Isomeric Sentence Examples
The researches of Liebig (1823), Liebig and Gay-Lussac (1824), and of Liebig again in 1838 showed the acid to be isomeric with cyanic acid, and probably (Hcno) 2, since it gave mixed and acid salts.
By passing the vapour of this compound through a red-hot tube, it yields the isomeric a0- pyridylpyrrol, the potassium salt of which with methyl iodide gives a substance methylated both in the pyridine and pyrrol nuclei.
The principal elements are found in various combinations, the hydrocarbons of the Pennsylvania oils being mainly paraffins (q.v.), while those of Caucasian petroleum belong for the most part to the naphthenes, isomeric with the olefines (q.v.).
These three hydrocarbons are isomeric, i.e.
Starting with the three isomeric compounds, he found that one gave two tribrombenzenes, another gave three, while the third gave only one.
He assumed that if we have one atom 1 It is now established that ortho compounds do exist in isomeric forms, instances being provided by chlor-, brom-, and amino-toluene, chlorphenol, and chloraniline; but arguments, e.g.
These isomeric hydrocarbons, of the formula C14H10, are to be regarded as formed by the fusion of three.
Obviously, isomeric ring-systems are possible, since the carbon atoms in the original rings are not all of equal value.
He has also shown that the nitrophenols yield, in addition to the colourless true nitrophenol ethers, an isomeric series of coloured unstable quinonoid aci-ethers, which have practically the same colour and yield the same absorption spectra as the coloured metallic salts.
When boiled with calcium chloride and ammonia, salicylic acid gives a precipitate of insoluble basic calcium salicylate, C 6 H 4 ‹ 0 2 i Ca, a reaction which serves to distinguish it from the isomeric metaand para-hydroxybenzoic acids.Advertisement
It behaves as a powerful reducing agent, and on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids is decomposed into formaldehyde and hydroxylamine, together with some formic acid and ammonia, the amount of each product formed varying with temperature, time of reaction, amount of water present, &c. This latter reaction is probably due to some of the oxime existing in the form of the isomeric formamide HCO NH 2.
When methyl iodide is used, nitromethane is the sole product, but the higher homologues give more or less of the isomeric nitrous esters.
The nitro compounds are colourless, somewhat pleasant smelling liquids, which distil without decomposition and possess boiling points much higher than those of the isomeric nitrous esters.
Phenylnitromethane, C 6 H 5 CH 2 NO 2, isomeric with the nitrotoluenes, is prepared by the action of benzyl chloride on silver nitrite.
These compounds may be considered as 5-triazolones, a series of isomeric 3-triazolones resulting from the condensation of phenylsemicarbazide with aromatic aldehydes in the presence of an oxidant.Advertisement
Will (Ber., 1908, 7, p. 407), who obtained two isomeric dinitroglycerins, one of which is eminently crystallizable and the other fluid.
To settle this point it is necessary to consider the configuration of the isomeric pentoses - arabinose and xylosefrom which they may be prepared.
When xylose is combined with hydrocyanic acid and the cyanide is hydrolysed, together with l-gulonic acid, a second isomeric acid, l-idonic acid, is produced, which on reduction yields the hexaldose l-idose.
The three isomeric cresols are found in the tar obtained in the destructive distillation of coal, beech-wood and pine.
On the isomeric potassium sodium sulphites see Sulphur.Advertisement
Hantzsch (Ber., 18 9 6, 2 9, p. 947 1898, 31, p. 1253) has shown that the chlorand bromdiazoniumthiocyanates, when dissolved in alcohol containing a trace of hydrochloric acid, become converted into the isomeric thiocyanbenzene diazonium chlorides and bromides.
Concentrated acids convert them into the isomeric nitro-amines, the - NO 2 group going into the nucleus in the orthoor paraposition to the amine nitrogen; this appears to indicate that the compounds are nitramines.
The constitution of the isomeric diazo hydroxides has given rise to much discussion.
According to Hantzsch the isomeric diazo hydroxides are structurally identical, and the differences in behaviour are due to stereo-chemica l relations, the isomerism being comparable with that of the oximes.
Similar results have been obtained by using diazotized para-anisidine, a synand an anticompound being formed, as well as a third isomeric cyanide, obtained by evaporating para-methoxybenzenediazonium hydroxide in the presence of an excess of hydrocyanic acid at ordinary temperatures.Advertisement
The isolation of these compounds is a powerful argument in favour of the Hantzsch hypothesis which requires the existence of these three different types, whilst the Bamberger-Blomstrand view only accounts for the forma tion of two isomeric cyanides, namely, one of the normal diazonium type and one of the iso-diazocyanide type.
They are readily converted into the isomeric aminoazo compounds, either by standing in alcoholic solution, or by warming with a mixture of the parent base and its hydrochloride;.
Consequently, of each pair of isomers we may establish beforehand which is the more stable; either in particular circumstances, a direct change taking place, as, for instance, with maleic acid, which when exposed to sunlight in presence of a trace of bromine, yields the isomeric fumaric acid almost at once, or, indirectly, one may conclude that the isomer which forms under greater heat-development is the more stable, at least at lower temperatures.
Similarly, pentane, C 5 H 12, and hexane, C6H14, may exist in three and five theoretically isomeric forms respectively; confirmation of this theory is supplied by the fact that all these compounds have been obtained, but no more.
And so, as a rule, from isomeric alcohols, those containing a group - CH 2.0H, yield by oxidation aldehydes and are distinguished by the name primary; whereas those containing CH OH, called secondary, produce ketones.
In this equation a relates to molecular attraction; and it is not improbable that in isomeric molecules, containing in sum the same amount of the same atoms, those mutual attractions are approximately the same, whereas the chief difference lies in the value of b, that is, the volume occupied by the molecule itself.
It may be distinguished from the isomeric ethylene succinic acid by the fact that its sodium salt does not give a precipitate with ferric chloride.
It does not form a precipitate with lead acetate solution, as the isomeric pyrocatechin does.
This is illustrated by the hexagonal pyrargyrite 3Ag 2 S Sb 2 S 3, and proustite, 3Ag 2 S As2S3, and the monoclinic pyrostilpnite, isomeric with pyrargyrite, and xanthoconite, isomeric with proustite.
The most important constituents of the "unsaponifiable matter" are phytosterol C26H440 or C 27 H 44 0(?), and the isomeric cholesterol.
This curious behaviour was looked upon by Duffy as being due to the existence of two isomeric modifications, the actual occurrence of which has been proved (1907) in the case of several mixed glycerides.
For simple organic molecules, including alkanes, alkenes and cycloalkanes, construct appropriate isomeric forms, given a molecular formula 11.
It does not combine with hydroxylamine, as does the isomeric phloroglucin which yields a trioxime(see Polymethy1.Enes).'
Acetyl and benzoyl derivatives of nicotine on hydrolysis do not yield nicotine, but an isomeric, inactive oily liquid (metanicotine).
Four isomeric alcohols of this formula are known; two of these are primary, one secondary, and one tertiary (see Alcohols).