The forest vegetation, largely confined to the "Isle of Isles" and the southern uplands, includes the Adansonia (baobab), which in the Fazogli district attains gigantic proportions, the tamarind, of which bread is made, the deleb palm, several valuable gum trees (whence the term Sennari often applied in Egypt to gumarabic), some dyewoods, ebony, ironwood and many varieties of acacia.
Virginiana, is also known as ironwood from its very hard, tight, close-grained wood.
In the temperate uplands of the interior, as about Luang Prabang, Himalayan and Japanese species occur - oaks, pines, chestnuts, peach and great apple trees, raspberries, honeysuckle, vines, saxifrages, Cichoraceae, anemones and Violaceae; there are many valuable timber trees - teak, sappan, eagle-wood, wood-oil (Hopea), and other Dlpterocarpaceae, Cedrelaceae, Pterocarpaceae, Xylia, ironwood and other dye-woods and resinous trees, these last forming in many districts a large proportion of the more open forests, with an undergrowth of bamboo.
Among the timber trees are species of pine, cedar, ebony, ironwood, stinkwood and sneezewood.
Pre-Cape Rocks principally the yellow wood (Podocarpus)., sneezewood (Pteroxylon utile), stinkwood (Oreodaphne bullata), black ironwood (Olea laurifolia), white ironwood (Vepris lanceolata), and umtomboti (Exoecaria africana); all are very useful woods, and the yellow wood, sneezewood, stinkwood and ironwood when polished have grain and colour equal to maple, walnut and ebony.
Black ironwood is likewise used in building wagons, while sneezewood is largely utilized for supports for piers and other marine structures, being impervious to the attacks of the Teredo navalis.
Common species in the woodbush are three varieties of yellow wood (Podocarpus), often growing to an enormous size, the Cape beech (myrsine), several varieties of the wild pear (Olivia) and of stinkwood (Oreodaphne) ironwood and ebony.
In addition to teak, which provides the bulk of the revenue, the most valuable woods are sha or cutch, india rubber, pyingado, or ironwood for railway sleepers, and padauk.
Among the best known of them are cedar, walnut, ironwood and caoba, a kind of mahogany.
The former forests of the state were of two general classes: on the bottom lands along the rivers grew cottonwood, willow, honey-locust, coffee trees, black ash, and elm; on the less heavily wooded uplands were oaks (white, red, yellow and bur), hickory (bitternut and pignut), white and green ash, butternut, ironwood and hackberry.
Among other valuable forest products are thingan wood (Hopea odorata), largely used for boat-building; damar oil, taken throughout Indo-China from the Dipterocarpus levis; agilla wood, sapan, rosewood, ironwood, ebony, rattan.