Iron sentence example
From a bar of iron he made four horseshoes.
Getting the iron hot was no easy feat.
Her hand fell from the lever that opened the heavy iron door.
The iron wall was open in front of Sirian's cell.
The windows were open with no glass, and heavy iron chandeliers hung from thick wooden rafters and were burning real candles.Advertisement
Limestone, iron and coal are also found.
Butter is the principal export, and petroleum, coal and iron the imports.
Iron is mainly mined in Elba.
She tried to step around him, but he stopped her with an iron grip on her arm.
Lowering the heavy cast iron frying pan into the sink, she filled it with water and left it to soak.Advertisement
Vara hurried to close the iron door while Hilden rushed to the cell holding Memon.
The iron mills are almost all in the vicinity of Wheeling.
The Coptic patriarch uses an iron cross-staff.
This iron seems, however, in several respects to be unlike the celebrated large nodules of iron found by Nordenskiold at Ovifak, but appears to resemble much more closely the softer kind of iron nodules found by Steenstrup in the basalt;' it stands exposure to the air equally well, and has similar Widmannstaten figures very sharp, as is to be expected in such a large mass.
Coal was brought down from the hills on the backs of mules, and iron carried in two-ton wagons.Advertisement
The commercial greatness of Cardiff is due to the vast coal and iron deposits of the country drained by the Taff and Rhymney, between whose outlets the town is situated.
The total exports of the Cardiff docks in 1906 amounted to 8,767,502 tons, of which 8, 433, 629 tons were coal, coke and patent fuel, 151,912 were iron and steel and their manufactures, and 181,076 tons of general merchandise.
What Cardiff lacks is a corresponding import trade, for its imports in 1906 amounted to only 2,108,133 tons, of which the chief items were iron ore (8 9 5,610 tons), pit-wood (303,407), grain and flour (298,197).
Iron, worked by the tribe of the Kouis, is found in the mountainous region.
Minnesota ranked first among the states in 1902 in the production of iron ore.Advertisement
She tugged the heavy door open by its old iron handle and gazed into a large square of grass, a courtyard, around which many similar rooms with heavy doors were arranged.
She put the last of the dishes in the dishwasher and ran water in the sink to wash the iron skillet and wooden handled spatula.
A large number of cotton mills furnish the chief source of industry; printing, dyeing and bleaching of cotton and calico, spinning and weaving machine making, iron and steel works, and collieries in the neighbourhood, are also important.
Immediately outside the city limits in 1905 there were many large manufactories, including the repair shops of the Southern railroad; iron and steel, car wheels and cotton-oil were among the products of the suburban factories.
In this case both collars of cast iron are loose.Advertisement
This iron is considered by several of the first authorities"on the subject to be of meteoric origin,' but no evidence hitherto given seems to prove decisively that it cannot be telluric. That the nodules found were lying on gneissic rock, with no basaltic rocks in the neighbourhood, does not prove that the iron may not originate from basalt, for the nodules may have been transported by the glaciers, like other erratic blocks, and will stand erosion much longer than the basalt, which may long ago have disappeared.
In 1888 the Dowlais Iron Company (now Messrs Guest, Keen & Nettlefold, Ltd.) acquired here some ninety acres on which were built four blast furnaces and six Siemens' smelting furnaces.
Although the iron ranges in the north-east had been explored about 1860 and were known to contain a great wealth of ore, it was not until 1884 that mining was actually begun on the Vermilion Range.
Since that date the development of iron mining in Minnesota has been remarkable, and the increase both in volume and value of the output has been practically uninterrupted.
The putrefaction of the latter sets free sulphuretted hydrogen, which then acts on the iron compounds, precipitating ferrous sulphide.Advertisement
Zinc is commonly deposited by electrolysis on iron or steel goods which would ordinarily be "galvanized," but which for any reason may not conveniently be treated by the method of immersion in fused zinc. The zinc cyanide bath may be used for small objects, but for heavy goods the sulphate bath is employed.
That was something she had trouble imagining, but the wrought iron design was open and graceful.
Why leave it up there if you've got a better choice, like a tree or iron ring to rig your station?
Three walls were solid dirt and one was cool iron.
Its presence has also been detected in the sun and in meteoric iron.Advertisement
The double cyanides of cobalt are analogous to those of iron.
Other leading industries are hosiery, tanning (with the largest yards in Scotland), dyeing, iron and brass founding, engineering and boot-making.
The administration of the Servian railways has its factory for repairing engines and principal store of materials in the city, which also possesses an iron foundry.
The word is also sometimes applied to a heavy timber fitted with iron spikes or projections to be thrown down upon besiegers, and to the large work known as a "cavalier."
The building, chiefly of iron and glass, is flanked by two towers and is visible from far over the metropolis.Advertisement
Its most important industrial establishments are the mirror manufactory of St Gobain and the chemical works at Chauny, and the workshops and foundries of Guise, the property of an association of workpeople organized on socialistic lines and producing iron goods of various kinds.
Aisne imports coal, iron, cotton and other raw material and machinery; it exports cereals, live-stock and agricultural products generally, and manufactured goods.
The industries of the town include manufactures of cotton, silk, earthenware, machinery and tobacco, with brass and iron founding; while slate and stone are quarried, and there are coal, iron and lead mines in the neighbourhood.
Birmingham, situated in an immensely rich iron, coal and limestone region, is the principal manufacturing centre in the state, and the most important centre for the production and manufacture of iron in the southern states.
In Jefferson county there were in 1900 more than 300 mining and manufacturing establishments, engaged, chiefly, in the production of iron, coal and coke, and a majority of these are in Birmingham and its suburban towns.Advertisement
These natural advantages make possible the production of pig iron at an unusually low cost.
In 1900 the Birmingham district produced six-sevenths of the total pig iron exported from the United States, and in 1902 nine-tenths of Alabama's coal, coke and pig iron; in 1905 Jefferson county produced 67.5% of the total iron and steel product of the state, and 62.5% of the pig iron produced by the state.
Iron and coal are probably abundant, and silverlead, copper and antimony are believed to exist.
Deposits of copper, tin, iron and tungsten have been discovered, and a variety of other mineral products (graphite, mica, spodumene, coal, petroleum, &c.).
They usually take the form of cast iron open stoves fitted with a number of Bunsen burners which heat perforated lumps of asbestos.Advertisement
The materials mixed with the iron borings cause them to rust into a solid mass, and in doing so a slight expansion takes place.
Suitable proportions of materials to form a rust joint are 90 parts by weight of iron borings well mixed with 2 parts of flowers of sulphur, and I part of powdered sal-ammoniac. Another joint, less rigid but sound and durable, is made with yarn and white and red lead.
With wrought iron pipes bends may be arranged, as shown in fig.
Direct radiators are a development of the early coil of pipe; they are made in various types and designs and are usually of cast iron.
A notable feature of modern boiler construction is the mode of building the apparatus of cast iron in either horizontal or vertical sections.
Should a defect occur with a wrought iron boiler it is usually necessary for the purpose of repair to disconnect and remove the whole apparatus, the heating system of which it forms a part being in the meantime useless.
A water pipe of copper or wrought iron is passed through a cylinder in which gas or oil heating burners are placed.
The first puddling works were opened in 1839, and Troy was long the centre of the New York iron and steel industry; in 1865 the second Bessemer steel works in the United States were opened here.
The import trade shows the largest totals in foodstuffs, wines and liquors, textiles and raw materials for their manufacture, wood and its manufactures, iron and its manufactures, paper and cardboard, glass and ceramic wares.
Coal.The principal mines of France are coal and iron mines.
Iron.The iron-mines of France are more numerous than its coalmines, but they do not yield a sufficient quantity of ore for the needs of the metallurgical industries of the country; as will be seen in the table below the production of iron in France gradually increased during the 19th century; on the other hand, a decline in prices operated against a correspondingly marked increase in its annual value.
Metallurgy.The average production and value of iron and steel manufactured in France in the last four decades of the I 9th century is shown below Cast Iron.
Their produce has gradually decreased since the 17th century, and is now unimportant, but sulphate of copper, iron pyrites, and some gold, silver, sulphur and sulphuric acid, and red ochre are also produced.
The company also owns iron mines, limestone and quartz quarries, large iron-works at Domnarfvet and elsewhere, a great extent of forests and saw-mills, and besides the output of the copper mines it produces manufactured iron and steel, timber, wood-pulp, bricks and charcoal.
Here are iron, machinery and brick works, tanneries, distilleries, and factories for jam, mustard and mead.
Within the city the principal streets have been roughly paved, and iron bars placed across the narrow alleys to prevent the passage of camels.
Thenard in 1808 by heating boron trioxide with potassium, in an iron tube.
Hausmann in 1813, alludes to the arsenic and iron present (cfipµ.aKov, poison, and aLo pos, iron).
Iron is distributed throughout Australia, but for want of capital for developing the fields this industry has not progressed.
In New South Wales there are, together with coal and limestone Iron.
The most extensive fields are in the Mittagong, Wallerawang and Rylstone districts, which are roughly estimated to contain in the aggregate 12,944,000 tons of ore, containing 5,853,000 tons of metallic iron.
Magnetite, or magnetic iron, the richest of all iron ores, is found in abundance near Wallerawang in New South Wales.
Wolfram (tungstate of iron and manganese) occurs in some of the states, notably in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland.
Iron, coal and slate are the chief products, and copper and cobalt may be added.
Woolwich remained the chief dockyard of the English navy until the introduction of iron ship building, but the dockyard was closed in 1869.
The two first of these three are handsome suspension bridges; the third, an iron structure, replaced a wooden bridge of many arches which was closed in 1881, after standing a little over a century.
When feudal possessions, instead of being purely personal, were vested in the families of the holder after the death of Charlemagne, Tournai was specially assigned to Baldwin of the Iron Arm by [[Charles (disambiguation)|Charles Knights Jousting With Cronells On Tt-Tfir Lances]].
Gothite occurs with other iron oxides, especially limonite and hematite, and when found in sufficient quantity is mined with these as an ore of iron.
The houses, built of stone and whitewashed, are square, substantial, flat-topped buildings, presenting to the street bare walls, with a few slits protected by iron gratings in place of windows.
In 1826 he described the prismatically-coloured films of metal, known as Nobili's' rings, deposited electrolytically from solutions of lead and other salts when the anode is a polished iron plate and the cathode is a fine wire placed vertically above it.
Others, like the Ambrosiusbrunnen and the Karolinenbrunnen, are among the strongest iron waters in the world, while the Rudolfsbrunnen is an earthy-alkaline spring.
Besides the mineral water baths there are also moor or mud-baths, and the peat used for these baths is the richest in iron in the world.
The terrigenous deposits consist of blue muds, red muds (abundant along the coast of Brazil, where the amount of organic matter present is insufficient to reduce the iron in the matter brought down by the great rivers to produce blue muds), green muds and sands, and volcanic and coral detritus.
It has iron foundries, machinery factories, railway workshops and a considerable trade in cattle, and among its other industries are weaving and malting and the manufacture of cloth.
With an apparatus similar to the above, but smaller, made of iron and filled with mercury, Joule obtained results varying from 772.814 foot-pounds when driving weights of about 58 lb were employed to 775.352 foot-pounds when the driving weights were only about 192 lb.
By ca-sing two conical surfaces of cast-iron immersed in mercury and contained in an iron vessel to rub against one another when pressed together by a lever, Joule obtained 776.045 foot-pounds for the mechanical equivalent of heat when the heavy weights were used, and 774.93 foot-pounds with the small driving weights.
Iron, coal, copper and manganese are mined.
Municipal ownership has been further developed in Cleveland than in any other large city in the United States, chiefly because of the advocacy of Tom Loftin Johnson (born 1854), a street-railway owner, iron manufacturer, an ardent single-taxer, who was elected mayor of the city in 1901, 1903, 1905 and 1907.
Cleveland's rapid growth both as a commercial and as a manufacturing city is due largely to its situation between the iron regions of Lake Superior and the coal and oil regions of Pennsylvania and Ohio.
Eight years later (1892) the much richer Mesabi Range, the most productive iron range in the world, was opened up; it soon surpassed the Vermilion in its output, and by 1902 the product was nearly ten times greater.
Iron shipments from the Mesabi and Vermilion ranges, cereals from the Northwest, fruits and vegetables from the Pacific coast, and Oriental products obtained via the great northern railways, are also elements of great importance in the state's commerce.
An important nucleo-proteid is haemoglobulin or haemoglobin, the colouring matter of the red blood corpuscles of vertebrates; a related substance, haemocyanin, in which the iron of haemoglobin is replaced by copper, occurs in the blood of cephalopods and crayfish.
Round the waist over the tunic was worn a leathern girdle having a broad iron buckle damascened with silver.
From the girdle hung the single-edged missile axe or francisca, the scramasax or short knife, a poniard and such articles of toilet as scissors, a comb (of wood or bone), &c. The Franks also used a weapon called the framea (an iron lance set firmly in a wooden shaft), and bows and arrows.
They protected themselves in battle with a large wooden or wicker shield, the centre of which was ornamented with an iron boss (umbo).
Few obsidians are entirely vitreous; usually they have small crystals of felspar, quartz, biotite or iron oxides, and when these are numerous the rock is called a porphyritic obsidian (or hyalo-liparite).
It is a centre of the iron and steel industries, producing principally cast steel, cast iron, iron pipes, wire and wire ropes, and lamps, with tin and zinc works, coal-mining, factories for carpets, calcium carbide and paper-roofing, brickworks and breweries.
The manufactures include tobacco, and iron and steel goods.
The coagulum is next flattened out by a wooden or iron roller to get rid of the cavities containing watery liquid, and the sheets are then hung up for fourteen days to dry, when they weigh about 2 lb, the sheets being usually z to a in.
To convert the masticated rubber into rectangular blocks, it is first softened by heat, and then forced into iron boxes or moulds.
The principal industries are the iron and metal manufactures, chiefly centred at Steyr.
The principal articles of export are salt, stone, timber, live-stock, woollen and iron wares and paper.
The vats for depositing may be of enamelled iron, slate, glazed earthenware, glass, lead-lined wood, &c. The current densities and potential differences frequently used for some of the commoner metals are given in the following table, taken from M ` Millan's Treatise on Electrometallurgy.
The strength of the current may also be regulated by introducing lengths of German silver or iron wire, carbon rod, or other inferior conductors in the path of the current, and a series of such resistances should always be provided close to the tanks.
Iron ships' plates have recently been coated with copper in sections (to prevent the adhesion of barnacles), by building up a temporary trough against the side of the ship, making the thoroughly cleansed plate act both as cathode and as one side of the trough.
For this reason the acid copper-bath is not used for iron or zinc objects, a bath containing copper cyanide or oxide dissolved in potassium cyanide being substituted.
If a wire of soft iron is substituted for the suspended magnetic needle, either pole of the bar-magnet will attract either end of the wire indifferently.
It is splendid to feel the wind blowing in my face and the springy motion of my iron steed.
The various shades of the sand are singularly rich and agreeable, embracing the different iron colors, brown, gray, yellowish, and reddish.
The materials required are iron borings, sal-ammoniac and sulphur; these are mixed together, moistened with water, and rammed into the socket, which is previously half filled with yarn, well caulked.
With cast iron pipe this cannot be done, and no length of piping over 40 ft.
A circle of stones in the Iron Market of Linkoping marks the spot where Sigismund's adherents were beheaded in 1600.
The bark, very dark externally, is an excellent tanning substance; the inner layers form the quercitron of commerce, used by dyers for communicating to fabrics various tints of yellow, and, with iron salts, yielding a series of brown and drab hues; the colouring property depends on a crystalline principle called quercitrin, of which it should contain about 8%.
The revolving part is made with two side frames of cast iron or steel plates, and to these the lifting gear is attached.
Copper and lead are found in several parts of the Aravalli range and of the minor ridges in Alwar and Shaikhawati, and iron ores abound in several states.
The contracts naturally do not concern such criminal cases as the above, as a rule, but marriage contracts do specify death by strangling, drowning, precipitation from a tower or pinnacle of the temple or by the iron sword for a wife's repudiation of her husband.
The celebrated iron ore of Elba is of Tertiary age and occurs indifferently in all the older rocks.
Copper is not yet universally employed, price being the governing factor in its employment; moreover, the conducting quality of the iron used for telegraphic purposes has of late years been very greatly improved.
A coarse screw-thread is formed in the upper part of the inner cup, and this screws on to the end of the iron bolt by which it is supported.
Between a shoulder, a, in the iron bolt and a shoulder in the porcelain cup, c, is placed an indiarubber ring, which forms a yielding washer and enables the cup to be screwed firmly to the bolt, while preventing FIG.
The weight of the iron sheath varies greatly according to the depth of the water, the nature of the sea bottom, the prevalence of currents, and so on.
The insulation is again tested, and if no fault is discovered the served core is passed through the sheathing machine, and the iron sheath and the outer covering are laid on.
This liability is overcome by making such movable parts as require to be magnetic of soft iron, and magnetizing them by the inducing action of a strong permanent magnet.
The needle (in the modern pattern) is of soft iron, and is kept magnetized in ductively by the action of two permanent steel magnets.
The arm which moves round over the segments rotates at the rate of three revolutions per second, and is kept in motion by means of an iron toothed wheel, the rim of which is set in close proximity to the poles of an electromagnet.
The electromagnet consists of two coils, each wound on a soft iron core fixed to the poles of a strong permanent horse-shoe magnet.
One of the longest circuits upon which it has been successfully worked is that between St Petersburg and Omsk, a distance of approximately 2400 miles of iron wire, with three repeating stations.
The signal coil is suspended by fibres and is mounted together with a fixed soft iron core on a brass plate affixed to a rack, with which a pinion operated by a milled head screw engages.
The use of the iron core renders it possible to produce a high inductive effect with a low resistance coil.
This consists of a low resistance coil of copper wire enclosed in a laminated iron circuit similar to the magnetic shunt already de Magnetic scribed.
To the sending currents, however, the bridge offers only apparent ohmic resistance due to the fact that the current entering the mid-point of the winding flows through the two halves or arms in opposite direction, and, owing to the winding being on the same iron core, the mutual inductive effect of the two arms on one another neutralizes the self-induction to the sending currents.
He constructed one form of his coherer of a glass tube a few inches long filled with iron borings or brass filings, having contact plates or pins at the end.
The next class of wave or oscillation detector is the magnetic detector depending upon the power of electric oscillations to affect the magnetic state of iron.
In this last form an endless band of hard iron wires passes slowly round two wooden pulleys driven by clockwork.
A pair of fine wires of iron and constantan are twisted together in the middle, and one pair of unlike ends are connected to a galvanometer.
A highly insulated tube contains a little mercury, which is used as a negative electrode, and the tube also has sealed through the glass a platinum wire carrying an iron plate as an anode.
A battery with a sufficient number of cells is connected to these two electrodes so as to pass a current through the mercury vapour, negative electricity proceeding from the mercury cathode to the iron anode.
Helmond is one of the industrial centres of the province, and possesses over a score of factories for cotton and silk weaving, cotton printing, dyeing, iron founding, brewing, soap boiling and tobacco dressing, as well as engine works and a margarine factory.
The mines near the city are very productive, and thousands of men and beasts are employed in transporting lead, iron, copper, zinc and sulphur to the coast.
Vessels go to Porman to land coke and coal, and to load iron ore and lead.
The metal is usually obtained from the flue-dust (produced during the first three or four hours working of a zinc distillation) which is collected in the sheet iron cones or adapters of the zinc retorts.
This is mixed with small coal, and when redistilled gives an enriched dust, and by repeating the process and distilling from cast iron retorts the metal is obtained.
In suburban and rural districts subscribers are usually served by means of bare wires erected upon wooden or iron poles.
When a number of cables follow the same route, they are generally laid in conduits made up of earthenware or cement ducts; iron pipes are used when the number of cables is small.
In one system the main cables terminate in large airtight iron boxes placed in the manholes.
Another method of distribution, largely adopted, is to run the lead cables into the interior of blocks of buildings, and to terminate them there in iron boxes from which the circuits are distributed to the surrounding buildings by means of rubber-covered wires run along the walls.
In his last illness he was cauterized, and on seeing the burning iron he addressed "brother Fire," reminding him how he had always loved him and asking him to deal kindly with him.
With Edward Cooper (son of Peter Cooper, whom Hewitt greatly assisted in organizing Cooper Union, and whose daughter he married) he went into the manufacture of iron girders and beams under the firm name of Cooper, Hewitt & Co.
Others, such as Paros, are mainly composed of marble, and iron ore occurs in some.
The chief minerals are sulphur, in the production of which Italy holds one of the first places, iron, zinc, lead; these, and, to a smaller extent, copper of an inferior quality, manganese and antimony, are successfully mined.
Very little pig iron is tries US made, most of the iron ore being exported, and iron manufactured consists of old iron resmelted.
For steelmaking foreign pig iron is chiefly used.
In 1894 the excess of imports over exports fell to 2,720,000, but by 1898 it had grown to 8,391,000, in consequence chiefly of the increased importation of coal, raw cotton and cotton thread, pig and cast iron, old iron, grease and oil-seeds for use in Italian industries.
After this event Heribert, the archbishop of..Milan, invited Conrad, the Franconian king of Germany, into Italy, and crowned him with the iron crown of the kingdom.
In August there were strikes among the dock laborers of Genoa and the iron workers of Florence; the latter agitation developed into a general strike in that city, which aroused widespread indignation among the orderly part of the population and ended without any definite result.
Asparagus, figs, and wine of medium quality are grown in the district; and heavy iron goods, chemical products, clocks and plaster are among the manufactures.
Near Tokat copper pyrites, with iron and manganese, kaolin and coal are found; but most of the copper worked here comes from the mines of Keban Maden and Arghana Maden, on the upper Euphrates and Tigris.
The main industries are cotton-spinning, flax-spinning, cottonprinting, tanning and sugar refining; in addition to which there are iron and copper foundries, machine-building works, breweries and factories of soap, paper, tobacco, &c. As a trading centre the city is even more important.
It is mentioned so early as the 7th century and in 868 Baldwin of the Iron Arm, first count of Flanders, who had been entrusted by Charles the Bald with the defence of the northern marches, built a castle here against the Normans raiding up the Scheldt.
Saturn for lead, Venus for copper, and Mars for iron, and the belief that the colours of flowers ' The Egyptians believed that the medicinal virtues of plants were due to the spirits who dwelt within them.
In the 6th century Alexander of Tralles used colchicum for gout, iron for anaemia, and rhubarb in liver weakness and dysentery.
Molybdenum occurs in nature chiefly as the minerals molybdenite (MoS 2) and wulfenite (PbMo04), and more rarely as molybdic ochre (Moos) and ilsemannite; it also occurs in many iron ores.
The Eastern railway has works at Romilly, and there are iron works at Clairvaux and wire-drawing works at Plaines; but owing to the absence of coal and iron mines, metal working is of small importance.
Nuclein is a complex albuminoid substance containing phosphorus and iron in organic combination (Macallum).
Columbus is near the Ohio coal and iron-fields, and has an extensive trade in coal, but its largest industrial interests are in manufactures, among which the more important are foundry and machine-shop products (1905 value, $6,259,579); boots and shoes (1905 value, $5,425,087, being more than one-sixtieth of the total product value of the boot and shoe industry in the United States, and being an increase from $359,000 in 1890); patent medicines and compounds (1905 value, $3,214,096); carriages and wagons (1905 value, $2,197,960); malt liquors (1905 value, $2,133,955); iron and steel; regalia and society emblems; steam-railway cars, construction and repairing; and oleo-margarine.
Its cloth and silk manufactures are important, and owing to the opening up of extensive coalfields in the district almost every branch of iron industry is carried on.
The exterior is adorned with niched statues and beautiful iron trellis work round the windows.
It stands near the border of Victoria, on the right bank of the Murray river, here crossed by two bridges, one built of wood carrying a road, the other of iron bearing the railway.
He was finally routed at Temesvar by the combined forces of Janos Zapolya and Istvan Bathory, was captured, and condemned to sit on a red-hot iron throne, with a red-hot iron crown on his head and a red-hot sceptre in his hand.
Eveleth is served by the Duluth, Missabe & Northern and the Duluth & Iron Range railways.
The city is a trade centre for a rich farming district, has car-shops (of the Pere Marquette railway) and iron foundries, and manufactures wagons, pottery, furniture and clothing.
Among its manufactures are earthenware, tobacco, vinegar, flour, farm-gates (iron), sash and doors, marble and granite monuments, carriages and bricks.
Iron, zinc and lead are found in the vicinity, and some coal is mined.
The iron formation is widely spread.
Its industries embrace the manufacture of iron and steel goods, tanning and organ-building.
The main shaft bearings are in two sets and composed of steel balls running in steel cones and cups; the governor is an iron rod about 16 in.
It consists of a large stone chamber which communicates directly with two slightly slanting tubular retorts of iron.
The pyrites is subjected to dry distillation from out of iron or fire-clay tubular retorts at a bright red heat.
The principal manufactures are firearms, ironmongery, earthenware, woollen cloth, beer, stoneware, zinc goods, colours and salt; in the neighbourhood are iron and coal mines.
Among other important manufactures are foundry and machine shop products ($6,944,392 in 1905); flour and grist-mill products ($4,428,664); cars and shop construction and repairs by steam railways ($2,502,789); saws; waggons and carriages ($2,049,207); printing and publishing (book and job, $1,572,688; and newspapers and periodicals, $2,715,666); starch; cotton and woollen goods; furniture ($2,528,238); canned goods ($1,693,818); lumber and timber ($1,556,466); structural iron work ($1,541,732); beer ($1,300,764); and planing-mill products, sash, doors and blinds ($1,111,264).
Pop. (1906) 9749 It possesses iron mines and is the centre of the coal-fields of the Aveyron, which supply the ironworks established by the Duc Decazes, minister of Louis Xviii.
Iron - haematite - is present almost everywhere.
In the i 1 th century this new form of devotion was extolled by some of the most ardent reformers in the monastic houses of the west, such as Abbot Popon of Stavelot, St Dominic Loricatus (so called from his practice of wearing next his skin an iron lorica, or cuirass of thongs), and especially Cardinal Pietro Damiani.
The penance lasted 332 days, during which they flogged themselves with thongs fitted with four iron points.
The Finland rappa-kivi, the Serdobol gneiss, and the Pargas and Rustiala marble (with the so-called Eozoon canadense) yield good building stone; while iron, copper and zinc-ore are common in Finland and in the Urals.
As a producer of iron Russia nevertheless runs France neck and neck for the fourth place amongst the iron-producing countries of the world, her annual output having increased from 1,004,800 metric tons in 1891 to 2,808,000 in 1901 and to 2,900,000 in 1904.
The amount of iron and steel produced in the Urals is not quite 20% of the total in all European Russia and Poland.
Out of an average of some 2,700,000 tons of pig-iron produced annually in the whole of the Russian empire, 61.5% is produced in the basin of the Donets, and out of an average of 2,160,500 tons of worked iron and steel 48.7% are prepared in the same region.
Thus, while one village would produce nothing but felt shoes, another would carve sacred images (ikons), and a third spin flax only, a fourth make wooden spoons, a fifth nails, a sixth iron chains, and so on.
Machinery, coal, iron, woollens, ships, lead and copper are the commodities supplied by the United Kingdom.
In time it became a common practice to cover them with a thin sheathing or plating of iron, in order to add to their life; this expedient caused more wear on the wooden rollers of the wagons, and, apparently towards the middle of the 18th century, led to the introduction of iron wheels, the use of which is recorded on a wooden railway near Bath in 1734.
But the iron sheathing was not strong enough to resist buckling under the passage of the loaded wagons, and to remedy this defect the plan, was tried of making the rails wholly of iron.
In 1767 the Colebrookdale Iron Works cast a batch of iron rails or plates, each 3 ft.
In most parts of England the plate-rail was preferred, and it was used on the Surrey iron railway, from Wandsworth to Croydon, which, sanctioned by parliament in 1801, was finished in 1803, and was the first railway available to the public on payment of tolls, previous lines having all been private and reserved exclusively for the use of their owners.
In South Wales again, where in 1811 the railways in connexion with canals, collieries and iron and copper works had a total length of nearly 150 miles, the plate-way was almost universal.
By making them in longer lengths a reduction was effected in the number of joints - always the weakest part of the line; and another advance consisted in the substitution of wrought iron for cast iron, though that material did not gain wide adoption until after the patent for an improved method of rolling rails granted in 1820 to John Birkinshaw, of the Bedlington Ironworks, Durham.
The next important development in rail design originated in America, which, for the few lines that had been laid up to 1830, remained content with wooden bars faced with iron.
There was a waste of metal in these early rails owing to the excessive thickness of the vertical web, and subsequent improvements have consisted in adjusting the dimensions so as to combine strength with economy of metal, as well as in the substitution of steel for wrought iron (after the introduction of the Bessemer process) and in minute attention to the composition of the steel employed.
The joint was thus suspended between the two chairs, and two keys of iron, called " fishes," fitting the side channels of the rails, were driven in on each side between the chairs and the rails.
The iron tramway or railway had been known for half a century and had come into considerable use in connexion with collieries and quarries before it was realized that for the carriage FIG.
Its general character was such that cattle could not stand on it, and a piece of iron would sink in it.
Larger rivers, canals, roads, other railways and sometimes deep narrow valleys are crossed by bridges (q.v.) of timber, brick, stone, wrought iron or steel, and many of these structures rank among the largest engineering works in the world.
These are flat bars of iron or steel from 18 in.
The substitution of steel for iron as the material for rails which made possible the axle loads and the speeds of Lto-day, and, by reducing the cost of maintenance, contributed enormously to the economic efficiency of railways, was one of the most important events in the history of railways, and a scarcely less important element of progressive economy has been the continued improvement of the steel rail in stiffness of section and in toughness and hardness of material.
Where the depth to rail-level was too great for cut-and-cover methods, ordinary tunnelling processes were used; and where the trench was too shallow for the arched roof, heavy girders, sometimes of cast iron, bridged it between the side walls, longitudinal.
The first actual work, however, was not begun till 1870, when the construction of an iron structure on a single row of columns was undertaken.
The simplicity is great; they can be quickly mounted and dismounted; the correct gauge can be perfectly maintained; the sections of rails and sleepers (which are of iron) are very portable, and skilled labour is not required to lay or to take them up; the making of a " turn-out " is easy, by taking out a 15 ft.
The houses, mostly white with coloured roofs, are generally built of wood and iron, and have glazed porches, gay with fuchsias and pelargoniums. Government House, grey, stone-built and slated, calls to mind a manse in Shetland or Orkney.
It has an increasing trade in iron, timber, coal and agricultural products, a trade which is fostered by a harbour opened in 1897; and also large factories for making aniline dyes and soda.
Other industries are the manufacture of cellulose, artificial manure, flour and malt; and there are saw-mills, iron foundries and breweries in the town.
We might at first suppose that the sun was really an intensely heated body radiating out its heat as does white-hot iron, but this explanation cannot be admitted, for there is no historical evidence that the sun is growing colder.
The principal mining product is mercury, extracted at Idria, while iron and copper ore, zinc and coal are also found.
Near the town are iron mines and quarries of limestone, and on the neighbouring mountains are forests containing valuable hardwood timber.
Recent experiments lead to the conclusion that iron, lead, manganese, lignite and sulphur exist in considerable abundance.
The use of iron for arms and implements now finally triumphed over bronze.
The town possesses breweries, tanneries, malthouses, flour-mills, saw-mills, brick and tile works, potteries and an iron foundry; its trade in butter is considerable.
This is described as having "an head about a quarter of a yard long, a staffe of two yards long put into their head, twelve iron pikes round about, and one in the end to stop with."
Its materials are pebbles, clays and sands of various' colours from white to deep red, tinged with peroxide of iron, which sometimes cements the pebbles and sands into compact rocks.
The state contains deposits of iron, gypsum, marl, phosphate, lignite, ochre, glass-sand, tripoli, fuller's earth, limestones and sandstones; and there are small gas flows in the Yazoo Delta.
The lack of mineral resources, especially of coal and iron, of a good harbour (until the improvement of Gulfport), and of an adequate supply of labour has discouraged most kinds of manufacturing.
It was along the coast of North Carolina that Europeans in 1585 made the first discovery of iron ore within the present limits of the United States.
Iron ores are widely distributed within the state, and there have been times since the eve of the War of Independence when the mining of it was an industry of relatively great importance.
Niriz was formerly known for its manufacture of steel from iron ore brought from Parpa, 40 m.
There are many rich deposits of iron ores in the state, but they only produce a small quantity of charcoal iron for local consumption.
Ashland has an excellent harbour, has large iron-ore and coal docks, and is the principal port for the shipment of iron ore from the rich Gogebec Range, the annual ore shipment approximating 3,500,000 tons, valued at $12,000,000, and it has also an extensive export trade in lumber.
Ashland has large saw-mills, iron and steel rolling mills, foundries and machine shops, railway repair shops (of the Chicago & NorthWestern railway), knitting works, and manufactories of dynamite, sulphite fibre, charcoal and wood-alcohol.
Dereham is an important agricultural centre with works for the manufacture of agricultural implements, iron foundries and a malting industry.
Among the city's manufactures are oxide of tin and other chemicals, iron and steel, leather goods, automobiles and bicycles, electrical and telephone supplies, butted tubing, gas engines, screws and bolts, silk, lace and hosiery.
In the van Ruymbeke process the spent lyes are allowed to settle, and then treated with "persulphate of iron," the exact composition of which is a trade secret, but it is possibly a mixture of ferric and ferrous sulphates.
Ferric hydrate, iron soaps and all insoluble impurities are precipitated.
The liquid is filterpressed, and any excess of iron in the filtrate is precipitated by the careful addition of caustic soda and then removed.
The chief industries are weaving, leather-making, dyeing and working in iron and pottery.
It is an oxide of iron having the formula Fe 3 O 4, corresponding with 72.4% of metal, whence its great value as an ore.
It may be regarded as a ferroso-ferric oxide, FeO.Fe 2 O 3, or as iron ferrate, Fe"Fe 2 '0 4.
Iron rust sometimes contains magnetite.
It contains an asylum maintained by the provincial government; also saw and grist mills and iron foundries.
Other industries are brewing, printing and iron-founding, and there are ochre and iron mines in the neighbourhood.
Columbus is situated in a fine farming region, and has extensive tanneries, threshingmachine and traction and automobile engine works, structural iron works, tool and machine shops, canneries and furniture factories.
The country has a great wealth of minerals, silver having been found, and copper, lead, iron, coal and rock-salt being wrought with profit.
The leading industries comprise manufactures of tweeds, hosiery, clogs, baskets and leather, besides the timber trade, nursery gardening and the making of machinery and iron implements.
Small quantities of quicksilver, sulphur and iron are obtained.
There are soap and flour mills and metallurgic factories in the town, and iron, copper and lead mines in the neighbouring Sierra de Almenara.
The manufactures of Derbyshire are both numerous and important, embracing silks, cotton hosiery, iron, woollen manufactures, lace, elastic web and brewing.
Iron has also been produced in Derbyshire from an early date, and coal mines were worked at Norton and Alfreton in the beginning of the 14th century.
There are large iron and steel works here, notably the Tredegar Iron Works.
During the war the principal iron foundry of the Confederacy (Tredegar Iron Works) was in Richmond, and here most of the cannon used by the Confederate armies were cast.
Cart-wheels were sometimes bound with iron, of which he greatly approves.
The Blackstone and its tributaries provide considerable water power; and there are various manufactures, including cotton goods, silk goods, and horse-shoes and other iron ware.
The chief interest of the place centres in its brine springs which are largely impregnated with carbonic acid gas and oxide of iron, and are efficacious in chronic catarrh of the respiratory organs, in liver and stomach disorders and women's diseases.
The town manufactures combs and horn goods, brass and iron wares, leather, malt, bricks and ropes.
Nothing could bend that cast iron will.
Ney, who had said that Napoleon ought to be brought to Paris in an iron cage, joined him with 6000 men on the 14th of March; and five days later the emperor entered the capital, whence Louis XVIII.
These periods fill the whole Bronze Age, with whose close, by the introduction of the superior metal, iron, the Aegean Age is conventionally held to end.
Iron came into general Aegean use about r000 B.C., and possibly was the means by which a body of northern invaders established their power on the ruins of the earlier dominion.
The terminus ad quem is less certain - iron does not begin to be used for weapons in the Aegean till after Period III.
Iron took the place of Bronze, and Aegean art, as a living thing, ceased on the Greek mainland and in the Aegean isles including Crete, together with Aegean writing.
This great disaster, which cleared the ground for a new growth of local art, was probably due to yet another incursion of northern tribes, more barbarous than their predecessors, but possessed of superior iron weapons - those tribes which later Greek tradition and Homer knew as the Dorians.
She is the mother of Ur, the personified fire of hell, who in anger and pride made a violent onset on the world of light, but was mastered by Hibil and thrown in chains down to the "black water," and imprisoned within seven iron and seven golden walls.
Some of the "porphyroids" which have grains of quartz and felspar in a finely schistose micaceous matrix are intermediate between porphyries and micaschists of this group. Still more numerous are orthoschists of hornblendic character (hornblende-schists) consisting of green hornblende with often felspar, quartz and sphene (also rutile, garnet, epidote or zoisite, biotite and iron oxides).
During the progress of the works, however, he acted as surveyor, and accumulated in that lucrative employment a sum of several thousand pounds, discovered after his death in an old iron chest, which had evidently lain unopened for above thirty years.
It is found also in beds of iron ore, and the haematite mines of the Cleator Moor district in west Cumberland have yielded many extremely fine crystals, specimens of which may be seen in all mineral collections.
The iron tubular bridge which carries the line over the Nepean is the best of its kind in the colony, while the viaduct over Knapsack Gulley is the most remarkable erection of its kind in Australia.
The North Bridge, a fine iron structure, spans the valley, giving connexion between the opposite higher parts of the town.
The worsted, woollen and cotton industries, and the iron, steel and machinery manufactures are very extensive.
Although the state has a great amount of limestone, especially in Erie and Ottawa counties, its dull colour renders it unsuitable for most building purposes.` It is, however, much used as a flux for melting iron and for making quick lime.
There is some iron ore in the eastern and south-eastern parts of the state, and the mining of it was begun early in the 19th century; but the output decreased from 254,294 long tons in 1889 to only 26,585 long tons (all carbonate) in 1908.
The value of the factory product was $748,670,855 in 1900 and $960,811,857 in 1905.1 The most important manufacturing industry is that of iron and steel.
A large portion of the iron and steel is manufactured in Cleveland, Youngstown, Steubenville, Bellaire, Lorain and Ironton.
Of far greater volume than the foreign commerce is the domestic trade in coal, iron, lumber, &c., largely by way of the Great Lakes.
The mineral wealth of Carinthia is great, and consists in lead, iron, zinc and coal.
Iron ore is extracted in the region of the Saualpe, and is worked in the foundries of St Leonhard, St Gertraud, Pravali, Hirt, Treibach and Eberstein.
The metallurgic industries are well developed, and consist in the production of iron, steel, machinery, small-arms, lead articles, wire-cables and rails.
The iron mines are among the oldest in the country; mining began probably as early as 1731.
Fibres and vegetable grasses, wool, hides and skins, cotton, sugar, iron and steel and their manufactures, chemicals, coal, and leather and its manufactures are the leading imports; provisions, leather and its manufactures, cotton and its manufactures, breadstuffs, iron and steel and.
Cairo is served by the Illinois Central, the Mobile & Ohio, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern, and the St Louis South-Western railways, and by river steamboat lines.
It consists essentially of two rollers either both of wood, or one of wood and one of iron, geared to revolve in contact in opposite directions; the seed cotton is fed to the rollers, the lint is drawn through, and the seed being unable to pass between the rollers is rejected.
It is a strong acid, and dissolved in water decomposes carbonates and attacks iron and zinc.
The impurities occasionally present in commercial citric acid are salts of potassium and sodium, traces of iron, lead and copper derived from the vessels used for its evaporation and crystallization, and free sulphuric, tartaric and even oxalic acid.
Several of the citrates are much employed as medicines, the most important being the scale preparations of iron.
Of these iron and ammonium citrate is much used as a haematinic, and as it has hardly any tendency to cause gastric irritation or constipation it can be taken when the ordinary forms of iron are inadmissible.
Iron and quinine citrate is used as a bitter stomachic and tonic. In the blood citrates are oxidized into carbonates; they therefore act as remote alkalis, increasing the alkalinity of the blood and thereby the general rate of chemical change within the body.
The surrounding country abounds in coal, iron ore, oil, clay, stone and timber, for which the city is a distributing centre.
Assuming that, as the Chinese say, the Khitans were Manchus, the first appearance of the Manchus, as a people, in China dates from the beginning of the 10th century, when the Khitans, having first conquered the kingdom of Pohai, crossed the frontier into China 3 and established the Liao or Iron dynasty in the northern portion of the empire.
Other theories of a like nature were brought forward by various chemists, Mendeleeff, for example, ascribing the formation of petroleum to the action of water at high temperatures on iron carbide in the interior of the earth.
There is usually fixed above the sucker a short iron valverod, with a device known as a rivet-catcher to prevent damage to the pump by the dropping of rivets from the pump-rods.
To explode the charge an iron weight, known as a go-devil, was dropped into the well, and striking the disk exploded the cap and fired the torpedo.
The system usually adopted is a modification of the Canadian system already described, the boring rods being, however, of iron instead of wood, but the cable system has also to some extent been used.
Rivetted iron casing, made of s -in.
The barrels employed in the transport of petroleum products are made of well-seasoned white-oak staves bound by six or eight iron hoops.
They used an iron still, set in brickwork, and from a working charge of forty " buckets " of crude petroleum obtained a yield of sixteen buckets of " white naphtha."
A small piece of iron placed in this field tends to move from weak to strong places in the field with a force depending on the strength of the field and the rate at which the field varies.
In its simplest form an electromagnetic ammeter consists of a circular coil of wire in which is pivoted eccentrically an index needle carrying at its lower end a small mass of iron.
The needle is balanced so that gravity compels it to take a certain position in which the fragment of iron occupies a position in the centre of the field of the coil where it is weakest.
When a current is passed through the coil the iron tends to move nearer to the coil of the wire where the field is stronger and so displaces the index needle over the scale.
Another type of similar instrument consists of a coil of wire having a fragment of iron wire suspended from one arm of an index needle near the mouth of a coil.
When a current is passed through the wire forming the coil, the fragment of iron is drawn more into the aperture of the coil where the field is stronger and so displaces an index needle over a scale.
In the construction of this soft-iron instrument it is essential that the fragment of iron should be as small and as well annealed as possible and not touched with tools after annealing; also it should be preferably not too elongated in shape so that it may not acquire permanent magnetization but that its magnetic condition may follow the changes of the current in the coil.
The coil carries an index needle moving over a scale, and there is generally an iron core in the interior of the coil but fixed and independent of it.
The process of soap-boiling is carried out in large iron boilers called " soap pans " or " coppers," some of which have capacity for a charge of 30 tons or more.
Treatment of Settled Soap. - The upper layer having been removed, the desired soap is ladled out or ran off to a crutcher, which is an iron pan provided with hand or mechanical stirring appliances.
The frames into which hard soaps are ladled for cooling and solidification consist of rectangular boxes made of iron plates and bound and clamped together in a way that allows the sides to be removed when required; wooden frames are used in the case of mottled soaps.
They will hold their arms over their heads until the muscles atrophy, will keep their fists clenched till the nails grow through the palms, will lie on beds of nails, cut and stab themselves, drag, week after week, enormous chains loaded with masses of iron, or hang themselves before a fire near enough to scorch.
Imports are principally coal, iron and timber.
The finest agricultural land in the United States is near the lake, and there is an immense trade in all grains, fruits, livestock and lumber, and in products such as flour, pork, hides, leather goods, furniture, &c. Rich lead and copper mines abound, as also salt, iron and coal.
Escanaba, on Little Bay de Noc (Noquette), in the northern part of the lake, is a natural harbour and a large iron shipping port.
Thus in the Speculum Naturale of Vincent of Beauvais (c. 1250) it is said that there are four spirits - mercury, sulphur, arsenic and sal ammoniac - and six bodies - gold, silver, copper, tin, lead and iron.
Holland is a grain and fruit shipping centre, and among its manufactures are furniture, leather, grist mill products, iron, beer, pickles, shoes, beet sugar, gelatine, biscuit (Holland rusk), electric and steam launches, and pianos.
The mineral wealth of Moravia, consisting chiefly of coal and iron, is very considerable.
It owes its importance to the iron mines in the mountain Malmberget 4 z m.
Gowen (1836-1889), president of the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, sent James McParlan, an Irish Catholic and a Pinkerton detective (who some thirty years later attracted attention in the investigation of the assassination of Governor Steunenberg of Idaho), to the mining region in 1873; he joined the order, lived among the "Molly Maguires" for more than two years, and even became secretary of the Shenandoah division, one of the most notoriously criminal lodges of the order.
Iron ore, lignite, copper, mercury, molybdenite, nickel, platinum and other minerals have been found, but the quantity of each is too small, or the quality too poor, for them to be of commercial value.
During the golden age she remained among men distributing blessings, but when the iron (or bronze) age came on, she was forced to withdraw, being the last of the goddesses to quit the earth.
It is served by the Arkansas, Louisiana & Gulf, the Little Rock & Monroe, the% Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific (Queen & Crescent), and the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern railways, and by river steamers plying between New Orleans and Camden, Arkansas.
There are large slaughtering establishments, and factories for the refining of sugar and for the manufacture of tobacco goods, soap and perfumery, lead pencils, iron and steel, railway cars, chemicals, rubber goods, silk goods, dressed lumber, and malt liquors.
Industries include slate quarrying, shipbuilding, iron and brass foundries, alum, vitriol, manure, guano and tobacco works.
The principal industries are shipbuilding (iron), boiler and engineering works, iron and brass foundries, steam saw and planing mills, flour-mills, paper and paint factories, and soapworks.
From an analogy instituted between the healthy human being and gold, the most perfect of the metals, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead and tin, were regarded in the light of lepers that required to be healed.
Gold, the most perfect metal, had the symbol of the Sun, 0; silver, the semiperfect metal, had the symbol of the Moon, 0j; copper, iron and antimony, the imperfect metals of the gold class, had the symbols of Venus Mars and the Earth tin and lead, the imperfect metals of the silver class, had the symbols of Jupiter 94, and Saturn h; while mercury, the imperfect metal of both the gold and silver class, had the symbol of the planet,.
For example, positive iron combined with negative oxygen to form positive ferrous oxide; positive sulphur combined with negative oxygen to form negative sulphuric acid; positive ferrous oxide combined with negative sulphuric acid to form neutral ferrous sulphate.
The Egyptians obtained silver, iron, copper, lead, zinc and tin, either pure or as alloys, by smelting the ores; mercury is mentioned by Theophrastus (c. 300 B.C.).
At the same time Berzelius obtained the element, in an impure condition, by fusing silica with charcoal and iron in a blast furnace; its preparation in a pure condition he first accomplished in 1823, when he invented the method of heating double potassium fluorides with metallic potassium.
Of the principal workers in this field we may notice Friedrich Hoffmann, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (who detected iron by its reaction with potassium ferrocyanide, and potassium and sodium by their flame colorations), and especially Carl Scheele and Torbern Olof Bergman.
If silica be present, it gives the iron bead when heated with a little ferric oxide; if tin is present there is no change.
The phosphates of aluminium, chromium and iron are precipitated, and the solution contains the same metals as if phosphoric acid had been absent.
To the filtrate from the aluminium, iron and chromium precipitate, ammonia and ammonium sulphide are added; the precipitate may contain nickel, cobalt, zinc and manganese sulphides.
In the first group, we have to notice the titration of a cyanide with silver nitrate, when a milkiness shows how far the reaction has gone; the titration of iron with permanganate, when the faint pink colour shows that all the iron is oxidized.
A blue coloration indicates nitrogen, and is due to the formation of potassium (or sodium) cyanide during the fusion, and subsequent interaction with the iron salts.
Attached to the bulb was a glass rod and then a tube containing iron wire.
The mining industry on which the town formerly depended is extinct, but the district is agricultural and dairy farming is carried on, while the town has flour mills, tanneries and iron foundries.
Round the walls of the rotunda are the cells, 208 in number, and arranged in four tiers with balconies reached by iron staircases.
A point of importance as to the prehistoric period was scored by the discovery in the same neighbourhood at Gerzeh by Mr. Wainwright of iron beads on a necklace.
The oldest iron weapon known was hitherto supposed to be an Egyptian halbert-head of the time of Rameses III., but Mr. Randall Maclver has recently discovered in a tomb of the XII.
Minerals, in which Oberhessen is much richer than the two other provinces, include iron, manganese, salt and some coal.
Its once famous tanneries have lost their importance, but the manufacture of linen has increased; it has also steam flour-mills, distilleries, manufactories of soap and of iron implements.