Its bed is now broad, studded with islands and enclosed by high banks.
He devoted many years to carrying out a project for organizing the fur trade from the Great Lakes to the Pacific Ocean, and thence by way of the Hawaiian Islands to China and India.
Perhaps the best natural harbour of the republic is that of Bahia Blanca, a large bay of good depth, sheltered by islands, and 534 m.
Other parties had previously colonized the islands but none had remained permanently.
To the north as far as the rocky point of St Gildas, sheltering the mouth of the Loire, the shore, often occupied by salt marshes (marshes of Poitou and Brittany), is low-lying and hollowed by deep bays sheltered by large islands, those of Olron and Re lying opposite the ports of Rochefort and La Rochelle, while Noirmoutier closes the Bay of Bourgneuf.
It appears to be common in the neighbourhood of Cape Town, while the recent Antarctic expeditions have shown that it occurs in various localities from the Falkland Islands to the Antarctic circle.
By his time the kingdom must have reached the west coast, as he is said to have conquered the islands of Anglesea and Man.
Fernandez obtained from the Spanish government a grant of the islands, where he resided for some time, stocking them with goats and pigs.
Malta and Gozo are the only islands of the Mediterranean which can be associated with this section, and, per contra, the mountain chain of north-west Africa belongs to Eurasia.
The Church now has, besides these missions, others in India (1834), Siam (1840), China (1846),(1846), Colombia (1856), Brazil (1859),(1859), Japan (1859), Laos (1867),(1867), Mexico (transferred in 1872 by the American and Foreign Christian Union), Chile (transferred in 1873 by the same Union; first established in 1845), Guatemala (1882),(1882), Korea (1884)(1884) and the Philippine Islands (1899).
S.) and with the islands of Tholen and Duiveland to the north-west.
The chief product of the islands are bananas; the chief export sandal-wood.
The channels between the islands do not exceed 2 meters.
The islands were discovered early in the 26th century by Spaniards, who gave them their present name.
In this connexion it is of interest to note that, both in the Mediterranean islands and in West Africa, dwarf elephants of the African type are accompanied by pigmy species of hippopotamus, although we have not yet evidence to show that in Africa the two animals occupy actually the same area.
The lake is nowhere of great depth, and about midway numerous mud-banks, marshes, islands and dense growths of aqueous plants stretch across its surface.
Elephants from the last-named islands present some variations from those of the mainland, and have been separated under the names of E.
Miss Worthington called from the islands.
Pigs and goats were then abundant on the islands.
The next five stations are on the coast or on islands.
ARAN ISLANDS, or South Aran, three islands lying across Galway Bay, on the west coast of Ireland, in a south-easterly direction, forming a kind of natural breakwater.
These islands are remarkable for a number of architectural remains of a very early date.
No less, indeed, than twenty buildings of ecclesiastical or monastic character have been enumerated in the three islands.
Laccadive Islands >>
It lies on the south side of the Bukken Fjord, and has a picturesque harbour well sheltered by islands.
The city is the largest in British Columbia, and is the chief Canadian shipping port for Japan, China, Australia and the islands at which the C.P.R.
The mud brought down by it, calculated at 7150 lb an hour at Bagdad, is not deposited in marshes to form alluvium, as in the case of the Euphrates, but although in flood time the river becomes at places an inland sea, rendering navigation extremely difficult and uncertain, the bulk of the mud is deposited in banks, shoals and islands in the bed of the river, and is finally carried out into the Persian Gulf.
Comoro Islands >>
Its islands are few and insignificant, the chief being Sokotra, off the African, and the Laccadives, off the Indian coast.
Numerous small archipelagoes and islands, of which the chief are Belle Tie, Groix and Ushant, fringe the Breton coast.- North of the Bay of St Michel the peninsula of Cotentin, terminating in the promontories of Hague and Barfleur, juts north into the English Channel and closes the bay of the Seine on the -west.
Congo for maternity cases and cases of curable Ubangi-Chad illness; (2) the hospice, where the aged Madagascar poor, cases of incurable malady, orphans, Nossi-be Island foundlings and other children without Ste Marie Island means of support, and in some cases Comoro Islands lunatics, are received; (3) the bureau de Somali Coast bien-faisance, charged with the provision 9f Reunion out-door relief (secours a domicile) in money st Paul 1 or in kind, to the aged poor or those who, Amsterdam though capable of working, are prevented Kerguelen.
m.), Tiga and several small islands and Mare or Nengone.
They are coral islands of comparatively recent elevation, and in no place rise more than 250 ft.
The Loyalty islanders are Melanesians; the several islands have each its separate language, and in Uea one tribe uses a Samoan and another a New Hebridean form of speech.
The Loyalty group was discovered at the beginning of the 19th century, and Dumont d'Urville laid down the several islands in his chart.
The English names of the individual islands were probably given by buccaneers, for whom the group formed a convenient retreat.
A governor has been appointed since 1885, some importance being foreseen for the islands in connexion with the cutting of the Panama canal, as the group lies on the route to Australia opened up by that scheme.
On many of the islets numerous tropical fruits are found growing wild, but they are no doubt escapes from cultivation, just as the large herds of wild cattle, horses, donkeys, pigs, goats and dogs - the last large and fierce - which occur abundantly on most of the islands have escaped from domestication.
Though the islands are under the equator, the climate is not intensely hot...
The Galapagos Islands are of some commercial importance to Ecuador, on account of the guano and the orchilla moss found on them and exported to Europe.
Except on Charles Island, where settlement has existed longest, little or no influence of the presence of man is evident in the group; still, the running wild of dogs and cats, and, as regards the vegetation, especially goats, must in a comparatively short period greatly modify the biological conditions of the islands.
The origin and development of these conditions, in islands so distinctly oceanic as the Galapagos, have given its chief importance to this archipelago since it was visited by Darwin in the "Beagle."
Of the seven species of giant tortoises known to science (although at the discovery of the islands there were probably fifteen) all are indigenous, and each is confined to its own islet.
Equally indecisive is the further exploration as to evidence for the opinion held by other naturalists that the endemic species of the different islands have resulted from subsidences, through volcanic action, which have reduced one large island mass into a number of islets, wherein the separated species became differentiated during their isolation.
If their ancestors had been carried out to sea once or twice by a flood and safely drifted as far as the Galapagos Islands" (Wallace), "they must have been numerous on the continent" (Rothschild and Hartert).
(1876); Sclater and Salvin, "Characters of New Species collected by Dr Habel in the Galapagos Islands," Proc. Zool.
Agassiz, "The Galapagos Islands," Bull.
Robinson, "Flora of the Galapagos Islands," Proc. Amer.
The narrow Svendborg Sund separates Fiinen from the lesser islands of Taasinge and Turb, of which the former rises to 245 ft.
Existing marsupials may be divided into three main divisions or sub-orders, of which the first, or Polyprotodontia, is common to America and Australasia; the second, or Paucituberculata, is exclusively South American; while the third, or Diprotodonts, is as solely Australasian inclusive of a few in the eastern Austro-Malayan islands.
All are animals of small or moderate size and arboreal habits, feeding on a vegetable or mixed diet, and inhabiting Australia, Papua and the Moluccan Islands.
RHODES, the most easterly of the islands of the Aegean Sea, about 10 m.
It forms, with the islands of Syme, Casos, Carpathos, Castelorizo, Telos and Charki, one of the four sanjaks into which the Archipelago vilayet of Turkey is divided.
Among such settlements may be mentioned Phaselis in Lycia, perhaps also Soli in Cilicia, Salapia on the east Italian coast, Gela in Sicily, the Lipari islands, and Rhoda in north-east Spain.
In home waters the Rhodians exercised political control over Carpathos and other islands.
During the later Roman empire Rhodes was the capital of the province of the islands.
With the exception of Tasmania there are no important islands belonging geographically to Australia, for New Guinea, Timor and other islands of the East Indian archipelago, though not removed any great distance from the continent, do not belong to its system.
On the east coast there are a few small and unimportant islands.
in area, Clarke Island, and a few other small islands.
Kangaroo Island, at the entrance of St Vincent Gulf, is one of the largest islands on the Australian coast, measuring 80 m.
Numerous small islands lie off the western coast, but none has any commercial importance.
On the north coast are Melville and Bathurst Islands; the former, which is 75 m.
These islands are opposite Port Darwin, and to the westward of the large inlet known as Van Diemen's Gulf.
In the Gulf of Carpentaria are numerous islands, the largest bearing the Dutch name of Groote Eylandt.
But they have been separated by the foundering of the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea, which divided the continent of Australia from the islands of the Australasian festoon; and the foundering of the band across Australia, from the Gulf of Carpentaria, through western Queensland and western New South Wales, to the lower basin of the Murray, has separated the Archean areas of eastern and western Australia.
The Mesozoic begins with a Triassic land period in the mainland of Australia; while the islands of the Australasian festoon contain the Triassic marine limestones, which fringe the whole of the Pacific. The Triassic beds are best known in New South Wales, where round Sydney they include a series of sandstones and shales.
The islands of Torres Strait have been shown to be the denuded remnant of a former extension of Cape York peninsula in North Queensland.
The comparatively few indigenous placental mammals, besides the dingo or wild dog - which, however, may have come from the islands north of this continent - are of the bat tribe and of the rodent or rat tribe.
He had annihilated the petty kings of the South, had crushed the aristocracy, enforced the acceptance of Christianity throughout the kingdom, asserted his suzerainty in the Orkney Islands, had humbled the king of Sweden and married his daughter in his despite, and had conducted a successful raid on Denmark.
CALBAYOG, a town of the province of Samar, Philippine Islands, on the W.
FRISIAN ISLANDS, a chain of islands, lying from 3 to 20 M.
The chain of the Frisian Islands marks the outer fringe of the former continental coast-line, and is separated from the mainland by shallows, known as Wadden or Watten, answering to the maria vadosa of the Romans.
The inhabitants of these islands support themselves by seafaring, pilotage, grazing of cattle and sheep, fishing and a little agriculture, chiefly potato-growing.
The islands, though well lighted, are dangerous to navigation, and a glance at a wreck chart will show the entire chain to be densely dotted.
m.), as well as the much smaller islands of Boschplaat and Rottum, which are practically uninhabited.
With the exception of Wangeroog, which belongs to the grand duchy of Oldenburg, the East Frisian Islands belong to Prussia.
All these islands are visited for sea-bathing.
Neuwerk and Scharhorn, situated off the mouth of the Elbe, are islands belonging to the state of Hamburg.
With the exception of Fano, which is Danish, all these islands belong to Prussia.
In the North Frisian group there are also several smaller islands called Halligen.
Black, Heligoland and the Islands of the North Sea (Glasgow, 1888).
After travelling through many of the Aegean islands, through Sicily, Sardinia and Magna Graecia, everywhere conferring benefits and receiving divine honours, Aristaeus reached Thrace, where he was initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus, and finally disappeared near Mount Haemus.
The islands on each coast present the features of the shore to which they are adjacent.
On both the east and the west coast the islands are thickly wooded, but whereas the former are surrounded by beautiful sands and beaches, the latter are fringed by mangrove-swamps.
The colony of the Straits Settlements consists of the islands of Singapore, Penang and the Dindings, the territory of Province Wellesley, on the mainland opposite to Penang, the insignificant territory of the Dindings, and the town and territory of Malacca.
Representatives of it are found scattered about the islands from the Andaman group southwards.
In 1595 the first Dutch expedition sailed from the Texel, but it took a more southerly course than its predecessors and confined its operations to Java and the neighbouring islands.
Singapore is the political, commercial and administrative headquarters of the colony of the Straits Settlements, and the governor for the time being is ex officio high commissioner of the Federated Malay States, British North Borneo, Sarawak, the Cocos-Keeling and Christmas Islands, and governor of Labuan.
portion are numerous islands which are attractive resorts during the summer season.
It contains two islands, Bisentina and Martana, the former containing a church constructed by Vignola, the latter remains of the castle where Amalasuntha, the daughter of Theodoric, was imprisoned and, strangled.
The Islands), capital and largest city of Algeria, North Africa, seat of the governorgeneral, of a court of appeal, and of an archbishop, and station of the French XIX.
In December 16 J4 Cromwell despatched Penn and Venables with a fleet of thirty-eight ships and 2500 soldiers to the West Indies, their numbers being raised by recruits at the islands to 7000 men.
BONIN ISLANDS, called by the Japanese Ogasawara-Jima, a chain of small islands belonging to Japan, stretching nearly due north and south, a little east of 142 E., and from 26° 35' to 2 7° 45' N., about 500 m.
European geographers have been accustomed to divide the islands into three groups for purposes of nomenclature, calling the northern group the Parry Islands, the central the Beechey Islands and the southern the Coffin or Bailey Islands.
2 Port Lloyd, the chief anchorage (situated on Peel Island), is considered by Commodore Perry - who visited the islands in 1853 and strongly urged the establishment of a United States coaling station there - to have been formerly the crater of a volcano from which the surrounding hills were thrown up, the entrance to the harbour being a fissure through which lava used to pour into the sea.
The islands are, indeed, plainly volcanic in their nature.
These details are taken from The Bonin Islands by Russell Robertson, formerly H.B.M.
consul in Yokohama, who visited the islands in 1875.
suggests that the ownership of the islands was for some time doubtful.
Meanwhile, Captain Beechey visited the islands in the "Blossom," assigned names to some of them, and published a description of their features.
Next a small party consisting of two British subjects, two American citizens, and a Dane, sailed from the Sandwich Islands for Port Lloyd in 1830, taking with them some Hawaiian natives.
When Commodore Perry arrived in 1853, there were on Peel Island thirty-one inhabitants, four being English, four American, one Portuguese and the rest natives of the Sandwich Islands, the Ladrones, &c.; and when Mr Russell Robertson visited the place in 1875, the colony had grown to sixty-nine, of whom only five were pure whites.
But in 1861 the British government renounced all claim to the islands in recognition of Japan's right of possession.
There is now regular steam communication; the affairs of the islands are duly administered, and the population has grown to about 4500.
There are no mountains of any considerable height in the Ogasawara Islands, but the scenery is hilly with occasional bold crags.
Thus in the Sandwich Islands the god Oro gave his oracles through a priest who "ceased to act or speak as a voluntary agent, but with his limbs convulsed, his features distorted and terrific, his eyes wild and strained, he would roll on the ground roaming at the mouth, and reveal the will of the god in shrill cries and sounds violent and indistinct, which the attending priests duly interpreted to the people."
wide, extending from Iceland to the Faeroe Islands, the Shetland Islands and the coast of Norway.
North of the fiftieth parallel the depths diminish towards the north-east, two long submarine ridges of volcanic origin extend north-eastwards to the southwest of Iceland and to the Faeroe Islands, and these, with their intervening valleys, end in a transverse ridge connecting Greenland, through Iceland and the Faeroe Islands, with Northwestern Scotland and the continental mass of Europe.
long., Monaco Deep and Chun Deep off the north-west of Africa, Moseley Deep off the Cape Verde Islands, Krech Deep off the Liberian coast, and Buchanan Deep off the mouth of the Congo.
Bruce, the leader of the Scottish expedition, finds that there is a ridge " extending in a curve from Madagascar to Bouvet Island, and from Bouvet Island to the Sandwich group, whence there is a forked connexion through the South Orkneys to Graham's Land, and through South Georgia to the Falkland Islands and the South American continent."
Again, the central ridge of the South Atlantic extends a thousand miles farther south than was supposed, joining the east and west ridge, just described, between the Bouvet Islands and the Sandwich group.
The Atlantic Ocean contains a relatively small number of islands.
The only continental groups, besides some islands in.
Newfoundland, the West Indies, and the Falklands, and the chief oceanic islands are the Azores, Madeira, the Canaries, the Cape Verde Islands, Ascension, St Helena, Tristan da Cunha and Bouvet Island.
The first passes northwards, most of it between the Faeroe and Shetland Islands, to the coast of Norway, and so on to the Arctic basin, which, as Nansen has shown, it fills to a great depth.
It is chiefly found in the tropical parts of Asia and Africa, but has also been met with in South Carolina and several of the West Indian islands.
Chatham Islands >>
The climatic conditions in the British Islands are such that it is not possible to maintain, in unfavourable weather, a higher standard than that named, which is the insulation obtained when all the insulators are in perfect condition and only the normal leakage, due to moisture, is present.
Stevenson, who in 1892 advocated the use of the inductive system pure and simple for communication between the mainland and isolated lighthouses or islands.
The following are the chief islands: - Thasos, in the extreme north, off the Macedonian coast; Samothrace, fronting the Gulf of Saros; Imbros and Lemnos, in prolongation of the peninsula of Gallipoli (Thracian Chersonese); Euboea, the largest of all, lying close along the east coast of Greece; the Northern Sporades, including Sciathos, Scopelos and Halonesos, running out from the southern extremity of the Thessalian coast, and Scyros, with its satellites, north-east of Euboea; Lesbos and Chios; Samos and Nikaria; Cos, with Calymnos to the north; all off Asia Minor, with the many other islands of the Sporades; and, finally, the great group of the Cyclades, of which the largest are Andros and Tenos, Naxos and Paros.
Many of the Aegean islands, or chains of islands, are actually prolongations of promontories of the mainland.
The greater part of this trough is over 600 fathoms deep. The profusion of islands and their usually bold elevation give beauty and picturesqueness to the sea, but its navigation is difficult and dangerous, notwithstanding the large number of safe and commodious gulfs and bays.
Many of the islands are of volcanic formation; and a well-defined volcanic chain bounds the Cretan Sea on the north, including Milo and Kimolos, Santorin (Thera) and Therasia, and extends to Nisyros.
The larger islands have some fertile and well-watered valleys and plains.
The Cyclades and Northern Sporades, with Euboea and small islands under the Greek shore, belong to Greece; the other islands to Turkey.
Southern Italy 1.4 Lakes 1.5 Islands
Besides these offshoots of the Apennines there are in this part of Central Italy several detached mountains, rising almost like islands on the seashore, of which the two most remarkable are the Monte Argentaro on the coast of Tuscany near Orbetello (2087 ft.) and the Monte Circello (1771 ft.) at the angle of the Pontine Marshes, by the whole breadth of which it is separated from the Volscian Apennines.
The three great islands of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica are closely connected with Italy, both by geographical position and community of language, but they are considered at length in separate articles.
Of the smaller islands that lie near the coasts of Italy, the most considerable is that of Elba, off the west coast of central Italy, about 50 m.
The islands farther south in the Tyrrhenian Sea are of an entirely different character.
Of these Ischia and Procida, close to the northern headland of the Bay of Naples, are of volcanic origin, as is the case also with the more distant group of the Ponza Islands.
The Aeolian or Lipari Islands, a remarkable volcanic group, belong rather to Sicily than to Italy, though Stromboli, the most easterly of them, is about equidistant from Sicily and from the mainland.
Besides these, and leaving out of account the islands, the Italian peninsula presents four distinct volcanic districts.
The Phlegraean Fields embrace all the country round Baiae and Pozzuoli and the adjoining islands.
Horse beans are grown, especially in the south and in the larger islands; lupines are also grown for fodder.
Almonds are widely cultivated in Sicily, Sardinia and the sor~ithern provinces; walnut trees throughout the peninsula, their wood being more important than their fruit; hazel nuts, figs, prickly pears (used in the south and the islands for hedges, their fruit being a minor consideration), peaches, pears, locust beans and pistachio nuts are among the other fruits.
In upper Italy cattle are principally reared in pens and stalls; in central Italy cattle are allowed to run half wild, the stall system being little practised; in the south and in the islands cattle are kept in the open air, few shelters being provided.
Co-operation in general is most widely diffused, in proportion to population, in central Italy; less so in northern Italy, and much less so in the south and the islands.
These establishments are, however, unsatisfactory, being mostly situated on small islands, where it is often difficult to find work for the coatti, who are free by day, being only confined at night.
The sea-coast cities of the south, and the islands, Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica, preserved their independence.
The Venetian ascendancy in the Levant dates from this epoch; for, though the republic had no power to occupy all the domains ceded to it, Candia was taken, together with several small islands and stations on the mainland.
Yet she kept the Adriatic free of pirates, notably by suppressing the sea-robbers called Uscocchi (1601-1617), maintained herself in the Ionian Islands, and in 1684 added one more to the series of victorious episodes which render her annals so romantic. In that year Francesco Morosini, upon whose tomb we still may read the title Peloponnesiacus, wrested the whole of the Morea from the Turks.
The lonian Islands, formerly belonging to Venice, were, by a treaty signed at Paris on the 5th of November 1815, placed under the protection of Great Britain.
ANDAMAN ISLANDS, a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal.
Between the Andamans and Cape Negrais intervene two small groups, Preparis and Cocos; between the Andamans and Sumatra lie the Nicobar Islands, the whole group stretching in a curve, to which the meridian forms a tangent between Cape Negrais and Sumatra; and though this curved line measures 700 m., the widest sea space is about 91 m.
The main part of it consists of a band of five chief islands, so closely adjoining and overlapping each other that they have long been known collectively as "the great Andaman."
The five islands are in order from north to south: North Andaman (51 m.
Four narrow straits part these islands: Austin Strait, between North and Middle Andaman; Homfray's Strait between Middle Andaman and Baratang, and the north extremity of South Andaman; Middle (or Andaman) Strait between Baratang and South Andaman; and Macpherson Strait between South Andaman and Rutland Island.
Attached to the chief islands are, on the extreme N., Landfall Islands, separated by the navigable Cleugh Passage; Interview Island, separated by the very narrow but navigable Interview Passage, off the W.
of Rutland Island across Duncan Passage, in which lie the Cinque and other islands, forming Manners Strait, the main commercial highway between the Andamans and the Madras coast.
Besides these are a great number of islets lying off the shores of the main islands.
The land area of the Andaman Islands is 2 508 sq.
of the Andamans are the dangerous Western Banks and Dalrymple Bank, rising to within a few fathoms of the surface of the sea and forming, with the two Sentinel Islands ï¿½, the tops of a line of submarine hills parallel to the Andamans.
There are no rivers and few perennial streams in the islands.
There are besides many other safe anchorages about the coast, notably Shoal Bay and Kotara Anchorage in the South Andaman; Cadell Bay and the Turtle Islands in the North Andaman; and Outram Harbour and Kwangtung Strait in the archipelago.
The whole of the Andamans and the outlying islands were completely surveyed topographically by the Indian Survey Department under Colonel Hobday in 1883-1886, and the surrounding seas were charted by Commander Carpenter in 1888-1889.
==Geology== The Andaman Islands, in conjunction with the other groups mentioned above, form part of a lofty range of submarine mountains, 700 m.
There is coral along the coasts everywhere, and the Sentinel Islands are composed of the newer rocks with a superstructure of coral.
A theory of a still continuing subsidence of the islands was formed by Kurz in 1866 and confirmed by Oldham in 1884.
Speaking generally, the climate of the Andamans themselves may be described as normal for tropical islands of similar latitude.
The great peculiarity of Andaman flora is that, with the exception of the Cocos islands, no cocoanut palms are found in the archipelago.
==Fauna== Animal life is generally deficient throughout the Andamans, especially as regards mammalia, of which there are only nineteen separate species in all, twelve of these being peculiar to the islands.
This paucity of animal life seems inconsistent with the theory that the islands were once connected with the mainland.
Rasorial birds, such as peafowl, junglefowl, pheasants and partridges, though well represented in the Arakan hills, are rare in the islands; while a third of the different species found are peculiar to the Andamans.
"The inhabitants of these islands eat men alive.
Of their massacres of shipwrecked crews, even in quite modern times, there is no doubt, but the policy of conciliation unremittingly pursued for the last forty years has now secured a friendly reception for shipwrecked crews at any port of the islands except the south and west of Little Andaman and North Sentinel Island.
portion of Asia and its outlying islands, representatives of which are also still to be found in the Malay Peninsula and the Philippines.
It is uncertain whether any of the names of the islands given by Ptolemy ought to be attached to the Andamans; yet it is probable that his name itself is traceable in the Alexandrian geographer.
The islands are briefly noticed by Marco Polo, who probably saw without visiting them, under the name Angamanain, seemingly an Arabic dual, "The two Angamans," with the exaggerated but not unnatural picture of the natives, long current, as dog-faced Anthropophagi.
In 1839, Dr Helfer, a German savant employed by the Indian government, having landed in the islands, was attacked and killed.
See Sir Richard Temple, The Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Indian Census, 1901); C. B.
Man, Aboriginal Inhabitants of the Andaman Islands (1883); M.
Britain remained outside that jurisdiction, the Celtic churches of the British islands, after those islands were abandoned by the Empire, pursuing a course of their own.
In the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands courts Christian have now jurisdiction substantially as in England.
All the Malagasy lemurs, which agree in the structure of the internal ear, are now included in the family Lemuridae, confined to Madagascar and the Comoro Islands, which comprises the great majority of the group. The other families are the Nycticebidae, common to tropical Asia and Africa, and the Tarsiidae, restricted to the Malay countries.
The city is divided by the rivers (including the small streams Lieve and Moere) and by canals, some navigable, into numerous islands connected by over 200 bridges of various sorts.
It includes the islands of Boschplaat and Rottumeroog, belonging to the group of Frisian islands.
SOCIETY ISLANDS (French Archipel de.
The archipelago is divided into two groups - the Leeward (lies sous le Vent) and the Windward Islands (Iles du Vent) - by a clear channel of 60 m.
The Leeward Islands are Tubai or Motuiti, a small uninhabited lagoon island, the most northern of the group; Marua or Maupiti - "Double Mountain," the most western; BolaBola or Bora-Bora; Huaheine; Raiatea or Ulietea (Spanish Princessa), the largest island of this cluster, and Tahaa, which approach each other very closely, and are encircled by one reef.
To the Windward Islands belong Tapamanu or Majaiti (Wallis's Sir Charles Saunders's Island and Spanish Pelada); Moorea or Eimeo (Wallis's Duke of York Island and Spanish San Domingo); Tahiti - Cook's Otaheite (probably Quiros's Sagittaria; Wallis's King George's Island, Bougainville's Nouvelle Cythere and Spanish Isla d'Amat); Tetuaroa - "The Distant Sea" (?
With the exception just named, the islands, which agree very closely in geological structure, are mountainous, and present, perhaps, the most wonderful example of volcanic rocks to be found on the globe.
Nevertheless, under some of these flows remains of plants and insects of species now living in the islands have been found - a proof that the formation as well as the denudation of the country is, geologically speaking, recent.
In profile the islands are rugged and elevated (7349 ft.
All voyagers agree that for varied beauty of form and colour the Society Islands are unsurpassed in the Pacific. Innumerable rills gather in lovely streams, and, after heavy rains, torrents precipitate themselves in grand cascades from the mountain cliffs - a feature so striking as to have attracted the attention of all voyagers, from Wallis downwards.
Round most of the islands there is a luxuriant coral growth; but, as the reefs lie at no great distance, and follow the line of the coast, the inter-island channels are comparatively safe.
Maitea, which rises from the sea as an exceedingly abrupt cone, and Tapamanu, appear to be the only islands without almost completely encircling barrier-reefs.
In this respect the Society Islands have the advantage of many Polynesian islands.
On the shores of the Baltic it occurs not only on the Prussian and Pomeranian coast but in the south of Sweden, in Bornholm and other islands, and in S.
The Hauraki Gulf, a great square inlet opening northward, is studded with islands of considerable elevation; Rangitoto, which protects the harbour, is a volcanic cone reaching nearly l000 ft.
There is communication both south and north by rail, and regular steamers serve the ports of the colony, the principal Pacific Islands, Australia, &c. From 1853 to 1876 Auckland was the seat of the provincial government, and until 1865 that of the central government, which was then transferred to Wellington.
Auckland Islands >>
" Tinislands"), in ancient geography the name of islands regarded as being situated somewhere near the west coasts of Europe.
Later writers, Posidonius, Diodorus, Strabo and others, call them smallish islands off (Strabo says, some way off) the north-west coast of Spain, which contained tin mines, or, as Strabo says, tin and lead mines - though a passage in Diodorus derives the name rather from their nearness to the tin districts of north-west Spain.
While geographical knowledge of the west was still scanty and the secrets of the tin-trade were still successfully guarded by the seamen of Gades and others who dealt in the metal, the Greeks knew only that tin came to them by sea from the far west, and the idea of tin-producing islands easily arose.
Neither of these could be called "small islands" or described as off the north-west coast of Spain, and so the Cassiterides were not identified with either by the Greek and Roman geographers.
Small islands off the coast of north-west Spain, the headlands of that same coast, the Scillies, Cornwall, the British Isles as a whole, have all in turn been suggested.
Neither the Spanish islands nor the Scillies contain tin, at least in serious quantities.
Neither Britain nor Spain can be called "small islands off the north-west of Spain."
The significance of these phenomena, which present many minor modifications in different cases, is nol fully understood, but one purpose of the formation of phloem promontories and islands seems to be the protection of the sieve-tubes from crushing by the often considerable peripheral pressure that is e~ercised on the stems of these lianes.
In these islands, we find forests i or woods of oak (Quercus Robur and Q.
Travers picked up a seed of Edwardsia in the Chatham Islands, evidently washed ashore from New Zealand (Linn.
The Ismdo-Malayan sub-region includes the Indian and Malayan peninsulas, Cochin-China and southern China, the Malayan archipelago, and Philippines, with New Guinea and Polynesia, excluding the Sandwich Islands.
The flora of the Hawaiian Islands has complicated relations.
To Carmania belonged also the coast, with the islands and harbours of Hormuz and Bander Abbasi.
At the least there should be some consideration of four separate systems of discovery - the Eastern, in which Chinese and Japanese explorers acquired knowledge of the geography of Asia, and felt their way towards Europe and America; the Western, in which the dominant races of the Mexican and South American plateaus extended their knowledge of the American continent before Columbus; the Polynesian, in which the conquering races of the Pacific Islands found their way from group to group; and the Mediterranean.
The emperor Justinian (483-565), in whose reign the greatness of the Eastern empire culminated, sent two Nestorian monks to China, who returned with eggs of the silkworm concealed in a hollow cane, and thus silk manufactures were established in the Peloponnesus and the Greek islands.
Among these was Benjamin of Tudela, who set out from Spain in i 160, travelled by land to Constantinople, and having visited India and some of the eastern islands, returned to Europe by way of Egypt after an absence of thirteen years.
The great westward projection of the coast of Africa, and the islands to the north-west of that continent, were the principal scene of the work of the mariners sent out at his expense; but his object was to push onward and reach India from the Atlantic. The progress of discovery received a check on his death, but only for a time.
In the following year the Portuguese Ferdinando Magalhaes, familiarly known as Magellan, laid before Charles V., at Valladolid, a scheme for reaching the Spice Islands by sailing westward.
It was the 6th of March 1521 when he reached the Ladrone Islands.
In Further India and the Malay Archipelago the Portuguese acquired predominating influence at sea, establishing factories on the Malabar coast, in the Persian Gulf, at Malacca, and in the Spice Islands, and extending their commercial enterprises from the Red sea to China.
From Cape San Lucas Cavendish steered across the Pacific, seeing no land until he reached the Ladrone Islands.
After a voyage of eighty days across the Pacific, Mendana discovered the Solomon Islands; and the expedition returned in safety to Callao.
In June 1595 Mendana sailed from the coast of Peru in command of a second expedition to colonize the Solomon Islands.
They sailed from Callao in December 1605, and discovered several islands of the New Hebrides group. They anchored in a bay of a large island which Quiros named " Australia del Espiritu Santo."
He then reached Tongatabu, one of the Friendly Islands of Cook; and returned by the north coast of New Guinea to Batavia.
Carteret discovered the Charlotte and Gloucester Islands, and Pitcairn Island on the 2nd of July 1767; revisited the Santa Cruz group, which was discovered by Mendafia and Quiros; and discovered the strait separating New Britain from New Ireland.
Bougainville had first, to perform the unpleasant task of delivering up the Falkland Islands, where he had encouraged the formation of a French settlement, to the Spaniards.
On a second cruise from the Society Islands, in 1773, he, first of all men, crossed the Antarctic circle, and was stopped by ice in 71° 10' S.
During the second voyage Cook visited Easter Island, discovered several islands of the New Hebrides and New Caledonia; and on his way home by Cape Horn, in March 1774, he discovered the Sandwich Island group and described South Georgia.
Thence he went to the Kurile Islands and Kamchatka, and sailed from the far north down the meridian to the Navigator and Friendly Islands.
He visited the New Hebrides, Santa Cruz, New Caledonia and Solomon Islands, and made careful though rough surveys of the Louisiade Archipelago, islands north of New Britain and part of New Guinea.
During the remarkable voyage he then made to Timor, Bligh passed amongst the northern islands of the New Hebrides, which he named the Banks Group, and made several running surveys.
The " Pandora," under Captain Edwards, was sent out in search of the " Bounty," and discovered the islands of Cherry and Mitre, east of the Santa Cruz group, but she was eventually lost on a reef in Torres Strait.
In 1796-1797 Captain Wilson, in the missionary ship " Duff," discovered the Gambier and other islands, and rediscovered the islands known to and seen by Quiros, but since called the Duff Group. Another result of Captain Cook's work was the colonization of Australia.
In June 1741 he named the magnificent peak on the coast of North America Mount St Elias and explored the Aleutian Islands.
Thus he reached the New Siberian or Liakhov Islands, and for years afterwards the seekers for fossil ivory resorted to them.
The increasing number of measurements of the height of land in all continents and islands, and the very detailed levellings in those countries which have been thoroughly surveyed, enable the average elevation of the land above sea-level to be fairly estimated, although many vast gaps in accurate knowledge remain, and the estimate is not an exact one.
Where the central oceanic buckle attains the water-line we have our oceanic islands, seen in our type ocean, as St Helena and the Azores.
r Area, .f E tt s S / 101 = -11 700,000 51 mile./ 5 30 45 50 65 70 75 80 avel of ihe.harth's Crust = 7.500 ft 90 85 !00 broken by few islands.
After this there is a considerable gap before New Guinea, Borneo, Madagascar, Sumatra and the vast multitude of smaller islands descending in size by regular gradations to mere rocks.
Although the name of continent was not applied to large portions of land for any physical reasons, it so happens that there is a certain physical similarity or homology between them which is not shared by the smaller islands or peninsulas.
If the continuous, unbroken, horizontal extent of land in a continent is termed its trunk,' and the portions cut up by inlets or channels of the sea into islands and peninsulas the limbs, it is possible to compare the continents in an instructive manner.
shelf, or show evidence in the character of their rocks of Islands having at one time been continuous with a neighbouring continent.
Oceanic islands are divided according to their geological character into volcanic islands and those of organic origin, including coral islands.
The direct geographical elements are the arrangement of land and sea (continents and islands standing in sharp contrast) and the vertical relief of the globe, which interposes barriers of a less absolute kind between portions of the same land area or oceanic depression.
Oceanic islands have, as a rule, distinctive faunas and floras which resemble, but are not identical with, those of other islands in similar positions.
long and studded with islands.
There is excellent yachting in the bay, which contains many beautiful islands, such as Peaks and Cushing's islands.
Now, mere geographical considerations, taken from the situation and configuration of the islands of the so-called Indian or Malay Archipelago, would indicate that they extended in an unbroken series from the shores of the Strait of Malacca to the southern coast of New Guinea, which confronts that of north Australia in Torres Strait, or even farther to the eastward.
Indeed, the very name Australasia, often applied to this part of the world, would induce the belief that all the countless islands, be they large or small - and some of them are among the largest on the globe - were but a southern prolongation of the mainland of Asia.
or so in width, and separating the two fertile but otherwise insignificant islands of Bali and Lombok, makes such a frontier as can hardly be shown to exist elsewhere.
Besides the three larger islands numerous satellites belong to the subregion, as Lord Howe, Norfolk and Kermadec islands, with the Chatham, Auckland and Macquarie groups.
Most interesting is the avifauna of the Sandwich islands; entirely devoid of Psittaci and of Coraciiformes, these islands show an extraordinary development of its peculiar family Drepanidae, which are probably of South or Central American descent.
The Papuan Subregion, chiefly New Guinea with its dependencies, the Timor group of islands, the Moluccas and Celebes.
Its most distinctive characteristic is the presence of the birds of paradise, which are almost peculiar to it; for, granting that the bower-birds, Chlamydodera and others, of Australia, belong to the same family, they are far less highly specialized than the beautiful and extraordinary forms which are found, within very restricted limits, in the various islands of the subregion.
- Excepting towards the north, where, in Mexico, it meets, and inosculates with the Nearctic subregion, the boundaries of the Neotropical region are simple enough to trace, comprehending as it does the whole of South America and all Central America; besides including the Falkland islands to the south-east and the Galapagos under the equator to the west, as well as the Antilles or West India islands up to the Florida channel.
The islands of the Canaries, Madeira and the Azores belong to the Mediterranean province, and offer some peculiarities of great interest.
of the Azores or Western Islands, London, 1870).
This is the case of the bullfinch of the more western of these islands (Pyrrhula murina), the male of which, instead of the ruddy breast of its well-known congener (P. vulgaris), has that part of a sober mouse-colour.
Further on this subject we must not go; we can only state that Godman has shown good reason for declaring that the avifauna of all these islands is the effect of colonization extending over a long period of years, and going on now.
The Malagasy province comprises, besides Madagascar, the Mascarene, Comoro and Seychelle islands.
The Oriental Subregion comprises all the countries and numerous islands between the Palaearctic and Australian areas; it possesses upwards of seventy families, of which, however, only one is peculiar, but this family, the Eurylaemidae or broadbills, is of great importance since it represents all the Subclamatores.
The Malayan province comprising the Malay islands, besides the Malay peninsula, and the very remarkable Philippines, possess an extraordinary number of peculiar and interesting genera.
The influence of the Australian realm is indicated by a Megapode in Celebes, another in Borneo and Labuan, and a third in the Nicobar islands (which, however, like the Andamans, belong to the Indian province), but there are no cockatoos, these keeping strictly to the other side of Wallace's line, whence we started on this survey of the world's avifauna.
The French occupied the islands in 1791 from Mauritius, and the oil industry (from which the group is sometimes called the Oil Islands) came into the hands of French Creoles.
The species, about a dozen in number, are widely distributed over Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea and several of the adjacent islands.
LAOAG, a town, port for coasting vessels, and capital of the province of Ilocos Norte, Luzon, Philippine Islands, on the Laoag river, about 5 m.
Just above `Ana are rapids, and from this point to Hit the river is full of islands, while the bed is for the most part narrow, leaving little cultivable land between it and the bluffs.
`Ana itself, a very ancient town, of Babylonian origin, once sacred probably to the goddess of the same name, lay originally on several islands in the stream, where ruins, principally of the Arabic and late Persian period, are visible.
1200 mention an astonishingly large number of important cities situated on its shores or islands.
Ionian Islands >>
166) the same description is given of the Islands of the Blessed under the rule of Cronus, which yield three harvests yearly.
In the form of "Norman" (Northmannus, Normannus, Normand) it is the name of those colonists from Scandinavia who settled themselves in Gaul, who founded Normandy, who adopted the French tongue and French manners, and who from their new home set forth on new errands of conquest, chiefly in the British Islands and in southern Italy and Sicily.
Along Hudson Bay shore there is a strip of similar rocks, and a long row of small islands of the same age, with great sheets of trap or diabase forming the tops of the hills.
In the British Islands native sulphur is only a mineralogical rarity, but it occurs in the Carboniferous Limestone of Oughterard in Co.
The greater portion, however, of the numerous bands which visit the British Islands in autumn and winter doubtless come from the Continent - perhaps even from far to the eastward, since its range stretches across Asia to Japan, in which country it is as favourite a cage-bird as with us.
BULACAN, a town of the province of Bulacan, Luzon, Philippine Islands, on an arm of the Pampanga delta, 22 m.
It contains 30 islands, the largest of which is Inchmurrin, a deer park belonging to the duke of Montrose.
Among other islands are Inch Cailliach (the "Island of Women," from the fact that a nunnery once stood there), Inchfad ("Long Island"), Inchcruin ("Round Island"), Inchtavannach ("Monks' Isle"), Inchconnachan ("Colquhoun's Isle"), Inchlonaig ("Isle of the Yews," where Robert Bruce caused yews to be planted to provide arms for his bowmen), Creinch, Torrinch and Clairinch (which gave the Buchanans their war-cry).
Hawaii, Apai in the Tonga Islands, Evava in the Marquesas, all of which are held to be derived from Savii or Savaiki.
Dr Thomson, in his Story of New Zealand, quotes a Maori tradition, published by Sir George Grey, that certain islands, among which it names Rarotonga, Parima and Manono, are islands near Hawaiki.
The Rarotongas call themselves Maori, and state that their ancestors came from Hawaiki, and Pirima and Manono are the native names of two islands in the Samoan group. The almost identical languages of the Rarotongas and the Maoris strengthen the theory that the two peoples are descended from Polynesians migrating, possibly at widely different dates, from Samoa.
If earlier immigrants from Samoa or other eastern Pacific islands arrived they must have become absorbed into the native Papuan population - arguing from the absence of any distinct tradition earlier than that "of the six canoes."
Hinduism, which was once the religion of Java, but has been extinct there for four centuries, is still in vogue in the islands of Bali and Lombok, where the cruel custom of widow-burning (suttee) is still practised, and the Hindu system of the four castes, with a fifth or Pariah caste (called Chandala), adhered to.
The harbour is good and is enclosed at the south by several rugged islands, the largest being Perico and Flamenco (belonging to the United States) and Taboga (935 ft.), which is a place of country residence for wealthy citizens.
The town is also the chief distributing agency for the islands, and carries on some business in knitted woollen goods.
The Coleoptera are almost worldwide in their distribution, being represented in the Arctic regions and on almost all oceanic islands.
The beetles of the British islands afford some very interesting examples of restricted distribution among species.
Wollaston, and of the Sandwich Islands by D.
Fowler (Coleoptera of the British Islands, 5 vols., London, 1887-1891) is the standard work; and W.
Philippine Islands, on the E.
From the fact that turnstones may be met with at almost any season in various parts of the world, and especially on islands as the Canaries, Azores, and many of those in the British seas, it has been inferred that these birds may breed in such places.
Russia has no oceanic possessions; her islands are all appendages of the mainland to which they belong.
are Karlo, East Kvarken, the Aland archipelago, Dagd, and Osel or Oesel in the Baltic Sea; Novaya Zemlya, with Kolguyev and Vaigach, in the Barents Sea; the Solovetski Islands in the White Sea; the New Siberian archipelago, Wrangel Land and Bear Islands, off the Siberian coast; the Commander Islands off Kamchatka; the Shantar Islands and the N.
The Aleutian archipelago was sold to the United States in 1867, together with Alaska, and in 1875 the Kurile Islands were ceded to Japan.
slope of the Urals; in the Pai-kho ridge; and in the islands of the Arctic Ocean.
They are much denuded in the higher parts of this region, and appear but as isolated islands in central Russia.
it is bounded by the Arctic Ocean; the islands of NovayaZemlya, Kolguyev and Vaigach also belong to it, but the Kara Sea is reckoned to Siberia.
Isolated black-earth islands, though less fertile, occur also in Courland and Kovno, in the OkaVolga-Kama depression, on the slopes of the Urals, and in a few patches in the N.
European plains - the tundras, including the Arctic islands, the forest region, especially the coniferous part of it, and the ante-steppe and steppes of the black earth region.
Here, on the 14th of September 1829, was signed a treaty by which the Porte ceded to Russia the islands at the mouth of the Danube and several districts on the Asiatic frontier, granted full liberty to Russian navigation and commerce in the Black Sea, and guaranteed the autonomous rights previously accorded to Moldavia, Walachia and Servia.
ELLICE (LAGOON) ISLANDS, an archipelago of the Pacific Ocean, lying between 5° and 11° S.
It comprises a large number of low coralline islands and atolls, which are disposed in nine clusters extending over a distance of about 400 m.
Nearly all the natives are Christians, Protestant missions having been long established in several of the islands.
Malvinas), a group of islands in the South Atlantic Ocean, belonging to Britain, and lying about 250 m.
The two principal islands are separated by Falkland Sound, a narrow strait from 18 to 2 m.
The general appearance of the islands is not unlike that of one of the outer Hebrides.
The coast-line of both main islands is deeply indented and many of the bays and inlets form secure and well-protected harbours, some of which, however, are difficult of access to sailing ships.
Mount Adam, the highest hill in the islands, is 2315 ft.
The Falkland Islands consist entirely, so far as is known, of the older Palaeozoic rocks, Lower Devonian or Upper Silurian, slightly metamorphosed and a good deal crumpled and distorted, in the low grounds clay slate and soft sandstone, and on the ridges hardened sandstone passing into the conspicuous white quartzites.
Sea-birds are abundant, and, probably from the islands having been comparatively lately peopled, they are singularly tame.
The Falkland Islands form essentially a part of Patagonia, with which they are connected by an elevated submarine plateau, 1 See B Stechele, in'Milnchener geographische Studien, xx.(1906), and Geographical Journal (December 1907).
Two vegetable products, the " balsam bog " (Bolas glebaria) and the " tussock grass " (Dactylis caespitosa) have been objects of curiosity and interest ever since the first accounts of the islands were given.
It is of beautiful appearance, and the almost tropical profusion of its growth may have led to the early erroneous reports of the densely-wooded nature of these islands.
The Falkland Islands Company, having its headquarters at Stanley and an important station in the camp at Darwin, carries on an extensive business in sheep-farming and the dependent industries, and in the general import trade.
A former trade in oil and sealskin has decayed, owing to the smaller number of whales and seals remaining about the islands.
The government maintains schools and travelling teachers; the Falkland Islands Company also maintains a school at Darwin, and there is one for those of the Roman Catholic faith in Stanley.
The Falkland Islands were first seen by Davis in the year 1592, and Sir Richard Hawkins sailed along their north shore in 1594 The claims of Amerigo Vespucci to a previous discovery are doubtful.
In 1598 Sebald de Wert, a Dutchman, visited them, and called them the Sebald Islands, a name which they bear on some Dutch maps.
Captain Strong sailed through between the two principal islands in 1690, landed upon one of them, and called the passage Falkland Sound, and from this the group afterwards took its English name.
In 1764 the French explorer De Bougainville took possession of the islands on behalf of his country, and established a colony at Port Louis on Berkeley Sound.
But in 1767 France ceded the islands to Spain, De Bougainville being employed as intermediary.
In 1771, however, Spain yielded the islands to Great Britain by convention.
As they had not been actually colonized by England, the republic of Buenos Aires claimed the group in 1820, and subsequently entered into a dispute with the United States of America concerning the rights to the products of these islands.
On the representations of Great Britain the Buenos Aireans withdrew, and the British flag was once more hoisted at Port Louis in 1833, and since that time the Falkland Islands have been a regular British colony.
In 1851 Mr Lafone's interest in Lafonia, as the peninsula came to be called, was purchased for £30,000 by the Falkland Islands Company, which had been incorporated by charter in the same year.
Johnson, Thoughts on the late Transactions respecting Falkland's Islands (1771); L.
Falkner, Description of Patagonia and the Falkland Islands (1774); B.
Penrose, Account of the last Expedition to Port Egmont in the Falkland Islands (1775); Observations on the Forcible Occupation of Malvinas by the British Government in 1833 (Buenos Ayres, 1833); Reclamacion del Gobierno de las provincias Unidas de la Plata contra el de S.
Sullivan, Description of the Falkland Islands (1849); W.
Hadfield, Brazil, the Falkland Islands, &c. (1854); W.
Among the measures and events distinguishing his term as president were the following: The meeting of the Pan-American Congress at Washington; the passage of the McKinley Tariff Bill and of the Sherman Silver Bill of 1890; the suppressing of the Louisiana Lottery; the enlargement of the navy; further advance in civil service reform; the convocation by the United States of an international monetary conference; the establishment of commercial reciprocity with many countries of America and Europe; the peaceful settlement of a controversy with Chile; the negotiation of a Hawaiian Annexation Treaty, which, however, before its ratification, his successor withdrew from the Senate; the settlement of difficulties with Germany concerning the Samoan Islands, and the adjustment by arbitration with Great Britain of the Bering Sea fur-seal question.
(For Map, see Pacific Ocean.) It consists of 14 islands forming a slightly curved chain from W.
of its nearest neighbour, and therefore scarcely belongs geographically to the group, all the islands are considerably elevated, with several extinct or quiescent craters rising from 2000 ft.
- The German islands form a crown colony.
The United States, on assuming sovereignty over Tutuila and the islands E.
Cultivation has been extended under European and American rule, and in 1904 the exports from the German islands had reached a value of 83,750, and those from the American islands of is'4200.
It is generally considered that the Manua group was sighted by the Dutch navigator Jacob Roggeveen in 1722, and named by him the Baaumann islands after the captain of one of his ships.
Louis de Bougainville obtained a fuller acquaintance with the archipelago in 1768, and called them the Navigators' Islands (Iles des Navigateurs) .
La Perouse was among the islands in 1787, and on Tutuila lost some of his crew in a conflict with some natives of Upolu visiting the island.
The islands, especially Upolu, now began to attract American and European (mostly German) capitalists, and the Hamburg firm of J.
Americans and Europeans began to discuss the question of annexation, recognizing the importance of the geographical position of the islands.
Great Britain followed suit, but under a political arrangement between the powers no single power was to appropriate the islands.
A conference between the three powers was thereupon held at Berlin, and a treaty was executed by those powers and by Samoa, on the 14th of June 1889, by virtue of which the independence and autonomy of the islands were guaranteed, Malietoa was restored as king, and the three powers constituted themselves practically a protectorate over Samoa, and provided a chief justice and a president of the municipality of Apia, to be appointed by them, to aid in carrying out the provisions of the treaty.
The situation, however, was found to be so complicated and embarrassing that, early in 1900, the so-called Berlin treaty was abrogated, Great Britain withdrew her claims to any portion of the islands and received compensation from Germany by concessions in other parts of the world, and the United States withdrew from all the islands W.
MACABEBE, a town of the province of Pampanga, island of Luzon, Philippine Islands, on the Pampanga Grande river, about 10 m.
The coast is fringed by numerous islands, in some instances separated only by narrow straits from the mainland.
172) believed the Caunians to have been aborigines, the Carians having been originally called Leleges, who had been driven from the Aegean islands by the invading Greeks.
When it was known that Admiral Cervera, with a Spanish fleet, had left the Cape Verde Islands, Sampson withdrew a force from the blockade to cruise in the Windward Passage, and made an attack upon the forts at San Juan, Porto Rico.
PONZA (anc. Pontiae), the principal of a small group of islands belonging to Italy.
The islands rise to a height of about 70 ft.
The cordage works are among the largest in the world, and consume immense quantities of sisal fibre imported from Mexico and manila from the Philippine Islands; binder-twine for binding wheat is one of the principal products.
In 1900 he was asked by President McKinley to accept the presidency of the Philippine Commission charged with the administration of the islands.
On the establishment of civil government in the islands, on the 4th of July 1901, he became governor, ex officio.
He has pointed out that certain areas and certain islands are entirely free from the disease, while neighbouring areas and islands are devastated.
SAN' 'MIGUEL DE MAYUMO, a town of the province of Bulacan, Luzon, Philippine Islands, about 40 m.
His next publication was Observations on the Ancient and Present State of the Islands of Scilly, and their Importance to the Trade of Great Britain (Oxford, 1756).1756).
In 1154 the diocese of Sodor was formed to include the Hebrides and other islands west of Scotland.
The Norwegian connexion was broken in 1266, and in 1334 Man was detached from the Scottish islands.
Caimi the present Jewish communities of Greece are divisible into five groups: (r) Arta (Epirus); (2) Chalcis (Euboea); (3) Athens (Attica); (4) Volo, Larissa and Trikala (Thessaly); and (5) Corfu and Zante (Ionian Islands).
TONGA, Or Friendly Islands (So called by Captain Cook), an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about 350 m.
Next to these come the coral islands Nomuka and Lifuka in the Hapai group; Tofua, 2846 ft., Late or Lette, 1800 ft.
It is along the western side of the northern half of the chain that the line of volcanic action is apparent; the islands here (of which some are active volcanoes) are lofty.
The majority of the Tonga Islands, however, are level, averaging 40 ft.
high, with hills rising to 600 ft.; their sides are generally steep. The surface is covered with a rich mould unusual in coral islands, mixed towards the sea with sand, and having a substratum of red or blue clay.
Barrier reefs are rare; fringing reefs are numerous, except on the east side, which is nearly free, and there are many small isolated reefs and volcanic banks among the islands.
From 1845 to 1857 volcanic eruptions were very violent, and islands once fertile were devastated and nearly destroyed.
Some of the islands are built of volcanic rocks alone; such are Hongu-tonga and Hongu-hapai, which appear to be fragments of a single ancient crater, Tofua, Kao, Late, Metis, Amargua and Falcon Island.
Another group of islands consists of elevated masses of submarine volcanic deposits, upon some of which coral-reef limestone forms a more or less complete covering; such are Tonumeia and the Nomuka group (Mango, Tonua, Nomuka-iki).
All the volcanic rocks of these islands are submarine stratified tuffs which are penetrated here and there by andesite or diabase dikes.
Ferns abound, some of them peculiar, and tree ferns on the higher islands, and all the usual fruit trees and cultivated plants of the Pacific are found.
The natives, a branch of the Polynesian race, are the most progressive and most intellectual in the Pacific Islands, except the Hawaiians.
east, and to various other islands to the north.
This preeminence may perhaps be due to an early infusion of Fijian blood: it has been observed that such crosses are always more vigorous than the pure races in these islands; and this influence seems also traceable in the Tongan dialect, and appears to have been partially transmitted thence to the Samoan.
In 1777 Cook returned, and stayed seven weeks among the islands.
See Captain Cook's Voyages and other early narratives; Martin, Mariner's account of the Tonga Islands (Edinburgh, 1827); Vason, Four Years in Tongatabu (London, 1815); A.
from Cape Krio in Asia Minor, the interval being partly filled by the islands of Carpathos and Rhodes; its north-western, Cape Grabusa, is within 60 m.
Of the islands in the neighbourhood of the Cretan coast the largest is Gavdo (ancient Clauda, Acts xxvii.
Three small islands on the northern coast - Grabusa at the N.W.
Crete, like several other large islands, enjoys immunity from dangerous serpents - a privilege ascribed by popular belief to the intercession of Titus, the companion of St Paul, who according to tradition was the first bishop of the island, and became in consequence its patron saint.
The culture of Cyprus the more northerly Aegean islands, best revealed to us and by the excavations of the British School at Phylakopi N.
Thus they took no part either in the Persian or in the Peloponnesian War, or in any of the subsequent civil contests in which so many of the cities and islands of Greece were engaged.
The allied powers (France, England and Russia) decided, however, that Crete should not be included amongst the islands annexed to the newly-formed kingdom of Greece; but recognizing that some change was necessary, they obtained from the sultan Mahmud II.
Tozer, The Islands of the Aegean (Oxford, 1890); J.
coast consists of bluffs, indented with bays and bordered by several islands, the larger ones being Cozumel (where Cortes first landed), Cancum, Mujeres and Contoy.
Pascagoula and Point aux Chenes bays; separated from it by the shallow and practically unnavigable Mississippi Sound is a chain of low, long and narrow sand islands, the largest of which are Petit Bois, Horn, Ship and Cat.
Between Hatteras and Lookout is Raleigh Bay and between Lookout and Fear is Onslow Bay; and between the chain of islands and the deeply indented mainland Currituck, Albemarle, Pamlico and other sounds form an extensive area, especially to the northward, of shallow, brackish and almost tideless water.
The harbours along the sounds and in the estuaries of the rivers are well protected from the storms of the ocean by the long chain of narrow islands in front, but navigation by the largest vessels is interrupted by shoals in the sounds, and especially by bars crossing the inlets between islands.
On the east and south-east of Asia are several important groups of islands, the more southern of which link this continent to Australia, and to the islands of the Pacific. The Kurile Islands, the Japanese group, Luchu, Formosa and the Philippines, may be regarded as unquestionable outliers of Asia.
Between the islands of the Malay archipelago from Sumatra to New Guinea, and the neighbouring Asiatic continent, no definite relations appear ever to have existed, and no distinctly marked boundary for Asia has been established by the old geographers in this quarter.
South of this enclosed depression is another great hydrographic barrier which parts it from the low plains of the Amur, of China, Siam and India, bordered by the shallows of the Yellow Sea and the shoals which enclose the islands of Japan and Formosa, all of them once an integral part of the continent.
Of the islands in the Bay of Bengal the Nicobar and Andaman groups are alone worth notice.
The Laccadives and Maldives are groups of small coral islands, situated along the 73rd meridian, at no great distance from the Indian peninsula, on which they have a political dependency.
Sumatra, the largest of the islands, is but thinly peopled; the greater part of the surface is covered with dense forest, the cultivated area being comparatively small, confined to the low lands, and chiefly in the volcanic region near the centre of the island.
The eastern islands of this group are less productive and less advanced.
Borneo, the most western and the largest of the northern group of islands which extends between 110° and 150° E., as far as New Guinea or Papua, is but little known.
The Pacific Islands.
The inhabitants are of the Negrito type, with curly or crisp and bushy hair; those of the west coast have come more into communication with the traders of other islands and are fairly civilized.
The Philippine Islands lie between 5° and 20° N., between Borneo and southern China.
The highest land does not rise to a greater height than 10,250 ft.; the climate is well suited for agriculture, and the islands generally are fertile and fairly cultivated, though not coming up to the standard of Java either in wealth or population.
The islands of Japan, not including Sakhalin, of which half is Japanese, lie between the 30th and 45th parallels.
Miles made his adventurous journey through Oman, while Theodore Bent threw searchlights backwards into ancient Semitic history by his investigations in the Bahrein Islands in 1888 and in Hadramut in 1894 - 181n northern Asia it is impossible to follow in detail the results of the organized Russian surveys.
Besides the three chief regions into which the mainland is thus seen to be divided, attention should be drawn to the festoons of islands which border the eastern side of the continent, and which are undoubtedly due to causes similar to those which produced the folds of the folded belt.
The present outline of the eastern coast and the nearly enclosed seas which lie between the islands and the mainland, are attributed by Richthofen chiefly to simple faulting.
In all these cases, however, the eruptions have now almost ceased; and the great volcanoes of the present day lie in the islands off the eastern and south-eastern coasts.
The moderating effect of the proximity of the ocean is felt in an important degree along the southern and eastern parts of Asia, where the land is broken up into islands or peninsulas.
Among the islands of the Malay Archipelago the force of the monsoons is much interrupted, and the position of this region on the equator otherwise modifies the directions of the prevailing winds.
The China Sea is fully exposed to both monsoons, the normal directions of which nearly coincide with the centre of the channel between the continent of Asia and the eastern islands.
The cyclones of the Bay of Bengal appear to originate over the Andaman and Nicobar islands, and are commonly propagated in a north-westward direction, striking the east coast of the Indian peninsula at various points, and then often advancing with an easterly tendency over the land, and passing with extreme violence across the delta of the Ganges.
In the islands under the equator the heaviest fall is between October and February.
The truly tropical flora of the hotter and wetter regions of eastern India is continuous with that of the Malayan peninsula and islands, and extends along the lower ranges of the Himalaya, gradually becoming less marked and rising to lower elevations as we go westward, where the rainfall diminishes and the winter cold increases.
The whole number of species of plants indigenous in the region of south-eastern Asia, which includes India and the Malayan peninsula and islands, from about the 65th to the 105th meridian, was estimated by Sir J.
In southern India, and the other parts of Asia and of the islands having a similar climate, the difference of the winter and summer half-years is not sufficient to admit of the proper cultivation of wheat or barley.
On the west its limit is in the Cape Verde Islands, and it is partially represented in Abyssinia.
On the other islands similar characteristics are to be observed, Australian genera extending to the Philippines, and even to southern China.
The south-eastern portion of Asia, with the adjacent islands of Sumatra, Java, Borneo and the Philippines, form his Indian region.
Celebes, Papua, and the other islands east of Java beyond Wallace's line, fall within the Australian region.
Nearly three-fourths of the well-known species of Europe extend through Siberia into the islands of the Japanese empire.
The occurrence of mammals of the Marsupial order in the Molucca Islands and Celebes, while none have been found in the adjacent islands of Java and Borneo, lying on the west of Wallace's line, or in the Indian region, shows that the margin of the Australian region has here been reached.
The birds of these islands present similar peculiarities.
The insects of all southern Asia, including India south of the Himalaya, China, Siam and the Malayan Islands, belong to one.
S.) Ethnology Asia, including its outlying islands, has become the dwelling-place of all the great families into which the races of men have been divided.
In general terms they extend, with modifications of character probably due to admixture with other types and to varying conditions of life, over the whole of northern Asia as far south as the plains bordering the Caspian Sea, including Tibet and China, and also over the IndoMalayan peninsula and Archipelago, excepting Papua and some of the more eastern islands.
The Malays, who occupy the peninsula and most of the islands of the Archipelago called after them, are Mongols apparently modified by their very different climate, and by the maritime life Malays.
Japan appears to have been formerly inhabited by the Ainus, who have traditions of an older but unknown population, but was invaded in prehistoric times by a race akin to the Koreans, which was possibly mingled with Malay elements after occupying the southern part of the islands.
At present it occupies the extremity of the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines and other islands of the Malay Archipelago as well as Madagascar, while the inhabitants of most islands in the South Seas, including New Zealand and Hawaii, speak languages which if not Malay have at least undergone a strong Malay influence.
In the second, Hindu civilization reached the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and other islands.
At the end of the Napoleonic wars Portugal had Macao and Goa, Holland Java, Sumatra and other islands, France some odds and ends in India, while England emerged with Hong Kong, Singapore, Ceylon and a free hand in India.
Off the west coast, which is very irregular, lie the islands of Riigen, Usedom and Wollin; the coast of Farther Pomerania is smooth in outline and is bordered with dunes, or sandbanks.
By 1102, however, Zara, Trail, Spalato and all the islands as far as the Cetina were in his hands.
An exploring party from Jamestown, under command of Captain Christopher Newport (c. 1565-1617), and including Captain John Smith, sailed up the James river in 1607, and on the 3rd of June erected a cross on one of the small islands opposite the site of the present city.
The distribution between the two islands of such important crops of arable land as cereals and potatoes is indicated in Table V.
Table XIII., in which the totals for the United Kingdom include those for the Channel Islands and Isle of Man, illustrates the preponderance of the sheep-breeding industry in the drier climate of Great Britain, and of the cattle-breeding industry in the more humid atmosphere of Ireland.
1 Including Channel Islands and Isle of Man.
Animals from the Channel Islands may be landed at Southampton.
The independence of the Ionian Isles (now reconstituted as the Republic of the Seven Islands) was guaranteed.
For the present the connivance of the senate at his coup d'etat of Nivose led to the deportation of one hundred and thirty Jacobins; some were interned in the islands of the Bay of Biscay, while fifty were sent to the tropical colonies of France, whence few of them ever returned.
The family of Carteret was settled in the Channel Islands, and was of Norman descent.
Ludwig Ross, by his explorations in the Greek islands from 1835 onwards, called attention to certain early intaglios, since known as Inselsteine; but it was not till 1878 that C. T.
Certain central Aegean islands, Antiparos, Ios, Amorgos, Syros and Siphnos, were all found to be singularly rich in evidence of the middle-Aegean period.
Sturdee, off the Falkland Islands, of the German squadron which had defeated Cradock, and by a successful action under Adml.
The study of the Hexapoda of oceanic islands is full of interest.
The area contains seven small islands and is about 15 m.
His opportunities of becoming acquainted with birds were hardly inferior to Brisson's, for during Latham's long lifetime there poured in upon him countless new discoveries from all parts of the world, but especially from the newly-explored shores of Australia and the islands of the Pacific Ocean.
It is almost certain that more than half the zoologists of the British Islands for many years past have been infected with their love of the study of Gilbert White; and it can hardly be supposed that his influence will cease.
Still it seems advisable to furnish some connected account of the progress made in the ornithological knowledge of the British Islands and those parts of the European continent which lie nearest to them or are most commonly sought by travellers, the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America, South Africa, India, together with Australia and New Zealand.
Before considering the ornithological works relating solely to the British Islands, it may be well to cast a glance on a few of those that refer to Europe in general, the more so since most of them are of Continental origin.
The centre of her worship was Cydonia, whence it extended to Sparta and Aegina (where she was known as Aphaea) and the islands of the Mediterranean.
FELANI' X, or Felaniche, a town of Spain, in the south-east of the island of Majorca, Balearic Islands; about 5 m.
All three are dotted with small islands, possibly the remains of some earlier lido.
These islands are little else than low mud banks, barely rising above the water-level.
Yet the group of islands called Rialto, in mid-Venetian lagoon, were first the asylum and then the magnificent and permanent home of a race that took a prominent part in the medieval and Renaissance history of Europe.
It has frequently been said that the lagoon population was originally composed of refugees from the mainland seeking asylum from the incursions of Huns,, Goths and Lombards; but it is more probable that, long before the date of the earliest barbarian inroad, the lagoon islands already had a population of fisherfolk.
Groups of dwellings, such as are still to be seen on some of the small canals at Burano, clustered together along the banks of the deeper channels which traverse the lagoon islands and give access to the tide.
Ferries or traghetti for crossing the canals were also established as early as the 13th century; we find record of ferries at San Gregorio, San Felice, San Toma, San Samuele, and so on, and also of longer ferries to the outlying islands like Murano and Chioggia, or to the mainland at Mestre and Fusina.
There are thirty parishes in the city of Venice and fifteen in the lagoon islands and on the littoral.
But it is nearly certain that long before Attila and his Huns swept down upon the Venetian plain the little islands of the lagoon already had a population of poor but hardy fisherfolk living in quasi-independence, thanks to their poverty and their inaccessible site.
On each occasion, no doubt, some of the refugees remained behind in the islands, and gradually built and peopled the twelve lagoon townships, which formed the germ of the state of Venice and were subsequently concentrated at Rialto or in the city we now know as Venice.
Their maritime importance compelled Narses, the imperial commander, to seek their aid in transporting his army from Grado; and when the Paduans appealed to the Eunuch to restore their rights over the Brenta, the Venetians replied by declaring that islands of the lagoon and the river mouths that fell into the estuary were the property of those who had rendered them habitable and serviceable.
But the Venetians, in face of the danger, once more removed their capital, this time to Rialto, that group of islands we now call Venice, lying in mid-lagoon between the lidi and the mainland.
To her fell the Cyclades, the Sporades, the islands and the eastern shores of the Adriatic, the shores of the Propontis and the Euxine, and the littoral of Thessaly, and she bought Crete from the marquis of Monferrat.
She now commanded the Adriatic, the Ionian islands, the archipelago, the Sea of Marmora and the Black Sea, the trade route between Constantinople and western Europe, and she had already established herself in the seaports of Syria, and thus held the trade route between Asia Minor and Europe.
In order to hold these possessions, she borrowed from the Franks the feudal system, and granted fiefs in the Greek islands to her more powerful families, on condition that they held the trade route open for her.
In this vicinity also are various small islands of limestone formation which are attractive summer resorts.
Another class of nocturnal demons are the incubi and succubi, who are said to consort with human beings in their sleep; in the Antilles these were the ghosts of the dead; in New Zealand likewise ancestral deities formed liaisons with females; in the Samoan Islands the inferior gods were regarded as the fathers of children otherwise unaccounted for; the Hindus have rites prescribed by which a companion nymph may be secured.
There are a number of islands on the lake.
All the lakes of the series are shut in by high mountains, those surrounding Lake Abai, together with the islands with which its surface is broken, being clothed with luxuriant vegetation.
The harbour islands, three of which have been ceded to the United States for the purpose of fortification, are numerous, and render the navigation of the shipping channels difficult and easily guarded.
The islands in the harbour, now bare, were for the most part heavily wooded when first occupied.
Castle Island has been fortified since the earliest days; Fort Independence, on this island, and Forts Winthrop and Warren on neighbouring islands, constitute permanent harbour defences.
BINMALEY, a town of the province of Pangasinfin, Luzon, Philippine Islands, on the delta of the Agno river, about 5 m.
The home of the common mackerel (to which the following remarks refer) is the North Atlantic, from the Canary Islands to the Orkneys, and from the Mediterranean and the Black Sea and the coasts of Norway to the United States.
In the month of February, or in some years as early as the end of January, the first large schools appear at the entrance of the English Channel, and are met by the more adventurous of the driftnet fishers many miles west of the Scilly Islands.
Except in the extreme north and south, and on the tops of the highest mountains, where there is no insect life as food supply, spiders are found all over the world, even in isolated oceanic islands.
The possession of silk-glands has also profoundly influenced the geographical distribution of spiders and has enabled them to cross arms of the sea and establish themselves on isolated oceanic islands which most of the orders of Arachnida are unable to reach.
The form C which it takes in the alphabets of Naxos, Delos and other Ionic islands at the same period is difficult to explain.
A hurriedly equipped fleet sent out from Carthage under Hanno was intercepted by the praetor Publius Valerius Falto and totally defeated (battle of the Aegates Islands, March io, 241).
Whatever may be its true botanical name it is the plant known in commerce as " Sea Island " cotton, owing to its introduction and successful cultivation in the Sea Islands and the coastal districts of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
A more elaborate method of selection is practised by some of the Sea Island cotton planters in the Sea Islands, famous for the quality of their cotton.
This method is in actual use by growers of Sea Island cotton in America and in the islands off the coast of S.
Mr Webber, in summing up, says, " When Sea Island cotton was first introduced into the United States from the West Indies, it was a perennial plant, unsuited to the duration of the season of the latitude of the Sea Islands of S.
British West Indies.-Cotton was cultivated as a minor crop in parts of the West Indies as long ago as the 17th century, and at the opening of the 18th century the islands supplied about 70% of all the cotton used in Great Britain.
A supply of seed of a high grade of Sea Island cotton was obtained from Colonel Rivers's estate in the Sea Islands, S.
Carolina, and so successful has the cultivation been that from some of the islands West Indian Sea Island cotton obtains a Taken with some modifications from the Agricultural News (1907), vi.
higher price than the corresponding grade of cotton from the Sea Islands themselves.
The table indicates the chief cottonproducing islands, the acreage in each, yield, average value per pound and total value of the crop in 1905-1906.
In 1906-1907 the acreage was substantially increased in many of the islands, e.g.
Into the Society Islands Sea Island cotton was introduced about 1860-1870.
DRUIDISM, the name usually given to the religious system of the ancient inhabitants of Gaul and the British Islands.
When we turn to the British Islands we find, as we should expect, no traces of the Druids in England and Wales after the conquest of Anglesea mentioned above, except in the story of Vortigern as recounted by Nennius.
France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Rumania, Turkey-in-Europe, Styria, Slavonia, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Lower Austria, Wurttemberg, Brandenberg, West Prussia, Crimea, Kuban, Terek, Kutais, Tiflis, Elizabetpol, Siberia, Transcaspia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Assam, Burma, Anam, Japan, Philippine Islands, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Algeria, Egypt, British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, California, Colorado, Texas, Louisiana, Barbados, Trinidad, Venezuela, Peru, South Australia, Victoria, New Zealand.
Then came the reconquest of the Mediterranean islands near Italy.
After thus gaining a new footing in Tyre, the Venetians could afford to attack the islands of the Aegean as they returned, in revenge for the loss of their privileges in Constantinople; but the hostility between Venice and the Eastern empire was soon afterwards appeased, when John Comnenus restored the old privileges of the Venetians.
Venice had her own reward; a Venetian, Thomas Morosini, became patriarch; and the doge of Venice added "a quarter and a half" of the Eastern empire - chiefly the coasts and the islands - to the sphere of his sway.
Windward Islands >>
The Florida Keys, a chain of islands extending in a general south-westerly direction from Biscayne Bay, are included in the state boundaries, and the city of Key West, on an island of the same name, is the seat of justice of Monroe county.
Along much of the western coast and along nearly the whole of the eastern coast extends a line of sand reefs and narrow islands, enclosing shallow and narrow bodies of water, such as Indian river and Lake Worth - called rivers, lakes, lagoons, bays and harbours.
Admiralty Islands >>
Cerigo, but still officially known as Cythera), one of the Ionian islands, situated not less than i 50 m.
Less of the ground is cultivated and more of it is in pasture land than in any other of the seven islands.
Its modern history has been very much the same as that of the other Ionian islands; but it was subject to Venice for a much shorter period - from 1717 to 1797.
Broadly speaking, all the brown races which inhabit the portion of Asia south of Siam and Indo-China, and the islands from the Philippines to Java, and from Sumatra to Timor, may be described as belonging to the Malayan family, if the aboriginal tribes, such as the Sakai and Semang in the Malay Peninsula, the Bataks in Sumatra, and the Muruts in Borneo, be excepted.
These people inhabit the whole of the Malayan Peninsula to the borders of lower Siam, the islands in the vicinity of the mainland, the shores of Sumatra and some portions of the interior of that island, Sarawak and Brunei in Borneo, and some parts of Dutch Borneo, Batavia and certain districts in Java, and some of the smaller islands of the archipelago.
It might also be anticipated, were the theory of a southward immigration to be sustained, that the Malays would be new-comers in the islands of the archipelago, and have their oldest settlements on the Malayan Peninsula.
John Crawfurd, in the Dissertation to his Dictionary of the Malay Language, published in 1840, noted the prevalence of Malayan terms in the Polynesian languages, and attributed the fact to the casting away of ships manned by Malays upon the islands of the Polynesian Archipelago.
It has been suggested that their separation did not take place until after the continent which once existed in the north Pacific had become submerged, and that the Malays wandered northward, while the Polynesian race spread itself over the islands of the southern archipelago.
In the islands of Bali and Lombok the people still profess a form of Hinduism, and Hindu remains are to be found in many other parts of the archipelago, though their traces do not extend to the peninsula.
The area over which it is spoken comprises the peninsula of Malacca with the adjacent islands (the Rhio-Lingga Archipelago), the greater part of the coast districts of Sumatra and Borneo, the seaports of Java, the Sunda and Banda Islands.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.