • Thereupon, instead of cursing the Israelites, Balaam blessed them.

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  • There we are told that 12,000 Israelites, without losing a single man, slew every male Midianite, children included, and every Midianite woman that had known a man, and took so much booty that there had to be special legislation as to how is should be divided.

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  • HIVITES, an ancient tribe of Palestine driven out by the invading Israelites.

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  • The Israelites are at Abel-Shittim (already reached in Num.

    0
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  • of other conflicting traditions representing independent tribal efforts which were not successful, and the Israelites are even said to live in the midst of Canaanites, intermarrying with them and adopting their cult (Judges i.

    0
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  • The elaborate account of the exodus gives the prevailing views which supersede other traditions of the origin both of the Israelites and of the worship of Yahweh (Gen.

    0
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  • 2-8), the "exodus" of the Israelites to the land promised to their fathers (Ex.

    0
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  • the account of the Israelites in Egypt, where they are in Goshen, unaffected by the plagues (Ex.

    0
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  • 25 sqq.), of Isaac over Esau and Jacob (xxvii.), of Jacob over his sons (xlix.) or grandsons (xlviii.), would have no meaning to Israelites unless they had some connexion with and interest for contemporary life and thought.

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  • i, 9), and that the Levitical priests are later scattered and commended to the benevolence of the Israelites.

    0
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  • Bochim (" weeping") elsewhere receives its name when an angel appeared to the Israelites (Judg.

    0
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  • We cannot suppose that these first gained their sacred character in the pre-Mosaic "patriarchal" age; there is in any case the obvious difficulty of bridging the gap between the descent into Egypt and the Exodus, and it is clear that when the Israelites entered Palestine they came among a people whose religion, tradition and thought were fully established.

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  • A venerated tree in modern Palestine will owe its sanctity to some tradition, associating it, it may be, with some saint; the Israelites in their turn held the belief that the sacred tree at Hebron was one beneath which their first ancestor sat when three divine beings revealed themselves to him.

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  • These representations have been subordinated to others, in particular to the descent into Egypt of Jacob (Israel) and his sons, and the Exodus of the Israelites.

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  • ad loc. ' That there are traditions in Genesis which do not form the prelude to Exodus is very generally recognized by those who agree that the Israelites after entering Palestine took over some of the indigenous lore (whether from the Canaanites or from a presumed earlier layer of Israelites).

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  • Not, as was at first thought by some, specially the Israelites, but all those tribes of land-hungry nomads (" Hebrews ") who were attracted by the wealth and luxury of the settled regions, and sought to appropriate it for themselves.

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  • Among these we may include not only the Israelites or tribes which afterwards became Israelitish, but the Moabites, Ammonites and Edomites.

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  • HEXATEUCH, the name given to the first six books of the Old Testament (the Pentateuch and Joshua), to mark the fact that these form one literary whole, describing the early traditional history of the Israelites from the creation of the world to the conquest of Palestine and the origin of their national institutions.

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  • And as the battle spread, they defeated the Israelites, killing about four thousand soldiers on the battlefield.

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  • Actually, earlier in their wilderness wanderings the Israelites experienced the provision of manna.

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  • As it stands it vividly recalls the rebellious Israelites of the wilderness wanderings.

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  • David-Just a boy, David defeated the giant Goliath during a battle in the war between the Israelites and Philistines.

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