How to use Irrigation in a sentence
Irrigation works have been carried out in various parts.
The method of this irrigation is peculiar.
Irrigation benefits a sandy soil, draining a marshy soil.
But where irrigation is employed the yield of crops is excellent.
The agriculture of the region bordering the Tigris and Euphrates, like that of Egypt, depended largely on irrigation, and traces of ancient canals are still to be seen in Babylonia.Advertisement
The Nerbudda is nowhere utilized for irrigation, and navigation is confined to the lower section.
He couldn't develop new irrigation techniques, invent new machinery, or create new fertilizers.
Both draining and irrigation are noticed, though the latter but slightly.
The rainfall is uncertain and low, however, never exceeding 40 in., and on the supply of water by irrigation the future of the industry mainly depends.
In this region irrigation is widely used.Advertisement
If you look back across the span of time, you see wood plows being used in 4000 BC, then irrigation five hundred years later.
Except on the scattered oases, where irrigation from springs and mountain streams has reclaimed small patches, the desert is barren and forbidding in the extreme.
There are several lakes of great depth and streams well fitted for the purposes of irrigation, of which full advantage is taken by the natives.
Among a variety of premiums awarded by the state are those for the best cultivated estates and for irrigation works, and to the owners of the best stallions and brood-mares.
Through this part of its course the current of the river, except where restricted by floating bridges - at Feluja, Mussaib, Hillah, Diwanieh and Samawa - does not normally exceed a mile an hour, and both on the main stream and on its canals the jerd or oxbucket takes the place of the naoura or water-wheel for purposes of irrigation.Advertisement
Because of this extreme aridity, agriculture in Nevada is dependent on irrigation.
The benefits of canal irrigation were introduced in the 'seventies, and the revenue thus doubled.
The problem for the agriculturist here is not irrigation, but drainage and keeping down spontaneous growths.
The Panlaung and Zawgyi rivers from the Shan States flow through the district and are utilized for the numerous irrigation canals.
The steppes along the bottom of the principal valley are for the most part too dry to be cultivated without irrigation.Advertisement
Irrigation is used to a large extent.
The estimate premised a cost of £50,000, the irrigation of 42,000 acres, and the reclamation of io,000.
They had also much skill in the construction of works for the supply of drinking water on a large scale and for irrigation.
Irrigation is rudimentary, for no system exists for raising the water of the innumerable canals on to the fields.
In 1905 the government started preliminary surveys for a system of irrigation.Advertisement
Moreover, a college under the control of the Ministry of Lands and Agriculture, which was founded in 1909, provides locally courses of instruction in these subjects and also in irrigation engineering, sericulture and surveying.
Philo, De posteriori Caini, § 3, explains the name as meaning iroru ryos,"watering" or "irrigation," connecting it with the Hebrew root Sh Th Josephus, Ant.
On the lower courses of the Habra and the Sig, barrages have been built for irrigation purposes.
At Saint Martory it gives off the irrigation canal of that name.
Agriculture was formerly developed on the Tekez, as is testified by old irrigation canals.
The western portion of the state is a plain watered by the Zarafshan and by countless irrigation canals drawn from it.
Land suitable for cultivation is found only in oases, where it is watered by irrigation canals, but these oases are very fertile.
Irrigation, careful husbandry and railroad communications have much developed the resources of their country, in themselves excellent; and there are many manufacturing towns and industrial establishments.
Then, there are the mangrove-fringed coasts and the dripping wooded slopes where rare orchids thrive, and above these, on the inland side of the sierra, a treeless, sun-scorched table-land where only the cactus, yucca, and other coarse vegetation of the desert can thrive without irrigation.
A large part of the country is too arid for agriculture, and even with irrigation the water supply is sufficient for only a small part of the dry area.
The Mexicans understood digging channels for irrigation, especially for the cultivation of the cacahuatl, from which they taught the Europeans to prepare the beverage chocollatl; these native names passed into English as the words cacao, or coco and chocolate.
The remainder of the residency is well-watered and fertile, important irrigation works having been carried out.
The open valleys between the spaced ranges offer many tempting sites for settlement, but in the south irrigation is needed for cultivation.
The ranges of the Rocky Mountains in their turn receive some rainfall from the passing winds, but it is only after the westerlies are reinforced by a moist indraft from the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlanticthe result of summer or of cyclonic inflowthat rainfall increases to a sufficient measure on the lower lands to support agriculture without irrigation.
The wall is nearly encircled by a stream of water, artificially diverted from the small rivulets which flow through the precincts, furnishing the establishment with an abundant supply in every part, for the irrigation of the gardens and orchards, the sanitary requirements of the brotherhood and for the use of the offices and workshops.
Weirs are essential for raising the head of water for water-wheels at mills, and for diverting some of the flow of a river into irrigation canals; but they have received their greatest and most varied extension in the canalization of rivers for navigation.
There are three distinct classes of weirs, namely, solid weirs, draw-door weirs, including regulating sluices for irrigation, and movable weirs, which retain the water above them for navigation during the low stage of the river, and can be lowered or removed so as to leave the channel quite open in flood-time.
The barrage at the head of the Nile delta, and the regulating sluices across the Nile at Assiut and Esna in Upper Egypt below Assuan, are examples of draw-door weirs, with their numerous openings closed by sluice-gates sliding on free rollers, which control the discharge of water from the river for irrigation.
The precipitation in southern Saskatchewan and Alberta is much more variable than farther east and north, so that in some seasons crops have been a failure through drought, but large areas are now being brought under irrigation to avoid such losses.
The interior plateau may be described as arid, so that irrigation is required if crops are to be raised.
In some parts of the semiarid districts in the interior of the province irrigation is being successfully practised for the purpose of bringing land under profitable cultivation for fruit.
No special tillage is required, but weeding and irrigation are requisite.
In tropical countries drought is the commonest cause of a failure in the harvest, and where great droughts are not uncommon - as in parts of India and Australia - the hydraulic engineer comes to the rescue by devising systems of water-storage and irrigation.
Irrigation is better able to bring fertility to a naturally arid district than to avert the failure of crops in one which is naturally fertile.
The sum of 12 crores is regularly set aside for this purpose, and is devoted as a rule to the construction of protective irrigation works, and for investigating and preparing new projects falling under the head of protective works.
In the valleys of the Copiapo and Huasco rivers a meagre vegetation is to be found near their channels, apart from what is produced by irrigation, but the surface of the plateau and the dry river channels below the sierras are completely barren.
Near the sierras where irrigation is possible, fruit-growing is so successful, especially the grape and fig, that the product is considered the best in Chile.
In 1840 the freedom of mining was introduced, 2 By the law of 1906 the state has not assumed the responsibility of the construction of reservoirs for irrigation.
Numerous canals intersect the district, affording ample means of irrigation.
It is only navigable by small sailing-vessels, even in its estuary, but its waters are extensively utilized for irrigation.
From its source to the city of Kabul the course of the river is only 45 m., and this part of it is often exhausted in summer for purposes of irrigation.
The valley bed is more or less covered with alluvial soil, and cultivated in places by artificial irrigation.
To add to the uncertainties of navigation, the inhabitants along the eastern bank of the stream frequently dig new canals for irrigation purposes, which both reduces the water of the river and tends to make it shift its channel.
The country is dry and sandy, and entirely depends on well irrigation for its water supply.
Well and tank water is also largely used for irrigation purposes.
Irrigation and terrace culture were practised at several points on the Pacific slope from Arizona to Peru.
Under the Reclamation Act passed by Congress in 1902 the irrigation of 10o,000 acres in the Belle Fourche Valley adjacent to the Black Hills region was provided for.
At the western end of the barrage begins the Ibrahimia canal, the feeder of the Bahr Yusuf, the largest irrigation canal of Egypt.
Extensive irrigation works existed in Shwebo district, but they fell into disrepair in King Thibaw's time.
The measures by which the government of India chiefly endeavours to reduce the liability of the country to famine are the promotion of railways; the extension of canal and well irrigation; the reclamation of waste lands, with the establishment of fuel and fodder reserves; the introduction of agricultural improvements; the multiplication of industries; emigration; and finally the improvement where necessary of the revenue and rent systems. In times of famine the function of the railways in distributing the grain is just as important as the function of the irrigation-canals in increasing the amount grown.
Irrigation protects large tracts against famine, and has immensely increased the wheat output of the Punjab; the Irrigation Commission of 1903 recommended the addition of 62 million acres to the irrigated area of India, and that recommendation is being carried out at an annual cost of 12 millions sterling for twenty years, but at the end of that time the list of works that will return a lucrative interest on capital will be practically exhausted.
Local conditions do not make irrigation everywhere possible.
But beyond the sphere of irrigation, where the land is dependent on the rainfall, there is much rough stony ground broken by great fissures cut by flood-water from the border hills.
In Kohat and Hazara any considerable extension of canal irrigation is out of the question, but in the remaining districts much can still be done to promote irrigation.
The steppes of the Kura are also fertile, but require artificial irrigation, especially for cotton.
The average yield per acre of cane-sugar is the greatest in the world, 30 to 40.tons of cane being an average per acre, and as much as rot tons of sugar having been produced from a single acre under irrigation.
Stock-breeding, like agriculture, has considerably improved under the care of the government (state and provincial), which grants subsidies for breeding, irrigation of pasture-lands, the importation of finer breeds of cattle and horses, the erection of factories for dairy produce, schools, &c.
Towards the close of this period many improvements were introduced, although the want of irrigation is still keenly felt.
Probably the polar regions alone do not fall within the category of the potentially productive, as even sandy and alkaline desert is rendered habitable where irrigation can be introduced; and vast tracts of fertile soil adapted for immediate exploitation, especially in the temperate zones, both north and south, only remain unpeopled because they are not yet wanted for colonization.
Speaking generally, irrigation is essential to successful cultivation, but wherever irrigation is practicable the soil proves richly productive.
The Constitution of Colorado declares the waters of its streams the property of the state, and a great body of irrigation law and practice has grown up about this provision.
In no part of the semi-arid region of the country are the irrigation problems so diverse and difficult.
As a result of irrigation the Platte is often dry in eastern Colorado in the summer, and the Arkansas shrinks so below Pueblo that little water reaches Kansas.
It is a very rich loamy earth, possessing great fertility and an unusual power of retaining moisture, which makes artificial irrigation little needed.
The ordinary "red soil" covers a large part of northern Bundelkhand, and as it requires much irrigation, tanks are a special feature in this country.
In the lowlands it loses much of its volume through evaporation and absorption by the sands, and through irrigation, and in its lower course in New Mexico its bed is frequently dry.
Along the river valleys there are limited areas of fine sediment, and here with irrigation good crops can be grown without the use of fertilizers.
The most important crop, as a result of irrigation, is alfalfa, which is grown for forage, requires little attention, and improves the soil.
Except in a few mountain valleys in the N., agriculture was long entirely dependent upon irrigation, which has been practised in New Mexico by the Pueblo Indians since prehistoric times.
After the passage of the Federal Reclamation Act in 1902, a number of extensive irrigation works in New Mexico were undertaken by the Federal government.
In 1908 an irrigation reservoir in McKinley county for the use of the Zuni Indians and the Leasburg project (Dona Ana county; 20,000 acres) were completed.
A special irrigation commission was appointed in 1897, and in 1905 the legislature created the office of Territorial irrigation engineer.
Irrigation by private companies is of some importance, especially in the San Juan Valley, the Rio Grande Valley and the Pecos Valley.
Dry farming has proved a great success in New Mexico, as elsewhere in the SouthWest, especially since 1900; and in 1907 it was estimated that 2,000,000 acres were cultivated without irrigation.
Landgrants amounting in 1907 to 1,343,080 acres had also been made for the benefit of various educational, charitable and correctional institutions, and for irrigation purposes.
Under the superintendence of an officer lent by the government of Madras, two great works of irrigation, from the lack of which agriculture had seriously suffered, were undertaken in 1898 and 1899.
The district as a whole is not well watered, and most of the old irrigation tanks had fallen into disrepair before the annexation.
This region is rainless, barren and inhospitable, absolutely destitute of vegetation except in some small river valleys where irrigation is possible, and on the slopes of some of the snow-covered peaks where the water from the melting snows nourishes a scanty and coarse vege tation before it disappears in the thirsty sands.
Irrigation is confined to the western half of the state, and more especially to the north-west, being employed chiefly in the drainage basin of the Missouri river.
The bed of the river is too far below the surrounding country to permit the use of its waters for irrigation purposes by the usual gravity methods.
The so-called Reclamation Act passed by Congress in 1902 provided for the construction of a system of irrigation works in this and other states by the Federal government.
In both the Castiles the central plateau has a naturally fertile soil, for after rain a luxuriant vegetation appears; but drought is common, owing to the insufficient volume of the rivers, and the failure of the Spaniards to extend the fine system of irrigation which the Moors originated.
Water is obtained from wells and springs in sufficient quantity to supply an extensive system of irrigation.
Nearly all the moisture that is precipitated during six or seven months is stored up in the form of snow, and is gradually diffused in the course of the succeeding summer; even in the hottest and driest seasons the reserves accumulated during a long preceding period of years in the form of glaciers are available to maintain the regular flow of the greater streams. Nor is this all; the lakes that fill several of the main valleys on the southern side of the Alps are somewhat above the level of the plains of Lombardy and Venetia, and afford an inexhaustible supply of water, which, from a remote period, has been used for that system of irrigation to which they owe their proverbial fertility.
Irrigation effected by river-fed canals naturally depends on the regimen of the rivers.
The exhaustion, or alleged exhaustion, by irrigation in Colorado of the waters of the Rio Grande has raised international questions of much interest between Mexico and the United States, which were settled in 1907 by a convention pledging the United States to deliver 60,000 acre-feet of water annually in the bed of the Rio Grande at the Acequia Madre, just above Juarez, in case of drought this supply being diminished proportionately to the diminution in the United States.
The northern part of this region has a sub-tropical climate, light rainfall and a long, dry summer, but with irrigation it produces a great variety of products.
In its course through Mysore the channel is interrupted by twelve anicuts or dams for the purpose of irrigation.
It is in the delta that the real value of the river for irrigation becomes conspicuous.
The most ancient irrigation work is a massive dam of unhewn stone, 1080 long, and from 40 to 60 ft.
The irrigation of the claires is entirely under control, and the claires undergo a special preparation for the production of the green oysters, whose colour seems to be derived from a species of Diatom which abounds in the claires.
Great dams were also begun for irrigation purposes.
These latter are few in number, and some of them barely suffice for purposes of agricultural irrigation, and in summer dwindle down to small nills.
These form a more powerful wave-bath, and in combination with intestinal irrigation, are used very successfully for the treatment of abdominal disorders.
The soil is everywhere rich, but the lack of perennial water and the absence of irrigation works on a large scale retards agriculture.
The scanty rainfall in many parts of South Africa and its unequal distribution necessitates a system of artificial irrigation unless much of the land be allowed to remain uncultivated.
But in many regions the soil is deficient in phosphates and nitrates, and large irrigation works can be profitable only in districts where the soil is exceptionally fertile.
In that year the Cape legislature provided for the constitution of irrigation boards.
Later boring operations were undertaken by the government, and the advice of engineers acquainted with Egyptian and Indian irrigation works sought.
Willcocks in 1.901 in which he estimated that there were in the Cape, Orange Free State and the Transvaal, 3,000,000 acres which could be brought under irrigation at a cost of about £30,000,000.
At the Cape the census of 1904 gave 415,688 acres as the area under irrigation, an increase of 105,827 acres since 1891.
The Boer governments had done little to promote irrigation, but during1905-1907a strong intercolonial commission investigated the subject as it affected the Transvaal and Orange Free State, and their final report, issued at Pretoria in 1908, contains full particulars as to the irrigation possibilities in those provinces.
In Natal an act of 1904 gave power to the government to forward irrigation schemes.
Under that act the Winterton Irrigation Settlement (18,000 acres) was formed on the upper Tugela.
In 1909 an irrigation congress representative of all the governments of British South Africa was held at Robertson, in the Cape province.
Such parts of the Karroo as are under perennial irrigation are among the most productive lands in South Africa.
It is as builders or engineers that they have established their most permanent records, Makran being full of the relics of their irrigation works constructed in times when the climatic conditions of Baluchistan must have been very different from what they are now.
Possibly the ordinary processes of denudation and erosion, acting on those recent deposits which overlie the harder beds of the older series, may have much to say to these climatic changes, and the wanton destruction of forests may have assisted the efforts of nature; but it is difficult to understand the widespread desiccation of large areas of the Baluch highlands, where evidences of Arab irrigation works and of cultivation still attest to a once flourishing agricultural condition, without appealing to more rapidly destructive principles for the change.
The Moors introduced many improvements, especially in the system of irrigation; the characteristic Portuguese wells with their perpetual chains or buckets are of Moorish invention, and retain their Moorish name of noras.
In 1901 the population was 5,249,542, showing an increase of 10% during the decade, attributed to the extension of irrigation from canals.
For the reservation of the water-partings in the past considerably denuded by lumbermen and ranchmen the increase of the forest areas, and the creation of reservoirs along the rivers, to control their erratic flow 2 and impound their flood waste for purposes of irrigation, much has been done by the national government.
The increase in land values by irrigation from 1890 to 1900 is estimated at $3,500,000.
The date palm fruits well; figs grow luxuriantly, though requiring much irrigation; almonds do well if protected from spring frosts; seaisland cotton grows in the finest grades, but is not of commercial importance.
Apaches, Pimas, Papagoes have been employed by the United States on great irrigation works, and have proved industrious and faithful labourers.
After 1900 the city grew very rapidly, principally owing to the great irrigation schemes in southern Idaho; the water for the immense Boise-Payette irrigation system is taken from the Boise, 8 m.
Timothy was grown in the northern, and alfalfa in the southern region as a forage crop. Even at this earliest period, irrigation, simple and individual, had begun in the southern section, the head waters of the few streams in this district being soon surrounded by farms. Co-operation and colonization followed, and more ditching was done, co-operative irrigation canals were constructed with some elaborate and large dams and head gates.
The Carey Act (1894) and the Federal Reclamation Act (1902)introduced the most important period of irrigation.
Latterly, free irrigation of the bowel with astringents, such as silver nitrate, tannalbin, &c., has been attended with success in those cases which have been able to tolerate the injections.
The earliest known forms of intensive husbandry were based chiefly upon the proximity of rivers and irrigation.
In the littoral districts excellent crops of cereals, cotton, fruit, wine and tobacco are obtained with the aid of irrigation.
Still more recently, however, experiments have been made to grow Egyptian cotton in Sind with the help of irrigation.
In the town of Raymond is a large beet sugar manufactory, and in the vicinity great quantities of beets are grown by irrigation.
The northern sides and tops of the lower heights are often covered with dense forests of oak, cork, pine, cedar and other trees, with walnuts up to the limit of irrigation.
There are also the ruins of a band, or stone dam of great strength, which was thrown across the river for the purposes of irrigation.
He also recognized the necessity, if agriculture was to be developed, of an extensive system of irrigation, and Sir William Willcocks, formerly of the Egyptian Irrigation Department, was engaged to draw up a comprehensive scheme, having in view also the needs of the gold mines.
Irrigation, which has not been used to any great extent, is needed in some parts of the country for the best results, but in others, as in the valleys and on the northern slopes of the Maritime Andes, the rainfall is sufficiently well distributed to meet most requirements.
The long dry season of the llanos and surrounding slopes, which have not as yet been devoted to cultivation, will require a different system of agriculture with systematic irrigation.
The climatic conditions are not so favourable as in Argentina, but these are counterbalanced to some extent by the great river system of the Orinoco, whose large navigable tributaries cross the plains from end to end, and whose smaller streams from the surrounding highlands provide superior opportunities for water storage and irrigation.
The tree has an average height of 12-13 ft., begins bearing five years after planting, requires little attention beyond occasional irrigation, bears two crops a year (June and December), and produces well until it is forty years of age - the yield being from 490 to 600 lb per acre of 100 trees.
Agriculture has been developed only to a limited extent in Sonora, because of its aridity, lack of irrigation facilities, lack of railways and roads, and the unsettled state of the country.
Other important sources of revenue are the rents from state lands, forests, and miscellaneous items such as fishery, revenue and irrigation taxes.
In some parts of Lower Burma and in the dry districts of Upper Burma a hot season crop is also grown with the assistance of irrigation during the spring months.
At the time of the British annexation of Burma there were some old irrigation systems in the Kyaukse and Minbu districts, which had been allowed to fall into disrepair, and these have now been renewed and extended.
In all upwards of 300,000 acres are subject to irrigation under these schemes.
The dense population was due to the elaborate irrigation of the Babylonian plain which had originally reclaimed it from a pestiferous and uninhabitable swamp and had made it the most fertile country in the world.
The science of irrigation and engineering seems to have been first created in Babylonia, which was covered by a network of canals, all skilfully planned and regulated.
Thanks to this system of irrigation the cultivation of the soil was highly advanced in Babylonia.
A rapid in the Tagus, artificially converted into a weir, renders irrigation easy, and has thus created an oasis in the midst of the barren plateau of New Castile.
This may be more than the rainfall, in which case irrigation or special control of the water supply may be necessary.
The system of irrigation by which these agricultural results are attained is most elaborate.
He adopts the karez (or, Persian, kandt) system of underground irrigation, as does the Ghilzai, and brings every drop of water that he can find to the surface; but it cannot be said that he is more successful than the Ghilzai.
Through this stretch of dasht the drainage from the main water-divide breaks downwards to the plains of Herat, where it is arrested and utilized for irrigation purposes.
Notwithstanding the large number of streams, the depression of their channels and height of their banks render them for the most part unsuitable for the purposes of irrigation, - which is conducted by means of jhils and tanks.
Even at the time when they were first known to Europeans, they had stone and lava hatchets, shark's-tooth knives, hardwood spades, kapa cloth or paper, mats, fans, fish-hooks and nets, woven baskets, &c., and they had introduced a rough sort of irrigation of the inland country with long canals from highlands to plains.
Willcocks' irrigation schemes had not up to 1910 affected "Mesopotamia" directly.
The plain around Milan is extremely fertile, owing at once to the richness of the alluvial soil deposited by the Po, Ticino, Olona and Adda, and to the excellent system of irrigation.
From this period also date the irrigation works which render the Lombard plain a fertile garden.
Following the example of the great Kampen irrigation canal in Belgium, artificial irrigation is also practised by means of some of the smaller streams, especially in North Brabant, Drente and Overysel, and in the absence of streams, canals and sluices are sometimes specially constructed to perform the same service.
There remained large rivers and opportunities for water storage which could be brought under irrigation at considerable expense.
The large canals and reservoirs built by corporations had rarely been successful from a financial standpoint, and irrigation construction during the latter part of the decade1890-1899was relatively small.
The introduction of English officials and English influence into all the administrative departments was resented by the native officials, and the action of the irrigation officers in preventing the customary abuses of the distribution of water was resented by the great landowners, who had been, from time immemorial, in the habit of taking as much as they wanted, to the detriment of the fellahin.
These streams are all dry during the hot season, but in the rains they flow freely and replenish the numerous tanks and irrigation channels.
The other rivers are the Vellar, Pennar, and Gadalum, all of which are used for irrigation purposes.
Numerous small irrigation channels lead off from them, by means of which a considerable area of waste land has been brought under cultivation.
Its estuary forms the harbour of Cullera, and its lower waters are freely utilized for purposes of irrigation.
This is, of course, due to the excess of evaporation over the amount of water supplied by its two feeders, the Amu-darya and the Syrdarya, both of which are seriously drawn upon for irrigation in all the oases they flow through.
Forest-clad mountains and stretches of thorny jungle alternating with rich alluvial plains, cultivated like gardens under an ancient and elaborate system of irrigation, make the scenery of Lombok exceedingly attractive.
The small rivers serve only for irrigation and the growing of rice, which is of superior quality.
Every house possesses its staircase, its well, and cisterns for irrigation; and on the whole the Aryan Tajiks of this northern section of the Oxus valley seem to be well provided with most of the comforts, if not the luxuries, of life.
The Periyar irrigation project conducts water through the ghats in a tunnel to irrigate the Madras district of Madura, for which compensation of Rs.
The former is of no use for irrigation, except in the immediate neighbourhood of its banks, and is a barrier to cross which involves the labour of a considerable ascent at any point except its most northern section.
Although cultivated with most primitive appliances, and with little or no attempt at irrigation or artificial fertilization, the average yield is eightto twelve-fold annually.
The plough, often replaced on the steeper slopes by the hoe, is similar to that depicted in ancient Egyptian drawings, and hand irrigation is usual.
As practical irrigation engineers they are only rivalled by the Chinese.
They have carried the art of irrigation to great per fection, and they utilize every acre of profitable soil.
The north-western area is best marked in Sind and the Punjab, where the climate is very dry (the rainfall averaging less than 15 in.), and where the soil, though fertile, is wholly dependent on irrigation for its cultivation.
The indiscriminate slaughter of fry, and the obstacles opposed by irrigation dams to breeding fish, are said to be causing a sensible diminution in the supply in certain rivers.
Then comes the settlement officer, whose duty it is to estimate the character of the soil, the kind of crop, the opportunities for irrigation, the means of communication and their probable development in the future, and all other circumstances which tend to affect the value of the produce.
For irrigation, native patience and ingenuity have devised means which compare not unfavourably with the colossal projects of government.
The principal heads of revenue are land, opium, salt, stamps, excise, customs, assessed taxes, forests, registration and tributes from native states; and the chief heads of expenditure are charges of collection, interest, post-office, telegraph and mint, civil departments, famine relief and insurance, railways, irrigation, other public works and army.
In 1908 the total length of railways open in India was 30,578, m., which carried 330 million passengers and 64 million tons of goods, and yielded a net profit exceeding 4 Facilities for irrigation (q.v.) vary widely, and irrigation works differ both in extent and in character.
In Bombay and Madras almost all the irrigation systems, except in the deltas of the chief rivers, are dependent on reservoirs or " tanks," which collect the rainfall of the adjacent hills.
The Irrigation Commission of 1901 advised an expenditure of 30 millions sterling, spread over a term of twenty years, and irrigating 62 million acres in addition to the 47 millions already irrigated at that time; but it was estimated that that programme would practically exhaust the irrigable land in India, and that some of the later works would be merely protective against the danger of famine, and would not be financially productive.
In addition, after making careful inquiry through various commissions, he reformed the systems of education and police, laid down a comprehensive scheme of irrigation, improved the leave rules and the excessive report-writing of the civil service, encouraged the native princes by the formation of the Imperial Cadet Corps and introduced many other reforms. His term of office was also notable for the coronation durbar at Delhi in January 1903, the expedition to Lhasa in 1904, which first unveiled that forbidden city to European gaze, and the partition of Bengal in 1905.
On the other hand almost all European cereals flourish in the intermediate zone and on the high plateau, and the Abyssinian is a good agriculturist and understands irrigation.
Among the wildest of them head-hunting is still a common practice; but the majority are industrious farmers laying out their fields on artificial terraces and constructing irrigation canals with remarkable skill.
The northern part is fertile, as are the valleys of the Andean foothills, but arid conditions prevail throughout the central districts, and irrigation is necessary for the production of crops.
He did his best to remedy the misery caused by the intestine wars, repaired the ruined mosques and other public edifices, founded hospitals and libraries - his library in Shiraz was one of the wonders of the world - and improved irrigation.
These jhils have great value, not only as preservatives against inundation, but also as reservoirs for irrigation.
The greatest work in the province, and one of the greatest irrigation works in the world, is the upper Ganges canal, which is taken from the river where it leaves the hills, some 2 m.
The introduction of other exotics into these zones, - made humid by irrigation, which converts them, the one into true austro-riparian the other into true humid tropical, has revolutionized the agricultural, and indeed the whole, economy of California.
Much land is too rough, too elevated or too arid ever to be made agriculturally available; but irrigation, and the work of the state and national agricultural bureaus in introducing new plants and promoting scientific farming, have accomplished much that once seemed impossible.
Irrigation was introduced in Southern California before 1780, but its use was desultory and its spread slow till after 1850.
On nearly all lands irrigated some crops will grow in ordinary seasons without irrigation, but it is this that makes possible selection of crops; practically indispensable for all field and orchard culture in the south, save for a few moist coastal areas, it everywhere increases the yield of all crops and is practised generally all over the state.
Small fruits, orchard fruits, hay, garden products and grains are decreasingly dependent on irrigation; wheat, which was once California's great staple, is (for good, but not for best results) comparatively independent of it, - hence its early predominance in Californian agriculture, due to this success on arid lands since taken over for more remunerative irrigated crops.
The spread of irrigation and of intensive cultivation, and the increase of small farms during the last quarter of the 9th century, have made California what it is to-day.
Irrigation has shown that with water, arid and barren plains, veritable deserts, may be made to bloom with immense wealth of semi-tropical fruits; and irrigation in the tropical area along the Colorado river, which is so arid that it naturally bears only desert vegetation, has made it a true humid-tropical region like Southern Florida, growing true tropical fruits.
The live-stock industry showed a tendency to decline after 1890, and the dairy industry also, despite various things - notably irrigation and alfalfa culture - that have favoured them.
There has been a general parallelism between the amount of rain and the amount of wheat produced; but as yet irrigation is little used for this crop. In the eighth decade of the 19th century, the value of the wheat product had come to exceed that of the annual output of gold.
By reason of the co-operative effort demanded for the large problems of irrigation, packing and marketing, the citrus industry has done much for the permanent development of the state, and its extraordinary growth made it, towards the close of the 19th century, the most striking and most potent single influence in the growth of agriculture.
The leading features of political life and of legislation after 1876 were a strong labour agitation, the struggle for the exclusion of the Chinese, for the control of hydraulic mining, irrigation, and the advancement by state-aid of the fruit interests; the last three of which have already been referred to above.
There are a few fertile spots near the mountains, where mountain streams afford irrigation and potable water, and support small populations, but in general Tacna is occupied for mining purposes only.
Wyoming thus belongs with the arid states, and irrigation is necessary for agriculture.
While some of the more arid districts have soils so strongly alkaline as to be practically unreclaimable, there are extensive areas of fertile lands which only require irrigation to make them highly productive.
Settlers intending to occupy such lands must satisfy the state that they have entered into contracts with the irrigating company for a sufficient water-right and a perpetual interest in the irrigation works.
This project was authorized in 1904; it will affect, when completed, 131,900 acres, of which in 1909 about 10,000 acres were actually under irrigation.
Extensive irrigation projects have made available many thousand acres of fertile land, and much more will be subjected to cultivation in the future as the large ranges aie broken up into smaller tracts.
The Ganges canal intersects the district, and serves both for irrigation and navigation.
The principal natural product in this region is orchil, or Spanish moss, but by means of irrigation the soil produces a considerable variety of products, including sugar cane, cotton, cassava, cereals, tobacco and grapes.
Most of the district consists of hard and stony soil, depending upon irrigation, which is supplied by the Western Jumna canal, the Ali Mardan canal and the Agra canal.
There is very little irrigation in the district.
The fields are divided for purposes of irrigation into beds about 10 ft.
Leighton, The Passaic Flood of 1903 (Washington, 1904), being numbers 88 and 92 of the Water Supply and Irrigation Papers of the U.S. Geological Survey.
Here also it begins to be used in irrigation.
Persian Seistan was once highly cultivated by means of a great system of canal irrigation; but for centuries, since the country was devastated by Timur, it has been a barren, treeless waste of flat alluvial plain.
Out of some 3,000,000 acres of cultivated land, about twothirds are under constant irrigation and the remaining third under partial irrigation.
All along its course from Chivasso (below Turin) down to the delta the river is connected with several of its tributaries by canals, and at the same time other canals connect the tributaries and carry off their waters and the waters of the Po purely for purposes of irrigation.
Menelek, in addition, agreed not to obstruct the waters of Lake Tsana, the Blue Nile or the Sobat, so as not to interfere with the Nile irrigation question, and he also agreed to give a concession, if such should be required, for the construction of a British railway through his dominions, to connect the Sudan with Uganda.
In such places agriculture is made possible by irrigation, and the Mormon villages, both here and farther south along the base of the Hurricane Ledge, depend largely on this industry.
In the inhabited parts of the state, irrigation is generally necessary for agriculture.
Irrigation of the arid western regions of the United States began in the Great Basin of Utah when the Mormon pioneers in 1847 diverted the waters of City Creek upon the parched soil of Salt Lake Valley.
In 1900 nearly 90% of the land reclaimed by irrigation in the whole state lay within the Great Basin.
Sugar beets were first grown by irrigation in Utah; under that system it becomes possible to estimate closely the tonnage of the product.
Through irrigation experiments agriculture became the industrial foundation of the desert community.
Documents show him, among other things, planning during an absence of several months from the city vast new engineering works for improving the irrigation and water-ways of the Lomellina and adjacent regions of the Lombard plain; ardently studying phenomena of storm and lightning, of river action and of mountain structure; co-operating with his friend, Donato Bramante, the great architect, in fresh designs for the improvement and embellishment of the Castello at Milan; and petitioning the duke to secure him proper payment for a Madonna lately executed with the help of his pupil, Ambrogio de Predis, for the brotherhood of the Conception of St Francis at Milan.
But Leonardo's chief practical employments were evidently on the continuation of his great hydraulic and irrigation works in Lombardy.
Little use has been made of any of the rivers for irrigation, though in many places they offer great facilities for the purpose.
Except as a protection against famine, expenditure on irrigation is not remunerative in Bengal, on account of the abundance of rivers, and the general dampness of the climate.
On the 30th of April 1802 it suffered severely by the bursting of the reservoir known as the Pantano de Puentes, in which the waters of the Sangonera were stored for purposes of irrigation (1775-1785); the district adjoining the river, known as the Barrio de San Cristobal, was completely ruined, and more than six hundred persons perished.
In the lack of adequate irrigation much fertile soil is left untouched.
Nearly the whole of the loans raised have been spent on railways, harbours, irrigation and other public works.
The session of parliament which sanctioned this change was notable for the attention devoted to irrigation and railway schemes.
This article is confined to the collection and storage of water for domestic and industrial uses and irrigation, and its purification on a large scale.
Reservoirs From very ancient times in India, Ceylon and elsewhere, reservoirs of great area, but generally of small depth, have been built and used for the purposes of irrigation; and in modern times, especially in India and America, comparatively shallow reservoirs have been constructed of much greater area, and in some cases of greater capacity, than any in the United Kingdom.
The Public Money Drainage Acts 1846-1856 authorized the advance of public money to landowners to enable them to make improvements in their lands, not only by draining, but by irrigation, the making of permanent roads, clearing, erecting buildings, planting for shelter, &c. The rapid absorption of the funds provided by these acts led to further legislative measures by which private capital was rendered available for the improvement of land.
The agricultural resources of the state may be considerably increased by irrigation east of the Cascade Mountains.
Furthermore there is a state association engaged in irrigation projects, and the United States Reclamation Service, established by an Act of Congress in 1902, has projects for utilizing the flood waters of the Umatilla, Malheur, Silvies and Grande Ronde rivers, the waters of the Owyhee and Wallowa rivers and Willow Creek, and the waters of some of the lakes in the central part of the state.
The soil is very fertile, but since the dam over the Karun at Ahvaz was swept away and the numerous canals which diverted the waters of the river for irrigation became useless, a great part of the province is uncultivated, and most of the crops and produce depend for water on rainfall and wells.
The more level parts of Bombay consist of five well-demarcated tracts - Sind, Gujarat, the Konkan, the Deccan, and the Carnatic. Sind, or the lower valley of the Indus, is very flat, with but scanty vegetation, and depending for productive ness entirely on irrigation.
With the exception of Sind, the water-supply of the Bombay Presidency does not lend itself to the construction of large irrigation works.
The chief streams besides the Irrawaddy are the Mon, the Maw, and the Salin, which are largely used for irrigation.
In the western third irrigation has been tried, in the earlier years unsuccessfully; in all Kansas, in 1899, there were 23,620 acres irrigated, of which 8939 were in Finney and 7071 in Kearney county.
Irrigation has made a surer future for limited areas, however, and the introduction of drought-resisting crops and the substitution of dairy and livestock interests in the place of agriculture have brightened the outlook in the western counties, whose population increased rapidly after 1900.
There are 3648 small lakes and tanks in Bhandara district, whence it is called the "lake region of Nagpur"; they afford ample means of irrigation.
As there are no canals in the district, irrigation is obtained solely from wells, tanks and rivers.
Owing to a very equitable distribution of irrigation water in accordance with Moslem law, agriculture and gardening have reached a high stage of development in the oases.
Owing to the irrigation, total failure of crops and consequent famines are unknown, unless among the Kirghiz shepherds.
The followers of Islam, whose common law and religion know only of a temporary possession of the land, which belongs wholly to the Prophet, cannot accept the principles of unlimited property in land which European civilization has borrowed from Roman law; to do so would put an end to all public irrigation works and to the system by which water is used according to each family's needs, and so would be fatal to agriculture.
The Tarim, which is on the whole a sluggish, shallow, winding stream, fringes the great desert of Takla-makan on the west, north and east, and, after being extensively drawn upon for irrigation purposes in the oases (Yarkand, Kashgar, Maral-bashi, Ak-su), through which it passes, it eventually dies away in the salt reed-grown lake or marsh of Lop-nor (Karakoshun).
The soil in them is of great fertility wherever it is irrigated, and despite the supineness of the Chinese authorities, irrigation is very extensively practised in nearly all the oases.
A systematic irrigation scheme has been undertaken by the government.
The scanty waters of these streams are used for irrigation purposes.
The climate is hot and dry, and there is no cultivation of the soil except in the valleys of the Cordillera and a few other places where irrigation is possible.
Rassam found remains of irrigation works here it might well be the site of the Hanging Gardens.
The system of irrigation formerly carried on by these canals rendered the plain of Kazvin one of the most fertile regions in Persia; now most of the canals are choked up. The city has a population of about 50,000 and a thriving transit trade, particularly since 1899 when the carriage road between Resht and Teheran with Kazvin as a half-way stage was opened under the auspices of the Russian "Enzeli-Teheran Road Company."
Gould, Geology and Water Resources of Oklahoma (Washington, 1905), being Water Supply and Irrigation Paper, No.
In irrigation they showed skill, draining their fields with built watercourses and bamboo pipes.
Their extensive irrigation works show that they were painstaking agriculturists, and that they were successful ones may be assumed from the size of the population maintained in so arid a region.
Moreover., it is the indirect means of supplying water to almost every town and village in Seistan Proper, feeding as it does a network of minor canals, by which a system of profuse irrigation is pu t t in force.
In other parts, as in the Basque country, in Galicia, in the Serrania de Cuenca (between the headwaters of the Tagus and those of the Jiicar), in the Sierra de Albarracin (between the headwaters of the Tagus and those of the Guadalaviar), there are extensive tracts of undulating forest-clad hill country, and almost contiguous to these there are apparently boundless plains, or tracts of level table-land, some almost uninhabitable, and some streaked with irrigation canals and richly cultivatedlike the Rcquena of Valencia.
On the other hand, those of the east and south are of great value for irrigation, and the Jticar and Segura are employed in floating timber from the Serrania de Cuenca.
The provinces in which agriculture is most advanced are those of Valencia and Catalonia, in both of which the river valleys are thickly seamed with irrigation canals and the hill-slopes carefully terraced for cultivation.
Except in Leon and the provinces bordering on the Bay of Biscay and the Atlantic, irrigation is almost everywhere necessary for cultivation, at least in the case of certain crops.
The water used for irrigation is sometimes derived from springs and rivers in mountain valleys, whence it is conveyed by long canals (ace quias) along the mountain sides and sometimes by lofty aqueducts to the fields on which it is to be used.
Many of the old irrigation workssuch as those of the plain of Tarragonadate from the time of the Romans, and many others from the Moorish period, while new ones are still being laid out at the present day.
Where no running water is available for irrigation, water is often obtained from wells by means of waterwheels (nones) of simple construction.
In recent years many artesian wells have been sunk for irrigation.
The system was designed to bring a greatly increased area of arid or semi-arid land under irrigation.
Maize also is cultivated in all the provinces; nevertheless, its cultivation is limited, since, being a summer crop, it requires irrigation except in the Atlantic provinces, and other products generally yield a more profitable return where irrigation is pursued.
For watering the land by the river banks sakias (water-wheels) are used, oxen being employed to turn them There are also a few irrigation canals.
Steps were furthermore taken by means of irrigation works to regulate the Nile floods, and those of the river Gash.
It is not navigated, and save at Sioux City and Omaha serves practically no economic purposes, irrigation being unnecessary in the counties on which it borders.
The Republican and South Platte - the former an intermittent stream - suffer in their flow from the drain made upon their waters in Colorado for irrigation.
Alfalfa, stock raising and dairying, afforestation, " dry-farming " and irrigation are, however, proving that the West can maintain prosperity by not relying upon ordinary agriculture.
Water for the western part of the state is a resource of primary importance, and irrigation therewith a fundamental problem.
An irrigation law was first passed by Nebraska in 1895.
Condra, Geology and Water Resources of the Republican River Valley and Adjacent Areas (Washington, 1907), being Water Supply and Irrigation Paper No.
Very little land is under irrigation.
This stream, now called Kara Kuyun, and the other are exhausted in the irrigation of the gardens lying south-east of the town, except when fuller than usual, when they reach the Balih.
He was an earnest advocate of reclamation of land, and suggested that farms for soldiers returned from the World War could be provided by extensive drainage and irrigation.
Farming in these extremely arid conditions is made possible only with forced irrigation.
It occurs as stems growing through other bryophytes or in lax cushions on rocks subject to intermittent irrigation.
The Irrigation Project was a quick stop to try to see some buntings.
For seven years he worked as a vine planter, irrigation ditch digger, cow puncher, and smallholder in the new Western state.
Removal of excess exudate through irrigation may be of benefit in chronic wounds.
New irrigation schemes are also in place and new varieties of crops, successfully bred using participatory breeding techniques, are being grown.
So did much fertile river valley land, which was exchanged for hydroelectric or irrigation reservoirs.
They are planted next to sources of water and have been used to stabilize riverbanks and protect irrigation channels.
In fact, millions of people living in Asia and South America rely on glacial runoff for drinking water and irrigation.
With the melted snows from nearby mountain ranges, there is no lack of water for irrigation.
The state, which had already sold not only a considerable part of the domain land, but a large part of the beni ademprivili, continued the process, and the forests of Sardinia were sacrificed; and, as has been said, the necessity of reafforestation, of the regulation of streams, and of irrigation' is urgent.
Irrigation was indispensable.
Taxes are not sufficiently proportioned to what the land may reasonably be expected to produce, nor sufficient allowance made for the exceptional conditions of a southern climate, in which a few hours bad weather may destroy a whole crop. The Italian agriculturist has come to look (and often in vain) for action on a large scale from the state, for irrigation, drainage of uncultivated low-lying land, which may be made fertile, river regulation, &c.; while to the small proprietor the state often appears only as a hard and inconsiderate tax-gatherer.
Not a hundredth part of the old irrigation system is now in working order.
The decline of the country dates from the appearance of Turkish nomads in the 11 th century; its ruin was completed by the Shammar Arabs in the 17th century; but, if the ancient system of irrigation were restored, sufficient grain could be grown to alter the conditions of the wheat supply of the world.
There are various places also near the mouths of desert canyons, where small amounts of water are obtainable for irrigation purposes from intermittent streams. The total number of acres irrigated in 1899 was 504,168, an increase of 124.7% in the decade.
In 1902 Congress provided for the beginning of extensive irrigation works in the arid West, and Nevada (where preliminary reconnaissances had been made in 1889-1890) was the first state to profit from this undertaking.
The yearly payments amount to $2.60 per acre under the present system; this amount covers the cost of maintenance and operation and also of a thorough drainage system, which is as important to the settler as irrigation.
They were not nomads, but husbandmen, and their irrigation canals are still to be seen.
Roads specially constructed for the convenience of irrigation, pasturage, mines, factories, &c., in accordance with measures determined by the people of the locality.
Dates, almonds, grapes, figs, peaches, apricots, olives, and in rainy years melons and cucumbers grow there without irrigation.
It was not until the settlers learned to adapt themselves to the methods of wide-range cattle raising and of farming by irrigation that the greater value of the far western interior was recognized as a permanent home for an agricultural population.
It is here that an irrigation project, involving the diversion of some of the river water to the low plain, led to disaster in 1904, when the flooded river washed away the canal gates at the intake and overflowed the plain, drowning the newly established farms, compelling a railway to shift its track, and forming a lake (Salton Sea) which would require years of evaporation to remove (see COLORADO RIvER).
Waste weirs resemble ordinary solid weirs in providing for the surplus discharge from a reservoir of an impounded river or mountain stream over their crest; but in reality they form part of a masonry reservoir dam for storing up water for water-supply or irrigation, kept purposely lower than the rest of the dam to allow the excess of water to escape down the valley (see Water-Supply).
Under his supervision his raj came to be regarded as the model for good and benevolent management; he constructed hundreds of miles of roads planted with trees, bridged all the rivers, and constructed irrigation works on a great scale.
The amount of irrigation and the number of water channels form a considerable impediment to the movements of troops, not only immediately about Kandahar, but in all districts where the main rivers and streams are bordered by green bands of cultivation.
The development of irrigation was in part retarded by the improper or wasteful use of water.
The situation as regards the further progress of irrigation on a large scale was however dominated in the early years of the 20th century by the new Conservation policy.
Not less active was Sir Edgar Vincent, the financial adviser, who kept a firm hold on the purse-strings and ruthlessly cut down expenditure in all departments except that of irrigation (see Finance).
Irrigation ditches having been exempted from taxation in 1872, extensive systems of canals were soon developed, especially after 1880.
Numberless irrigation canals carry the water to the fields, which occupy a broad zone of loess skirting the base of the mountains.
These streams, and their numerous mountain affluents, not only supply water for irrigation, but also bring down vast quantities of sand, which is deposited alongside their courses, more especially alongside the Syr-darya where it cuts its way through the Khojent-Ajar ridge, forming there the Karakchikum.
The most important canals, those in Orissa (see Mahanadi) and on the Sone river in southern Behar, have been constructed primarily for irrigation, though they are also used for navigation.
In 1894 Congress passed the "Carey Act" which authorizes the Secretary of the Interior, with the approval of the President, to donate to each of the states in which there are Federal desert lands as much of such lands (less than 1,000,000 acres) as the state may apply for, on condition that the state reclaim by irrigation, cultivation and occupancy not less than 20 acres of each 160-acre tract within ten years, and under the operation of this Act the state chose 432,203 acres for reclamation, mostly in the basin of the Deschutes river.
Fertile soil, or rather soil which can be rendered fertile by irrigation, is limited to a narrow terrace of loess along the foot of the mountains, and is surrounded by barren deserts.
In 1910 a system of basin irrigation was begun in Dongola mudiria.
Long, in particular, followed the Platte and South Platte across the state in 1819, and his despairing account of the semi-arid buffalo plains - whence arose the myth of the Great American Desert - finely contrasts with the later history and latter-day optimism of dry-farming and irrigation.
Six hundred years after that, we get the windmill for irrigation.
Here the tropical heat is tempered by constant trade winds, there is perfect immunity from hurricanes, the soil is peculiarly suited for cane-growing, and by the use of specially-prepared fertilizers and an ample supply of water at command for irrigation the land yields from 50 to 90 tons of canes per acre, from which from 12 to 14% of sugar is produced.
With an inexhaustible supply of irrigation water obtainable, there is no reason why the lands in Upper Egypt, if scientifically cultivated and managed, should not yield as abundantly as those in the Sandwich Islands.
The landscape is rich and beautiful, varied with grand rock scenery, the coast-line being broken by numerous small bays, into which flow streams rarely navigable even for short distances, but often skilfully utilized by the natives for irrigation; and sometimes flowing in subterranean channels.
In the semi-arid regions of the United States, Argentina and other countries where the average annual rainfall lies between ioa to 20 in., irrigation is necessary to obtain full crops every year.
Good crops, however, can often be grown in such areas without irrigation if attention is paid to the proper circulation of water in the soil and means for retaining it or preventing excessive loss by evaporation.
In good seasons it is sufficient for the cultivation of the summer crop of millet, and for the supply of the perennial streams and springs, on which the irrigation of the winter crops of wheat and barley depend.
But for a long period past the freshwater streams (which predominate) have been used for irrigation to such a degree that very little of the precious water is allowed to run to waste into the lake basins; so that these latter receive only a few salt streams, which deposit on their surface the salt they contain and then evaporate.
All these valleys, except Morrope and Chao, are watered by rivers which have their sources far in the recesses of the mountains, and which furnish an abundant supply in the season when irrigation is needed.
This seems incompatible with the arid character of the country and the peculiar conditions of its civilization, but irrigation has been successfully employed in the fertile valleys of the coast.
Irrigation is necessary for productiveness, and the water-supply is now deficient.