In 1840 the freedom of mining was introduced, 2 By the law of 1906 the state has not assumed the responsibility of the construction of reservoirs for irrigation.
Numerous canals intersect the district, affording ample means of irrigation.
The Panlaung and Zawgyi rivers from the Shan States flow through the district and are utilized for the numerous irrigation canals.
The vegetation of each region has its distinctive character, modified here and there by elevation, irrigation from mountain streams, and by the saline character of the soil.
Among a variety of premiums awarded by the state are those for the best cultivated estates and for irrigation works, and to the owners of the best stallions and brood-mares.
It is exceedingly picturesque, the villages clinging to the sides of the mountain glens from which water is drawn for irrigation; and excellent fruit is grown.
Irrigation works have been carried out in various parts.
It is only navigable by small sailing-vessels, even in its estuary, but its waters are extensively utilized for irrigation.
From its source to the city of Kabul the course of the river is only 45 m., and this part of it is often exhausted in summer for purposes of irrigation.
Milan undertook the irrigation works which enriched the soil of Lombardy for ever.
The valley bed is more or less covered with alluvial soil, and cultivated in places by artificial irrigation.
The method of this irrigation is peculiar.
Through this part of its course the current of the river, except where restricted by floating bridges - at Feluja, Mussaib, Hillah, Diwanieh and Samawa - does not normally exceed a mile an hour, and both on the main stream and on its canals the jerd or oxbucket takes the place of the naoura or water-wheel for purposes of irrigation.
The object is to allow sufficient water to drain off to the westward for the due irrigation of the land, while the Hillah bed still retains the main volume of the stream, and is navigable to the sea.
The fact also that many of the most ancient of these ruins, like Ur, Lagash (Sirpurla), Larsa, Erech, Nippur, Sippara and Babylon, were situated on the banks of the great canals would indicate that the control of the waters of the rivers by a system of canalization and irrigation was one of the first achievements of civilization.
There are several lakes of great depth and streams well fitted for the purposes of irrigation, of which full advantage is taken by the natives.
Save where irrigation has reclaimed small areas, the whole region is a vast desert, though locally only some of the interior plains are known as "deserts."
Except on the scattered oases, where irrigation from springs and mountain streams has reclaimed small patches, the desert is barren and forbidding in the extreme.
The Truckee river flows with more vigour, having its source in Lake Tahoe, in California, at an altitude of 6225 ft., and entering the Carson river through an irrigation canal :completed in 1905; before this date it flowed into Pyramid Lake and Lake Winnemucca in the depression at the foot of the Sierra Nevada.
Because of this extreme aridity, agriculture in Nevada is dependent on irrigation.
The three principal areas in which irrigation is practicable are along the Humboldt river, in the plains watered by the Carson, Truckee and Walker rivers, and at the foot of the mountains along the western edge of the state.
The survey for the Truckee-Carson system was begun in 1902, with the object of utilizing the waters flowing to waste in western Nevada for the irrigation and reclamation of the adjacent arid regions in Churchill, Lyon and Storey counties.
In this tract the rainfall is nowhere sufficient for the purposes of agriculture, which is only possible by help of irrigation; and the fixed population (which contains a non-Turkish element) is comparatively small, and restricted to the towns and the districts near the rivers.
24 along the slopes of the higher mountains, on which the rain falls more abundantly, or the melting snow supplies streams for irrigation.
The other cereals may be seen occasionally, where artificial irrigation is practised, in all stages of progress at all seasons of the year, though the operations of agriculture are, as a general rule, limited to the rainy months, when alone is the requisite supply of water commonly forthcoming.
They had also much skill in the construction of works for the supply of drinking water on a large scale and for irrigation.
The steppes along the bottom of the principal valley are for the most part too dry to be cultivated without irrigation.
The Mugan steppe is, however, in spite of its dryness, a more fertile region in virtue of the irrigation practised; but the Kura has excavated its bed too deeply to admit of that being done along its course.
But where irrigation is employed the yield of crops is excellent.
The agriculture of the region bordering the Tigris and Euphrates, like that of Egypt, depended largely on irrigation, and traces of ancient canals are still to be seen in Babylonia.
The earliest known forms of intensive husbandry were based chiefly upon the proximity of rivers and irrigation.
Attica was famous for its olives and figs, but general agriculture excelled in Peloponnesus, where, by means of irrigation and drainage, all the available land was utilized.
Irrigation benefits a sandy soil, draining a marshy soil.
The work on agriculture' of Ibn-al-Awam, who lived in the 12th century A.D., treats of the varieties of soils, manuring, irrigation, ploughing, sowing, harvesting, stock, horticulture, arboriculture and plant diseases, and is a lasting record of their skill and industry.
Both draining and irrigation are noticed, though the latter but slightly.
finished, with the object of amassing sufficient capital to construct a dike for his native town of Tus, which suffered greatly from defective irrigation, a project which had been the chief dream of his childhood.
The great canal was not begun; irrigation works were started but were soon given up. The letters of Kleber and Menou (the successors of Bonaparte) show that the expenditure on public works had been so reckless that the colony was virtually bankrupt at the time of Bonaparte's departure; and William Hamilton, who travelled through Egypt in 1802, found few traces, other than military, of the French occupation.
In the littoral districts excellent crops of cereals, cotton, fruit, wine and tobacco are obtained with the aid of irrigation.
- Climatic conditions in Egypt differ radically from those in the United States, the rainfall being so small as to be quite insufficient for the needs of the plant, very little rain indeed falling in the Nile Delta during the whole growing season of the crop: yet Egypt is in order the third cottonproducing country of the world, elaborate irrigation works supplying the crop with the requisite water.
It is considered that with facilities for irrigation Andalusia could produce 150,000 bales annually.
The rainfall is uncertain and low, however, never exceeding 40 in., and on the supply of water by irrigation the future of the industry mainly depends.
Still more recently, however, experiments have been made to grow Egyptian cotton in Sind with the help of irrigation.
Owing to the high barrier which shuts off almost all Syria from the sea, and precipitates vapours mainly on the western slope, little of the land is highly productive without irrigation, except the narrow littoral strip which was the ancient Phoenicia, and the small deltas, such as that of Latakia (Laodicea).
For the rest, Syria needs irrigation; and since neither of its larger rivers, Orontes or Jordan, flowing as these do in deep beds, is of much use for this purpose, all Mid-Syria, except the lacustrine oases, is a region mainly occupied by pastures, and yielding only thin cereal crops.
Irrigation, introduced in 1888 by the orange growers, has been adapted by other farmers, especially the tobacco-growers of Gadsden county, and so the evil effects of the droughts, so common from February to June, are avoided.
It has published a topographical map of the Nile valley (1:50,000), an irrigation map (I:10o,000), a general map (1: 2 50,000), numerous cadastral plans, &c. Work on similar lines is carried on in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.
In this region irrigation is widely used.
In the town of Raymond is a large beet sugar manufactory, and in the vicinity great quantities of beets are grown by irrigation.
These prairies are traversed by ridges, which facilitate irrigation, and are underlaid by an impervious subsoil, which facilitates both effective storage and drainage.
Irrigation is almost entirely confined to rice farms. In the prairie region there is abundant water at depths of too to 400 ft.
beneath the surface, but this was little used for irrigation for the first few years of the development of this field, when water was pumped from the streams and canals.
The irrigated rice area increased 92.9% from 1899 to 1902, and the construction cost of irrigation works ($4747,359 in 1902; $12.25 per irrigated acre) 87.7% in the same years.
Many bayous are convertible by improvement into excellent drainage and irrigation canals.
Water Supply and Irrigation Papers, No.
Much of the soil of the desert appears to be alluvial; there are numerous traces of streams having formerly passed over it, and still, where irrigation is at all practicable, fertility in the clayey tract follows; but the rains are scanty, the wells few and generally 100 ft.
The benefits of canal irrigation were introduced in the 'seventies, and the revenue thus doubled.
To add to the uncertainties of navigation, the inhabitants along the eastern bank of the stream frequently dig new canals for irrigation purposes, which both reduces the water of the river and tends to make it shift its channel.
The northern sides and tops of the lower heights are often covered with dense forests of oak, cork, pine, cedar and other trees, with walnuts up to the limit of irrigation.
This supersedes artificial irrigation, and the plains so watered yield abundantly in rice, jute and mustard.
In the neighbourhood of the Vaal, confluence, where the river passes through alluvial land, and at some other places, the waters of the Orange are used, and are capable of being much more largely used, for irrigation purposes.
There are also the ruins of a band, or stone dam of great strength, which was thrown across the river for the purposes of irrigation.
The state came under British management, and the administration was improved, the revenue increased, a system of irrigation developed, new tanks and wells constructed and an excellent system of roads and public buildings organized.
It also conducts campaigns against locusts and other pests and helps irrigation settlements.
It is a region of lakes and morasses, of arid plains and high temperatures, but experiments with irrigation toward the end of the 19th century were highly successful and considerable tracts have since been brought under cultivation.
The Nerbudda is nowhere utilized for irrigation, and navigation is confined to the lower section.
Many regions suffer permanently from deficient rainfall; in others, owing to the absence of irrigation works, the water supply is lost, while the burning of the grass at the end of summer, a practice adopted by many farmers, tends to impoverish the soil and render it arid.
The act authorizing the loan devoted £2,500,000 to the establishment of a land and agricultural bank, and £2,500,000 to railways, public works, irrigation and agricultural settlement and development.
He also recognized the necessity, if agriculture was to be developed, of an extensive system of irrigation, and Sir William Willcocks, formerly of the Egyptian Irrigation Department, was engaged to draw up a comprehensive scheme, having in view also the needs of the gold mines.
Collins, " Irrigation in the Transvaal," Minutes of P. I.
Irrigation, which has not been used to any great extent, is needed in some parts of the country for the best results, but in others, as in the valleys and on the northern slopes of the Maritime Andes, the rainfall is sufficiently well distributed to meet most requirements.
The long dry season of the llanos and surrounding slopes, which have not as yet been devoted to cultivation, will require a different system of agriculture with systematic irrigation.
The climatic conditions are not so favourable as in Argentina, but these are counterbalanced to some extent by the great river system of the Orinoco, whose large navigable tributaries cross the plains from end to end, and whose smaller streams from the surrounding highlands provide superior opportunities for water storage and irrigation.
The tree has an average height of 12-13 ft., begins bearing five years after planting, requires little attention beyond occasional irrigation, bears two crops a year (June and December), and produces well until it is forty years of age - the yield being from 490 to 600 lb per acre of 100 trees.
Agriculture has been developed only to a limited extent in Sonora, because of its aridity, lack of irrigation facilities, lack of railways and roads, and the unsettled state of the country.
Other important sources of revenue are the rents from state lands, forests, and miscellaneous items such as fishery, revenue and irrigation taxes.
In some parts of Lower Burma and in the dry districts of Upper Burma a hot season crop is also grown with the assistance of irrigation during the spring months.
At the time of the British annexation of Burma there were some old irrigation systems in the Kyaukse and Minbu districts, which had been allowed to fall into disrepair, and these have now been renewed and extended.
In all upwards of 300,000 acres are subject to irrigation under these schemes.
The dense population was due to the elaborate irrigation of the Babylonian plain which had originally reclaimed it from a pestiferous and uninhabitable swamp and had made it the most fertile country in the world.
The science of irrigation and engineering seems to have been first created in Babylonia, which was covered by a network of canals, all skilfully planned and regulated.
Thanks to this system of irrigation the cultivation of the soil was highly advanced in Babylonia.
A rapid in the Tagus, artificially converted into a weir, renders irrigation easy, and has thus created an oasis in the midst of the barren plateau of New Castile.
The country is dry and sandy, and entirely depends on well irrigation for its water supply.
Here the tropical heat is tempered by constant trade winds, there is perfect immunity from hurricanes, the soil is peculiarly suited for cane-growing, and by the use of specially-prepared fertilizers and an ample supply of water at command for irrigation the land yields from 50 to 90 tons of canes per acre, from which from 12 to 14% of sugar is produced.
With an inexhaustible supply of irrigation water obtainable, there is no reason why the lands in Upper Egypt, if scientifically cultivated and managed, should not yield as abundantly as those in the Sandwich Islands.
The landscape is rich and beautiful, varied with grand rock scenery, the coast-line being broken by numerous small bays, into which flow streams rarely navigable even for short distances, but often skilfully utilized by the natives for irrigation; and sometimes flowing in subterranean channels.
This may be more than the rainfall, in which case irrigation or special control of the water supply may be necessary.
In the semi-arid regions of the United States, Argentina and other countries where the average annual rainfall lies between ioa to 20 in., irrigation is necessary to obtain full crops every year.
Good crops, however, can often be grown in such areas without irrigation if attention is paid to the proper circulation of water in the soil and means for retaining it or preventing excessive loss by evaporation.
In good seasons it is sufficient for the cultivation of the summer crop of millet, and for the supply of the perennial streams and springs, on which the irrigation of the winter crops of wheat and barley depend.
But for a long period past the freshwater streams (which predominate) have been used for irrigation to such a degree that very little of the precious water is allowed to run to waste into the lake basins; so that these latter receive only a few salt streams, which deposit on their surface the salt they contain and then evaporate.
All these valleys, except Morrope and Chao, are watered by rivers which have their sources far in the recesses of the mountains, and which furnish an abundant supply in the season when irrigation is needed.
Communications.-The problem of easy and cheap transportation between the coast and the interior has been a vital one for Peru, for upon it depends the economic development of some of the richest parts of the republic. The arid character of the coastal zone, with an average width of about 80 m., permits cultivation of the soil only where water for irrigation is available.
This seems incompatible with the arid character of the country and the peculiar conditions of its civilization, but irrigation has been successfully employed in the fertile valleys of the coast.
Irrigation is necessary for productiveness, and the water-supply is now deficient.
They are all used for irrigation.
Cereals are grown in some localities, and there are large vineyards where irrigation is possible, from which excellent wine is made.
The great bend of the river affords easy irrigation, and the surrounding country is covered by a network of irrigating canals, even the paved streets of the town having streams of cool water running through them.
Numerous canals are cut from the rivers for the purpose of affording artificial irrigation, which has proved of immense benefit to the country.
Well and tank water is also largely used for irrigation purposes.
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