From a bar of iron he made four horseshoes.
Her hand fell from the lever that opened the heavy iron door.
The iron wall was open in front of Sirian's cell.
The windows were open with no glass, and heavy iron chandeliers hung from thick wooden rafters and were burning real candles.
Lowering the heavy cast iron frying pan into the sink, she filled it with water and left it to soak.
The first gate consisted of a few dozen men better armed than his team atop a thick steel wall with an iron core.
Getting the iron hot was no easy feat.
Iron ore is found in the state in the coal hills (especially Laurel Hills and Beaver Lick Mountain), but the deposits have not been worked on a large scale.
Iron and copper founding, brewing, tanning, and the manufacture of gunpowder, confectionery, heavy iron goods, gloves, boots and shoes and cotton goods are also carried on.
He dropped the portcullis and shoved the lever to turn the iron gate.
She put the last of the dishes in the dishwasher and ran water in the sink to wash the iron skillet and wooden handled spatula.
She tried to step around him, but he stopped her with an iron grip on her arm.
Silver has also been found in the district of Sarrabus, iron at S.
Vara hurried to close the iron door while Hilden rushed to the cell holding Memon.
A wide porch stretched the length of the building, and above it were two balconies with black wrought iron banisters that curved out gracefully.
The grating iron door made him jump.
Large markets and fairs are held for corn, hops, cattle and sheep; and the town contains some highly reputed ale breweries, besides paper mills and iron foundries.
Don't forget to take your iron pills.
" Lean-to," " shed," or " pent " roofs are practically developments of the flat roof, one end of the joists (which are now called " rafters ") being tipped up to form a decided slope, which enables slates, tiles, corrugated iron and other materials to be employed which cannot be used upon a " flat " roof.
He called another portal and strode through it to the house of the one brother he'd come to almost trust. Kiki's feet were propped on a cast iron table while he gazed intently at the screen of his trusty iPad.
She tugged the heavy door open by its old iron handle and gazed into a large square of grass, a courtyard, around which many similar rooms with heavy doors were arranged.
It is splendid to feel the wind blowing in my face and the springy motion of my iron steed.
That was something she had trouble imagining, but the wrought iron design was open and graceful.
He pumped his arms hard, ignoring the cries of three men as they fell into pits or were snapped up by traps with iron teeth.
Extensive coal mines are in the vicinity, and there are manufactures of iron and steel, mill machinery, door and sash factories, etc., as well as several shipbuilding yards.
A large number of cotton mills furnish the chief source of industry; printing, dyeing and bleaching of cotton and calico, spinning and weaving machine making, iron and steel works, and collieries in the neighbourhood, are also important.
Why leave it up there if you've got a better choice, like a tree or iron ring to rig your station?
The various shades of the sand are singularly rich and agreeable, embracing the different iron colors, brown, gray, yellowish, and reddish.
Maybe because it had the same theme of wrought iron and ivory as the hacienda - and maybe they had been visiting too long.
The only difference was the electricity powering lights in the heavy iron and wood chandeliers overhead and the intercom system installed into the walls beside each entrance.
Other leading industries are hosiery, tanning (with the largest yards in Scotland), dyeing, iron and brass founding, engineering and boot-making.
The iron mills are almost all in the vicinity of Wheeling.
A large, iron chandelier hung from the rafters of an A-frame roof high above.
His shriveled old hands were folded and on the finger of one of them Pierre noticed a large cast iron ring with a seal representing a death's head.
She quickly whipped up pancake dough and placed a large iron skillet over the fire with some lard in it.
There is an iron pier 450 ft.
GALVANIZED IRON, sheet iron having its surface covered with a thin coating of zinc. In spite of the name, galvanic action has often no part in the production of galvanized iron, which is prepared by dipping the iron, properly cleaned and pickled in acid, in a bath of molten zinc. The hotter the zinc the thinner the coating, but as a high temperature of the bath is attended with certain objections, it is a common practice to use a moderate temperature and clear off the excess of zinc by passing the plates between rollers.
13, 19, Javan trades with Tyre in slaves, bronze-work, iron and drugs.
Fred O'Connor, dressed to the nines in a dapper suit, pink shirt, bow tie and sporting a boutonniere, asked Dean if his iron was broken when he took one look at his stepson's new but wrinkled slacks.
We still have to wait a little while and there are lots of details to iron out, but Ms. Rosewater says it looks positive.
They fastened each of these wheels to the end of an iron rod which they passed through the boat from side to side.
Hilden caught up to them as they reached the dungeon, where Vara was opening the iron door to the cell containing Sirian.
Dorothy nearly went with them, but she was holding fast to the iron rail of the seat, and that saved her.
It often left them partially paralyzed, in wheelchairs or iron lungs (a term that's now all but forgotten and will likely send younger readers to Wikipedia).
She hefted the cast iron skillet and spooned some scrambled eggs into his plate.
Limestone, iron and coal are also found.
Butter is the principal export, and petroleum, coal and iron the imports.
Coal was brought down from the hills on the backs of mules, and iron carried in two-ton wagons.
The putrefaction of the latter sets free sulphuretted hydrogen, which then acts on the iron compounds, precipitating ferrous sulphide.
Iron, coal, copper and manganese are mined.
Iron is mainly mined in Elba.
The Coptic patriarch uses an iron cross-staff.
- Native iron was found by Nordenskiold at Ovifak, on Disco Island, in 1870, and brought to Sweden(1871)as meteorites.
This iron is considered by several of the first authorities"on the subject to be of meteoric origin,' but no evidence hitherto given seems to prove decisively that it cannot be telluric. That the nodules found were lying on gneissic rock, with no basaltic rocks in the neighbourhood, does not prove that the iron may not originate from basalt, for the nodules may have been transported by the glaciers, like other erratic blocks, and will stand erosion much longer than the basalt, which may long ago have disappeared.
This iron seems, however, in several respects to be unlike the celebrated large nodules of iron found by Nordenskiold at Ovifak, but appears to resemble much more closely the softer kind of iron nodules found by Steenstrup in the basalt;' it stands exposure to the air equally well, and has similar Widmannstaten figures very sharp, as is to be expected in such a large mass.
The commercial greatness of Cardiff is due to the vast coal and iron deposits of the country drained by the Taff and Rhymney, between whose outlets the town is situated.
The total exports of the Cardiff docks in 1906 amounted to 8,767,502 tons, of which 8, 433, 629 tons were coal, coke and patent fuel, 151,912 were iron and steel and their manufactures, and 181,076 tons of general merchandise.
What Cardiff lacks is a corresponding import trade, for its imports in 1906 amounted to only 2,108,133 tons, of which the chief items were iron ore (8 9 5,610 tons), pit-wood (303,407), grain and flour (298,197).
In 1888 the Dowlais Iron Company (now Messrs Guest, Keen & Nettlefold, Ltd.) acquired here some ninety acres on which were built four blast furnaces and six Siemens' smelting furnaces.
Iron, worked by the tribe of the Kouis, is found in the mountainous region.
at Mount Iron in the north-east, but less than 25 in.
Minnesota ranked first among the states in 1902 in the production of iron ore.
Although the iron ranges in the north-east had been explored about 1860 and were known to contain a great wealth of ore, it was not until 1884 that mining was actually begun on the Vermilion Range.
Since that date the development of iron mining in Minnesota has been remarkable, and the increase both in volume and value of the output has been practically uninterrupted.
Zinc is commonly deposited by electrolysis on iron or steel goods which would ordinarily be "galvanized," but which for any reason may not conveniently be treated by the method of immersion in fused zinc. The zinc cyanide bath may be used for small objects, but for heavy goods the sulphate bath is employed.
Municipal ownership has been further developed in Cleveland than in any other large city in the United States, chiefly because of the advocacy of Tom Loftin Johnson (born 1854), a street-railway owner, iron manufacturer, an ardent single-taxer, who was elected mayor of the city in 1901, 1903, 1905 and 1907.
Cleveland's rapid growth both as a commercial and as a manufacturing city is due largely to its situation between the iron regions of Lake Superior and the coal and oil regions of Pennsylvania and Ohio.
In Norwood and Rogers's process a thin coating of tin is applied to the iron before it is dipped in the zinc, by putting the plates between layers of granulated tin in a wooden tank containing a dilute solution of stannous chloride, when tin is deposited on them by galvanic action.
The iron wire used for wire-netting, telegraphic purposes, &c., is commonly galvanized, as also are bolts, nuts, chains and other fittings on ships.
A dozen of them smashed together and tumbled to the ground, and seeing his success Jim kicked again and again, charging into the vegetable crowd, knocking them in all directions and sending the others scattering to escape his iron heels.
By "make a car," I mean really make a car: dig iron ore out of the ground, smelt it to steel, wildcat for oil, find oil and refine it into gasoline, and so on.
An iron plow comes three thousand years later in 500 BC, along with intensive row cultivation.
Early in his presidency, in a 1953 address that would become known as his "Cross of Iron" speech, he declared, "Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed.
Each of the hotel rooms features a private bedroom with a living room, two cable televisions, mini fridge and microwave, coffee machine, sleep sofa and personal items like a hair dryer, iron and ironing board.
Another guard took each of his arms and cuffed him in rusty iron fetters.
After the dress dried, she ironed it with an old block iron she found in the closet.
In the massive state it has a colour resembling polished iron, and is malleable and very tough.
Pig iron is manufactured cheaply because of the low price of fuel; in 1907 the value of pig iron manufactured in the state was $6,454,000.
"Goodness!" she cried, grasping the iron rail of the seat.
Let's go in and iron out the details.
They have no friend Iolaus to burn with a hot iron the root of the hydra's head, but as soon as one head is crushed, two spring up.
Three walls were solid dirt and one was cool iron.
Its presence has also been detected in the sun and in meteoric iron.
The double cyanides of cobalt are analogous to those of iron.
The administration of the Servian railways has its factory for repairing engines and principal store of materials in the city, which also possesses an iron foundry.
to the east, so placed to avoid the disturbance of instruments which would be occasioned by the iron used in the principal building.
The word is also sometimes applied to a heavy timber fitted with iron spikes or projections to be thrown down upon besiegers, and to the large work known as a "cavalier."
The building, chiefly of iron and glass, is flanked by two towers and is visible from far over the metropolis.
VIVIANITE, a mineral consisting of hydrated iron phosphate Fe 3 (PO 4) 2 +8H 2 0, crystallizing in the monoclinic system.
Its most important industrial establishments are the mirror manufactory of St Gobain and the chemical works at Chauny, and the workshops and foundries of Guise, the property of an association of workpeople organized on socialistic lines and producing iron goods of various kinds.
Aisne imports coal, iron, cotton and other raw material and machinery; it exports cereals, live-stock and agricultural products generally, and manufactured goods.
The industries of the town include manufactures of cotton, silk, earthenware, machinery and tobacco, with brass and iron founding; while slate and stone are quarried, and there are coal, iron and lead mines in the neighbourhood.
Birmingham, situated in an immensely rich iron, coal and limestone region, is the principal manufacturing centre in the state, and the most important centre for the production and manufacture of iron in the southern states.
Immediately outside the city limits in 1905 there were many large manufactories, including the repair shops of the Southern railroad; iron and steel, car wheels and cotton-oil were among the products of the suburban factories.
In Jefferson county there were in 1900 more than 300 mining and manufacturing establishments, engaged, chiefly, in the production of iron, coal and coke, and a majority of these are in Birmingham and its suburban towns.
high, rich in hematite iron ore; valuable limestone deposits are found some 30 m.
These natural advantages make possible the production of pig iron at an unusually low cost.
In 1900 the Birmingham district produced six-sevenths of the total pig iron exported from the United States, and in 1902 nine-tenths of Alabama's coal, coke and pig iron; in 1905 Jefferson county produced 67.5% of the total iron and steel product of the state, and 62.5% of the pig iron produced by the state.
Iron and coal are probably abundant, and silverlead, copper and antimony are believed to exist.
Deposits of copper, tin, iron and tungsten have been discovered, and a variety of other mineral products (graphite, mica, spodumene, coal, petroleum, &c.).
They usually take the form of cast iron open stoves fitted with a number of Bunsen burners which heat perforated lumps of asbestos.
The materials mixed with the iron borings cause them to rust into a solid mass, and in doing so a slight expansion takes place.
Suitable proportions of materials to form a rust joint are 90 parts by weight of iron borings well mixed with 2 parts of flowers of sulphur, and I part of powdered sal-ammoniac. Another joint, less rigid but sound and durable, is made with yarn and white and red lead.
With wrought iron pipes bends may be arranged, as shown in fig.
In this case both collars of cast iron are loose.
Direct radiators are a development of the early coil of pipe; they are made in various types and designs and are usually of cast iron.
A notable feature of modern boiler construction is the mode of building the apparatus of cast iron in either horizontal or vertical sections.
Should a defect occur with a wrought iron boiler it is usually necessary for the purpose of repair to disconnect and remove the whole apparatus, the heating system of which it forms a part being in the meantime useless.
A water pipe of copper or wrought iron is passed through a cylinder in which gas or oil heating burners are placed.
The first puddling works were opened in 1839, and Troy was long the centre of the New York iron and steel industry; in 1865 the second Bessemer steel works in the United States were opened here.
The import trade shows the largest totals in foodstuffs, wines and liquors, textiles and raw materials for their manufacture, wood and its manufactures, iron and its manufactures, paper and cardboard, glass and ceramic wares.
Coal.The principal mines of France are coal and iron mines.
Iron.The iron-mines of France are more numerous than its coalmines, but they do not yield a sufficient quantity of ore for the needs of the metallurgical industries of the country; as will be seen in the table below the production of iron in France gradually increased during the 19th century; on the other hand, a decline in prices operated against a correspondingly marked increase in its annual value.
Metallurgy.The average production and value of iron and steel manufactured in France in the last four decades of the I 9th century is shown below Cast Iron.
Wroughi Iron and SteeL
Taking the number of hands engaged in the industry as a basis of comparison, the most important departments as regards iron and steel working in 1901 were:
Their produce has gradually decreased since the 17th century, and is now unimportant, but sulphate of copper, iron pyrites, and some gold, silver, sulphur and sulphuric acid, and red ochre are also produced.
The company also owns iron mines, limestone and quartz quarries, large iron-works at Domnarfvet and elsewhere, a great extent of forests and saw-mills, and besides the output of the copper mines it produces manufactured iron and steel, timber, wood-pulp, bricks and charcoal.
Here are iron, machinery and brick works, tanneries, distilleries, and factories for jam, mustard and mead.
Within the city the principal streets have been roughly paved, and iron bars placed across the narrow alleys to prevent the passage of camels.
Thenard in 1808 by heating boron trioxide with potassium, in an iron tube.
Hausmann in 1813, alludes to the arsenic and iron present (cfipµ.aKov, poison, and aLo pos, iron).
Iron is distributed throughout Australia, but for want of capital for developing the fields this industry has not progressed.
In New South Wales there are, together with coal and limestone Iron.
in unlimited supply, important deposits of rich iron ores suitable for smelting purposes; and for the manufacture of steel of certain descriptions abundance of manganese, chrome and tungsten ores are available.
The most extensive fields are in the Mittagong, Wallerawang and Rylstone districts, which are roughly estimated to contain in the aggregate 12,944,000 tons of ore, containing 5,853,000 tons of metallic iron.
Magnetite, or magnetic iron, the richest of all iron ores, is found in abundance near Wallerawang in New South Wales.
Wolfram (tungstate of iron and manganese) occurs in some of the states, notably in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland.
Iron, coal and slate are the chief products, and copper and cobalt may be added.
Woolwich remained the chief dockyard of the English navy until the introduction of iron ship building, but the dockyard was closed in 1869.
The two first of these three are handsome suspension bridges; the third, an iron structure, replaced a wooden bridge of many arches which was closed in 1881, after standing a little over a century.
When feudal possessions, instead of being purely personal, were vested in the families of the holder after the death of Charlemagne, Tournai was specially assigned to Baldwin of the Iron Arm by [[Charles (disambiguation)|Charles Knights Jousting With Cronells On Tt-Tfir Lances]].
GOTHITE, or Goethite, a mineral composed of an iron hydrate, Fe203.H20, crystallizing in the orthorhombic system and isomorphous with diaspore and manganite.
7ruppos, flamecoloured, and o-i&17Aos, iron): a scaly-fibrous variety from the same locality is called lepidocrocite (from X€iris, scale, and KpoKcis, fibre).
Gothite occurs with other iron oxides, especially limonite and hematite, and when found in sufficient quantity is mined with these as an ore of iron.
1 The minerals produced are tin, gold, iron, galena and others, in insignificant quantities.
The houses, built of stone and whitewashed, are square, substantial, flat-topped buildings, presenting to the street bare walls, with a few slits protected by iron gratings in place of windows.
In 1826 he described the prismatically-coloured films of metal, known as Nobili's' rings, deposited electrolytically from solutions of lead and other salts when the anode is a polished iron plate and the cathode is a fine wire placed vertically above it.
Others, like the Ambrosiusbrunnen and the Karolinenbrunnen, are among the strongest iron waters in the world, while the Rudolfsbrunnen is an earthy-alkaline spring.
Besides the mineral water baths there are also moor or mud-baths, and the peat used for these baths is the richest in iron in the world.
of yttria, Y203, and 42.75 of the oxides of erbium, cerium, didymium, lanthanum, iron, beryllium, calcium, magnesium and sodium.
The terrigenous deposits consist of blue muds, red muds (abundant along the coast of Brazil, where the amount of organic matter present is insufficient to reduce the iron in the matter brought down by the great rivers to produce blue muds), green muds and sands, and volcanic and coral detritus.
It has iron foundries, machinery factories, railway workshops and a considerable trade in cattle, and among its other industries are weaving and malting and the manufacture of cloth.
With an apparatus similar to the above, but smaller, made of iron and filled with mercury, Joule obtained results varying from 772.814 foot-pounds when driving weights of about 58 lb were employed to 775.352 foot-pounds when the driving weights were only about 192 lb.
By ca-sing two conical surfaces of cast-iron immersed in mercury and contained in an iron vessel to rub against one another when pressed together by a lever, Joule obtained 776.045 foot-pounds for the mechanical equivalent of heat when the heavy weights were used, and 774.93 foot-pounds with the small driving weights.
Eight years later (1892) the much richer Mesabi Range, the most productive iron range in the world, was opened up; it soon surpassed the Vermilion in its output, and by 1902 the product was nearly ten times greater.
Iron shipments from the Mesabi and Vermilion ranges, cereals from the Northwest, fruits and vegetables from the Pacific coast, and Oriental products obtained via the great northern railways, are also elements of great importance in the state's commerce.
- These are the materials which are utilized by the vegetable plankton in the synthesis of living material: they are water, carbonic acid, nitrates and nitrites of calcium, magnesium and other earthy and alkaline metals, phosphates, silica, traces of salts containing iron, sulphur, potassium and a few other elements.
" Nucleo-proteids," constituents of the cell-nucleus, are combinations of albumins and nucleic acid; they always contain iron.
An important nucleo-proteid is haemoglobulin or haemoglobin, the colouring matter of the red blood corpuscles of vertebrates; a related substance, haemocyanin, in which the iron of haemoglobin is replaced by copper, occurs in the blood of cephalopods and crayfish.
paas, black), substances which differ very considerably in composition, the sulphur and iron content being by no means constant; they do not give the reactions of albumins.
higher up is a magnificent iron bridge (1888) for vehicles and foot passengers.
Round the waist over the tunic was worn a leathern girdle having a broad iron buckle damascened with silver.
From the girdle hung the single-edged missile axe or francisca, the scramasax or short knife, a poniard and such articles of toilet as scissors, a comb (of wood or bone), &c. The Franks also used a weapon called the framea (an iron lance set firmly in a wooden shaft), and bows and arrows.
They protected themselves in battle with a large wooden or wicker shield, the centre of which was ornamented with an iron boss (umbo).
Few obsidians are entirely vitreous; usually they have small crystals of felspar, quartz, biotite or iron oxides, and when these are numerous the rock is called a porphyritic obsidian (or hyalo-liparite).
high percentage of silica, low iron, lime and magnesia, and a considerable amount of potash and soda).
It is a centre of the iron and steel industries, producing principally cast steel, cast iron, iron pipes, wire and wire ropes, and lamps, with tin and zinc works, coal-mining, factories for carpets, calcium carbide and paper-roofing, brickworks and breweries.
The manufactures include tobacco, and iron and steel goods.
At the bottom of the spiral an iron spout about 4 in.
long is driven into the tree, and the milk is received in iron pails.
The coagulum is next flattened out by a wooden or iron roller to get rid of the cavities containing watery liquid, and the sheets are then hung up for fourteen days to dry, when they weigh about 2 lb, the sheets being usually z to a in.
To convert the masticated rubber into rectangular blocks, it is first softened by heat, and then forced into iron boxes or moulds.
which they retain; and hollow articles, such as playing balls or injection bottles, are vulcanized in iron or brass moulds, tinned inside and very slightly greased.
Rubber mixed in the usual way with about WA of sulphur is now softened by heat, forced into the mould, and retained there by pressure during the operation of curing, which is usually effected in an iron box heated over a gas burner to 140° C.
The principal industries are the iron and metal manufactures, chiefly centred at Steyr.
The principal articles of export are salt, stone, timber, live-stock, woollen and iron wares and paper.
The vats for depositing may be of enamelled iron, slate, glazed earthenware, glass, lead-lined wood, &c. The current densities and potential differences frequently used for some of the commoner metals are given in the following table, taken from M ` Millan's Treatise on Electrometallurgy.
The strength of the current may also be regulated by introducing lengths of German silver or iron wire, carbon rod, or other inferior conductors in the path of the current, and a series of such resistances should always be provided close to the tanks.
Iron ships' plates have recently been coated with copper in sections (to prevent the adhesion of barnacles), by building up a temporary trough against the side of the ship, making the thoroughly cleansed plate act both as cathode and as one side of the trough.
For this reason the acid copper-bath is not used for iron or zinc objects, a bath containing copper cyanide or oxide dissolved in potassium cyanide being substituted.
In the neighbourhood of Diarbekr is iron.
Iron and steel, manufac tures of..
The materials required are iron borings, sal-ammoniac and sulphur; these are mixed together, moistened with water, and rammed into the socket, which is previously half filled with yarn, well caulked.
With cast iron pipe this cannot be done, and no length of piping over 40 ft.
io) is designed to allow more freedom of expansion and at the same time to withstand considerable pressure; one loose cast iron collar is used, and another is formed as a socket on the end of the pipe itself.
A circle of stones in the Iron Market of Linkoping marks the spot where Sigismund's adherents were beheaded in 1600.
The bark, very dark externally, is an excellent tanning substance; the inner layers form the quercitron of commerce, used by dyers for communicating to fabrics various tints of yellow, and, with iron salts, yielding a series of brown and drab hues; the colouring property depends on a crystalline principle called quercitrin, of which it should contain about 8%.
The revolving part is made with two side frames of cast iron or steel plates, and to these the lifting gear is attached.
Copper and lead are found in several parts of the Aravalli range and of the minor ridges in Alwar and Shaikhawati, and iron ores abound in several states.
The contracts naturally do not concern such criminal cases as the above, as a rule, but marriage contracts do specify death by strangling, drowning, precipitation from a tower or pinnacle of the temple or by the iron sword for a wife's repudiation of her husband.
The celebrated iron ore of Elba is of Tertiary age and occurs indifferently in all the older rocks.
Copper is not yet universally employed, price being the governing factor in its employment; moreover, the conducting quality of the iron used for telegraphic purposes has of late years been very greatly improved.
in.; the test strain required for the iron wire is about 222 tons.
[[[Construction Of Circuits]] This form of insulator is still largely used and is a very serviceable pattern, though possessing the defect that the porcelain cup is not removable from the iron bolt on which it is mounted.
A coarse screw-thread is formed in the upper part of the inner cup, and this screws on to the end of the iron bolt by which it is supported.
Between a shoulder, a, in the iron bolt and a shoulder in the porcelain cup, c, is placed an indiarubber ring, which forms a yielding washer and enables the cup to be screwed firmly to the bolt, while preventing FIG.
thick, which itself is enclosed in cast iron spigot-ended pipes, 3 in.
The weight of the iron sheath varies greatly according to the depth of the water, the nature of the sea bottom, the prevalence of currents, and so on.
The insulation is again tested, and if no fault is discovered the served core is passed through the sheathing machine, and the iron sheath and the outer covering are laid on.
This liability is overcome by making such movable parts as require to be magnetic of soft iron, and magnetizing them by the inducing action of a strong permanent magnet.
The needle (in the modern pattern) is of soft iron, and is kept magnetized in ductively by the action of two permanent steel magnets.
there are two soft iron tongues, n, s, fixed upon and at right angles to an axle a, which works on pivots at its ends.
The arm which moves round over the segments rotates at the rate of three revolutions per second, and is kept in motion by means of an iron toothed wheel, the rim of which is set in close proximity to the poles of an electromagnet.
The electromagnet consists of two coils, each wound on a soft iron core fixed to the poles of a strong permanent horse-shoe magnet.
One of the longest circuits upon which it has been successfully worked is that between St Petersburg and Omsk, a distance of approximately 2400 miles of iron wire, with three repeating stations.
The signal coil is suspended by fibres and is mounted together with a fixed soft iron core on a brass plate affixed to a rack, with which a pinion operated by a milled head screw engages.
ance coil of some 2000 turns of insulated copper wire, enclosed in a laminated iron circuit, and connected at intervals to a number of terminals so that equal increments of inductance may be obtained.
The use of the iron core renders it possible to produce a high inductive effect with a low resistance coil.
This consists of a low resistance coil of copper wire enclosed in a laminated iron circuit similar to the magnetic shunt already de Magnetic scribed.
To the sending currents, however, the bridge offers only apparent ohmic resistance due to the fact that the current entering the mid-point of the winding flows through the two halves or arms in opposite direction, and, owing to the winding being on the same iron core, the mutual inductive effect of the two arms on one another neutralizes the self-induction to the sending currents.
He constructed one form of his coherer of a glass tube a few inches long filled with iron borings or brass filings, having contact plates or pins at the end.
The next class of wave or oscillation detector is the magnetic detector depending upon the power of electric oscillations to affect the magnetic state of iron.
In this last form an endless band of hard iron wires passes slowly round two wooden pulleys driven by clockwork.
45) that they magnetize the part of the iron band passing through the coil.
Ann., 1890, 40, p. 56) employed an arrangement as follows: Four fine platinum or iron wires were joined in lozenge shape, and two sets of these R and S were connected up with two resistances P and Q to form a bridge with a galvanometer G and battery B.
A pair of fine wires of iron and constantan are twisted together in the middle, and one pair of unlike ends are connected to a galvanometer.
A highly insulated tube contains a little mercury, which is used as a negative electrode, and the tube also has sealed through the glass a platinum wire carrying an iron plate as an anode.
A battery with a sufficient number of cells is connected to these two electrodes so as to pass a current through the mercury vapour, negative electricity proceeding from the mercury cathode to the iron anode.
Helmond is one of the industrial centres of the province, and possesses over a score of factories for cotton and silk weaving, cotton printing, dyeing, iron founding, brewing, soap boiling and tobacco dressing, as well as engine works and a margarine factory.
The mines near the city are very productive, and thousands of men and beasts are employed in transporting lead, iron, copper, zinc and sulphur to the coast.
Vessels go to Porman to land coke and coal, and to load iron ore and lead.
The metal is usually obtained from the flue-dust (produced during the first three or four hours working of a zinc distillation) which is collected in the sheet iron cones or adapters of the zinc retorts.
This is mixed with small coal, and when redistilled gives an enriched dust, and by repeating the process and distilling from cast iron retorts the metal is obtained.
5) was attached a diaphragm D of thin sheet iron; in front of this was a cover M, M provided with a suitable cavity for directing the sound-waves against the diaphragm.
In suburban and rural districts subscribers are usually served by means of bare wires erected upon wooden or iron poles.
When a number of cables follow the same route, they are generally laid in conduits made up of earthenware or cement ducts; iron pipes are used when the number of cables is small.
In one system the main cables terminate in large airtight iron boxes placed in the manholes.
Another method of distribution, largely adopted, is to run the lead cables into the interior of blocks of buildings, and to terminate them there in iron boxes from which the circuits are distributed to the surrounding buildings by means of rubber-covered wires run along the walls.
In his last illness he was cauterized, and on seeing the burning iron he addressed "brother Fire," reminding him how he had always loved him and asking him to deal kindly with him.
With Edward Cooper (son of Peter Cooper, whom Hewitt greatly assisted in organizing Cooper Union, and whose daughter he married) he went into the manufacture of iron girders and beams under the firm name of Cooper, Hewitt & Co.
Others, such as Paros, are mainly composed of marble, and iron ore occurs in some.
The chief minerals are sulphur, in the production of which Italy holds one of the first places, iron, zinc, lead; these, and, to a smaller extent, copper of an inferior quality, manganese and antimony, are successfully mined.
Very little pig iron is tries US made, most of the iron ore being exported, and iron manufactured consists of old iron resmelted.
For steelmaking foreign pig iron is chiefly used.
In 1894 the excess of imports over exports fell to 2,720,000, but by 1898 it had grown to 8,391,000, in consequence chiefly of the increased importation of coal, raw cotton and cotton thread, pig and cast iron, old iron, grease and oil-seeds for use in Italian industries.
After this event Heribert, the archbishop of..Milan, invited Conrad, the Franconian king of Germany, into Italy, and crowned him with the iron crown of the kingdom.
By an instrument signed on the 24th of April 1815, the Austrian territories in north Italy were erected into the kingdom of Lombardo-Venetia, which, though an integral part of the Austrian empire, was to enjoy a separate administration, the symbol of its separate individuality being the coronation of the emperors with the ancient iron crown of Lombardy (Proclamation de lempereur dAutriche, &c., April 7, 1815, State Papers, ii.
In August there were strikes among the dock laborers of Genoa and the iron workers of Florence; the latter agitation developed into a general strike in that city, which aroused widespread indignation among the orderly part of the population and ended without any definite result.
Asparagus, figs, and wine of medium quality are grown in the district; and heavy iron goods, chemical products, clocks and plaster are among the manufactures.
Near Tokat copper pyrites, with iron and manganese, kaolin and coal are found; but most of the copper worked here comes from the mines of Keban Maden and Arghana Maden, on the upper Euphrates and Tigris.
deep, built of sandstone blocks blackened with age (whence the name), and held together with iron clamps.
The main industries are cotton-spinning, flax-spinning, cottonprinting, tanning and sugar refining; in addition to which there are iron and copper foundries, machine-building works, breweries and factories of soap, paper, tobacco, &c. As a trading centre the city is even more important.
It is mentioned so early as the 7th century and in 868 Baldwin of the Iron Arm, first count of Flanders, who had been entrusted by Charles the Bald with the defence of the northern marches, built a castle here against the Normans raiding up the Scheldt.
Saturn for lead, Venus for copper, and Mars for iron, and the belief that the colours of flowers ' The Egyptians believed that the medicinal virtues of plants were due to the spirits who dwelt within them.
In the 6th century Alexander of Tralles used colchicum for gout, iron for anaemia, and rhubarb in liver weakness and dysentery.
Molybdenum occurs in nature chiefly as the minerals molybdenite (MoS 2) and wulfenite (PbMo04), and more rarely as molybdic ochre (Moos) and ilsemannite; it also occurs in many iron ores.
The iron tree (Parrotia persica), the silk acacia, Carpinus betulus, Quercus iberica, the box tree and the walnut flourish freely, as well as the sumach, the pomegranate, and the Gleditschia caspica.
The Eastern railway has works at Romilly, and there are iron works at Clairvaux and wire-drawing works at Plaines; but owing to the absence of coal and iron mines, metal working is of small importance.
deficiency of nutritive salts, especially nitrates and phosphates; the presence of poisonous salts of iron, copper, &c., or (in the soil about the roots of trees in towns) of coal-gas and so forth.
Nuclein is a complex albuminoid substance containing phosphorus and iron in organic combination (Macallum).
lxiii.; On the Distribution of Assimilated Iron Cornpotrnds other than Haemoglobin and Haematins, in Animal and Vegetable Cells, Quart.
Among Kenosha's manufactures are brass and iron beds (the Simmons Manufacturing Co.), mattresses, typewriters, leather and brass goods, wagons, and automobiles - the "Rambler" automobile being made at Kenosha by Thomas B.
Columbus is near the Ohio coal and iron-fields, and has an extensive trade in coal, but its largest industrial interests are in manufactures, among which the more important are foundry and machine-shop products (1905 value, $6,259,579); boots and shoes (1905 value, $5,425,087, being more than one-sixtieth of the total product value of the boot and shoe industry in the United States, and being an increase from $359,000 in 1890); patent medicines and compounds (1905 value, $3,214,096); carriages and wagons (1905 value, $2,197,960); malt liquors (1905 value, $2,133,955); iron and steel; regalia and society emblems; steam-railway cars, construction and repairing; and oleo-margarine.
Its cloth and silk manufactures are important, and owing to the opening up of extensive coalfields in the district almost every branch of iron industry is carried on.
The exterior is adorned with niched statues and beautiful iron trellis work round the windows.
It stands near the border of Victoria, on the right bank of the Murray river, here crossed by two bridges, one built of wood carrying a road, the other of iron bearing the railway.
He was finally routed at Temesvar by the combined forces of Janos Zapolya and Istvan Bathory, was captured, and condemned to sit on a red-hot iron throne, with a red-hot iron crown on his head and a red-hot sceptre in his hand.
Eveleth is served by the Duluth, Missabe & Northern and the Duluth & Iron Range railways.
The city is a trade centre for a rich farming district, has car-shops (of the Pere Marquette railway) and iron foundries, and manufactures wagons, pottery, furniture and clothing.
Among its manufactures are earthenware, tobacco, vinegar, flour, farm-gates (iron), sash and doors, marble and granite monuments, carriages and bricks.
Iron, zinc and lead are found in the vicinity, and some coal is mined.
Amongst the most important of his works not already mentioned may be named the following: - Mathematical Tracts (1826) on the Lunar Theory, Figure of the Earth, Precession and Nutation, and Calculus of Variations, to which, in the second edition of 1828, were added tracts on the Planetary Theory and the Undulatory Theory of Light; Experiments on Iron-built Ships, instituted for the purpose of discovering a correction for the deviation of the Compass produced by the Iron of the Ships (1839); On the Theoretical Explanation of an apparent new Polarity in Light (1840); Tides and Waves (1842).
The iron formation is widely spread.
Its industries embrace the manufacture of iron and steel goods, tanning and organ-building.
The main shaft bearings are in two sets and composed of steel balls running in steel cones and cups; the governor is an iron rod about 16 in.
It consists of a large stone chamber which communicates directly with two slightly slanting tubular retorts of iron.
in some places sulphur is extracted from iron pyrites by one of two methods.
The pyrites is subjected to dry distillation from out of iron or fire-clay tubular retorts at a bright red heat.
Hyposulphurous acid, H 2 S 2 0 4, was first really obtained by Berthollet in 1789 when he showed that iron left in contact with an aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide dissolved without any evolution of gas, whilst C. F.
The principal manufactures are firearms, ironmongery, earthenware, woollen cloth, beer, stoneware, zinc goods, colours and salt; in the neighbourhood are iron and coal mines.
Among other important manufactures are foundry and machine shop products ($6,944,392 in 1905); flour and grist-mill products ($4,428,664); cars and shop construction and repairs by steam railways ($2,502,789); saws; waggons and carriages ($2,049,207); printing and publishing (book and job, $1,572,688; and newspapers and periodicals, $2,715,666); starch; cotton and woollen goods; furniture ($2,528,238); canned goods ($1,693,818); lumber and timber ($1,556,466); structural iron work ($1,541,732); beer ($1,300,764); and planing-mill products, sash, doors and blinds ($1,111,264).
Pop. (1906) 9749 It possesses iron mines and is the centre of the coal-fields of the Aveyron, which supply the ironworks established by the Duc Decazes, minister of Louis Xviii.
Iron - haematite - is present almost everywhere.
In the i 1 th century this new form of devotion was extolled by some of the most ardent reformers in the monastic houses of the west, such as Abbot Popon of Stavelot, St Dominic Loricatus (so called from his practice of wearing next his skin an iron lorica, or cuirass of thongs), and especially Cardinal Pietro Damiani.
The penance lasted 332 days, during which they flogged themselves with thongs fitted with four iron points.
The Finland rappa-kivi, the Serdobol gneiss, and the Pargas and Rustiala marble (with the so-called Eozoon canadense) yield good building stone; while iron, copper and zinc-ore are common in Finland and in the Urals.
As a producer of iron Russia nevertheless runs France neck and neck for the fourth place amongst the iron-producing countries of the world, her annual output having increased from 1,004,800 metric tons in 1891 to 2,808,000 in 1901 and to 2,900,000 in 1904.
The amount of iron and steel produced in the Urals is not quite 20% of the total in all European Russia and Poland.
Out of an average of some 2,700,000 tons of pig-iron produced annually in the whole of the Russian empire, 61.5% is produced in the basin of the Donets, and out of an average of 2,160,500 tons of worked iron and steel 48.7% are prepared in the same region.
Thus, while one village would produce nothing but felt shoes, another would carve sacred images (ikons), and a third spin flax only, a fourth make wooden spoons, a fifth nails, a sixth iron chains, and so on.
Machinery, coal, iron, woollens, ships, lead and copper are the commodities supplied by the United Kingdom.
In time it became a common practice to cover them with a thin sheathing or plating of iron, in order to add to their life; this expedient caused more wear on the wooden rollers of the wagons, and, apparently towards the middle of the 18th century, led to the introduction of iron wheels, the use of which is recorded on a wooden railway near Bath in 1734.
But the iron sheathing was not strong enough to resist buckling under the passage of the loaded wagons, and to remedy this defect the plan, was tried of making the rails wholly of iron.
In 1767 the Colebrookdale Iron Works cast a batch of iron rails or plates, each 3 ft.
on this occasion William Jessop, of the Butterley Iron Works, near Derby, proposed to get over it by laying down two plates of iron, perfectly flat and level with the road but each having on its outside a groove 4 in.
In most parts of England the plate-rail was preferred, and it was used on the Surrey iron railway, from Wandsworth to Croydon, which, sanctioned by parliament in 1801, was finished in 1803, and was the first railway available to the public on payment of tolls, previous lines having all been private and reserved exclusively for the use of their owners.
In South Wales again, where in 1811 the railways in connexion with canals, collieries and iron and copper works had a total length of nearly 150 miles, the plate-way was almost universal.
By making them in longer lengths a reduction was effected in the number of joints - always the weakest part of the line; and another advance consisted in the substitution of wrought iron for cast iron, though that material did not gain wide adoption until after the patent for an improved method of rolling rails granted in 1820 to John Birkinshaw, of the Bedlington Ironworks, Durham.
long and weighed 35 lb to the yard, and they were fastened by iron wedges to chairs weighing 15 or 17 lb each.
in turn fixed to the sleepers by two iron spikes, half-round wooden cross sleepers being employed on embankments and stone blocks 20 in.
The next important development in rail design originated in America, which, for the few lines that had been laid up to 1830, remained content with wooden bars faced with iron.
There was a waste of metal in these early rails owing to the excessive thickness of the vertical web, and subsequent improvements have consisted in adjusting the dimensions so as to combine strength with economy of metal, as well as in the substitution of steel for wrought iron (after the introduction of the Bessemer process) and in minute attention to the composition of the steel employed.
The joint was thus suspended between the two chairs, and two keys of iron, called " fishes," fitting the side channels of the rails, were driven in on each side between the chairs and the rails.
The iron tramway or railway had been known for half a century and had come into considerable use in connexion with collieries and quarries before it was realized that for the carriage FIG.
The inspections made by the officers of the Board of Trade under this act are very complete: the permanent way, bridges, viaducts, tunnels and other works are carefully examined; all iron or steel girders are tested; stations, including platforms, stairways, waiting-rooms, &c., are inspected; and the signalling and " interlocking " are thoroughly overhauled.
Its general character was such that cattle could not stand on it, and a piece of iron would sink in it.
Larger rivers, canals, roads, other railways and sometimes deep narrow valleys are crossed by bridges (q.v.) of timber, brick, stone, wrought iron or steel, and many of these structures rank among the largest engineering works in the world.
These are flat bars of iron or steel from 18 in.
The substitution of steel for iron as the material for rails which made possible the axle loads and the speeds of Lto-day, and, by reducing the cost of maintenance, contributed enormously to the economic efficiency of railways, was one of the most important events in the history of railways, and a scarcely less important element of progressive economy has been the continued improvement of the steel rail in stiffness of section and in toughness and hardness of material.
Where the depth to rail-level was too great for cut-and-cover methods, ordinary tunnelling processes were used; and where the trench was too shallow for the arched roof, heavy girders, sometimes of cast iron, bridged it between the side walls, longitudinal.
The first actual work, however, was not begun till 1870, when the construction of an iron structure on a single row of columns was undertaken.
The simplicity is great; they can be quickly mounted and dismounted; the correct gauge can be perfectly maintained; the sections of rails and sleepers (which are of iron) are very portable, and skilled labour is not required to lay or to take them up; the making of a " turn-out " is easy, by taking out a 15 ft.
The houses, mostly white with coloured roofs, are generally built of wood and iron, and have glazed porches, gay with fuchsias and pelargoniums. Government House, grey, stone-built and slated, calls to mind a manse in Shetland or Orkney.
Considerable quantities of the following minerals have been found: barytes (heavy spar), magnetite (magnetic iron ore), and pyrolusite (manganese dioxide) in Humboldt county; roofing slate in Esmeralda county; cinnabar (ore containing quicksilver) in Washoe county; haematite in Elko and Churchill counties; cerussite and galena (lead ores) in Eureka county; and wolframite (a source of tungsten) at Round Mountain, White Pine county.
It has an increasing trade in iron, timber, coal and agricultural products, a trade which is fostered by a harbour opened in 1897; and also large factories for making aniline dyes and soda.
Other industries are the manufacture of cellulose, artificial manure, flour and malt; and there are saw-mills, iron foundries and breweries in the town.
We might at first suppose that the sun was really an intensely heated body radiating out its heat as does white-hot iron, but this explanation cannot be admitted, for there is no historical evidence that the sun is growing colder.
The principal mining product is mercury, extracted at Idria, while iron and copper ore, zinc and coal are also found.
Near the town are iron mines and quarries of limestone, and on the neighbouring mountains are forests containing valuable hardwood timber.
Recent experiments lead to the conclusion that iron, lead, manganese, lignite and sulphur exist in considerable abundance.
The use of iron for arms and implements now finally triumphed over bronze.
The town possesses breweries, tanneries, malthouses, flour-mills, saw-mills, brick and tile works, potteries and an iron foundry; its trade in butter is considerable.
This is described as having "an head about a quarter of a yard long, a staffe of two yards long put into their head, twelve iron pikes round about, and one in the end to stop with."
1864), was prominent also as an owner and manager of railways, and became president of the Little Rock & Fort Smith railway (1888), the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern railway (1893), the International & Great Northern railway (1893), the Missouri Pacific railway (1893), the Texas & Pacific railway (1893), and the Manhattan Railway Company (1892); he was also vice-president and director of the Western Union Telegraph Company.
Its materials are pebbles, clays and sands of various' colours from white to deep red, tinged with peroxide of iron, which sometimes cements the pebbles and sands into compact rocks.
The state contains deposits of iron, gypsum, marl, phosphate, lignite, ochre, glass-sand, tripoli, fuller's earth, limestones and sandstones; and there are small gas flows in the Yazoo Delta.
The lack of mineral resources, especially of coal and iron, of a good harbour (until the improvement of Gulfport), and of an adequate supply of labour has discouraged most kinds of manufacturing.
border of North Carolina's Appalachian Mountain Region, which includes the high Unaka Mountain Range, segments of which are known by such local names as Iron Mountains, Bald Mountains and Great Smoky Mountains.
It was along the coast of North Carolina that Europeans in 1585 made the first discovery of iron ore within the present limits of the United States.
Iron ores are widely distributed within the state, and there have been times since the eve of the War of Independence when the mining of it was an industry of relatively great importance.
Niriz was formerly known for its manufacture of steel from iron ore brought from Parpa, 40 m.
" As the little water-drop poured into a large measure of wine seems to lose its own nature entirely and to take on both the taste and the colour of the wine; or as iron heated red-hot loses its own appearance and glows like fire; or as air filled with sunlight is transformed into the same brightness so that it does not so much appear to be illuminated as to be itself light - so must all human feeling towards the Holy One be self-dissolved in unspeakable wise, and wholly transfused into the will of God.
There are many rich deposits of iron ores in the state, but they only produce a small quantity of charcoal iron for local consumption.
Ashland has an excellent harbour, has large iron-ore and coal docks, and is the principal port for the shipment of iron ore from the rich Gogebec Range, the annual ore shipment approximating 3,500,000 tons, valued at $12,000,000, and it has also an extensive export trade in lumber.
Ashland has large saw-mills, iron and steel rolling mills, foundries and machine shops, railway repair shops (of the Chicago & NorthWestern railway), knitting works, and manufactories of dynamite, sulphite fibre, charcoal and wood-alcohol.
Dereham is an important agricultural centre with works for the manufacture of agricultural implements, iron foundries and a malting industry.
Among the city's manufactures are oxide of tin and other chemicals, iron and steel, leather goods, automobiles and bicycles, electrical and telephone supplies, butted tubing, gas engines, screws and bolts, silk, lace and hosiery.
In the van Ruymbeke process the spent lyes are allowed to settle, and then treated with "persulphate of iron," the exact composition of which is a trade secret, but it is possibly a mixture of ferric and ferrous sulphates.
Ferric hydrate, iron soaps and all insoluble impurities are precipitated.
The liquid is filterpressed, and any excess of iron in the filtrate is precipitated by the careful addition of caustic soda and then removed.
The chief industries are weaving, leather-making, dyeing and working in iron and pottery.
It is an oxide of iron having the formula Fe 3 O 4, corresponding with 72.4% of metal, whence its great value as an ore.
It may be regarded as a ferroso-ferric oxide, FeO.Fe 2 O 3, or as iron ferrate, Fe"Fe 2 '0 4.
Iron rust sometimes contains magnetite.
It contains an asylum maintained by the provincial government; also saw and grist mills and iron foundries.
Other industries are brewing, printing and iron-founding, and there are ochre and iron mines in the neighbourhood.
Columbus is situated in a fine farming region, and has extensive tanneries, threshingmachine and traction and automobile engine works, structural iron works, tool and machine shops, canneries and furniture factories.
The country has a great wealth of minerals, silver having been found, and copper, lead, iron, coal and rock-salt being wrought with profit.
The leading industries comprise manufactures of tweeds, hosiery, clogs, baskets and leather, besides the timber trade, nursery gardening and the making of machinery and iron implements.
Small quantities of quicksilver, sulphur and iron are obtained.
There are soap and flour mills and metallurgic factories in the town, and iron, copper and lead mines in the neighbouring Sierra de Almenara.
The manufactures of Derbyshire are both numerous and important, embracing silks, cotton hosiery, iron, woollen manufactures, lace, elastic web and brewing.
Iron has also been produced in Derbyshire from an early date, and coal mines were worked at Norton and Alfreton in the beginning of the 14th century.
There are large iron and steel works here, notably the Tredegar Iron Works.
During the war the principal iron foundry of the Confederacy (Tredegar Iron Works) was in Richmond, and here most of the cannon used by the Confederate armies were cast.
Cart-wheels were sometimes bound with iron, of which he greatly approves.
part is a valuable granite quarry; and limestone, and some coal, iron and gold are also found.
The Blackstone and its tributaries provide considerable water power; and there are various manufactures, including cotton goods, silk goods, and horse-shoes and other iron ware.
The chief interest of the place centres in its brine springs which are largely impregnated with carbonic acid gas and oxide of iron, and are efficacious in chronic catarrh of the respiratory organs, in liver and stomach disorders and women's diseases.
The town manufactures combs and horn goods, brass and iron wares, leather, malt, bricks and ropes.
Nothing could bend that cast iron will.
Ney, who had said that Napoleon ought to be brought to Paris in an iron cage, joined him with 6000 men on the 14th of March; and five days later the emperor entered the capital, whence Louis XVIII.
(5) Weapons, tools and implements, in stone, clay and bronze, and at the last iron, sometimes richly ornamented or inlaid.
These periods fill the whole Bronze Age, with whose close, by the introduction of the superior metal, iron, the Aegean Age is conventionally held to end.
Iron came into general Aegean use about r000 B.C., and possibly was the means by which a body of northern invaders established their power on the ruins of the earlier dominion.
The terminus ad quem is less certain - iron does not begin to be used for weapons in the Aegean till after Period III.
Iron took the place of Bronze, and Aegean art, as a living thing, ceased on the Greek mainland and in the Aegean isles including Crete, together with Aegean writing.
This great disaster, which cleared the ground for a new growth of local art, was probably due to yet another incursion of northern tribes, more barbarous than their predecessors, but possessed of superior iron weapons - those tribes which later Greek tradition and Homer knew as the Dorians.
west, there are numerous sugarfactories; cotton is also grown and manufactured, and alcohol, flour, soap, iron goods and cotton stuffs are among the other industrial products.
She is the mother of Ur, the personified fire of hell, who in anger and pride made a violent onset on the world of light, but was mastered by Hibil and thrown in chains down to the "black water," and imprisoned within seven iron and seven golden walls.
Some of the "porphyroids" which have grains of quartz and felspar in a finely schistose micaceous matrix are intermediate between porphyries and micaschists of this group. Still more numerous are orthoschists of hornblendic character (hornblende-schists) consisting of green hornblende with often felspar, quartz and sphene (also rutile, garnet, epidote or zoisite, biotite and iron oxides).
During the progress of the works, however, he acted as surveyor, and accumulated in that lucrative employment a sum of several thousand pounds, discovered after his death in an old iron chest, which had evidently lain unopened for above thirty years.
It is found also in beds of iron ore, and the haematite mines of the Cleator Moor district in west Cumberland have yielded many extremely fine crystals, specimens of which may be seen in all mineral collections.
The iron tubular bridge which carries the line over the Nepean is the best of its kind in the colony, while the viaduct over Knapsack Gulley is the most remarkable erection of its kind in Australia.
The North Bridge, a fine iron structure, spans the valley, giving connexion between the opposite higher parts of the town.
The worsted, woollen and cotton industries, and the iron, steel and machinery manufactures are very extensive.
wide, curving out of the water at the ends, with ornamental bow and stern pieces and an iron beak (ferro), resembling a halberd, which is the highest part of the boat.
Although the state has a great amount of limestone, especially in Erie and Ottawa counties, its dull colour renders it unsuitable for most building purposes.` It is, however, much used as a flux for melting iron and for making quick lime.
There is some iron ore in the eastern and south-eastern parts of the state, and the mining of it was begun early in the 19th century; but the output decreased from 254,294 long tons in 1889 to only 26,585 long tons (all carbonate) in 1908.
The value of the factory product was $748,670,855 in 1900 and $960,811,857 in 1905.1 The most important manufacturing industry is that of iron and steel.
A large portion of the iron and steel is manufactured in Cleveland, Youngstown, Steubenville, Bellaire, Lorain and Ironton.
Of far greater volume than the foreign commerce is the domestic trade in coal, iron, lumber, &c., largely by way of the Great Lakes.
The mineral wealth of Carinthia is great, and consists in lead, iron, zinc and coal.
Iron ore is extracted in the region of the Saualpe, and is worked in the foundries of St Leonhard, St Gertraud, Pravali, Hirt, Treibach and Eberstein.
The metallurgic industries are well developed, and consist in the production of iron, steel, machinery, small-arms, lead articles, wire-cables and rails.
The iron mines are among the oldest in the country; mining began probably as early as 1731.
Fibres and vegetable grasses, wool, hides and skins, cotton, sugar, iron and steel and their manufactures, chemicals, coal, and leather and its manufactures are the leading imports; provisions, leather and its manufactures, cotton and its manufactures, breadstuffs, iron and steel and.
high, composed of red soil containing a considerable quantity of iron ore; and the whole tract is for the most part unproductive.
SAMUEL AUGUSTUS BARNETT (1844-), English clergyman and social reformer, was born at Bristol on the 8th of February 1844, the son of Francis Augustus Barnett, an iron manufacturer.
Cairo is served by the Illinois Central, the Mobile & Ohio, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis, the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern, and the St Louis South-Western railways, and by river steamboat lines.
It consists essentially of two rollers either both of wood, or one of wood and one of iron, geared to revolve in contact in opposite directions; the seed cotton is fed to the rollers, the lint is drawn through, and the seed being unable to pass between the rollers is rejected.
It consists essentially of a series of circular notched disks, the so-called saws, revolving between the interstices of an iron bed upon which the cotton is placed: the teeth of the " saws " catch the lint and pull it off from the seeds, then a revolving brush removes the detached lint from the saws, and creates sufficient draught to carry the lint out of the machine to some distance.
It is a strong acid, and dissolved in water decomposes carbonates and attacks iron and zinc.
The impurities occasionally present in commercial citric acid are salts of potassium and sodium, traces of iron, lead and copper derived from the vessels used for its evaporation and crystallization, and free sulphuric, tartaric and even oxalic acid.
Several of the citrates are much employed as medicines, the most important being the scale preparations of iron.
Of these iron and ammonium citrate is much used as a haematinic, and as it has hardly any tendency to cause gastric irritation or constipation it can be taken when the ordinary forms of iron are inadmissible.
Iron and quinine citrate is used as a bitter stomachic and tonic. In the blood citrates are oxidized into carbonates; they therefore act as remote alkalis, increasing the alkalinity of the blood and thereby the general rate of chemical change within the body.
The surrounding country abounds in coal, iron ore, oil, clay, stone and timber, for which the city is a distributing centre.
In minerals Manchuria is very rich: coal, gold, iron (as well as magnetic iron ore), and precious stones are found in large quantities.
Assuming that, as the Chinese say, the Khitans were Manchus, the first appearance of the Manchus, as a people, in China dates from the beginning of the 10th century, when the Khitans, having first conquered the kingdom of Pohai, crossed the frontier into China 3 and established the Liao or Iron dynasty in the northern portion of the empire.
" Iron " (Liao), he said, " rusts, but gold always keeps its purity and colour, therefore my dynasty shall be called Kin."
Other theories of a like nature were brought forward by various chemists, Mendeleeff, for example, ascribing the formation of petroleum to the action of water at high temperatures on iron carbide in the interior of the earth.
long and are interposed between the heavy iron augerstem carrying the bit and the upper rod, known as the sinker-bar.
" The ordinary sand-pump or bailer, consists of a plain cylinder of light galvanized iron with a bail at the top and a stem-valve at the bottom.
Four strings of iron casing are usually employed, having the following diameters: to in., 84 in., 64 in.
There is usually fixed above the sucker a short iron valverod, with a device known as a rivet-catcher to prevent damage to the pump by the dropping of rivets from the pump-rods.
To explode the charge an iron weight, known as a go-devil, was dropped into the well, and striking the disk exploded the cap and fired the torpedo.
The system usually adopted is a modification of the Canadian system already described, the boring rods being, however, of iron instead of wood, but the cable system has also to some extent been used.
Rivetted iron casing, made of s -in.
high, with slightly conical wooden roofs covered with sheet iron; their capacity is 35,000 barrels, and they are placed upon the carefully levelled ground without any foundation.
The barrels employed in the transport of petroleum products are made of well-seasoned white-oak staves bound by six or eight iron hoops.
They used an iron still, set in brickwork, and from a working charge of forty " buckets " of crude petroleum obtained a yield of sixteen buckets of " white naphtha."
A small piece of iron placed in this field tends to move from weak to strong places in the field with a force depending on the strength of the field and the rate at which the field varies.
In its simplest form an electromagnetic ammeter consists of a circular coil of wire in which is pivoted eccentrically an index needle carrying at its lower end a small mass of iron.
The needle is balanced so that gravity compels it to take a certain position in which the fragment of iron occupies a position in the centre of the field of the coil where it is weakest.
When a current is passed through the coil the iron tends to move nearer to the coil of the wire where the field is stronger and so displaces the index needle over the scale.
Another type of similar instrument consists of a coil of wire having a fragment of iron wire suspended from one arm of an index needle near the mouth of a coil.
When a current is passed through the wire forming the coil, the fragment of iron is drawn more into the aperture of the coil where the field is stronger and so displaces an index needle over a scale.
In the construction of this soft-iron instrument it is essential that the fragment of iron should be as small and as well annealed as possible and not touched with tools after annealing; also it should be preferably not too elongated in shape so that it may not acquire permanent magnetization but that its magnetic condition may follow the changes of the current in the coil.
The coil carries an index needle moving over a scale, and there is generally an iron core in the interior of the coil but fixed and independent of it.
In it the oils at 35° C. are stirred with concentrated alkali in an iron or wooden tub, whereupon saponification ensues with a development of some heat; the mixture being well agitated.
The process of soap-boiling is carried out in large iron boilers called " soap pans " or " coppers," some of which have capacity for a charge of 30 tons or more.
Treatment of Settled Soap. - The upper layer having been removed, the desired soap is ladled out or ran off to a crutcher, which is an iron pan provided with hand or mechanical stirring appliances.
The frames into which hard soaps are ladled for cooling and solidification consist of rectangular boxes made of iron plates and bound and clamped together in a way that allows the sides to be removed when required; wooden frames are used in the case of mottled soaps.
They will hold their arms over their heads until the muscles atrophy, will keep their fists clenched till the nails grow through the palms, will lie on beds of nails, cut and stab themselves, drag, week after week, enormous chains loaded with masses of iron, or hang themselves before a fire near enough to scorch.
Imports are principally coal, iron and timber.
The finest agricultural land in the United States is near the lake, and there is an immense trade in all grains, fruits, livestock and lumber, and in products such as flour, pork, hides, leather goods, furniture, &c. Rich lead and copper mines abound, as also salt, iron and coal.
Escanaba, on Little Bay de Noc (Noquette), in the northern part of the lake, is a natural harbour and a large iron shipping port.
Thus in the Speculum Naturale of Vincent of Beauvais (c. 1250) it is said that there are four spirits - mercury, sulphur, arsenic and sal ammoniac - and six bodies - gold, silver, copper, tin, lead and iron.
Holland is a grain and fruit shipping centre, and among its manufactures are furniture, leather, grist mill products, iron, beer, pickles, shoes, beet sugar, gelatine, biscuit (Holland rusk), electric and steam launches, and pianos.
The mineral wealth of Moravia, consisting chiefly of coal and iron, is very considerable.
It owes its importance to the iron mines in the mountain Malmberget 4 z m.
of the town lie the baths of Vihnye, with springs of iron, lime and carbonic acid, and about the same distance to the W.
Gowen (1836-1889), president of the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, sent James McParlan, an Irish Catholic and a Pinkerton detective (who some thirty years later attracted attention in the investigation of the assassination of Governor Steunenberg of Idaho), to the mining region in 1873; he joined the order, lived among the "Molly Maguires" for more than two years, and even became secretary of the Shenandoah division, one of the most notoriously criminal lodges of the order.
Iron ore, lignite, copper, mercury, molybdenite, nickel, platinum and other minerals have been found, but the quantity of each is too small, or the quality too poor, for them to be of commercial value.
long, and containing the remains of dwelling-houses, a temple of Bibractis, and the workshops of iron and bronze workers and enamellers.
During the golden age she remained among men distributing blessings, but when the iron (or bronze) age came on, she was forced to withdraw, being the last of the goddesses to quit the earth.
It is served by the Arkansas, Louisiana & Gulf, the Little Rock & Monroe, the% Vicksburg, Shreveport & Pacific (Queen & Crescent), and the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern railways, and by river steamers plying between New Orleans and Camden, Arkansas.
There are large slaughtering establishments, and factories for the refining of sugar and for the manufacture of tobacco goods, soap and perfumery, lead pencils, iron and steel, railway cars, chemicals, rubber goods, silk goods, dressed lumber, and malt liquors.
Industries include slate quarrying, shipbuilding, iron and brass foundries, alum, vitriol, manure, guano and tobacco works.
The principal industries are shipbuilding (iron), boiler and engineering works, iron and brass foundries, steam saw and planing mills, flour-mills, paper and paint factories, and soapworks.
From an analogy instituted between the healthy human being and gold, the most perfect of the metals, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead and tin, were regarded in the light of lepers that required to be healed.
Gold, the most perfect metal, had the symbol of the Sun, 0; silver, the semiperfect metal, had the symbol of the Moon, 0j; copper, iron and antimony, the imperfect metals of the gold class, had the symbols of Venus Mars and the Earth tin and lead, the imperfect metals of the silver class, had the symbols of Jupiter 94, and Saturn h; while mercury, the imperfect metal of both the gold and silver class, had the symbol of the planet,.
4 The following are the symbols employed by Dalton: which represent in order, hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, oxygen, phosphorus, sulphur, magnesia, lime, soda, potash, strontia, baryta, mercury; iron, zinc, copper, lead, silver, platinum, and gold were represented by circles enclosing the initial letter of the element.
For example, positive iron combined with negative oxygen to form positive ferrous oxide; positive sulphur combined with negative oxygen to form negative sulphuric acid; positive ferrous oxide combined with negative sulphuric acid to form neutral ferrous sulphate.
The Egyptians obtained silver, iron, copper, lead, zinc and tin, either pure or as alloys, by smelting the ores; mercury is mentioned by Theophrastus (c. 300 B.C.).
Many substances were used as pigments: Pliny records white lead, cinnabar, verdigris and red oxide of iron; and the preparation of coloured glasses and enamels testifies to the uses to which these and other substances were put.
Many substances were employed in ancient medicine: galena was the basis of a valuable Egyptian cosmetic and drug; the arsenic sulphides, realgar and orpiment, litharge, alum, saltpetre, iron rust were also used.
At the same time Berzelius obtained the element, in an impure condition, by fusing silica with charcoal and iron in a blast furnace; its preparation in a pure condition he first accomplished in 1823, when he invented the method of heating double potassium fluorides with metallic potassium.
Of the principal workers in this field we may notice Friedrich Hoffmann, Andreas Sigismund Marggraf (who detected iron by its reaction with potassium ferrocyanide, and potassium and sodium by their flame colorations), and especially Carl Scheele and Torbern Olof Bergman.
If the bead is coloured we may have present: cobalt, blue to violet; copper, green, blue on cooling; in the reducing flame, red when cold; chromium, green, unaltered in the reducing flame; iron, brownish-red, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, red while hot, yellow on cooling, greenish when cold; nickel, reddish to brownish-red, yellow to reddish-yellow or colourless on cooling, unaltered in the reducing flame; bismuth, yellowish-brown, light-yellow or colourless on cooling; in the reducing flame, almost colourless, blackish-grey when cold; silver, light yellowish to opal, somewhat opaque when cold; whitish-grey in the reducing flame; manganese, amethyst red, colourless in the reducing flame.
If silica be present, it gives the iron bead when heated with a little ferric oxide; if tin is present there is no change.
The phosphates of aluminium, chromium and iron are precipitated, and the solution contains the same metals as if phosphoric acid had been absent.
To the filtrate from the aluminium, iron and chromium precipitate, ammonia and ammonium sulphide are added; the precipitate may contain nickel, cobalt, zinc and manganese sulphides.
In the first group, we have to notice the titration of a cyanide with silver nitrate, when a milkiness shows how far the reaction has gone; the titration of iron with permanganate, when the faint pink colour shows that all the iron is oxidized.
A blue coloration indicates nitrogen, and is due to the formation of potassium (or sodium) cyanide during the fusion, and subsequent interaction with the iron salts.
Attached to the bulb was a glass rod and then a tube containing iron wire.
The mining industry on which the town formerly depended is extinct, but the district is agricultural and dairy farming is carried on, while the town has flour mills, tanneries and iron foundries.