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ismail

ismail Sentence Examples

  • His fatal optimism rendered him largely responsible for the collapse of Egyptian credit which brought about the fall of Ismail.

  • IZMAIL, or Ismail, a town of Russia, in the government of Bessarabia, on the left bank of the Kilia branch of the Danube, 35 m.

  • In1874-1875the ambition of Ismail Pasha, khedive of Egypt, who claimed jurisdiction over the whole coast as far as Cape Guardafui, led him to occupy the ports of Tajura, Berbera and Bulhar as well as Harrar in the hinterland.

  • Ismail also obtained (July 1875) a firman from the sultan of Turkey making over Zaila to Egypt in return for an increase of £15,000 yearly to the tribute paid to the Porte.

  • The khedive Ismail in 1869 appointed Sir Samuel Baker to the command of a large force with which he was " to strike a direct blow at the slave trade in its distant nest."

  • Much favoured by the earlier viceroys of Mehemet Ali's house, and removed from the Mameluke troubles, Alexandria was the real capital of Egypt till Said Pasha died there in 1863 and Ismail came into power.

  • Meanwhile in Asia also the Ottoman Empire had been consolidated and extended; but from 1501 onwards the ambitious designs of the youthful Shah Ismail in Persia grew more and more threatening to its security; and though Bayezid, intent on peace, winked at his violations of Ottoman territory and exchanged friendly embassies with him, a breach was sooner or later inevitable.

  • The viceroy of Egypt, Ismail Pasha, followed his suzerain's example in this respect, and was lavish in his bribes to his imperial overlord to obtain the extension of his own privileges and the establishment in Egypt of succession from father to son; these concessions were granted to him by the firmans of the 27th of May 1866 and the 8th of June 1867, in the latter of which the viceroy is addressed for the first time as " khedive."

  • In May 1879 the misgovernment of Ismail Pasha and the resulting financial crisis rendered the deposition of the khedive inevitable; in order to anticipate the action of England and France, who would otherwise have expelled the erring viceroy, the sultan deposed him himself; the succession devolved upon his son Mahommed Tewfik Pasha.

  • He and his descendants reigned in Bagdad until Shah Ismail I., the founder of the Safawid royal house of Persia, made himself master of the place (c. 1502 or 1508).

  • In 1505 the city was occupied by the Uzbegs, who five years later were expelled by Ismail Khan, the founder of the Safawid dynasty of Persia.

  • On the side of Persia too, where the decisive battle of Shurur (1502) had raised to power Ismail, the first of the modern line of shahs, danger threatened the sultan, and the latter years of his reign were troubled by the spread, under the influence of the new Persian power, of the Shiite doctrine in Kurdistan and Asia Minor.

  • Together with the two other deras (settlements), Dera Ismail Khan and Dera Fateh Khan, it gave its name to the territorial area locally and historically known as Derajat, which after many vicissitudes came into the possession of the British after the Sikh War, in 1849, and was divided into the two districts of Dera Ghazi Khan and Dera Ismail Khan.

  • Dera Ismail Khan >>

  • KHEDIVE, a Persian word meaning prince or sovereign, granted as a title by the sultan of Turkey in 1867 to his viceroy in Egypt, Ismail, in place of that of "vali."

  • The cis-Indus portions of Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan now comprises the new Punjab district of Mianwali.

  • A military road leads from Bannu town towards Dera Ismail Khan.

  • In the 10th century it suffered severely, being repeatedly pillaged in the wars of the Fatimite caliphs Al-Qaim and Abu Tahir Ismail el Mansur with the Sunnite leader Abu Yazid and the Zenata Berbers.

  • GOMAL, or Gumal, the name of a river of Afghanistan, and of a mountain pass on the Dera Ismail Khan border of the NorthWest Frontier Province of British India.

  • It connects Dera Ismail Khan with the Gomal valley in Afghanistan, and has formed for centuries the outlet for the povindah trade.

  • Two years later, his father Sabuktagin died in the neighbourhood of Balkh, having declared his second son, Ismail, who was then with him, to be his successor.

  • As soon as Ismail had assumed the sovereignty at Balkh, Mahmud, who was at Nishapur, addressed him in friendly terms, proposing a division of the territories held by their father at his death.

  • Ismail rejected the proposal, and was immediately attacked by Mahmud and defeated.

  • This work was afterwards extended by Struve and General Tenner into a measurement of a meridional arc from the north coast of Norway to Ismail on the Danube (Arc du meridien de 25° 20' entre le Danube et la Mer Glaciale, 2 vols.

  • In 1870 it was claimed by the khedive Ismail, but was not permanently occupied by Egypt until 1875.

  • More exactly it consists of (1) the cis-Indus district of Hazara; (2) the comparatively narrow strip between the Indus and the hills constituting the settled districts of Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan; and (3) the rugged mountainous region between these districts and the borders of Afghanistan, which is inhabited by independent tribes.

  • The tract between the Indus and the hills consists of four open districts, Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan, divided one from the other by low hills.

  • These hills consist of a broken range of sandstone and conglomerate dividing the Bannu plain from the cultivated flats of Dera Ismail Khan.

  • South of the Gomal the Suliman Range culminates in the famous Takht-iSuliman in the Largha Sherani country, a political dependency of Dera Ismail Khan district.

  • The Salt Range crosses the Indus in the Mianwali tahsil of the Punjab, and forms the boundary between Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan, merging eventually in the Waziri hills.

  • The invasion in 1738 of Nadir Shah, who traversed the province from Peshawar to Dera Ismail Khan, is a landmark in the history of the frontier.

  • The military cantonments and posts in Malakand, Dir, Swat and Chitral were also enumerated, as were those in the Tochi Valley (the Northern Waziristan Agency) and in the Gomal (the Southern Waziristan Agency), the former figures being included in the census returns of Bannu district, and those of the latter in the returns of Dera Ismail Khan.

  • There are no large industries to attract the population to the towns; these, except Peshawar and Dera Ismail Khan, are either expansions of large agricultural villages or bazaars which have grown up round the many cantonments of the province.

  • The province is mainly a mountainous region, but includes the Peshawar valley and the broad riverain tract of the Indus in Dera Ismail Khan district.

  • Dera Ismail Khan district is one of the hottest areas in the Indian continent, while over the mountain region to the north the weather is temperate in the summer and intensely cold in the winter.

  • In 1858 he accepted the position of conservator of Egyptian monuments to the ex-khedive, Ismail Pasha, and removed with his family to Cairo.

  • This lease lapsed with the pasha's death, but in 1865 Ismail Pasha reacquired the port for Egypt.

  • When these operations were begun a project for linking Suakin to Berber by railway, first proposed during Ismail's viceroyalty, was revived and a few miles of rails were laid in 1884.

  • In 1662 as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza on her marriage to Charles II., it came into the possession of the English, and they defended it against Mulai Ismail in 1680, but in 1684 it was decided, on account of expense, to abandon the place to the Moors.

  • Another source of revenue was afforded by Ismail Pasha, the khedive of Egypt, who paid heavily in bakshish for the firman of 1866, by which the succession to the khedivate was made hereditary from father to son in direct line and in order of primogeniture, as well as for the subsequent firmans of 1867, 1869 and 1872 extending the khedive's prerogatives.

  • Six children survived him: Prince Yussuf Izz-ed-din, born 1857; Princess Saliha, wife of Kurd Ismail Pasha; Princess Nazime, wife of Khalid Pasha; Prince Abd-ul-Mejid, born 1869; Prince Seif-ed-din, born 1876; Princess Emine, wife of Mahommed Bey; Prince Shefket, born 1872, died 1899.

  • To the Peshin valley the distance is about fro m., and from Peshin to India the three principal routes measure approximately as follows: by the Zhob valley to Dera Ismail Khan, 300 m.; by the Bori valley to Dera Ghazi Khan, 275 m.; by Quetta and the Bolan to Dadar, 125 m.; and by Chappar and Nari to Sibi, 120 m.

  • Between this and the direct route to Peshin is a road which leads through Maruf to the Kundar river and the Guleri pass into the plains of Hindustan at Dera Ismail Khan.

  • Having entered the army as a conscript he was made an officer by Said Pasha in 1862, and was employed in the transport department in the Abyssinian campaign of 1875 under Ismail Pasha.

  • In 1878 he was employed by Ismail in fomenting a disturbance against the ministry of Nubar, Rivers Wilson and de Blignieres, and received in payment a wife from Ismail's harem and the command of a regiment.

  • The first exception in Upper Egypt to the basin system of irrigation was due to the Khedive Ismail.

  • When the Egyptians invaded the Sudan in 1820 Shendi, then a place of considerable size, submitted to Ismail Pasha, son of Mehemet Ali, the pasha of Egypt.

  • In 1822, however, Ismail and his chief followers were treacherously burnt to death at Shendi by order of the mek (ruler) of the town, in revenge for the cruelties committed by the Egyptians.

  • In Bulak are several factories founded by Mehemet Ali for spinning, weaving and printing cotton, and a paper-mill established by the khedive Ismail in 1870.

  • Under Mehemet and his successors all the western part of the city has grown up. The khedive Ismail, in making the straight road from the citadel to the Ezbekia gardens, destroyed many of the finest houses of the old town.

  • The important part which the financial arrangements have played in the political and social history of Egypt since the accession of Ismail Pasha in 1863 is shown in the section History of this article.

  • With the accession of Ismail (q.v.) there followed a period of wild extravagance and reckless borrowing accompanied by the extortion of every piastre possible from the fellahin.

  • The settlement of 1880 was effected on the basis of the proposals made by this commission, and was embodied in the Law of Liquidation of July 1880after the deposition of Ismail.

  • For the purposes of the new settlement the loans raised by Ismail on his private estates, those known as the Daira (i.e.

  • The right to raise loans had been granted to the khedive Ismail in 1873, but was taken away in 1879 by the firman appointing Tewfik khedive.

  • The next viceroy, Said, began as an ardent soldier, but took to agriculture, and at his death (1863) 3000 men only were retained under arms. Ismail, on succeeding, immediately added 27,000 men, and in seven years was able to put 100,000 men, well equipped, in the field.

  • Ismail had collected 500 field-guns, 200 Armstrong cannon., and had created factories of warlike and other stores.

  • C. P. Stone zealously served Ismail, had entirely failed to overcomeEgyptian venality and intrigue; and in spite of the military schools, with a ~omprdhens1ve syllabus, the only perceptible difference between the Egyptian officer and private in 1879 consisted, according to one of the Americans, in the fact that the first was the product of the harem, and the second of the field.

  • 1805) obtained from the Porte in 1841 the right to bequeath the sovereignty to his descendants, one of whom, Ismail Pasha, received the title Khedive, which is still held by Mehemet Alis descendants.

  • Ismail b.

  • His son A bul-Man pllr Ismail, who was seventeen years old at the time of IJafi~s death, succeeded him with the title al-Zd/ir liad allah.

  • At his death (May 8th, 1238) at Damascus, his son Abfl Bakr was appointed to succeed with the title Malik al-AdilSaif al-din; but his elder brother Malik al-Salil~t Najm al-dIn Ayyub, having got possession of Damascus, immediately started for Egypt, with the view of adding that country to his dominions: meanwhile his uncle Ismail, prince of Hamath, with the prince of Horns, seized Damascus, upon hearing which the troops of Najm al-din deserted him at Nablus, when he fell into the hands of Malik al-N~ir, prince of Kerak, who carried him off to that city and kept him a prisoner there for a time; after which he was released and allowed to return to Nablus.

  • After a brief sojourn in Cairo he speedily returned thither, thereby forfeiting his throne, which was conferred by the amirs on his brother Ismail al-Malik alSalili (June 27th, 1342).

  • Kgnsuh was charged ~ by Selim with giving the envoys of the Safawid Ismail passage through Syria on their way to Venice to form a confederacy against the Turks, and with harbouring various refugees.

  • At the end of that time Qasim Iyw~z was killed and the office which he had held was given to his son IsmaIl.

  • Ismail held this office for sixteen years, while the pashas were constantly being changed, and succeeded in reconciling the two factions of Mamelukes.

  • An officer named IsmaIl Bey was sent with 8000 to acquire the eastern shore of the Red Sea, and one named Ilasan Bey to occupy Jidda.

  • Ismail Bey was sent by All Bey with a force of 3000 to check his advance; but at Bastin Ismil with his troops joined AbulDhahab.

  • Ismll Bey now became Sheik al-B alad, but was soon involved in a dispute with Ibrhim and Murad, who after a time succeeded in driving IsmaIl out of Egypt and establishing a joint rule (as Sheik al-B alad and Amir al-I.Ijj respectively) similar to that which had been tried previously.

  • On the 1st of August 1782 the Turkish commander entered Cairo, and, after some violent measures had been taken for the restoration of order, Ismail Bey was again.

  • In January 1791 a terrible plague began to rage in Cairo and elsewhere in Egypt, to which Ismail Bey and most of his family fell victims. Owing to the need for competent rulers IbrghIm and Murad Bey were sent for from Upper Egypt and resumed their dual government.

  • As their numbers thinned, they endeavoured to maintain their little power by training some hundreds of blacks; but again, on the approach of Ismail, another son of the pasha of Egypt, sent with an army in 1820 to subdue Nubia and Sennar, some returned to Egypt and settled in Cairo, while the rest, amounting to about 100 persons, fled in dispersed parties to the countries adjacent to Senngr.

  • The forces destined for this service were led by Ismail, then the youngest son of Mehemet Ali; they consisted of between 4000 and 5000 men, Turks and Arabs, and left Cairo in July 1820.

  • In October 1822 Ismail was, with his retinue, burnt to death by Nimr, the mek (king) of Shendi; and the defterdr, a man infamous for his cruelty, assumed the command of those provinces, and exacted terrible retribution from the innocent inhabitants.

  • Tusun, Ismail, (iv.) Said, Abdul Halim, Mehemet Ali, b.

  • ,) Ismail (Khedive), Mustap~ia Fazil, b.

  • In January 1863 Said Pasha died and was succeeded by his nephew Ismail, a son of Ibrahim Pasha.

  • The reign of Ismail (q.v.), from 1863 to 1879, was for a while hailed as introducing a new era into modern Egypt.

  • Yet in its earlier years much was done which seemed likely to give Ismail a more important place in history.

  • Ismail re-established and improved the administrative system organized by Mehemet Au, and which had fallen into decay under Abbass indolent rule; he caused a thorough remodelling of the customs system, which was in an anarchic state, to be made by English officials; in 1865 he established the Egyptian post office; he reorganized the military schools of his grandfather, and gave some support to the cause of education.

  • In 1875 the 1ea~jflgto impoverishment of the fellah had reached such a ~he depoint that the ordinary resources of the country no Pofo~.kmo:I, longer sufficed for the most urgent necessities of administration; and the khedive Ismail, having repeatedly broken faith with his creditors, could not raise any more loans on the European market.

  • Other commissions of inquiry followed, and each one brought Ismail more under European control.

  • Driven to desperation, Ismail made a virtue of necessity and accepted, in September 1878, in lieu of the Dual Control, a constitutional ministry, under the presidency of Nubar Pasha (qv.), with Rivers Wilson as minister of finance and de Blignires as minister of public works.

  • On the 26th of June 1879 Ismail suddenly received from the sultan a curt telegram, addressed to him as ex-khedive of Egypt, informing him that his son Tewfik was appointed his successor.

  • passive resistance; but it contained a military element who had more courage, and who had learned their power when Ismail employed them for overturning his constitutional ministry.

  • B&~ing At that moment the situation was singularly like that appointed which had existed on two previous occasions: firstly, consulwhen Ismail was deposed; and secondly, when the Dual Control had undermined the existing authority without having any power to enforce its own.

  • C. McCoan, Egypt under Ismail (London, 1899); P. Mouriez, Hisloire de MhmetAU (4 vols., Paris, 1855-1858); L.

  • On the 26th of June01 that year Ismail Pasha was removed from Egypt, and Tewfik assumed the khediviate, becoming practically the protg of the two western powers.

  • It was laid out in 1863, in connexion with the construction of the canal, and is named after the khedive Ismail.

  • An ad j acent opening, the Khyber Pass, the Kurram Pass to the south of it, the Gomal Pass near Dera Ismail Khan, the Tochi Pass between the two last-named, and the famous Bolan Pass still farther south, furnish the gateways between India and Afghanistan.

  • In 1865 Massawa and the neighbouring coast was acquired by Egypt, the khedive Ismail entertaining projects for connecting the port by railway with the Nile.

  • After having formed part of the possessions of the Seljuks, Mongols, Tatars and Persians, Van passed in 1514, after the defeat of Shah Ismail by Selim I.

  • With the Mahommedan conquest of Persia and the fall of the Sassanians the title was abolished; it was in use for a short time during the ioth Century, having been granted to Shah Ismail Samani by the Caliph Motadid A.D, 900; it appeared again on coins of Nadir Shah, 1736-1747, and was assumed by the present dynasty, the Kajars, in 1799.

  • Yakubs brother Amr (reigned 878900) received the vacant position, but was taken prisoner by Ismail b.

  • His son and successor Mahmud (qv.) was attacked by a brother, Ismail, and retired from Khorasan (of which he had been governor).

  • It is difficult to assign dates to a few events recorded in Persian history for the eighteen years following the death of Abd ulLatif; and, were it not for chance European missions, the same difficulty would be felt in dealing with the period after the death of Abu Said up to the accession of Ismail Sufi in 1499.

  • At last a youth named Alamut, aged fourteen years, was raised to the throne, which he held till the succession of Sheikh Ismail.

  • This event brings us to one of the most interesting periods of Persian history, any account of which must be defective without a prefatory sketch of Ismail Sufi.

  • So great was the influence of Sheikh Haidar, and so earnestly did he carry out the principles of conduct which had characterized his family for five generations, that his name has become, as it were, inseparable from the dynasty of his son Ismail; and the term Haidari (leonine) is applied by many persons to indicate generally the Safawids of Persia.

  • One of the sons here alluded to was Ismail, whom Malcolm makes to have been only seven years of age when he fled to Gilan in 1492.

  • The life of the young Sufi from this period to his assumption of royalty in 1499 was full of stirring adventure; and his career as Ismail I.

  • Ismail lost no time in moving against him, and won a new victory on the plains of Tabriz.

  • Ismail returned again to Tabriz (1501) and caused great rejoicings to be made on account of his victory.

  • Another tribe, the Afshar, insisted on the succession of the fourth son, Ismail.

  • Finally Ismail, profiting from his brothers weak character and the intrigues set on foot against him, obtained his object, and was brought from a prison to receive the crown.

  • The reign of Ismail II.

  • a peace was signed restoring to Persia the boundaries which she had obtained under the first Ismail.

  • Ismail, Tahmasp and Abbas, whatever their faults and failings, were Persian and peculiar to Persians.

  • But such usurpation at the old Safawid capital would have been too flagrant an act for general assent; so he put forward Ismail, a nephew of Shah Ilusain, as the representative of sovereignty, and himself as one of his two ministersthe other being Karim Khan, a chief of the Zend Kurds.

  • Shah Ismail, it need scarcely be said, possessed no real authority; but the ministers were strong men in their way, and the Zend especially had many high and excellent qualities.

  • 1521; 927 A.H.) with his Timurnama; the stormy epoch of the first Safawid rulers, who succeeded at last in reuniting for some time the various provinces of the old Persian realm into one great monarchy, furnished T~Iasimi (died after 1560; 967 A.H.) with the materials of his Shahnma, a poetical history of Shah IsmaIl and Shah Tahmasp. Another Sha/inama, celebrating Shah Abbas the Great, was written by Kamali of Sabzevar; and even the cruelties of Nadir Shah were duly chronicled in a pompous epic style in Ishratis SM/mama-i- Ndir (i~49; 1162 A.H.).

  • DERA ISMAIL KHAN, a town and district in the Derajat division of the North-West Frontier Province of India.

  • It takes its name from Ismail Khan, a Baluch chief who settled here towards the end of the 15th century, and whose descendants ruled for 300 years.

  • The District Of Dera Ismail Khan contains an area of 3403 sq.

  • The cis-Indus portions of the Dera Ismail Khan and Bannu districts now comprise the new Punjab district of Mianiwali.

  • President Pando and his successor, Ismail Montes, who became president in 1904, saw that it was necessary to yield, and to make the best terms they could.

  • He died in 1511 (Goa had been taken by the Portuguese a few months before), and was succeeded by his son Ismail, who reigned prosperously till 1534.

  • SULIMAN HILLS, a mountain system on the Dera Ismail Khan border of the north-west frontier of India.

  • It may be seen on the western horizon from Dera Ismail Khan, a grey, flat-looking rampart rising from the lower line of mountains north and south 'of it, slightly saddle-backed in the middle, but culminating in a very well-defined peak at its northern extremity.

  • The range commences in Jhelum district in the lofty hill of Chel (3701 ft.), on the right bank of the river Jhelum, traverses Shahpur district, crosses the Indus in Mianwali district, thence a southern branch forms the boundary between Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan until it finally merges in the Waziristan system of mountains.

  • Little is known of his early life save that until the accession of Ismail Pasha to the vice-royalty of Egypt in 1863 he occupied a humble position.

  • Ismail, recognizing in this obscure individual a capacity for hard work and a strong will, made him one of his ministers, to find, to his chagrin, that Riaz was also an honest man possessed of a remarkable independence of character.

  • When Ismail's financial straits compelled him to agree to a commission of inquiry Riaz was the only Egyptian of known honesty sufficiently intelligent and patriotic to be named as a vice-president of the commission.

  • He filled this office with distinction, but not to the liking of Ismail.

  • When Ismail dismissed the cabinet and attempted to resume autocratic rule, Riaz had to flee the country.

  • Upon the deposition of Ismail, June 1879, Riaz was sent for by the British and French controllers, and he formed the first ministry under the khedive Tewfik.

  • Ismail Pasha had some very drastic methods of dealing with those who did not bow before him.

  • Inside the city are the famous sepulchres and shrines of Shaikh Safi ud-din and his descendant Shah Ismail I.

  • Mequinez at a distance appears a city of palaces, but it possesses few buildings of any note except the palace and the mosque of Mulai Ismail, which serves as the royal burying-place.

  • For eight years from 1871 he acted as general engineering adviser in Egypt to the Khedive Ismail.

  • Ismail Agha Shekak, better known as Simko, living between Van and Urmia, murdered the patriarch of the Nestorians, who fled to Persian territory and called upon the Russians to avenge the murder.

  • The town has been several times unsuccessfully besieged by the Moors - one siege, under Mulai Ismail, lasting twenty-six years (1694-1720).

  • In 1846 Mazuranic published his Smrt Smail Aga Cengiea ("Death of Ismail Aga Cengic"), called by Serbo-Croats the "Epos of Hate."

  • to the Ismail Chatal (or fork), where it breaks up into the several branches of the delta.

  • The Kilia branch from this point flows to the north-east past the towns of Ismail and Kilia, and 17 m.

  • The Tulcea branch flows south-east from the Ismail Chatal, and 7 m.

  • Mehemet Ali gave the command of the army sent to Nubia to his son Ismail, who at the head of some 4000 men left Wadi Halfa in October 1820.

  • Ismail had two sharp encounters, one near Korti, the other higher up the river, and in both fights Ismail was successful.

  • Ismail remained in the Dongola province till February 1821, when he crossed the Bayuda Desert and received the submission of the meks (kings) of Berber, Shendi and Halfaya, nominal vassals of the king of Sennar.

  • Continuing his march south Ismail reached the confluence of the White and Blue Niles and established a camp at Ras Khartum.

  • (This camp developed into the city of Khartum.) At this time Badi, the king of Sennar, from whom all real power had been wrested by his leading councillors, determined to submit to the Egyptians, and as Ismail advanced up the Blue Nile he was met at Wad Medani by Badi who declared that he recognized Mehemet Ali as master of his kingdom.

  • Ismail and Badi entered the town of Sennar together on the 12th of June 1821, and in this peaceable manner the Egyptians became rulers of the ancient empire of the Funj.

  • In search of the gold-mines reported to exist farther south Ismail penetrated into the mountainous region of Fazokl, where the negroes offered a stout resistance.

  • Of the rulers who had submitted to Ismail, Nair Mimr, the mek of Shendi, had been compelled to follow in the suite of the Egyptians as a sort of hostage, and this man entertained deep hatred of the pasha.

  • On Ismail's return to Shendi, October 1822, he demanded of the mek r000 slaves to be supplied in two days.

  • The mek, promising compliance, invited Ismail and his chief officers to a feast in his house, around which he had piled heaps of straw.

  • Whilst the Egyptians were feasting the mek set fire to the straw and Ismail and all his companions were burnt to death.

  • Ismail's death was speedily avenged.

  • A second Egyptian army, also about 4000 strong, had followed that of Ismail's up the Nile, and striking south-west from Debba had wrested, after a sharp campaign, the province of Kordofan (1821) from the sultan of Darfur.

  • Hearing of Ismail's murder the Defterdar marched to Shendi, defeated the forces of the mek, and took terrible revenge upon the inhabitants of Metemma and Shendi, most of the inhabitants, including women and children, being burnt alive.

  • Ismail Pasha, who became viceroy of Egypt in 1863, gave orders for the suppression of the slave trade, and to check the operations of the Arab traders a military force was stationed at Fashoda (1865), this being the most southerly point then held by the Egyptians.

  • Ismail's efforts to put an end to the slave trade, if sincere, were ineffective, and, moreover, south of Kordofan the authority of the government did not extend beyond the posts occupied by their troops.

  • Ismail, however, was ambitious to extend his dominions and to develop the Sudan on the lines he had conceived for the development of Egypt.

  • Ismail subsequently (1870-1875) extended his sway over the whole coast from Suez to Cape Guardafui and garrisoned the towns of Berbera, Zaila, &c., while in 1874 the important town of Harrar, the entrepot for southern Abyssinia, was seized by Egyptian troops.

  • At the same time that Ismail annexed the seaboard he was extending his sway along the Nile valley to the equatorial lakes, and conceived the idea of annexing all the country between the Nile and the Indian Ocean.

  • The khedive Ismail revived Said's project of a railway, and a survey for a line from Wadi Halfa to Khartum was made (1871), while a branch line to Massawa was also contemplated.

  • He replaced at Khartum Ismail Pasha Eyoub, a Turk made governor-general in 1873, who had thwarted as much as he dared all Gordon's efforts to reform.

  • The Pathans of the Indian borderland inhabit the mountainous country on the Punjab frontier, stretching northwards from a line drawn roughly across the southern border of the Dera Ismail Khan district.

  • Public opinion was considerably moved, and in 1869 the khedive Ismail decided to send an expedition up the White Nile, with the double object of limiting the evils of the slave trade and opening up the district to commerce.

  • Ismail Pasha, feeling, no doubt, that Gordon's resignation would injure his prestige, wrote to him saying that he had promised to return, and that he expected him to keep his word.

  • He reached Cairo in March, and was at once appointed by Ismail as president of a commission of inquiry into the finances, on the understanding that the European commissioners of the debt, who were the representatives of the bondholders, and whom Ismail regarded as interested parties, should not be members of the commission.

  • The attempt of the latter to utilize Gordon as a counterpoise to the European financiers having failed, Ismail fell into the hands of his creditors, and was deposed by the sultan in the following year in favour of his son Tewfik.

  • SHERIF PASHA (1818-1887), Egyptian statesman, was a Circassian who filled numerous administrative posts under Said and Ismail pashas.

  • As minister of foreign affairs he was useful to Ismail, who used Sherif's bluff bonhomie to veil many of his most insidious proposals.

  • His fatal optimism rendered him largely responsible for the collapse of Egyptian credit which brought about the fall of Ismail.

  • On the 25th of April 1859 the first blow of the pickaxe was given by Lesseps at Port Said, and on the 17th of November 1869 the canal was officially opened by the Khedive, Ismail Pacha (see Suez Canal).

  • In 1349 a great part of Maimand and of three little villages belonging to it became wakf (pious endowment) of the shrine at Shiraz of Mir Ahmed, surnamed Shah Chiragh, a son of Musa Kazim, the seventh imam of the Shiahs, and the remainder of the Maimand grounds was given to the shrine by Mir Habbib Ullah Sharifi and by Shah Ismail in 1504; the administration of the Maimand property as well as the guardianship of the shrine is still with the descendants of Mir Habbib Ullah.

  • IZMAIL, or Ismail, a town of Russia, in the government of Bessarabia, on the left bank of the Kilia branch of the Danube, 35 m.

  • In1874-1875the ambition of Ismail Pasha, khedive of Egypt, who claimed jurisdiction over the whole coast as far as Cape Guardafui, led him to occupy the ports of Tajura, Berbera and Bulhar as well as Harrar in the hinterland.

  • Ismail also obtained (July 1875) a firman from the sultan of Turkey making over Zaila to Egypt in return for an increase of £15,000 yearly to the tribute paid to the Porte.

  • The khedive Ismail in 1869 appointed Sir Samuel Baker to the command of a large force with which he was " to strike a direct blow at the slave trade in its distant nest."

  • Much favoured by the earlier viceroys of Mehemet Ali's house, and removed from the Mameluke troubles, Alexandria was the real capital of Egypt till Said Pasha died there in 1863 and Ismail came into power.

  • Meanwhile in Asia also the Ottoman Empire had been consolidated and extended; but from 1501 onwards the ambitious designs of the youthful Shah Ismail in Persia grew more and more threatening to its security; and though Bayezid, intent on peace, winked at his violations of Ottoman territory and exchanged friendly embassies with him, a breach was sooner or later inevitable.

  • The viceroy of Egypt, Ismail Pasha, followed his suzerain's example in this respect, and was lavish in his bribes to his imperial overlord to obtain the extension of his own privileges and the establishment in Egypt of succession from father to son; these concessions were granted to him by the firmans of the 27th of May 1866 and the 8th of June 1867, in the latter of which the viceroy is addressed for the first time as " khedive."

  • In May 1879 the misgovernment of Ismail Pasha and the resulting financial crisis rendered the deposition of the khedive inevitable; in order to anticipate the action of England and France, who would otherwise have expelled the erring viceroy, the sultan deposed him himself; the succession devolved upon his son Mahommed Tewfik Pasha.

  • He and his descendants reigned in Bagdad until Shah Ismail I., the founder of the Safawid royal house of Persia, made himself master of the place (c. 1502 or 1508).

  • In 1505 the city was occupied by the Uzbegs, who five years later were expelled by Ismail Khan, the founder of the Safawid dynasty of Persia.

  • On the side of Persia too, where the decisive battle of Shurur (1502) had raised to power Ismail, the first of the modern line of shahs, danger threatened the sultan, and the latter years of his reign were troubled by the spread, under the influence of the new Persian power, of the Shiite doctrine in Kurdistan and Asia Minor.

  • Together with the two other deras (settlements), Dera Ismail Khan and Dera Fateh Khan, it gave its name to the territorial area locally and historically known as Derajat, which after many vicissitudes came into the possession of the British after the Sikh War, in 1849, and was divided into the two districts of Dera Ghazi Khan and Dera Ismail Khan.

  • Dera Ismail Khan >>

  • KHEDIVE, a Persian word meaning prince or sovereign, granted as a title by the sultan of Turkey in 1867 to his viceroy in Egypt, Ismail, in place of that of "vali."

  • The cis-Indus portions of Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan now comprises the new Punjab district of Mianwali.

  • A military road leads from Bannu town towards Dera Ismail Khan.

  • In the 10th century it suffered severely, being repeatedly pillaged in the wars of the Fatimite caliphs Al-Qaim and Abu Tahir Ismail el Mansur with the Sunnite leader Abu Yazid and the Zenata Berbers.

  • GOMAL, or Gumal, the name of a river of Afghanistan, and of a mountain pass on the Dera Ismail Khan border of the NorthWest Frontier Province of British India.

  • It connects Dera Ismail Khan with the Gomal valley in Afghanistan, and has formed for centuries the outlet for the povindah trade.

  • Two years later, his father Sabuktagin died in the neighbourhood of Balkh, having declared his second son, Ismail, who was then with him, to be his successor.

  • As soon as Ismail had assumed the sovereignty at Balkh, Mahmud, who was at Nishapur, addressed him in friendly terms, proposing a division of the territories held by their father at his death.

  • Ismail rejected the proposal, and was immediately attacked by Mahmud and defeated.

  • This work was afterwards extended by Struve and General Tenner into a measurement of a meridional arc from the north coast of Norway to Ismail on the Danube (Arc du meridien de 25° 20' entre le Danube et la Mer Glaciale, 2 vols.

  • In 1870 it was claimed by the khedive Ismail, but was not permanently occupied by Egypt until 1875.

  • More exactly it consists of (1) the cis-Indus district of Hazara; (2) the comparatively narrow strip between the Indus and the hills constituting the settled districts of Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan; and (3) the rugged mountainous region between these districts and the borders of Afghanistan, which is inhabited by independent tribes.

  • The tract between the Indus and the hills consists of four open districts, Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan, divided one from the other by low hills.

  • These hills consist of a broken range of sandstone and conglomerate dividing the Bannu plain from the cultivated flats of Dera Ismail Khan.

  • South of the Gomal the Suliman Range culminates in the famous Takht-iSuliman in the Largha Sherani country, a political dependency of Dera Ismail Khan district.

  • The Salt Range crosses the Indus in the Mianwali tahsil of the Punjab, and forms the boundary between Bannu and Dera Ismail Khan, merging eventually in the Waziri hills.

  • The invasion in 1738 of Nadir Shah, who traversed the province from Peshawar to Dera Ismail Khan, is a landmark in the history of the frontier.

  • The military cantonments and posts in Malakand, Dir, Swat and Chitral were also enumerated, as were those in the Tochi Valley (the Northern Waziristan Agency) and in the Gomal (the Southern Waziristan Agency), the former figures being included in the census returns of Bannu district, and those of the latter in the returns of Dera Ismail Khan.

  • There are no large industries to attract the population to the towns; these, except Peshawar and Dera Ismail Khan, are either expansions of large agricultural villages or bazaars which have grown up round the many cantonments of the province.

  • The province is mainly a mountainous region, but includes the Peshawar valley and the broad riverain tract of the Indus in Dera Ismail Khan district.

  • Dera Ismail Khan district is one of the hottest areas in the Indian continent, while over the mountain region to the north the weather is temperate in the summer and intensely cold in the winter.

  • In 1858 he accepted the position of conservator of Egyptian monuments to the ex-khedive, Ismail Pasha, and removed with his family to Cairo.

  • This lease lapsed with the pasha's death, but in 1865 Ismail Pasha reacquired the port for Egypt.

  • When these operations were begun a project for linking Suakin to Berber by railway, first proposed during Ismail's viceroyalty, was revived and a few miles of rails were laid in 1884.

  • In 1662 as part of the dowry of Catherine of Braganza on her marriage to Charles II., it came into the possession of the English, and they defended it against Mulai Ismail in 1680, but in 1684 it was decided, on account of expense, to abandon the place to the Moors.

  • Another source of revenue was afforded by Ismail Pasha, the khedive of Egypt, who paid heavily in bakshish for the firman of 1866, by which the succession to the khedivate was made hereditary from father to son in direct line and in order of primogeniture, as well as for the subsequent firmans of 1867, 1869 and 1872 extending the khedive's prerogatives.

  • Six children survived him: Prince Yussuf Izz-ed-din, born 1857; Princess Saliha, wife of Kurd Ismail Pasha; Princess Nazime, wife of Khalid Pasha; Prince Abd-ul-Mejid, born 1869; Prince Seif-ed-din, born 1876; Princess Emine, wife of Mahommed Bey; Prince Shefket, born 1872, died 1899.

  • To the Peshin valley the distance is about fro m., and from Peshin to India the three principal routes measure approximately as follows: by the Zhob valley to Dera Ismail Khan, 300 m.; by the Bori valley to Dera Ghazi Khan, 275 m.; by Quetta and the Bolan to Dadar, 125 m.; and by Chappar and Nari to Sibi, 120 m.

  • Between this and the direct route to Peshin is a road which leads through Maruf to the Kundar river and the Guleri pass into the plains of Hindustan at Dera Ismail Khan.

  • Having entered the army as a conscript he was made an officer by Said Pasha in 1862, and was employed in the transport department in the Abyssinian campaign of 1875 under Ismail Pasha.

  • In 1878 he was employed by Ismail in fomenting a disturbance against the ministry of Nubar, Rivers Wilson and de Blignieres, and received in payment a wife from Ismail's harem and the command of a regiment.

  • The first exception in Upper Egypt to the basin system of irrigation was due to the Khedive Ismail.

  • When the Egyptians invaded the Sudan in 1820 Shendi, then a place of considerable size, submitted to Ismail Pasha, son of Mehemet Ali, the pasha of Egypt.

  • In 1822, however, Ismail and his chief followers were treacherously burnt to death at Shendi by order of the mek (ruler) of the town, in revenge for the cruelties committed by the Egyptians.

  • In Bulak are several factories founded by Mehemet Ali for spinning, weaving and printing cotton, and a paper-mill established by the khedive Ismail in 1870.

  • Under Mehemet and his successors all the western part of the city has grown up. The khedive Ismail, in making the straight road from the citadel to the Ezbekia gardens, destroyed many of the finest houses of the old town.

  • The important part which the financial arrangements have played in the political and social history of Egypt since the accession of Ismail Pasha in 1863 is shown in the section History of this article.

  • With the accession of Ismail (q.v.) there followed a period of wild extravagance and reckless borrowing accompanied by the extortion of every piastre possible from the fellahin.

  • The settlement of 1880 was effected on the basis of the proposals made by this commission, and was embodied in the Law of Liquidation of July 1880after the deposition of Ismail.

  • For the purposes of the new settlement the loans raised by Ismail on his private estates, those known as the Daira (i.e.

  • The right to raise loans had been granted to the khedive Ismail in 1873, but was taken away in 1879 by the firman appointing Tewfik khedive.

  • The next viceroy, Said, began as an ardent soldier, but took to agriculture, and at his death (1863) 3000 men only were retained under arms. Ismail, on succeeding, immediately added 27,000 men, and in seven years was able to put 100,000 men, well equipped, in the field.

  • Ismail had collected 500 field-guns, 200 Armstrong cannon., and had created factories of warlike and other stores.

  • C. P. Stone zealously served Ismail, had entirely failed to overcomeEgyptian venality and intrigue; and in spite of the military schools, with a ~omprdhens1ve syllabus, the only perceptible difference between the Egyptian officer and private in 1879 consisted, according to one of the Americans, in the fact that the first was the product of the harem, and the second of the field.

  • 1805) obtained from the Porte in 1841 the right to bequeath the sovereignty to his descendants, one of whom, Ismail Pasha, received the title Khedive, which is still held by Mehemet Alis descendants.

  • Ismail b.

  • His son A bul-Man pllr Ismail, who was seventeen years old at the time of IJafi~s death, succeeded him with the title al-Zd/ir liad allah.

  • At his death (May 8th, 1238) at Damascus, his son Abfl Bakr was appointed to succeed with the title Malik al-AdilSaif al-din; but his elder brother Malik al-Salil~t Najm al-dIn Ayyub, having got possession of Damascus, immediately started for Egypt, with the view of adding that country to his dominions: meanwhile his uncle Ismail, prince of Hamath, with the prince of Horns, seized Damascus, upon hearing which the troops of Najm al-din deserted him at Nablus, when he fell into the hands of Malik al-N~ir, prince of Kerak, who carried him off to that city and kept him a prisoner there for a time; after which he was released and allowed to return to Nablus.

  • After a brief sojourn in Cairo he speedily returned thither, thereby forfeiting his throne, which was conferred by the amirs on his brother Ismail al-Malik alSalili (June 27th, 1342).

  • Kgnsuh was charged ~ by Selim with giving the envoys of the Safawid Ismail passage through Syria on their way to Venice to form a confederacy against the Turks, and with harbouring various refugees.

  • At the end of that time Qasim Iyw~z was killed and the office which he had held was given to his son IsmaIl.

  • Ismail held this office for sixteen years, while the pashas were constantly being changed, and succeeded in reconciling the two factions of Mamelukes.

  • An officer named IsmaIl Bey was sent with 8000 to acquire the eastern shore of the Red Sea, and one named Ilasan Bey to occupy Jidda.

  • Ismail Bey was sent by All Bey with a force of 3000 to check his advance; but at Bastin Ismil with his troops joined AbulDhahab.

  • Ismll Bey now became Sheik al-B alad, but was soon involved in a dispute with Ibrhim and Murad, who after a time succeeded in driving IsmaIl out of Egypt and establishing a joint rule (as Sheik al-B alad and Amir al-I.Ijj respectively) similar to that which had been tried previously.

  • On the 1st of August 1782 the Turkish commander entered Cairo, and, after some violent measures had been taken for the restoration of order, Ismail Bey was again.

  • In January 1791 a terrible plague began to rage in Cairo and elsewhere in Egypt, to which Ismail Bey and most of his family fell victims. Owing to the need for competent rulers IbrghIm and Murad Bey were sent for from Upper Egypt and resumed their dual government.

  • As their numbers thinned, they endeavoured to maintain their little power by training some hundreds of blacks; but again, on the approach of Ismail, another son of the pasha of Egypt, sent with an army in 1820 to subdue Nubia and Sennar, some returned to Egypt and settled in Cairo, while the rest, amounting to about 100 persons, fled in dispersed parties to the countries adjacent to Senngr.

  • The forces destined for this service were led by Ismail, then the youngest son of Mehemet Ali; they consisted of between 4000 and 5000 men, Turks and Arabs, and left Cairo in July 1820.

  • In October 1822 Ismail was, with his retinue, burnt to death by Nimr, the mek (king) of Shendi; and the defterdr, a man infamous for his cruelty, assumed the command of those provinces, and exacted terrible retribution from the innocent inhabitants.

  • Tusun, Ismail, (iv.) Said, Abdul Halim, Mehemet Ali, b.

  • ,) Ismail (Khedive), Mustap~ia Fazil, b.

  • In January 1863 Said Pasha died and was succeeded by his nephew Ismail, a son of Ibrahim Pasha.

  • The reign of Ismail (q.v.), from 1863 to 1879, was for a while hailed as introducing a new era into modern Egypt.

  • Yet in its earlier years much was done which seemed likely to give Ismail a more important place in history.

  • Ismail re-established and improved the administrative system organized by Mehemet Au, and which had fallen into decay under Abbass indolent rule; he caused a thorough remodelling of the customs system, which was in an anarchic state, to be made by English officials; in 1865 he established the Egyptian post office; he reorganized the military schools of his grandfather, and gave some support to the cause of education.

  • In 1875 the 1ea~jflgto impoverishment of the fellah had reached such a ~he depoint that the ordinary resources of the country no Pofo~.kmo:I, longer sufficed for the most urgent necessities of administration; and the khedive Ismail, having repeatedly broken faith with his creditors, could not raise any more loans on the European market.

  • In these circumstances Ismail had to realize his remaining assets, and among them sold 176,602 Suez Canal shares to the British government for ~,976,582 i (see BEAc0NsFIE1.D).

  • Other commissions of inquiry followed, and each one brought Ismail more under European control.

  • Driven to desperation, Ismail made a virtue of necessity and accepted, in September 1878, in lieu of the Dual Control, a constitutional ministry, under the presidency of Nubar Pasha (qv.), with Rivers Wilson as minister of finance and de Blignires as minister of public works.

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