Islam is paramount in Turkey, Persia, Arabia and Afghanistan.
In the neighbourhood of the Moslem capitals, Islam spread rapidly, but in such districts as Rajputana and specially Vijayanagar (Mysore) Hindu civilization and religion maintained themselves.
Two of the greatest religions of the world, Christianity and Islam, are Semitic in origin, as well as Judaism.
Islam, on the other hand, had no theoretic place in its scheme for tolerated religions; its principle was fundamentally intolerant.
Even more than Buddhism Islam has carried with it a special style of art and civilization.
Of late years, however, there has been a gradual assimilation of broader views by the leaders of Islam in Turkey, at any rate at Constantinople, and the revolution of 1908, and its affirmation in the spring of 1909, took place not only with their approval, but with their active assistance.
When they first appeared in Europe they were idolaters or Shamanists, and as such they had naturally no religious fanaticism; but even when they adopted Islam they remained as tolerant as before, and the khan of the Golden Horde (Berkai) who first became a Mussulman allowed the Russians to found a Christian bishopric in his capital.
But by the 10th century Judaism had received from Islam something more than persecution.
Of the old fort erected by Islam Khan, who in 1608 was appointed nawab of Bengal, and removed his capital from Rajmahal to Dacca, no vestige remains; but the jail is built on a portion of its site.
There is no doubt that the disintegration caused by monophysitism largely facilitated the rapid and easy victory of Islam in Syria and Egypt.
Notwithstanding the abandonment of Christianity by a large section of the population after the Turkish conquest, the authority of the sultans was never effectively established, and succeeding centuries present a record of interminable conflicts between the tribesmen and the Turks, between the Christians and the converts to Islam, or between all combined and the traditional Montenegrin enemy.
CADI (gddi), a judge in a malikama or Mahommedan ecclesiastical court, in which decisions are rendered on the basis of the canon law of Islam (shari `a).
There are in or near Bagdad a few remains of a period antedating Islam, the most conspicuous of which are the ruins of the palace of Chosroes at Ctesiphon or Madain, about 1 5 m.
Thus they are mainly responsible for the introduction of Islam with its Arabic or Persian civilization into India and Europe, and in earlier times their movements facilitated the infiltration of Graeco-Bactrian civilization into India, besides maintaining communication between China and the West.
The Caliphate, though Arabian, was always geographically outside Arabia, and on its fall Arabia remained as it was before Islam, isolated and inaccessible.
Islam has twice obtained a footing in Europe, under the Arabs in Spain and under the Turks at Constantinople.
And as the Bagdad caliphate tended to become more and more supreme in Islam, so the gaonate too shared in this increased influence.
Looking at eastern Europe and western Asia only, one must say that Asiatic influences have on the whole prevailed hitherto (though perhaps the tide is turning), for Islam is paramount in this region and European culture at a low ebb.
The Aristotelian school in Islam did not speak with one voice upon the question; Avicenna declared the soul immortal, but Averroes assumes only the eternity of the universal intellect.
(c) Mahommedanism or Islam is perhaps the greatest transforming force which the world has seen.
It has entirely escaped Islam, and though it is a nominal vassal of China, direct Chinese influence has not been strong.
A recollection of the manifold forms which religious life and thought have taken in Christendom or in Islam, and the passions which are so easily engendered among opposing sects, will prevent a one-sided estimate of the religious standpoints which the writings betray; and to the recognition that they represent lofty ideals it must be added that the great prophets, like all great thinkers, were in advance of their age.
is the dividing line: Islam is strong in northern and central India, weaker in the south.
After their conversion to Islam they began building forts, several of which are mentioned in Russian annals.
This mullah, Mahommed bin Abdullah by name, had made several pilgrimages to Mecca, where he had attached himself to a sect which enjoined strict observance of the tenets of Islam and placed an interdiction on the use of the leaves of the kat plant - much sought after by the coast Arabs and Somali for their stimulating and intoxicating properties.
Polygamy is almost unknown, possibly because many of the "Turks" are descended from the austere Bogomils, who were, in most cases, converted to Islam, but more probably because the "Turks" are as a rule too poor to provide for more than one wife on the scale required by Islamic law.
Abd-ul-Hamid had always resisted the pressure of the European Powers to the last moment, in order to seem to yield only to overwhelming force, while posing as the champion of Islam against aggressive Christendom.
Two years later came a most formidable outbreak; the sultan was denounced as false to Islam, and the Bosnian nobles gathered at Banjaluka, determined to march on Constantinople, and reconquer the Ottoman empire for the true faith.
The sultan also acquired from him the sacred banner and other relics of the founder of Islam, which have since been preserved in the Seraglio at Constantinople.
But it made no progress in Indo-China or Japan; and though there is a large Moslem population in China the Chinese influence has been stronger, for alone of all Asiatics the Chinese have succeeded in forcing Islam to accept the ordinary limitations of a religion and to take its place as a creed parallel to Buddhism or any other.
External influences and latent fanaticism were active; a serious insurrection broke out in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875, and the efforts to quell it almost exhausted Turkey's resources; the example spread to Bulgaria, where abortive outbreaks in September 1875 and May 1876 led to those cruel measures of repression which were known as " the Bulgarian atrocities," 3 Mussulman public feeling was inflamed, and an attempt at Salonica to induce a Christian girl who had embraced Islam to return to her faith caused the murder of two foreign consuls by a fanatical mob.
But Islam has often shown itself milder in fact than in theory, for its laws were made to be broken.
But during all this period the caliphs continued to be the religious heads of Islam and their residence its capital.
But Yahwism, like Islam, had its sects and tendencies, and the opponents to the stricter ritualism always had followers.
There are no Malay manuscripts extant, no monumental records with inscriptions in Malay, dating from before the spreading of Islam in the archipelago, about the end of the 13th century.
a Malay, and Orang Islam, i.e.
In 922, when they were converted to Islam, Ibn Foslan found them not quite nomadic, and already having some permanent settlements and houses in wood.
In Spain and North Africa persecution created that strange and significant phenomenon Maranism or crypto-Judaism, a public acceptance of Islam or Christianity combined with a private fidelity to the rites of Judaism.
Our data are nowhere so full as for India; where they are comparatively abundant they refer either to a civilized or semicivilized people, or to an area, like West Africa, where the influence of Islam has introduced a disturbing element.
Yet Buddhism has never made much impression west of India, and Islam is clearly repugnant to Europeans, for even when under Moslem rule (as in Turkey) they refuse to accept it in a far larger proportion than did the Hindus in similar circumstances.
As in Spanish Islam, so in the lands of the eastern caliphate, the Jews were treated relatively with favour.
The sultan remains the spiritual head of Islam, and Islam is the state religion, but it has no other distinctive or theocratic character.
The Panislamic propaganda was encouraged; the privileges of foreigners in the Ottoman Empire - of ten an obstacle to government - were curtailed; the new railway to the Holy Places was pressed on, and emissaries were sent to distant countries preaching Islam and the caliph's supremacy.
On the one hand, a sweeping invasion of all the tribes of Israel moved by a common zeal may, like the conquests of Islam, have produced permanent results.
It was the religious capital of all Islam, and the political capital of the greater part of it, at a time when Islam bore the same relation to civilization which Christendom does to-day.
With the capture of the city by the Mongols, under Hulagu (Hulaku), the grandson of Jenghiz Khan, in 1258, and the extinction of the Abbasid caliphate of Bagdad, its importance as the religious centre of Islam passed away, and it ceased to be a city of the first rank, although the glamour of its former grandeur still clung to it, so that even to-day in Turkish official documents it is called the "glorious city."
- The Arabs have hardly any history before the rise of Islam, although their name is mentioned by surrounding nations from the 9th century B.C. onwards.
It was, however, superseded by Islam, which spread to the Malay Archipelago and Peninsula before the 16th century.
The middle ages saw geographical knowledge die out in Christendom, although it retained, through the Arabic translations of Ptolemy, a certain vitality in Islam.
Judaism in Islam.
Sufism (q.v.) appears in the 9th century among the Mahommedans of Persia as a kind of reaction against the rigid monotheism and formalism of Islam.
Modern missions have made no great conquests there, and in earlier times the Nestorians and Jacobites who penetrated to central Asia, China and India, received respectful hearing, but never had anything like the success which attended Buddhism and Islam.
On the Arab invasion this work was in great danger of perishing at the hands of the iconclastic caliph Omar and his generals, but it was fortunately preserved; and we find it in the 2nd century of the Hegira being paraphrased in Arabic by Abdallah ibn el Mokaffa, a learned Persian who had embraced Islam.
Abdallah, was converted from Zoroastrianism to Islam.
The Chanson de Roland, which cannot be posterior to the First Crusade - for the poem never alludes to it - already contains the idea of the Holy War against Islam.
Generally speaking the Arabic writings are late in point of date, and cold and jejune in style; while it must also be remembered that they are set religious works written to defend Islam.
The bulk of the population is Mahommedan; the Bedouins have not much religion of any kind, but they profess Islam.
Besides orthodox Moslems there are also Shi`ite sects, as well as a number of religious communities whose doctrine is the outcome of the process of fermentation that characterized the first centuries of Islam.
'BAIRAM, a Perso-Turkish word meaning "festival," applied in Turkish to the two principal festivals of Islam.
The administration of the state revenues was managed by a government department known as the Beit-ul-Mal or Maliye, terms generally employed throughout Islamic countries since the commencement of Islam.
The Tatars Treaty of from the frontier of Poland to the shores of the Kuchuk Caspian, including those of the Crimea and Kuban, were declared independent under their own khan 1774' of the race of Jenghiz, saving only the religious rights of the sultan as caliph of Islam.
The writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia had become well known in the West, especially since the strife over the "three chapters" (544-553), and the opposition of Islam also partly determined the form of men's views on the doctrine of Christ's person.
His Literary Remains, edited by Lady Strangford, were published in 1874, consisting of nineteen papers on such subjects as "The Talmud," "Islam," "Semitic Culture," "Egypt, Ancient and Modern," "Semitic Languages," "The Targums," "The Samaritan Pentateuch," and "Arabic Poetry."
In the latter part of the 8th century Mer y became obnoxious to Islam as the centre of heretical propaganda preached by Mokanna.
In Islam fate is an absolute power, known as Kismet, or Nasib, which is conceived as inexorable and transcending all the physical laws of the universe.
Rank has accounted for much, and ceremonial dress - the apparel Romans, naturally left its mark, and there have been ages of increasing luxury followed by periods of reaction, with a general levelling and nationalization on religious grounds (Judaism, Islam).
In fact the whole Samaj movement is as distinct a product of the contest of Hinduism with Christianity in the 19th century, as the Panth movement was of its contest with Islam 300 years earlier.
He wrote on philosophy also, and in both subjects acquired the highest reputation through the whole of eastern Islam.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to Islam.
(1224-1269) made an alliance with the Mongols, who, before their adoption of Islam, protected his kingdom from the Mamelukes of Egypt.
Nanak was born in the province which then formed the borderland between Hinduism and Islam.
Har Rai was charged with friendship for Dara Shikoh, the son of Shah Jahan, and also with preaching a religion di s tinct from Islam.
His elder brother Ram Rai was passed over p was put to death for refusal to embrace Islam b.
de Boer, Geschichte der Philosophie im Islam (Stuttgart, 1901), pp. 160 sqq.
For the period between the rise of Islam and the beginning of the modern history of Abyssinia there are a few notices in Arabic writers; so we have a notice of a war between Ethiopia and Nubia about 687 (C. C. Rossini in Giorn.
Burckhardt, who had already won a reputation as the discoverer of Petra, and whose experience of travel in Arab lands and knowledge of Arab life qualified him to pass as a Moslem, even in the headquarters of Islam.
Shortly after it came into relation with Islam.
Arabian tradition tells of their prince Jabala ibn Aiham who accepted Islam, after fighting against it, but finding it too democratic, returned to Christianity and exile in the Roman empire.
As Islam advanced, some of the Ghassanids retreated to Cappadocia, others accepted the new faith.
of Arabia for the Arabians could only be realized by summoning the great kings of the surrounding nations to recognize Islam; otherwise Abyssinia, Persia and Rome (Byzantium) would continue their former endeavours to influence and control the affairs of the peninsula.
Tradition tells that a few years before his death he did actually send letters to the emperor Heraclius, to the negus of Abyssinia, the king of Persia, and Cyrus, patriarch of Alexandria, the " Mukaukis " of Egypt, summoning them to accept Islam and threatening them with punishment in case of refusal.
Islam promised rich booty for those who fought and won, paradise for those who fell.
The Bani Hanifa returned to Islam.
At the end of the first year of his caliphate Abu Bekr saw Arabia united under Islam.
The other Arab tribes became increasingly jealous of the Koreish, while among the Koreish themselves the Hashimite family came to hate the Omayyad, which now had much power, although it had been among the last to accept Islam and never was very strict in its religious duties.
The conquests of Islam in Spain on the one side and India on the other had little or no effect on it.
The Arabs who lived more inland were mostly Bedouin who found the obligations of Islam irksome, and do not seem to have made a very vigorous opposition to the Carmathians who took Hajar the capital of Bahrein in 903.
In 1517 the Osmanli Turkish sultan Selim conquered Egypt, and having received the right of succession to the caliphate was solemnly presented by the sherif of Mecca with the keys of the city, and recognized as the spiritual head of Islam and ruler of the Hejaz.
The abuses and corruptions which had overgrown the practice of orthodox Islam had deeply impressed him, and he set to work to combat them, and to inculcate on all good Moslems a return to the pure simplicity of their original faith.
This is Umayya ibn Abi-s-Salt, a Meccan who did not accept Islam and died in 630.
In the scarcity of poets at this time two others deserve mention; Abu Mihjan, who made peace with Islam in 630 but was exiled for his love of wine, which he celebrated in his verse (ed.
But the Omayyads (with one exception) were not religious men and, while preserving the outward forms of Islam, allowed full liberty to the pre-Islamic customs of the Arabs and the beliefs and practices of Christians.
In the 8th century Ibn Mugaffa`, a convert from Mazdaism to Islam, translated the Pahlavi version of Bidpai's fables (itself a version of the Indian Panchatantra) into Arabic with the title Kalila wa Dimna (ed.
With these writers we pass into the 3rd century of Islam.
1278) wrote a Biographical Dictionary of the Worthies of the First Ages of Islam.
1367) wrote a Chronicle of Islam and aives of Saints.
A word must be said of the historical romances, the beginnings of which go back to the first centuries of Islam.
A fresh field for romantic legend was found in the history of the victories of Islam, the exploits of the first heroes of the faith, the fortunes of 'All and his house.
In the fourth century of Islam the two schools of Kufa and Basra declined in importance before the increasing power of Bagdad, where Ibn Qutaiba, Ibn Jinni (941-1002) and others carried on the work, but without the former rivalry of the older schools.
For five centuries the Nestorians were a recognized institution within the territory of Islam, though their treatment varied from kindly to harsh.
The khakan and his chieftains were captured and compelled to embrace Islam (737), and till the decay of the Mahommedan empire Khazaria with all the other countries of the Caucasus paid an annual tribute of children and of corn (737861).
Abd ul-Mumin, the Almohade conqueror of Tunisia, compelled many of the native Christians to embrace Islam, but when Tunis was captured by Charles V.
in 1535, there were still found in the city native Christians, the last remnants of the mountains, who had never been latinized and never really christianized, accepted Islam without difficulty, but showed their stubborn nationality, not only in the character of their Mahommedanism, which has always been Berber mixed up with the worship of living as well as dead saints (marabouts) and other peculiarities, but also in political movements.
The Hafsites (so called from Abu IIafs, the ancestor of Abu Zakariya, a Berber chieftain who had been one of the intimate disciples of the Almohade mandi) assumed the title of Prince of the Faithful, a dignity which was acknowledged even at Mecca, when in the days of Mostansir, the second Hafsite, the fall of Bagdad left Islam without a titular head.
They are said to be descendants of Persian tribes; but the fact is very doubtful, and they may be at least as aboriginal as the Maronites, and a remnant of an old Incarnationist population which did not accept Christianity, and kept its heretical Islam free from those influences which modified Druse creed.
Islam now began to penetrate S.
Though they themselves trace their origin to seven Mahommedan tribes, Hindus appear to have been associated with them at an early period; at any rate, their religious creed and practices as stanch worshippers of Kali (Devi, Durga), the Hindu goddess of destruction, had certainly no flavour of Islam in them.
As a combatant in the forefront of the war with the Christians he became a great hero in Islam, and dreaded by its enemies under his name of Barbarossa.
Outside the Church the breakup of old civilizations, the confused beginnings of medieval kingdoms, with the attendant war and rapine, the inroads of the Saracens and the rise of Islam, were all effective silencers of the pulpit.
A little later (January 1657) he suppressed with ruthless severity a rising of the spahis; a certain Sheik Salim, leader of the fanatical mob of the capital, was drowned in the Bosporus; and the Greek Patriarch, who had written to the voivode of Wallachia to announce the approaching downfall of Islam, was hanged.
Many, if not most, of them were in reality of the same race as the Christians, and were descended from converts to Islam.
After the fall of Saragossa (1119) he went to Seville, then to Xativa, where he is said to have returned to Islam to save his life.
de Boer's The History of Philosophy in Islam (London, 1903), ch.
Thus Joachim of Floris in his Expositio magni abbatis I oachimi in Apoc. teaches that Babylon is Rome, the Beast from the Sea Islam, the False Prophet the heretical sects of the day, and that on the close of the present age which was at hand the millennium would ensue.
1141) in a battle which the historian Ibn al-Athir calls the greatest defeat that Islam had ever undergone in those regions.
His book has attained a quasi-canonicity in Islam, being treated almost like the Koran, and to his grave solemn pilgrimages are made, and prayers are believed to be heard there.
propagandists of Islam, and strove hard (with; some success) to convert to that religion the king and chiefs of Buganda and adjoining countries.
and thus from 1879 dates the triangular rivalry of the creeds of Anglican and Roman Christianity and of Islam.
In 1882 Islam gained an ascendancy, and s the French withdrew for a time.
The claims to superiority over New Guinea on the part of the rulers of some of the small neighbouring islands date at least from the spread of Islam to the Moluccas at the beginning of the 15th century, and were maintained by the Malay rulers both of Bachian and of Gebeh and afterwards by the sultan of Tidore.
Judaism and Islam, Madras, 1898).
Some 200,000 pilgrims from the Shiite portions of Islam are said to journey annually to Kerbela, many of them carrying the bones of their relatives to be buried in its sacred soil, or bringing their sick and aged to die there in the odour of sanctity.
Taking a detached view of Turkish civilization, even of the faith of Islam itself, for the two are inseparable - the Committee saw much wanting, much existing that was cumbersome and useless, much that provided a fatal handicap to the progress of the Ottoman State.
The Mahommedan Union was formed to oppose the Committee and its dangerous projects, and declaring that Islam was in danger, the Union became active early in April 1909.
The war policy of the Government was declared to be primarily the protection of Islam, particularly Turkish Islam, against the hostile and dangerously subversive policy of Great Britain.
Much had been hoped for from Arabia by Turko-German leaders, both as giving opportunities for offensive operations against the British line of communications passing along the Red Sea, and as the seat of a great spiritual influence in Islam to be exerted against the Allied Powers.
Islam, Judaism, Christianity, and in allied religions, such as Zoroastrianism.
The greater part of Nestorian Christendom was now swallowed up by Islam, so that only remnants of this once extensive church have survived until modern times.
Among higher religions orthodox Islam has never had real priests, doing religious acts on behalf of others, though it has, like Protestant churches, leaders of public devotion (imams) and an important class of privileged religious teachers (`ulema).
This Mahommedan soldier-adventurer, who, followed by his son Tippoo, became the most formidable Asiatic rival the British ever encountered in India, was the great-grandson of a fakir or wandering ascetic of Islam, who had found his way from the Punjab to Gulburga in the Deccan, and the second son of a naik or chief constable at Budikota, near Kolar in Mysore.
Coming forward as the champion of Islam against the infidels, Abd-el-Kader was proclaimed amir at Mascara in 1832.
His fervent faith in the doctrines of Islam was unquestioned, and his ultimate failure was due in considerable measure to the refusal of the Kabyles, Berber mountain tribes whose Mahommedanism is somewhat loosely held, to make common cause with the Arabs against the French.
In 1896 he adopted the title of Zia-ul-Millat-ud Din (Light of the nation and religion); and his zeal for the cause of Islam induced him to publish treatises on Jehad.
Islam made a supreme effort in Algeria.
Islam was introduced shortly after the Arab conquest of Persia (640-642) and speedily became the dominant faith.
Ranking during the early centuries of its existence as one of the greatest cities of Islam, Marrakesh has long been in a state of grievous decay, but it is rendered attractive by the exceptional beauty of its situation, the luxuriant groves and gardens by which it is encompassed and interspersed, and the magnificent outlook which it enjoys towards the mountains.
The new honours received from the caliph gave fresh impulse to Mahmud's zeal on behalf of Islam, and he resolved on an annual expedition against the idolaters of India.
The apostles who completed the conversion of the Pathans to Islam were called Sayads if they came from the west, and Sheikhs if they came from the east; hence doubtless many false claims to Sayad origin.
Ians in islam.
Since then the governor of the town and adjoining district has been a sheikh of the K'ab or Chaab Arabs, a powerful tribe of the Shi'ah branch of Islam.
Even after the conquests of Islam the Manichaean Church continued to maintain itself, indeed it seems to have become still more widely diffused by the victorious campaigns of the Mahommedans, and it frequently gained secret adherents among the latter themselves.
Not more than five or six of the 126 poems appear to have been composed by poets who I l iad been born in Islam.
Mutammim ibn Nuwaira, Rabi`a ibn Magrum, 'Abda ibn at-Tabib and Abu Dhu'aib), born in paganism, accepted Islam, their work bears few marks of the new faith.
Other kinds of repetition are Shelley's Witch of Atlas, 6 i i seq., "Like one asleep in a green hermitage, I With gentle sleep about its eyelids playing" (sleep for smiles has come from the previous line); Revolt of Islam, 4749, "Where" for "When" appears to have come from "Where" in 4750 or 4751.
26, "the light laden moon" for "light-laden"; Revolt of Islam, 4805, "Our bark hung there, as one line suspended I Between two heavens," for "on a line."
Or the same word is used in place of another rhyming word: Revolt of Islam (3573 and 3576, 3829 and 3831).
It is their merit from a Mahommedan point of view to have re-established the power of orthodox Islam and delivered the Moslem world from the subversive influence of the ultra-Shiite tenets, which constituted a serious danger to the duration of Islam itself.
He is said to have become a convert to Islam; this report was probably a mistake for the undisputed fact that he embraced Roman Catholicism.
Their stricter leaders, however, objected to a custom which so easily led to the worship of relics and the continuance of pagan observances; and with the advent of Islam embalming fell into disuse.
A correct understanding of the doctrines of the early Babis (now represented by the Ezelis) is hardly possible save to one who is conversant with the theology of Islam and its developments, and especially the tenets of the Shi`a.
The whole have now become blended by the adoption of a common language, but remain tribally distinct; all alike have accepted Islam, and have invented traditions of common descent which express their present association.
This dissidence Islam was to complete, and by actually suppressing the patriarchate of Jerusalem to reduce Byzantine Christendom to the two patriarchates of Rome and Constantinople.
The papacy of that time believed in the political unity of Islam, in a solidarity - which did not exist - among the Mussulmans of Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt and the Barbary coasts; and if it waited until the year 1095 to carry out this project, it was because the conflict with the Germanic Empire prevented the earlier realization of its dream.
(Moawiya is said to have rebuilt the dome of the great church at Edessa after an earthquake in 678.) Fortunately for Mesopotamia the seats of the factions which immediately broke the peace of Islam were elsewhere; but it could not escape the fate of its geographical position.
The Tandhib ul-Asma'i has been edited as the Biographical Dictionary of Illustrious Men chiefly at the Beginning of Islam by F.
To-day Islam is supreme, though the North Africa Mission, working largely on medical lines, has penetrated into many cities.
The all-decisive conflict is that between Christianity and Islam, and the Christian agencies must show much more co-operation if they are to be successful.
A new Islam is also a factor of the situation.
The chief difficulties have been (1) the antagonism of the officials of the Oriental churches, (2) the suspicion and hostility of Islam, (3) the jealousies, religious and political, connected with the Eastern Question.
Native chronicles derive the Menangkabo princes from Alexander the Great; and the Achinese dynasty boasts its origin from a missionary of Islam.
Unlike many West African races, the Ashanti in general show a repugnance to the doctrines of Islam.
In 1317 the sultan Bibars endeavoured to convert them to orthodox Islam, and built many mosques, but Ibn Batuta (i.
ARCULF, a Gallican bishop and pilgrim-traveller, who visited the Levant about 680, and was the earliest Christian traveller and observer of any importance in the Nearer East after the rise of Islam.
In the later stage of the strife it has been the battle-field of Christendom and Islam.
In religion again both Islam and the Eastern form of Christianity have given way to its Italian form.
The older religious differences were small compared with the strife for life and death between Christendom and Islam.
But it would seem that, just as under the Moslem rule, conversions from Christianity to Islam were forbidden.
On the other hand, conversions from Islam to Christianity were not always encouraged; Saracen troops were employed from the beginning, and Count Roger seems to have thought them more trustworthy when unconverted.
They had been converted to Mahommedanism in the early times of the Arab conquest, but their knowledge of Islam did not go much beyond the formula of the creed - "there is no god but God, and Mahomet is the apostle of God," - and they were ignorant of the law.
By the good offices of the theologians of Kairawan, one of whom was from Fez, Yahya was provided with a missionary, `Abd-Allah ibn Yazin, a zealous partisan of the Malekis, one of the four orthodox sects of Islam.
Ultimately the Greek East was absorbed by Islam; the popular mistake lies in supposing that the Hellenistic tradition thereby came to an end.
It was not that the Hellenistic element failed, whilst the native elements in the civilization prospered; the culture of Islam has, as a whole (from whatever causes), sunk ever lower during the centuries that have witnessed the marvellous expansion of Europe.
The Koran (Kor'an) is the sacred Book of Islam.
To the sceptical the truth of Islam is held forth; and a certain, not very cogent, method of demonstration predominates.
It is actually used of the religion of the Jews and Christians (once), of the heathen (5 times), but mostly (8 times) of the religion of Abraham, which Mahomet in the Medina period places on the same level with Islam.
That impression, however, is not correct, for in reality the demonstrations of these longer Meccan suras appear to have been peculiarly influential for the propagation of Islam.
i.-iii., Berlin, 1861-1865; 2nd ed., 1869); C. Snouck Hurgronje, Het mekkaansche Feest (Leiden, 1880), De Islam (de Gids, 1886, ii.
Southwest of the Mameluke tombs is the much-venerated tomb-mosque of the Imam esh-Shafih or Shari, founder of one of the four orthodox sects of Islam.
They are also well grounded in the leading doctrines of Islam.
Later, however, the history of Hellenism, the provincial history of the Roman empire, the rise of Christianity and the triumph of Islam successively receive brilliant illustration in Egypt.
For a brief period at the end of the XVIIIth Dynasty a real monotheism, as exclusive as that of Judaism or of Islam, was adopted as the state religion of Egypt.
(1) Moslem Conquest of EgyptIn accordance with the scheme of universal conquest conceived by the founder of Islam, an army of some 4000 men was towards the end of the year A.D.
Since Alexandria could neither have been stormed nor starved out by the Arabs, his motives for surrendering it, and with it the whole of Egypt, have been variously interpreted, some supposing him to have been secretly a convert to Islam.
Conversions of Copts to Islam were at first rare, and the old system of taxation was maintained for the greater part of the first Islamic century.
The researches of Wellhausen and Becker have made it clear that the difference which is marked in later Islam between a poll-tax (jizyah) and a land-tax (k/zarifj) did not at first exist: the papyri of the 1st century know only of the jizyah, which, however, is not a poll-tax but a land-tax (in the main).
The development of the poll-tax imposed on members of tolerated cults seems to be due to various causes, chief of them the acquisition of land by Moslems, who were not at first allowed to possess any, the conversion of Coptic landowners to Islam, and the enforcement (towards the end of the 1st century of Islam) of the poll-tax on monks.
Fg~imites to the other sects of Islam, and to other communities.
At times, however, he ordered the destruction of all Christian churches in Egypt, and the banishment of all who did not adopt Islam.
(Baron de) Menou (r75oI81o), a man who had professed Islam, and who endeavoured to conciliate the Moslem population by various measures, such as excluding all Christians (with the exception of one Frenchman) from the divan, replacing the Copts who were in government service by Moslems, and subjecting French residents to taxes.
But, f or the action of European powers the intervention of Mehemet Ali would have I The work was carried out under the supervision of the Frenchman, Colonel Sbve, who had turned Mahommedan and was known in Islam as Suleiman Pasha.
At that moment it was in a state of - open rebellion, stirred up by a religious fanatic who proclaimed himself a mahdi of Islam.
While peace is in the land the spirit of Islam sleeps...
It may be so to worldly eyes, but in the time of danger to Islam the Moslem turns away from the things of this world and thirsts only for the service of his Faith, even though he looks in the face of death To establish confidence in the minds of the Egyptian public that the authorities could maintain order and tranquillity, it was determined to increase permanently the strength of the British garrison.
At the same time encouragement was given to that section of Egyptian society which sought the reform of various Moslem institutions without injury to the principles underlying the faith of Islam:
followers of the Prophet's directions, the name of one of the two main divisions of Islam, the other being the Shi`ites (q.v.).
The Sunnites, who accept the orthodox tradition (Sunna) as well as the Koran as a source of theologico-juristic doctrines, predominate in Arabia, the Turkish Empire, the north of Africa, Turkestan, Afghanistan and the Mahommedan parts of India and the east of Asia; the Shi`ites have their main seat in Persia, where their confession is the state religion, but are also scattered over the whole sphere of Islam, especially in India and the regions bordering on Persia, except among the nomad Tatars, who are all nominally Sunnite.
Thus the later movements of thought in Islam never touch on the great questions that exercised Mahommedanism in its first centuries, e.g.
But we are guides on the path of righteousness, lights in the darkness, and bulwarks of Islam; we decide what is just or unjust and declare the right; through us the precepts of religion are maintained.
The dogmas of Islam are not copious, and the attributes of God are the chief 1 Von Kremer, Gesch.
From these two sources are derived all religious and civil laws, for Islam is a political as well as a religious institution.
The five main points of religious law, "the pillars of Islam," have been enumerated in the article Mahommedan Religion; the civil law, on the development of which Roman law had some influence, is treated under heads similar to those of Western jurisprudence.
Mahomet himself made a concession to heathen traditions when he recognized the Ka`ba and the black stone; and the worship of saints, which is now spread throughout Islam and supported by obviously forged traditions, is an example of the same thing.
Owing to the numerous conversions to Islam which followed the Turkish conquest, the Mahommedan population of the Peninsula is largely in excess of the purely Turkish element.
The Bulgarian Mahommedans, or Pomaks, who inhabit the valleys of Rhodope and certain districts in northern Bulgaria, are numerically insignificant; the Greek followers of Islam are almost confined to Crete.
But when the Sassanian empire was overthrown by the Arabs, the conquerors immediately advanced eastwards, and in a few years Bactria and the whole Iran to the banks of the Jaxartes had submitted to the rule of the caliph and of Islam.
The pilgrimage, however, attained its zenith under Islam.
Arnold, Pearls of the Faith, or Islam's Rosary (London, 1882).
At the beginning of the Mahommedan period, then, we meet with the most influential and the most curious .of these prophetic books, the Pseudo-Methodius, 1 which prophesied of the emperor who would awake from his sleep and conquer Islam.
2 In the East, too, Antichrist prophecies were extraordinarily flourishing during the period of the rise of Islam and of the Crusades.
- In all the countries of the Persian Gulf, Islam in one or another of its forms prevails, almost to the exclusion of other religions.
900), the most glorious period in the history of Islam.
The spread of Islam introduced a very considerable Neo-Arabian infusion.
Thus, in Jerusalem, much of the local influence is in the hands of the families of El-Khalidi, El-Husseini and one or two others, who derive their descent from the heroes of the early days of Islam.
They subdued the Fula and Arabs already settled in the district, and after being converted to Islam under Abdullah, their fourth king (about 1600), they extended their authority over a large number of tribes living to the south and east.
We find him at different periods in Seville, Cordova and Morocco, probably as physician to Yusef al-Mansur, who took pleasure in engaging him in discussions on the theories of philosophy and their bearings on the faith of Islam.
But science and free thought then, as now, in Islam, depended almost solely on the tastes of the wealthy and the favour of the monarch.
de Boer, History of Philosophy in Islam (London, 1903), ch.
No trace of Christianity is now found in the island, all the inhabitants professing Islam.
The Arabizing of the Berbers is indeed limited to little beyond the conversion of the latter to Islam.
Those contiguous Afghan tribes, who have not so long ago been converted to the faith of Islam, are naturally the most fanatical and the most virulent upholders of the faith around them.
There are government departments for the administration of revenue, customs, post-office, military affairs, &c. The general law administered in all the courts of Afghanistan is that of Islam and of the customs of the country, with developments introduced by the Amir Abdur Rahman.
In the Punjab, besides the Pathan immigrants from across the frontier, Islam has taken a strong hold of the native population.
In proportion to the total population Islam is most strongly represented in the NorthWest Frontier Province, where it is the religion of 92% of the inhabitants; then follow Kashmir and Sind with about 75 each, Eastern Bengal and Assam with 58%, the Punjab with 49%, Bengal with 18%, and the United Provinces with 14%.
The Malabar coast has always enjoyed a direct commerce with Arabia, and at an early date gave many converts to Islam.
At this day it forms one of the three great religions of the world, and is more numerously followed than either Christianity or Islam.
Mahomet, the founder of Islam, died at Medina in A.D.
Ala-ud-din died in 1316, having subjected to Islam the Deccan and Gujarat.
The empire of Vijayanagar repre sents the last stand made by the national faith in India against conquering Islam.
During the whole of the 16th century the Portuguese disputed with the Mahommedans the supremacy of the Indian seas, and the antagonism between Christianity and Islam became gradually more intense, until the Portuguese power assumed a purely religious aspect.
Hunter, Statistical Account of Bengal (1875); Hughes' Dictionary of Islam (London, 1895); Sir Denzil Ibbetson, Outlines of Punjab Ethnography; E.
With the spread of the Pan-Islamic movement, moreover, the undefined authority of the sultan as caliph of Islam received a fresh importance even in countries beyond the borders of the Ottoman empire, while in countries formerly, or nominally still, subject to it, it caused, and promised to cause, incalculable trouble.
Islam suddenly found itself once more limited to the community of Medina; only Mecca and Taff (Tayef) remained true.
2 None the less was it a revolt from Islam, for here the political society and the religious are identical.
A peculiar compliment to Mahomet was involved in the fact that the leaders of the rebellion in the various districts did not pose as princes and kings, but as prophets; in this appeared to lie the secret of Islam's success.
The holy spirit of Islam kept the men of Medina together, and inspired in them an all-absorbing zeal for the faith; the Arabs as a whole had no other bond of union and no better source of inspiration than individual interest.
IIanifa under their prophet Mosailima fought bravely, but here also Islam triumphed.
The internal consolidation of Islam in Arabia was, strange to say, brought about by its diffusion abroad.
The movement was organized by Islam, but the masses were induced to join it by quite other than religious motives.
The capital of Islam continued indeed for a while to be Medina, but soon the Hejaz (Hijaz) and the whole of Arabia proper lay quite on the outskirt of affairs.
Their religious sympathy with the West was seriously impaired by dogmatic controversies; from Islam they might at any rate hope for toleration, even though their views were not in accordance with the theology of the emperor of the day.
The lapse of the masses from Christianity to Islam, however, which took place during the first century after the conquest, is to be accounted for only by the fact that in reality they had no inward relation to the gospel at all.
Their subjection was only external, nor did Islam ever succeed in assimilating them as the Syrian Christians were assimilated.
His political insight is shown by the fact that he endeavoured to limit the indefinite extension of Moslem conquest, to maintain and strengthen the national Arabian character of the commonwealth of Islam, 4 and especially to promote law and order in its internal affairs.
Under this weak sovereign the government of Islam fell entirely into the hands of the Koreish nobility.
Nor was it unreasonable that from the secularization of Islam the chief advantage should be reaped by those who best knew the world.
It was led by what may be called the spiritual noblesse of Islam, which, as distinguished from the hereditary nobility of Mecca, might also be designated as the nobility of merit, consisting of the "Defenders" (Ansar), and especially of the Emigrants who had lent themselves to the elevation of the Koreish, but by no means with the intention of allowing themselves thereby to be effaced.
To it belonged the men of real piety, who saw with displeasure the promotion to the first places in the commonwealth of the great lords who had actually done nothing for Islam, and had joined themselves to it only at the last moment.
The kernel of his subjects consisted of genuine Arabs, not only recent immigrants along with Islam, but also old settlers who, through contact with the Roman empire and the Christian church, had become to some extent civilized.
Islam had its headquarters here; Kufa and Basra were the home of the pious and of the adventurer, the centres of religious and political movement.
But in yielding to the will of the majority he excited the displeasure of the minority, the genuine zealots, who in Moawiya were opposing the enemy of Islam, and regarded Ali's entering into negotiations with him as a denial of the faith.
- The conquest of Mecca had been of the greatest importance to the Prophet, not only because Islam thus obtained possession of this important city with its famous sanctuary, but above all because his late adversaries were at last compelled to acknowledge him as the Envoy of God.
(3) The Kharijites, who, in spite of the heavy losses they sustained at the hands of Ali, maintained their power by gaining new adherents from among those austere Moslems, who held both Omayyads and Alids as usurpers, and have often been called, not unjustly, the Puritans of Islam.
(4) The non-Arabic Moslems, who on their conversion to Islam, had put themselves under the patronage of Arabic families, and were therefore called maula's (clients).
To these elements of discord we must add: - (r) That the Arabs, notwithstanding the bond of Islam that united them, maintained their old tribal institutions, and therewith their old feuds and factions; (2) that the old antagonism between Ma`adites 1 - (original northern tribes) and Yemenites (original southern tribes), accentuated by the jealousy between the Meccans, who belonged to the former, and the Medinians, who belonged to the latter division, gave rise to perpetual conflicts; (3) that more than one dangerous pretender - some of them of the reigning family itself - contended with the caliph for the sovereignty, and must be crushed collie que collie.
- Moawiya, son of the well-known Meccan chief Abu Sofian, embraced Islam together with his father and his brother Yazid, when the Prophet conquered Mecca, and was, like them, treated with the greatest distinction.
There is in reality no room for suspecting Moawiya of not having been in earnest when making this appeal; he might well regret that internecine strife should drain the forces which were so much wanted for the spread of Islam.
As the austere champion of the precepts of Islam, he soon restored order in the whole district.
The hereditary principle had not been recognized by Islam in the cases of Abu Bekr, Omar and Othman; it had had some influence upon the choice of Ali, the husband of Fatima and the cousin of the Prophet.
Moawiya was, in fact, a religious man and a strict disciple of the precepts of Islam.
With Ibn Zobair perished the influence which the early companions of Mahomet had exercised over Islam.
Henceforward we shall find temporal interests, represented by Damascus, predominating over those of religion, and the centre of Islam, now permanently removed beyond the limits of Arabia, more susceptible to foreign influence, and assimilating more readily their civilizing elements.
In the east the realm of Islam had been very much extended under the reign of Moawiya, when Ziyad was governor of Irak and Khorasan.
Moslim, who was destined in a later period to extend the sway of Islam in the east as far as China.
Abdalmalik was born and educated in Islam, and distinguished himself in his youth by piety and continence.
He regarded himself as the champion of Islam and of the communion of the believers, and had among his intimates men of acknowledged devoutness such as Raja b.
But the glorification of Jerusalem, holy alike for Moslems, Christians and Jews, could not but exalt the glory of Islam and its rulers within and without.
His reign was one of the most stormy in the annals of Islam, but also one of the most glorious.
He was well versed in old Arabic tradition and in the doctrine of Islam, and was passionately fond of poetry.
- This is the most glorious epoch in the history of Islam.
If one of these adopted Islam, Omar permitted him to leave his place, which had been strictly forbidden by I.Iajjaj in Irak and the eastern provinces, because by it many hands were withdrawn from the tilling of the ground, and those who remained were unable to pay the allotted amount.
In North Africa particularly, and in Khorasan the effect of Omar's proclamation was that a great multitude embraced Islam.
Conversion to Islam was promoted by the severe regulations which Omar introduced for the non-believers, such as Christians and Jews.
He now proclaimed a Holy War against the Syrians, whom he declared to be worse enemies of Islam than even the Turks and the Dailam.
Hobaira, to supply the deficiency, ordered the prefect of Khorasan, Sa`id-al-Harashi, to take tribute from the Sogdians in Transoxiana, who had embraced Islam on the promise of Omar II.
Abi Moslim, who had been at the head of the financial department in Irak under IIajjaj, and had been made governor of Africa by Yazid II., issued orders that the villagers who, having adopted Islam, were freed from tribute according to the promise of Omar II., and had left their villages for the towns, should return to their domiciles and pay the same tribute as before their conversion.
- Hisham was a wise and able prince and an enemy of luxury, not an idealist like Omar II., nor a worldling like Yazid II., but more like his father Abdalmalik, devoting all his energy to the pacification of the interior, and to extending and consolidating the empire of Islam.
nearly the whole empire except Arabia), whether Moslems or not, should pay a fixed tax, the latter in addition to pay a poll-tax, from which they were relieved on conversion to Islam.
In India several provinces which had been converted to Islam.
The Berbers, though they had pledged themselves to Islam and had furnished the latest contingents for the Holy War, were treated as tributary serfs, notwithstanding the promises given by Omar II.
As soon as the time was ripe - and that time could not be far off - He would send a saviour out of the house of the Prophet, the Mandi, who would restore Islam to its original purity.
C. - THE Abbasids We now enter upon the history of the new dynasty, under which the power of Islam reached its highest point.
From that time forward the Abbasid caliphs became the maintainers of orthodox Islam, just as the Omayyads had been.
Irene took alarm, sued for peace, and obtained a truce for three years, but only on the humiliating terms of paying an annual 2 The first citizens of Medina who embraced Islam were called Ansar ("helpers").
Meanwhile Harun did not forget the hereditary enemy of Islam.
Sahl, a Zoroastrian of great influence, who in 806 had adopted Islam, reanimated his courage, and pointed out to him that certain death awaited him at Bagdad.
In spite of these manifold activities Mamun did not forget the hereditary enemy of Islam.
The guard was composed of an undisciplined body of soldiers, who, moreover, held in open contempt the religious precepts of Islam.
Their object was to abolish Islam and to restore "the white religion."
The former condition was granted, but the caliph emphatically refused the latter demand, saying: "Both parties are Carmathians, they profess the same religion and are enemies of Islam."
In the west of Atabeg (prince's guardian) Zengi, the prince of Mosul, had extended his dominion over Mesopotamia and the north of Syria, where he had been the greatest defender of Islam against the Franks.
It is used to designate the religious duty inculcated in the Koran on the followers of Mahomet to wage war upon those who do not accept the doctrines of Islam.
Conquered peoples who will neither embrace Islam nor pay a poll-tax (jizya) are to be put to the sword.
Voices urged him to come to terms with Mehemet Ali, secure peace in Islam, and turn a united face of defiance against Europe; and for a while he harboured the idea.
According to a second classification, Christianity maybe placed among the " individual " religions, since it traces its origin, like Islam and Buddhism, to an individual as its founder.
Touching the coast of Arakan or Burma, he reached Sumatra in forty days, and was provided with a junk for China by Malik al Dhahir, a zealous disciple of Islam, which had recently spread among the states on the northern coast of that island.
The traveller's history, not least in China, singularly illustrates the free masonry of Islam, and its power of carrying a Moslem doctor over the known world of Asia and Africa.
In the course of ages race distinction has been almost obliterated by fusion of blood; by the complete Hellenization of the country, which followed the introduction of Christianity; by the later acceptance of Islam; and by migrations due to the occupation of cultivated lands by the nomads.
Wherever the people accepted Islam they called themselves Turks, and a majority of the so-called "Turks" belong by blood to the races that occupied Asia Minor before the Seljuk invasion.
From these disasters the country never recovered, and the last traces of Western civilization disappeared with the enforced use of the Turkish language and the wholesale conversions to Islam under the earliest Osmanli sultans.
1018, when Mahmud of Ghazni appeared before Baran and received the submission of the Hindu raja and his followers to Islam.
Astonished by the sight of their long hair and extraordinary costume, he inquired what religion they professed, and getting no satisfactory answer threatened to exterminate them, unless by the time of his return from the war they should have embraced either Islam or one of the creeds tolerated in the Koran.
It is said that 'Amr persuaded Abu Musa that it would be for the advantage of Islam that neither candidate should reign, and asked him to give his decision first.
In September Sabbatai was brought before the Sultan, and he had not the courage to refuse to accept Islam.
The Sla y s, driven perhaps to the west, had only the Volkhov and the Dnieper, while the (Mahommedan) Bulgarian empire, at the confluence of the Volga with the Kama, was so powerful that for some time it was an open question whether Islam or Christianity would gain the upper hand among the Slav idolaters.
It may be supposed that this predilection for casuistry stimulated that spirit which impelled Jewish scholars of the middle ages to study or translate the learning of the Greeks.2 Once again it was - from a modern point of view - old-fashioned 1 The whole subject of Jewish legalism should be compared with Islam, where again law and religion are one; as regards the legal aspect, see the extremely suggestive and instructive study, " The Relations of Law and Religion, the Mosque el-Azhar," by J.
For this reason anonymous writings were attributed to famous names, and traditions were judged (as in Islam), not so much upon their merits, as by the chain of authorities which traced them back to their sources.
2 Historians have usually recognized only three monotheistic religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
This had the obvious advantage of lifting two great families into prominence, the Semitic and the IndoGermanic. The Semitic peoples were closely bound together by common types of thought and civilization, and produced three of the leading religions of the world, Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
Further, there are elements of Islam, like the usages of the hajj (or pilgrimage to the sacred places at Mecca), the dryness of its official doctrine and the limitations of its real character as indicated in the Wahhabi revival, which so impair its apparent universalism that Kuenen found himself obliged to withdraw it from the highest rank of religions.
Universalistic Religious Communions(Buddhism,Christianity: Islam with its particularistic and nomistic elements only partially belongs to this group).4 7.
trans., Religion and Historic Faiths (London, 1907); Haarlem Series, Die Voornaamste Godsdiensten, beginning with Islam, by Dozy (1863 onwards); Soc. for Promotion of Christian Knowledge, Non-Christian Religions; Hibbert Lectures on The Origin and Growth of Religion (15 vols., beginning with F.
ReligionAbout 9,000,000 of the population are Mahommedans of the Shiah faith, and 800,000 or 900,000, principally Kurds in north-western Persia, are said to belong to the other great branch of Islam, the Sunni, which differs from the former in religious doctrine and historical belief, and is the state religion of the Turkish Empire and other Mahommedan countries.
Justice, therefore, is administered by the shah and his representatives according to on~ law and by the clergy according to another, but the decisions of the former must not be opposed to the fundamental doctrines of Islam.
These legends have lived and flourished in Iran at every period of its history; and neither the religion of Zoroaster, nor yet Islam, has availed to suppress them.
9351020), displayed astonishing skill in combining the ancient tradition with Islam.
In the interval between these two struggles (570) he despatched assistance to the Arabs of Yemen, who had been assailed and subdued by the Abyssinian Christians; after which period Yemen remained nominally under Persian suzerainty till it.s fate was sealed by the conquests of Mabomet and Islam.
So it was that room was given to a new enemy who now arose between either state and either religionthe Arabs and Islam.
Omar II., however, extended to non-Arabic Moslems immunity from all taxes except the zakat (poor-rate), with the result that a large number of Persians, who still smarted under their defeat, under Mokhtar, embraced Islam and drifted into the towns to form a nucleus of sedition under the Shiite preachers.
This prince was converted to Islam, an event of great moment both to the internal peace and to the external relations of Persia.
His persecution of the Christians led them into alliance with the Mongols, who detested Islam; the combined forces were too strong for Nikudar, who was murdered in 1284.
Ghazan is historically important, however, mainly as the first Mongol ruler who definitely adopted Islam with a large number of his subjects.
The outcome of his teaching was a division of Mahommedanism vitally momentous to the world of Islam.
Similarly the Jewish synagogues have each their eternal lamp; while in the religion of Islam lighted lamps mark things and places specially holy; thus the Ka`ba at Mecca is illuminated by thousands of lamps hanging from the gold and silver rods that connect the columns of the surrounding colonnade.
(Arabic for unbeliever [in Islam]) a native of Bantu stock; more loosely any native.
Owing partly to the tribal system, and partly to the levelling effect of Islam, nothing similar to the Brahmanical system of social precedent is to be found in Baluchistan.
Under the tolerant rule of Islam the Portuguese Jews rose to a height of wealth and culture unparalleled in Europe; they intermarried with the Christians both at this period and after their forced conversion by King Emanuel I.
To make war upon Islam seemed to the Portuguese their natural destiny and their duty as Christians.
In theory, the objects of querque King Emanuel's policy were the establishment of friendly commercial relations with the Hindus (who were at first mistaken for Christians " not yet confirmed in the faith," as the king wrote to Alexander VI.) and the prosecution of a crusade against Islam.
In addition to the ancient churches which have separated themselves from the Orthodox faith, many have ceased to have an independent existence, owing either to the conquests of Islam or to their absorption by other churches.
1 Its introduction into India appears to have been connected with the spread of Islam.
In Islam the orthodox theology teaches an absolute predestination, and yet some teachers hold men responsible for the moral character of their acts.
Finally it may be mentioned that a small number of Englishmen, chiefly resident in Liverpool and London, have embraced Islam; they have a mosque at Liverpool.
In the north-west corner of the mosque is the tomb of Sidi Okba, the leader of the Arabs who in the 1st century of the Hegira conquered Africa for Islam from Egypt to Tangier.
In the 8th century it was conquered, after a struggle of 25 years, by the Arab chieftain Kotaiba ibn Moslim, from West Turkestan, who imposed Islam upon the people.
Makkah),' the chief town of the Hejaz in Arabia, and the great holy city of Islam.
The sanctuary and feast of Mecca received, however, a new prestige from the victory of Islam.
The unspeakable vices of Mecca are a scandal to all Islam, and a constant source of wonder to pious pilgrims.8 The slave trade has connexions with the pilgrimage which are not thoroughly clear; but under cover of the pilgrimage a great deal of importation and exportation of slaves goes on.
In the splendid times of the caliphs immense sums were lavished upon the pilgrimage and the holy city; and conversely the decay of the central authority of Islam brought with it a long period of faction, wars and misery, in which the most notable episode was the sack of Mecca by the Carmathians at the pilgrimage season of A.D.
When the great Mahommedan sultanates had become too much occupied in internecine wars to maintain order in the distant Hejaz, those branches of the Hassanids which from the beginning of Islam had retained rural property in Arabia usurped power in the holy cities and the adjacent Bedouin territories.
The Ka`ba has been rebuilt more than once since Mahomet purged it of idols and adopted it as the chief sanctuary of Islam, but the old form has been preserved, except in secondary details;2 so that the "Ancient House," as it is titled, is still essentially a heathen temple, adapted to the worship of Islam by the clumsy fiction that it was built by Abraham and Ishmael by divine revelation as a temple of pure monotheism, and that it was only temporarily perverted to idol worship from the time when `Amr ibn Lohai introduced the statue of Hobal from Syria' till the victory of Islam.
Islam did away with the worship of idols; what was lost in interest by their suppression ' The exact measurements (which, however, vary according to different authorities) are stated to be: sides 37 ft.
The multiplication of pilgrims after Islam soon made it necessary to clear away the nearest dwellings and enlarge the place of prayer around the Ancient House.
z Before Islam the Ka`ba was opened every Monday and Thursday; in the time of Ibn Jubair it was opened with considerable ceremony every Monday and Friday, and daily in the month Rajab.
Sacred wells are familiar features of Semitic sanctuaries, and Islam, retaining the well, made a quasi-biblical story for it, and endowed its tepid waters with miraculous curative virtues.
Before Islam the Ka`ba was the local sanctuary of the Meccans, where they prayed and did See De Vogue, Syrie centrale: inscr.
The pilgrimage was so intimately connected with the wellbeing of Mecca, and had already such a hold on the Arabs round about, that Mahomet could not afford to sacrifice it to an abstract purity of religion, and thus the old usages were transplanted into Islam in the double form of the omra or vow of pilgrimage to Mecca, which can be discharged at any time, and the hajj or pilgrimage at the great annual feast.
The triviality of these rites is ill concealed by the legends of the sa'y of Hagar and of the tawaf being first performed by Adam in imitation of the circuit of the angels about the throne of God; the meaning of their ceremonies seems to have been almost a blank to the Arabs before Islam, whose religion had become a mere formal tradition.
Rajab was one of the ancient sacred months, and the feast, which extended through the whole month and was a joyful season of hospitality and thanksgiving, no doubt represents the ancient feasts of Mecca more exactly than the ceremonies of the bajj, in which old usage has been overlaid by traditions and glosses of Islam.
This is, however, a custom older than Islam, and a tradition in Azraqi, p. 412, represents it as an act of worship to idols at Mina.
It is not so easy to get at the nature of the original rites, which Islam was careful to suppress.
The Arabic historians are largely occupied with fabulous matter as to Mecca before Islam; for these legends the reader may refer to C. de Perceval's Essai.
The census of 1901 gave a total of 25,468,209, out of which the chief religions furnished the following In Sind Islam has been the predominant religion from the earliest Arab conquest in the 8th century.
As such it became the centre of that strife between Europe and Africa, between Aryan and Semitic man, in its later stages between Christendom and Islam, which forms the great interest of Sicilian history.
It is doubtful whether any opposition between crescent and cross, as symbols of Islam and Christianity, was ever intended by the Turks; and it is an historical error to attribute the crescent -to the Saracens of crusading times or the Moors in Spain.
It contains the most popular place of pilgrimage in Oudh, the tomb of Masaud, a champion of Islam, slain in battle by the confederate Rajputs in 1033, which is resorted to by Mahommedans and Hindus alike.
the Maronites, the Ansarieh, the Metawali and the "Isma`ilites," also profess creeds which, like the Druse system, differ from Sunni Islam in the important feature of admitting incarnations of the Deity, it is impossible not to suspect that Hamza's emissaries only gave definition and form to beliefs long established in this part of the world.
This period was during the first centuries after its conversion to Islam.
The followers of Islam, whose common law and religion know only of a temporary possession of the land, which belongs wholly to the Prophet, cannot accept the principles of unlimited property in land which European civilization has borrowed from Roman law; to do so would put an end to all public irrigation works and to the system by which water is used according to each family's needs, and so would be fatal to agriculture.
In fact, Kashgaria flourished under them, and the fanaticism of Islam was considerably abated.
This state of affairs lasted until the 14th century, when Tughlak Timur, who extended his dominions to the Kuen-lun, accepted Islam.
The reintroduction of Islam was of no benefit to the Tarim region.
Hereupon the dissentient khojas fled to Khokand in West Turkestan, and there gathered armies of malcontents and fanatic followers of Islam.
It is the see of an Orthodox metropolitan, and the inhabitants, of whom two-thirds are Albanian and the remainder principally Greek, are equally divided in religion between Christianity and Islam.
711) the governor of the town was the Count Julian who, in revenge for the betrayal of his daughter by King Roderick of Toledo, invited the Arabs to cross the straits under Tarik and conquer Spain for Islam.
'alim, literally "knowers," in the sense of scientes), the learned of Islam, theologians, canonlawyers, professors, judges, muftis, &c., all who, whether in office or not, are versed theoretically and practically in Muslim science in general.
That system of thought, after passing through the minds of those who saw it in the hazy light of an orientalized Platonism, and finding many laborious but narrow-purposed cultivators in the monastic schools of heretical Syria, was then brought into contact with the ideas and mental habits of Islam.
Thus, alike at Bagdad and at Cordova, Arabian philosophy represents the temporary victory of exotic ideas and of subject races over the theological one-sidedness of Islam, and the illiterate simplicity of the early Saracens.
Islam had, it is true, a philosophy of its own among its theologians (see Mahommedan Religion).
Then was inaugurated the period of Persian supremacy, during which Islam was laid open to the full current of alien ideas and culture.
(In this way philosophy tried to account for the phenomenon of prophecy, one of the ruling ideas of Islam.) But the active intellect is not merely influential on human souls.
Thus, while the Latin church showed a marvellous receptivity for ethnic philosophy, and assimilated doctrines which it had at an earlier date declared impious, in Islam the theological system entrenched itself towards the end of the 12th century in the narrow orthodoxy of the Asharites, and reduced the votaries of Greek philosophy to silence.
By his interpreters it was transformed into a theory of one soul common to all mankind, and when thus corrupted conflicted not unreasonably with the doctrines of a future life, common to Islam and Christendom.
It was amongst them, especially in Maimonides, that Aristotelianism found refuge after the light of philosophy was extinguished in Islam; and the Jewish family of the Ben-Tibbon were mainly instrumental in making Averroes known to southern France.
de Boer, The History of Philosophy in Islam (London, 1903); K.
In the north one great Visigoth family not only accepted Islam, but founded a dynasty, with its capital at Saragossa, which played a stirring part in the 8th and 9th centuries, the Beni-Casi, or Beni-Lope.
Add to this that a slave who professed Islam could secure his freedom, at least from slavery to a Christian master, that Arianism had not been quite rooted out, that the country districts were still largely pagan, and it will not appear wonderful that within a generation Mahommedan Spain was full of renegades who formed in all probability a majority of its polulation and a most important social and political element.
The treaties made with the Christians were soon violated, and it seemed as if Islam would destroy itself.
The fall of the city resounded throughout Islam, and shocked the Mahommedan princes of Andalusia into gravity and a sense of their position.
When the peril of appealing to Yusuf was put before him at durbar by his son, he acknowledged the danger, but added that he did not wish to be cursed throughout Islam as the cause of the loss of Spain and that, if choose he must, he thought it better to lead camels in Africa than to tend pigs in Castile.
The existence of native Christian states in Nubia hindered for some centuries the spread of Islam in the eastern Sudan, and throughout the country some tribes have remained pagan.
Many Armenians fled to the mountains, where they embraced Islam, and intermarried with the Kurds, or purchased security by paying blackmail to Kurdish chiefs.
The adoption of Islam by the latter, and by many Armenians, divided the people sharply into Christian and Moslem, and placed the Christian in a position of inferiority.
In some districts, especially in the Kharput vilayet, the cry of " Islam or death " was raised.
The number of those who perished, excluding Constantinople, was 20,000 to 25,000.1 Many were forced to embrace Islam, and numbers were reduced to poverty.
He also wrote Le Mandi depuis les origines de ?Islam jusqu'd nos fours (1885); Les Origines de la poesie persane (1888); Prophetes d'Israel (1892), and other books on topics connected with the east, and from 1883 onwards drew up the annual reports of the Societe Asiatique.
The first sultan of Brunei was Alak-berTata, who was probably of Bisaya stock, and governed the country before the introduction of Islam, in the 15th century.
He assumed the name of Mahommed on his conversion to Islam, which was brought about during a visit to the Malay peninsula.
In 635 Damascus was captured for Islam by Khalid ibn Walid, the great general of the new religion, being the first city to yield after the battle of the Yarmuk (Hieromax).
The prophet of Islam was now, however, building up his power in Arabia, and although Heraclius paid no heed to the letter demanding his adhesion which he received from Medina (628), and the deputation of fifteen Rahawiyin who paid homage in 630 were not Edessenes but South Arabians, a few years later (636 ?) Heraclius's attempts, from Edessa as a centre, to effect an organized opposition to the victorious Arabs were defeated by Sa`d, and he fell back on Samosata.
ISLAM, an Arabic word meaning "pious submission to the will of God," the name of the religion of the orthodox Mahommedans, and hence used, generically, for the whole body of Mahommedan peoples.
Syria and Egypt next fell before him; he became master of the holy cities of Islam; and, most important of all, he induced the last Caliph of the Abbasid dynasty formally to surrender the title of caliph (q.v.), as well as its outward emblems, viz.
The great majority of the Albanians, probably more than three-fifths, are Moslems. The conversion of the Christian population to Islam appears to have taken place during the 16th and 17th centuries.
At the time of the Arabian conquest Istakhr offered a desperate resistance, but the city was still a place of considerable importance in the 1st century of Islam (see Caeiphate), although its greatness was speedily eclipsed by the new metropolis Shiraz.
that of the Old Testament, along with what are historically the daughter faiths, Christianity and Islam.
The closest modern analogy would be the orders of dervishes in Islam.
At the critical moment he embraced Islam .to escape death, and though he was still believed in by many - it was not Sabbatai himself but a phantom resemblance that had assumed the turban!
Not only the great religions of the world - Buddhism, Christianity, Islam - but those of secondary importance, such as Judaism, Parseeism, Taoism, are all Asiatic. No European race left to itself has developed anything more than an unsystematic paganism.
But in the 7th century they were defeated by Heraclius, and shortly afterwards were annihilated before the first impetus of the Mahommedan conquest, which established Islam in Persia and the neighbouring lands, sweeping away old civilizations and boundaries.
To complete her misfortunes, the European powers, the church and the small states of Italy, partly from jealous greed of her possessions, partly on the plea of her treason to Christendom in making terms with Islam, partly from fear of her expansion in north Italy, coalesced at Cambrai in 1508 for the partition of Venetian possessions.
At the Moslem conquest of Syria, Palmyra capitulated to Khalid (see Caliphate) without embracing Islam (Baladsori [[[Baladhuri]]], seq.; Yagut, i.
See Lane's Modern Egyptians, chap. xxv.; Michell, Egyptian Calendar; Hughes, Dictionary of Islam, pp. 192 ff.; Sir R.
Thus the desire for vengeance and the prospect of a brilliant military career impelled the Bogomil magnates to adopt the creed of Islam, which, in its austerity, presented some points of resemblance to their own doctrines.
Yet even now Sigismund, at the head of his Magyars, thrice (1422-1424, 1426-1427, and 1430-1431) encountered the Turks, not ingloriously, in the open field, till, recognizing that Hungary must thenceforth rely entirely on her own resources in any future struggle with Islam, he elaborately fortified the whole southern frontier, and converted the little fort of Nandorfehervar, later Belgrade, at the junction of the Danube and Save, into an enormous first-class fortress, which proved strong enough to repel all the attacks of the Turks for more than a century.
Mahmud, in spite of - or rather because of - his well-meant efforts at reform, was hated by his Mussulman subjects and stigmatized as an " infidel " and a traitor to Islam.
Of this hatred he was fully conscious; he knew that his subjects, even many of his own ministers, regarded Mehemet Ali as the champion of Islam against the " infidel sultan;" he suspected the pasha, already master of the sacred cities, of an intention to proclaim himself caliph in his stead.
Many have to be recovered from grammars, dictionaries, &c., where single lines or groups of lines are quoted to illustrate the proper use of words, phrases or idioms. Moreover, many a reciter was not content to declaim the genuine verses of ancient poets, but interpolated some of his own composition, and the change of religion introduced by Islam led to the mutilation of many verses to suit the doctrines of the new creed.1 The language of the poems, as of all the best Arabian literature, was that of the desert Arabs of central Arabia; and to use it aright was the ambition of poets and scholars even in the Abbasid period.
In Islam" according to an unconfirmed tradition Mahomet is said to have foretold that his community would split into seventy-three sects (see Mahommedan Religion, § Sects), of which only one would escape the flames of hell.
The mystical tendency in Islam, Sufism, is also regarded as heretical (see Kuenen's Hibbert Lecture, pp. 45-5 0).
Lebanon, are tending to emigrate or conform to Sunni Islam.
In support of the policy, and to emphasize the religious character of Ottoman war aims, a Jihad or Holy War was proclaimed by the Sultan as Caliph of Islam.
It came within a narrow margin of setting the Mahommedan world ablaze against Great Britain and France - on which Germany had counted - a catastrophe averted by the accident that the Sherif of Mecca opposed the Jihad and divided Islam.
and Islam found it easy to supersede Christianity in Yemen.
It was not, however, till the Toth century that Islam was established at Kashgar, under the Uighur kingdom (see Turks).
Caussin de Perceval published (1828) a useful Grammaire arabe vulgaire, which passed through several editions (4th ed., 1858), and edited and enlarged Elie Bocthor's 1 Dictionnaire francais-arabe (2 vols., 1828; 3rd ed., 1864); but his great reputation rests almost entirely on one book, the Essai sur l'histoire des Arabes avant l'Islamisme, pendant l'epoque de Mahomet (3 vols., 1847-1849), in which the native traditions as to the early history of the Arabs, down to the death of Mahommed and the complete subjection of all the tribes to Islam, are brought together with wonderful industry and set forth with much learning and lucidity.
The ancient virtues - hospitality to the guest and the poor, profuse expenditure of wealth, valour in battle, faithfulness to the cause of the tribe - are the themes of praise; wine and the game of maisir, forbidden by Islam, are celebrated by poets who professed themselves converts; and if there is no mention of the old idolatry, there is also little spirituality in the outlook on life.
The fact, however, remains that there existed a certain animosity between the Ghuzz and their allies and the rest of the Turks, which increased as the former became converted to Islam (in the course of the 4th century of the Flight).
It is alleged that a large number of the Bosnian Paterenes, and especially the nobles, embraced Islam (see Bosnia And Herzegovina: History).
An inevitable effect of the reign of Islam had been that the kindred language of the Arabs gradually killed the vernacular Syriac of Mesopotamia (see Edessa) as the alien Greek and Persian had shown no tendency to do, and the classical period (4th to 8th centuries) of the only Mesopotamian literature we know, such as it is, useful but uninviting, came to an end (see Syriac Literature).
37), and a single enemy, his uncle Abu Lahab (cxi.) - and these for very special reasons - are mentioned by name; and the name of the latter has been left in the Koran with a fearful curse annexed to it, although his son had embraced Islam before the death of Mahomet, and his descendants belonged to the noblest families.
The conversion to Islam of Nikudar Abmad, the third of the Ilkhan rulers of Persia, and the consequent troubles in the western Mongol empire, let to a suspension of hostilities between Egypt and the Ilkhans (see PERSIA: History, B), though the latter did not cease to agitate in Europe for a renewal of the Crusades, with little result.
Orthodox Islam preserves unchanged the form of doctrine established in the 10th century by Abu `l-Masan al-Ash`ari (see As11 ` ARI).
Mystical tendencies in Mahommedanism arose mainly on Persian soil (see SuFiism), and Von Kremer has shown that these Eastern tendencies fell in with a disposition to asceticism and flight from the world which had arisen among the Arabs before Islam under Christian influence.
The Omayyads were accused by their numerous missionaries of every imaginable vice; in their hands Islam was not safe; it would be a godly work to extirpate them from the earth.
He desired to augment the splendours of Islam and its sovereign, as Abdalmalik had already done by building the dome of Jerusalem.
The principle of Islam was, that no Moslem, whatever might be his nationality, should pay any tax other than the zakat or poor-rate (see Mahommedan Institutions).
But Omar did all he could to prevent the degradation of the Holy War, which, instead of being the ultimate expedient for the propagation of Islam, if all other means had failed, had often degenerated into mere pillaging expeditions against peaceful nations.
He was conscious of his own intense unpopularity, the outcome of his efforts at reform; he knew that in popular opinion Mehemet Ali was the champion of Islam against the infidel caliph, and that the issue of a struggle with him was more than doubtful.
By royal order he dictated his narrative to Mahommed Ibn Juzai, who concludes the work, 13th of December 1 355 (A.D.) with the declaration: "This Shaykh is the traveller of our age; and he who should call him the traveller of the whole body of Islam would not exceed the truth."
The success of this policy was, however, only apparent, especially in Iran, the inhabitants of which adopted Islam only in the most superficial manner, and it was from Persia that the blow fell which destroyed the Omayyad caliphate and set up the Abbasids in its place (see CALIPHATE).
In Islam proper they have no raison d'etre; the legends about Adam and Eve on Arafa, about Abraham's sacrifice of the ram at Thabii by Mina, imitated in the sacrifices of the pilgrimage, are clumsy afterthoughts, as appears from their variations and only partial acceptance.
1300, forced outward compliance with Sunni Islam on the Mountain, after defeating the Druses at Ain Sofar.
The Omayya, who during the following centuries were reinforced by further immigrants from Arabia, intermarried with the negroid races, and gradually Arab influence became predominant and Islam the nominal faith of all the inhabitants of Sennar.
Venality and the extortion of the tax-gatherer flourished anew after the departure of Gordon, while the feebleness of his successors inspired in the Baggara a contempt for the authority which prohibited them pursuing their most lucrative traffic. When Mahommed Ahmed (q.v.), a Dongolese, proclaimed himself the long-looked-for Mandi (guide) of Islam, he found most of his original followers among the grossly superstitious villagers of Kordofan, to whom he preached universal equality and a community of goods, while denouncing the Turks 2 as unworthy Moslems on whom God would execute judgment.
Islam 's view of man does not admit man 's need for redemption from sin (cf.