Irish sentence example
Five cups of coffee later and a full Irish breakfast --without the blood pudding --settling in her stomach, she still couldn't shake the throb.
He offered an Irish linen handkerchief from his pocket and waited.
He hadn't visited the Guardians' Irish station in years, mainly because Ireland had no regular vamp population.
Of the foreign-born, 14,924 were French Canadians, 10,616 were English Canadians and 7453 were Irish.
In 1689 battles were fought between William III.'s army and the Irish under Macarthy (for James II.), Lisnaskea (26th July) and Newtownbutler (30th July).Advertisement
Irish in a league against the supporters of the parliament, and only a few scattered forts held out for the Commonwealth, while the young king was every day expected to land and complete the conquest of the island.
Cromwell, who was as a rule especially scrupulous in protecting non-combatants from violence, justified his severity in this case by the cruelties perpetrated by the Irish in the rebellion of 1641, and as being necessary on military and political grounds in that it "would tend to prevent the effusion of blood for the future, which were the satisfactory grounds of such actions which otherwise cannot but work remorse and regret."
These advantages, however, scarcely benefited at all the Irish Roman Catholics, who were excluded from political life and from the corporate towns; and Cromwell's union meant little more than the union of the English colony in Ireland with England.
That he was also capable of strategy of the other type was clear from his conduct of the Irish War.
Though entered as a student at Trinity College, Dublin, Tone gave little attention to study, his inclination being for a military career; but after eloping with Matilda Witherington, a girl of sixteen, he took his degree in 1786, and read law in London at the Middle Temple and afterwards in Dublin, being called to the Irish bar in 1789.Advertisement
Chagrined at finding no notice taken of a wild scheme for founding a military colony in the South Seas which he had submitted to Pitt, he turned to Irish politics.
Burke and Grattan were anxious that provision should be made for the education of Irish Roman Catholic priests at home, to preserve them from the contagion of Jacobinism in France; Wolfe Tone, "with an incomparably juster forecast," as Lecky observes, "advocated the same measure for exactly opposite reasons."
In 17 9 4 the United Irishmen, persuaded that their scheme of universal suffrage and equal electoral districts was not likely to be accepted by any party in the Irish parliament, began to found their hopes on a French invasion.
Bonaparte, with whom Tone had several interviews about this time, was much less disposed than Hoche had been to undertake in earnest an Irish expedition; and when the rebellion broke out in Ireland in 17 9 8 he had started for Egypt.
The English and Irish provinces are treated as self-contained.Advertisement
Ecclesiastical jurisdiction in Ireland was as in England till the Irish Church was disestablished in 1869 by 32 & 33 Vict.
Besides the university library, there is the Ohio state library occupying a room in the capitol and containing in 1908 126,000 volumes, including a "travelling library" of about 36,000 volumes, from which various organizations in different parts of the state may borrow books; the law library of the supreme court of Ohio, containing complete sets of English, Scottish, Irish, Canadian, United States and state reports, statutes and digests; the public school library of about 68,000 volumes, and the public library (of about 55,000), which is housed in a marble and granite building completed in 1906.
He published a number of original and scholarly papers on assyriological questions of the highest value, chiefly in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy.
O'Hanlon, Lives of the Irish Saints, viii.
Elsewhere, as the settlers in Gaul became French, the emigrants from Gaul became English, Irish, Scottish, and whatever we are to call the present inhabitants of Sicily and southern Italy.Advertisement
The town owed its origin and growth to its position on the shores of the Bristol Channel, and its good harbour developed an oversea trade with Bristol, South Wales and the Irish ports.
Sigeberht also founded a school in East Anglia, and on the arrival of an Irish missionary named Furseus he built him a monastery at Cnobheresburg, perhaps to be identified with Burgh Castle.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about Scottish, Irish and Welsh writers.
In November 1660 by his father's death he had become Viscount Valentia and Baron Mountnorris in the Irish peerage, and on the 20th April 1661 he was created Baron Annesley of Newport Pagnell in Buckinghamshire and earl of Anglesey in the peerage of Great Britain.
He filled the office of vice-treasurer from 1660 till 1667, served on the committee for carrying out the declaration for the settlement of Ireland and on the committee for Irish affairs, while later, in 1671 and 1672, he was a leading member of various commissions appointed to investigate the working of the Acts of Settlement.Advertisement
On the 6th of December he protested with three other peers against the measure sent up from the Commons enforcing the disarming of all convicted recusants and taking bail from them to keep the peace; he was the only peer to dissent from the motion declaring the existence of an Irish plot; and though believing in the guilt and voting for the death of Lord Stafford, he interceded, according to his own account, 3 with the king for him as well as for Langhorne and Plunket.
In 1681 Anglesey wrote A Letter from a Person of Honour in the Country, as a rejoinder to the earl of Castlehaven, who had published memoirs on the Irish rebellion defending the action of the Irish and the Roman Catholics.
He was summoned to the Irish House of Peers as Viscount Valentia, but was denied his writ to the parliament of Great Britain by a majority of one vote.
The 1st viscount was also the ancestor of the Earls Annesley in the Irish peerage.
He became a member of the Young Ireland Party in 1845, and in 1847 was one of the founders of the Irish Confederation.
O'NEILL, the name of an Irish family tracing descent from Niall, king of Ireland early in the 5th century, and known in Irish history and legend as Niall of the Nine Hostages.
Murkertagh was chief of the great north Irish clan, the Cinel Eoghain,' and after becoming king of Ireland about the year 517, he wrested from a neighbouring clan a tract of country in the modern County Derry, which remained till the 17th century in the possession of the Cinel Eoghain.
Conn O'Neill (c. 1480-1559), 1st earl of Tyrone, surnamed Bacach (the Lame), grandson of Henry O'Neill mentioned above, was the first of the O'Neills whom the attempts of the English in the 16th century to subjugate Ireland brought to the front as leaders of the native Irish.
She accordingly agreed to recognize his claims to the chieftainship, thus throwing over Brian O'Neill, son of the murdered Matthew, The ceremony of "inauguration" among the ancient Irish clans was an elaborate and important one.
His career was marked by unceasing duplicity, at one time giving evidence of submission to the English authorities, at another intriguing against them in conjunction with lesser Irish chieftains.
Tyrone continued to concert measures with the Irish leaders in Munster, and issued a manifesto to the Catholics of Ireland summoning them to join his standard; protesting that the interests of religion were his first care.
In 1613 Tyrone was outlawed and attainted by the Irish parliament, and he died in Rome on the 20th of July 1616.
In that year he was elected member of the Irish parliament for Dungannon, and joined the earl of Antrim and other lords in concerting measures for supporting Charles I.
On the 22nd of October 16 4 1 he surprised and captured Charlemont Castle; and having been chosen commander-in-chief of the Irish forces in the north, he forged and issued a pretended commission from Charles I.
Boyne; and afterwards commanded an Irish regiment in the French service, and died in 1704.
In the 18th century the commanding importance of the O'Neills in Irish history had come to an end.
But John O'Neill (1740-1798), who represented Randalstown in the Irish parliament 1761-1783, and the county of Antrim from the latter year till his death, took an active part in debate on the popular side, being a strong supporter of Catholic emancipation.
He was one of the delegates in 1789 from the Irish parliament to George, prince of Wales, requesting him to assume the regency as a matter of right.
It is situated at the head of Loch Ryan, an arm of the North Channel (Irish Sea), 59 m.
The Irish numbering 25,000, and strongly posted behind marshy ground, at first maintained a vigorous resistance; but Ginkel having penetrated their line of defence, and their general being struck down by a cannon ball at this critical moment, they were at length overcome and routed with terrible slaughter.
The loss of the English did not exceed 700 killed and too() wounded; while the Irish, in their disastrous flight, lost about 7000 men, besides the whole material of the army.
Can we change English writers and Scottish, Irish and Welsh writers and other categories into this;
Having entered the army at an early age, Conway was elected to the Irish parliament in 1741 as member for Antrim, which he continued to represent for twenty years; in the same year he became a member of the English House of Commons, sitting for Higham Ferrers in Northamptonshire, and he remained in parliament, representing successively a number of different constituencies, almost without interruption for more than forty years.
There were British, Roman and Saxon settlements at Dunster (Torre Dunestorre, Dunester), fortified against the piracies of the Irish Northmen.
By the death of his elder brother, killed near Ticonderoga on the 6th of July 1758, he became Viscount Howe - an Irish peerage.
His Irish title descended to his brother William, the general, who died childless in 1814.
He was also made a member of the Irish privy council and vice-chancellor of the university of Dublin.
This, indeed, is the practice in Ireland, and in order to incorporate the Irish figures with those for Great Britain so as to obtain average values for the United Kingdom, the Irish yields are calculated into bushels at the rate of 60 lb to the bushel of wheat, of beans and of peas, 50 lb to the bushel of barley and 39 lb to the bushel of oats.
English and Irish, and England possessed more than six times as many pigs as Wales and Scotland together, the number in the last-named country being particularly small.
The compulsory slaughter at the place of landing does not extend to animals shipped from Ireland into Great Britain, and this is a matter of the highest importance to Irish stock-breeders, who find their best market close at hand on the east of St George's Channel.
Greville, nephew of Sir William Hamilton, who in 1790 laid out a town on this spot, the advantages of which as a convenient port for the Irish traffic he clearly recognized.
The growth of the town was further checked twenty years later by the development of Neyland, or New Milford, further east on the Haven, whither the Irish packet service was transferred; but towards the close of the 19th century the town recovered much of its former prosperity.
It is highly doubtful whether Carteret could have reconciled his duty to the crown with his private friendships, if government had persisted in endeavouring to force the detested coinage on the Irish people.
Carteret was a profuse and popular lord lieutenant who pleased both the "English interest" and the native Irish.
Most, if not all, of his wonderful attributes may be ascribed to the Irish predilection for the grotesque.
In politics he did much to influence Irish and Scotch-Irish Presbyterians to support the Whig party.
Slight remains are to be seen of an abbey of Canons Regular, founded in the middle of the 6th century by St Comgall, and rebuilt, on a scale of magnificence which astonished the Irish, by St Malachy O'Morgair in the first half of the 12th century.
Irish, English-Canadian, Russian, Italian, English and German are the leading races.
Most remarkable of all, the Roman Catholic churches, in this strong, hold of exiled Puritanism where Catholics were so long under the heavy ban of law, outnumber those of any single Protestant denomination; Irish Catholics dominate the politics of the city, and Protestants and Catholics have been aligned against each other on the question of the control of the public schools.
Pop. (1890) 81,298; (1900) 108,027, of whom 30,802 were foreign-born, including 10,491 Irish, 5262 Italians, 4743 Germans, 3 1 93 Russians and 1376 Swedes; (1910 census) 133,605.
In Irish literature, however, the Druids are frequently mentioned, and their functions in the island seem to correspond fairly well to those of their Gaulish brethren described by classical writers.
The Irish Druids seem to have had a peculiar tonsure.
By the Irish Judicature Act of 1877 it was directed that it should be amalgamated with the Irish High Court of Justice upon the next vacancy in the office of judge, and this subsequently took place.
The new essays in this volume were mostly critical, but one of them, in which perhaps his guessing talent is seen at its best, "The Divisions of the Irish Family," is an elaborate discussion of a problem which has long puzzled both Celtic scholars and jurists; and in another, "On the Classificatory System of Relationship," he propounded a new explanation of a series of facts which, he thought, might throw light upon the early history of society, at the same time putting to the test of those facts the theories he had set forth in Primitive Marriage.
Then came a theological and disciplinary controversy with Virgil, the Irish bishop of Salzburg, who held, among other heresies, that there were other worlds than ours.
The missionary movement which until his day had been almost independent of control, largely carried on by schismatic Irish monks, was brought under the direction of Rome.
In Kerry, Ireland, he was a large landowner, and became a member of the Irish privy council (1903), and in 1906 he sat on the Royal Commission dealing with congested districts.
The Irish society of Molly Maguires seems to have been organized in 1843 in the barony of Farney, Co.
To the Ancient Order of Hibernians none might be admitted but persons of Irish birth or descent, who were Roman Catholics, and whose parents were Roman Catholics; but notwithstanding this requirement, the organization - being a secret society - was under the ban of the Catholic Church.
Gowen (1836-1889), president of the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, sent James McParlan, an Irish Catholic and a Pinkerton detective (who some thirty years later attracted attention in the investigation of the assassination of Governor Steunenberg of Idaho), to the mining region in 1873; he joined the order, lived among the "Molly Maguires" for more than two years, and even became secretary of the Shenandoah division, one of the most notoriously criminal lodges of the order.
To the north, west and south, a flat coastal belt, bordering the Irish Sea, with its inlets Morecambe Bay and Solway Firth, and broadest in the north, marks off the Lake District, while to the east the valleys of the Eden and the Lune divide it from the Pennine mountain system.
The skull is I There are no native names either in Teutonic or Celtic languages; such words as German Kaninchen or English cony are from the Latin cuniculus, while the Irish, Welsh and Gaelic are adaptations from English.
Mr Brailsford was the secretary of the show at Birmingham, and he had classes for pointers, English and Irish setters, retrievers and Clumber spaniels.
The abolition of the cropping of the ears of Great Danes, bull terriers, black and tan terriers, white English terriers, Irish terriers and toy terriers, in 1889 gained the approval of all humane lovers of dogs, and although attempts have been made to induce the club to modify the rule which prohibits the exhibition of cropped dogs, the practice has not been revived; it is declared, however, that the toy terriers and white English terriers have lost such smartness by the retention of the ears that they are becoming.
Most of the leading breeds have clubs or societies, which have been founded by admirers with a view to furthering the interests of their favourites; and such combinations as the Bulldog Club (incorporated), the London Bulldog Society, the British Bulldog Club, the Fox Terrier Club, the Association of Bloodhound Breeders - under whose management the first man-hunting trials were held, - the Bloodhound Hunt Club, the Collie Club, the Dachshund Club, the Dandie Dinmont Terrier Club, the English Setter Club, the Gamekeepers' Association of the United Kingdom, the International Gun Dog League, the Irish Terrier Club, the Irish Wolfhound Club, the St Bernard Club, the National Terrier Club, the Pomeranian Club, the Spaniel Club, the Scottish Terrier Club and the Toy Bulldog Club have done good work in keeping the claims of the breeds they represent before the dogowning public and encouraging the breeding of dogs to type.
The Irish wolfhound is now extinct, but appears to have been a powerful race heavier than the deerhound but similar to it in general characters.
Of the water spaniels the Irish breeds are best known.
The Irish setter is red without trace of black, but occasionally flecked with white.
On the murder of the 3rd earl (1333), his male kinsmen, who had a better right, by native Irish ideas, to the succession than his daughter, adopted Irish names and customs, and becoming virtually native chieftains succeeded in holding the bulk of the de Burgh territories.
The 4th earl (1601-1635) distinguished himself on the English side in O'Neill's rebellion and afterwards, and obtained the English earldom of St Albans in 1628, his son Ulick receiving further the Irish marquessate of Clanricarde (1646).
The Irish and American bishops he summoned to Rome to confer with him on the subjects of Home Rule and of "Americanism" respectively.
In 1730 William Morgan, an Irish student, visited the gaol and reported that there was a great opening for work among the prisoners.
In August 1747 Wesley paid his first visit to Ireland, where he had such success that he gave more than six years of his life to the country and crossed the Irish Channel forty-two times.
From 1657 to 1669 he was professor of theology at the College of the Propaganda, enjoyed the friendship of the historian, Pallavicini, and acted as representative of Irish ecclesiastical affairs at Rome.
The islanders were converted to Christianity in the 6th and 7th centuries by Irish missionaries, in commemoration of whose zeal several isles bear the name of Papa or "priest."
Of the 124,631, who in 1900 were foreign-born, Germans were greatly predominant (40,648, or 32-6%), with the Bohemians (13,599, or 10.9%) and Irish (13,120, or 10.6%) next in importance, the Bohemians being later comers than the Irish.
His active life, however, was mainly spent in Ireland, whither he took some troops to assist Oliver early in 1650, and he was one of the Irish representatives in the Little, or Nominated, Parliament of 1653.
In 1654 he was again in Ireland, and after making certain recommendations to his father, now lord prctector, with regard to the government of that country, hi became major-general of the forces in Ireland and a member of the Irish council of state, taking up his new duties in July 1655.
He moderated the lord-deputy's policy of deporting the Irish, and unlike him he paid some attention to the interests of the English settlers; moreover, again unlike Fleetwood, he appears to have held the scales evenly between the different Protestant sects, and his undoubted popularity in Ireland is attested by Clarendon.
When about sixteen years of age he was carried off by a band of Irish marauders.
The latter were possibly taking part in the raid of the Irish king Niall Noigiallach, who met with his end in.
Irish tradition represents the future apostle as tending the herds of a chieftain of the name of Miliucc (Milchu), near the mountain called Slemish in county Antrim, but Bury tries to show that the scene of his captivity was Connaught, perhaps in the neighbourhood of Croagh Patrick.
He fled, in all probability to the coast of Wicklow, and encountered a vessel which was engaged in the export of Irish wolf-dogs.
This piece, called in Irish the Faed Fiada or "Cry of the Deer," contains a number of remarkable grammatical forms, and the latest editors are of opinion that it may very well be genuine.
His importance in the history of Ireland and the Irish Church consists in the fact that he brought Ireland into touch with western Europe and more particularly with Rome, and that he introduced Latin into Ireland as the language of the Church.
Bury has shown that both Tirechan and Muirchu drew from written material which existed in part at any rate in Irish.
Three anonymous Latin lives were published by Colgan in his Trias Thaumaturga (Louvain, 1645), and there exists an 1 ith-century Irish life in three parts published by Whitley Stokes for the Rolls series (1887).
Lastly a life by an otherwise unknown Irish writer named Probus occurs in the Basel edition of Bede's works (1563) and was reprinted by Colgan.
The Welsh mines are chiefly in Flint, Cardigan and Montgomery shires; the Scottish in Dumfries, Lanark and Argyll; and the Irish in Wicklow, Waterford and Down.
About 2000 disciplined Irish soldiers had crossed the sea to assist him.
The basis of his work was a chronicle compiled by Marianus Scotus, an Irish recluse, who lived first at Fulda, afterwards at Mainz.
His speech in 1835 in support of the motion for inquiry into the Irish Church temporalities with a view to their partial appropriation for national purposes (for disestablishment was not then dreamed of as possible) contains much terse argument, and no doubt contributed to the fall of Peel and the formation of the Melbourne cabinet.
He protests against Peel's Income Tax Bill of 1842; against the Aberdeen Act 1843, as conferring undue power on church courts; against the perpetuation of diocesan courts for probate and administration; against Lord Stanley's absurd bill providing compensation for the destruction of fences to dispossessed Irish tenants; and against the Parliamentary Proceedings Bill, which proposed that all bills, except money bills, having reached a certain stage or having passed one House, should be continued to next session.
Pop. (1890) 44,654, (1900) 62,559, of whom 28,577 were foreign-born (7058 being Irish, 6999 French Canadians, 5131 English, 2465 German, 1683 English Canadian), and (1910 census) 85,892.
Mr Arch nevertheless retained sufficient popularity to be returned to parliament for north-west Norfolk in 1885; and although defeated next year owing to his advocacy of Irish Home Rule, he regained his seat in 1892, and held it in 1895, retiring in 1900.
After many years of labour and at a great expenditure of money the Great Western railway has constructed a fine breakwater and railway pier at Goodwick across the lower end of the bay, and an important passenger and goods traffic with Rosslare on the opposite Irish coast was inaugurated in 1906.
Short as it was, Chesterfield's Irish administration was of great service to his country, and is unquestionably that part of his political life which does him most honour.
The earldom of Dysart must not be confounded with that of Desart (Irish), created (barony 1733) in 1793, and held in the Cuffe family, who were originally of Creech St Michael, Somerset, the Irish branch dating from Queen Elizabeth's time.
He was made an Irish peer for his share in the defeat of the comte de Grasse on the 9th and 12th of April near Dominica.
It is caught on all parts of the British and Irish coasts, but the Dogger Bank, and Rockall, off the Outer Hebrides, have been specially noted for their codfisheries.
It appears to have been used by James Bradley, but for its practical development we are mainly indebted to Sir William Rowan Hamilton, who published an account of it in the Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 1846.
In 1783 Fitzgerald returned to Ireland, where his brother, the duke of Leinster, had procured his election to the Irish parliament as member for Athy.
French revolutionary doctrines had become ominously popular, and no one sympathized with them more warmly than Lord Edward Fitzgerald, who, fresh from the gallery of the Convention in Paris, returned to his seat in the Irish parliament and threw himself actively into the work of opposition.
As early as 1794 the government had information that placed Lord Edward under suspicion; but it was not till 1796 that he joined the United Irishmen, whose aim after the recall of Lord Fitzwilliam in 1795 was avowedly the establishment of an independent Irish republic. In May 1796 Theobald Wolfe Tone was in Paris endeavouring to obtain French assist ance for an insurrection in Ireland.
He was on intimate terms with apologists for assassination; there is some evidence that he favoured a project for the massacre of the Irish peers while in procession to the House of Lords for the trial of Lord Kingston in May 1798.
Sir Henry's actual words,which undoubtedly influenced the Irish vote, were that he "desired to see the effective management of Irish affairs in the hands of a representative Irish assembly.
But in spite of the fiasco of the Irish Councils Bill (1907), the struggles over education (Mr Birrell's bill of 1906 being dropped on account of the Lords' amendments), the rejection by the peers of the Plural Voting Abolition Bill (1906), and the failure (again due to the Lords) of the Scottish Small Holdings Bill and Valuation Bill (1907), which at the time made his premiership appear to be a period of bitter and unproductive debate, a good many reforming measures of some moment were carried.
Residents of Irish birth have decreased since 1851; those of Scottish birth have increased steadily, and roughly as the population.
Before the union in 1800 it returned two members to the Irish Parliament.
Owing to their gay and lively disposition the Burmese have been called " the Irish of the East," and like the Irish they are somewhat inclined to laziness.
By 1850 the Irish glass industry had been practically destroyed.
The Scottish chaplains in ordinary are on the same basis as those in England, but the Irish chaplains are attached to the household of the lord-lieutenant.
During a part at least of these long journeys the companion of Odoric was Friar James, an Irishman, as appears from a record in the public books of Udine, showing that shortly after Odoric's death a present of two marks was made to this Irish friar, Socio beati Fratris Odorici, amore Dei et Odorici.
As the proper form of address "my lord" is used not only to those members of the nobility to whom the title "Lord" is applicable, and to bishops, but also to all judges of the High Court in England, and of the Scottish and Irish Superior Courts, and to lord mayors and lord provosts.
His ardent zeal was sorely tried by Philip's cautious temperament; and Sir Thomas Stukeley's projected Irish expedition, which Sanders was to have accompanied with the blessings and assistance of the pope, was diverted to Morocco where Stukeley was killed at the battle of Al Kasr al Kebir in 1578.
Sanders, however, found his opportunity in the following year, when a force of Spaniards and Italians was despatched to Smerwick to assist James Fitzmaurice and his Geraldines in stirring up an Irish rebellion.
The Spaniards were, however, annihilated by Lord Grey in 1580, and after nearly two years of wandering in Irish woods and bogs Sanders died of cold and starvation in the spring of 1581.
These are the Schottenhof (once belonging to the "Scoti," or Irish Benedictines) and the MÃ¶lkerhof, adjoining the open space called the Freiung, each forming a little town of itself.
The legend reads that in the year 600 Dymphna, an Irish princess, was executed here by her father, and in consequence of certain miracles she had effected she was canonized and made the patron saint of the insane.
The Celtic heroic saga in the British islands may be divided into the two principal groups of Gaelic (Irish) and Brython (Welsh), the first, excluding the purely mythological, into the Ultonian (connected with Ulster) and the Ossianic. The Ultonianis grouped round the names of King Conchobar and the heroCuchulainn, " the Irish Achilles," the defender of Ulster against all Ireland, regarded by some as a solar hero.
Pop. (1890) 44,007; (I goo) 56,383, of whom 13,470 were foreign-born, including 3696 Germans, 2458 Irish, 1661 Italians and 1165 Welsh; (1910, census) 74,419.
Of the foreign-born, 35,501 were Irish, 31,533 were French-Canadians and 22,832 were English.
A considerable proportion of the Irish and the French Canadians send their children to the Roman Catholic parochial schools.
From about 1845 to 1880 most of the immigrants were Irish, but since 1880 the French-Canadians have constituted the chief element.
In the same session Gladstone spoke on the question of bribery and corruption at Liverpool, and on the temporalities of the Irish Church.
On the 30th of March Lord John Russell moved a resolution in favour of an inquiry into the temporalities of the Irish Church, with the intention of applying the surplus to general education without distinction of religious creed.
At the opening of the session of 1845 the government, in pursuance of a promise made to Irish members that they would deal with the question of academical education in Ireland, proposed to establish non-sectarian colleges in that country and to make a large addition to the grant to the Roman Catholic College of Maynooth.
The Corn Bill passed the House of Lords on the 28th of June 1846, and on the same day the government were beaten in the House of Commons on an Irish Coercion Bill.
On the 16th of March, in a debate raised by an Irish member, he declared that in his judgment the Irish Church, as a State Church, must cease to exist.
Immediately afterwards he embodied this opinion in a series of resolutions concerning the Irish Church Establishment, and carried them against the government.
Encouraged by this triumph, he brought in a Bill to prevent any fresh appointments in the Irish Church, and this also passed the Commons, though it was defeated in the Lords.
A single issue was placed before the country - Was the Irish Church to be, or not to be, disestablished?
He chose this moment for publishing a Chapter of Autobiography, in which lie explained and justified his change of opinion with regard to the Irish Church.
The great task to which the new prime minister immediately addressed himself was the disestablishment of the Irish Church.
The queen wrote to Archbishop Tait that the subject of the Irish Church " made her very anxious," but that Mr Gladstone " showed the most conciliatory disposition."
In the session of 1870 Gladstone's principal work was the Irish Land Act, of which the object was to protect the tenant against eviction as long as he paid his rent, and to secure to him the value of any improvements which his own industry had made.
In 1873 Gladstone set his hand to the third of three great Irish reforms to which he had pledged himself.
In 1865, in a debate on the condition of the Irish Church Establishment, he declared that the Irish Church, as it then stood, was in a false position, inasmuch as it ministered only to one-eighth or oneninth of the whole community.
Gladstone alienated considerable masses of English opinion by his efforts to reform the tenure of Irish land, and provoked the Irish people by his attempts to establish social order and to repress crime.
A new Crimes Act, courageously administered by Lord Spencer and Sir George Trevelyan, abolished exceptional crime in Ireland, but completed the breach between the British government and the Irish party in parliament.
Gladstone had for some time been convinced of the expediency of conceding Home Rule to Ireland in the event of the Irish constituencies giving unequivocal proof that they desired it.
On the 8th of April Gladstone brought in his bill for establishing Home Rule, and eight days later the bill for buying out the Irish landlords.
Gladstone was implored to withdraw them, or substitute a resolution in favour of Irish autonomy; but he resolved to press at least the Home Rule Bill to a second reading.
The general election resulted o in a majority of forty for Home Rule, heterogeneously composed of Liberals, Labour members and Irish.
Previous to the Union Ballyshannon returned two members to the Irish parliament and it was incorporated by James I.
Nineteen of these, comprising 22,180 acres, were to have been allotted to the church, and forty-two, amounting to 55,620 acres, to English and Scottish colonists, servitors, native Irish and four corporate towns - the swordsmen to be dispersed throughout Connaught and Munster.
Armagh, nor were the Irish swordsmen or soldiers transplanted into Connaught and Munster from this and some other counties.
Of military antiquities the most remarkable are Tyrone's ditches, near Poyntzpass; and the pass of Moyry, the entry into the county from the south, which was fiercely contested by the Irish in 1595 and 1600, is defended by a castle.
Ardglass was a royal burgh and sent a representative to the Irish parliament.
Other monthlies are the Indian Magazine (1871); the Irish Monthly (Dublin, 1873); the Gaelic Journal (Dublin, 1882); the African Review (1892) and the Empire Review (1900).
Pop. (1890) 27,601; (1900) 42,728, of whom 7127 were foreign-born (3227 being German, 1104 English, and b41 Irish); (1910) 69,067.
In spite of strong personal opinions to the contrary, he accepted the Triennial Act (1694), the vote reducing the army to io,000 men (1697), the vote disbanding his favourite Dutch Guards (1699) and even (November 1699) a bill re- scinding the grants of forfeited Irish estates, which he had made to his favourites.
But his counsel was neglected for that of ignorant refugees and Irish priests.
He accompanied the prince of Orange to England in 1688, and during the Irish campaign he took part in the siege of Carrickfergus and the battle of the Boyne, and was wounded at the battle of Limerick.
The river Derwent enters the lake from the south and leaves it on the north, draining it through Bassenthwaite lake, to the Irish Sea.
The shipping traffic is chiefly in the coasting and Irish trade.
Ennis was incorporated in 1612, and returned two members to the Irish parliament until the Union, and thereafter one to the Imperial parliament until 1885.
The famous head-cutting challenge, so admirably told in Syr Gawayne and the Grene Knighte, was originally connected with the Irish champion.
He also published anonymously, in 1745, the lives of English, Scotch and Irish saints, under the title of Britannia Sancta, an interesting work which has, however, been superseded by that of Alban Butler.
The duties of the secretary of the northern department of Europe comprised dealings with the northern powers of Europe, while the secretary of the southern department of Europe communicated with France, Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, Italy, Turkey, and also looked after Irish and colonial business, and carried out the work of the Home Office.
Down to 1853 the figures include all emigrants from British ports; after 1853 emigrants of British and Irish origin only.
In 1846 came the Irish potato famine, and an enormous emigration began, followed by a very large German emigration from similar causes.
At first the Irish and Germans were most prominent.
Thus, for Great Britain and Ireland, while the emigration of persons of British and Irish origin was, in 1905, 262,077, the immigration of persons of the same category was 122,712, leaving a net emigration of only 139,365.
It resembles somewhat the movement of Irish labourers into Great Britain at harvest time.
Emigration, by carrying off the young men and women, also reduced the Irish marriage and birth-rates, which were almost the lowest in Europe.
But his example and his zeal profoundly influenced for good the Irish poor forming the majority of his flock; and the "League of the Cross" which he founded, and which held annual demonstrations at the Crystal Palace, numbered nearly 30,000 members in London alone in 1874.
His mother was Madeline Caroline Frances Eden, daughter of Sir Guy Campbell, 1st baronet; and through her he was great grandson of Lord Edward Fitzgerald, the Irish rebel.
He left the army in 1887, married Sibell Mary, daughter of the gth Earl of Scarbrough, widow of Earl Grosvenor, mother of the 2nd Duke of Westminster, and became private secretary to Mr. Balfour, at the time Irish Secretary, a position which he held till 1892.
The cathedral, dedicated to San Cataldo, an Irish bishop, dating from the 11th century, has externally some remains of Saracenic Gothic; internally it has been completely modernized, and the shrine of the patron saint has been termed "an orgy of rococo."
This force, together with some ill-armed Irish levies commanded by Sir Thomas Fitzgerald, landed in Lancashire on the 4th of June.
The invaders met with little encouragement from the populace, who were not well disposed towards a monarch whom it was sought to impose upon them by the aid of Irish and German mercenaries.
Other educational establishments are Queen's University, replacing the old Queen's College (1849) under the Irish Universities Act 1908; the Presbyterian and the Methodist Colleges, occupying neighbouring sites close to the extensive botanical gardens, the Royal Academical Institution, and the Municipal Technical Institute.
The battle in 1408, which was fought along the base of the cliffs here between the Savages of the Ards and the Irish, is described in Sir Samuel Ferguson's "Hibernian Nights Entertainment."
After much unreasoning vituperation the Irish Catholic civil governor, who had arrived amidst the acclamations of all, left his post in disgust.
The Maltese relied on the Roman Canon Law, the English on the common law of England, Scots or Irish had nothing but the English law to fall back upon.
Of the total population in 1900, 18,921 were foreign-born, including 6991 French-Canadians, 5650 Irish, 1602 Germans and 1118 English; and 33,626 were of foreign parentage (both parents foreign-born), including 12,370 of Irish and 11,050 of French-Canadian parentage.
In September he surprised and routed Montrose at Philiphaugh near Selkirk, and was rewarded by the committee of estates with a present of -50,000 merks and a gold chain; but his victory was marred by the butchery of the captured Irish - men, women and children - to whom quarter had been given.
In politics Temple was a follower of Mr Gladstone, and he approved of the disestablishment of the Irish Church.
Here may be mentioned the gigantic fossil deer commonly known as the Irish elk, which is perhaps a giant type of fallow-deer, and if so should be known as Cervus (Dama) giganteus.
On the contrary, the North Sea, the British fringing seas (English Channel, Irish Sea and Minch), and the Gulf of St Lawrence cross the main lines of dislocation.
In 1869 and 1870 this work was on the two sides of the Isthmus of Panama, which hindered the extended to the Irish Sea and Bay of Biscay in H.M.S.
The church of St James - also called Schottenkirche - a plain Romanesque basilica of the 12th century, derives its name from the monastery of Irish Benedictines ("Scoti") to which it was attached; the principal doorway is covered with very singular grotesque carvings.
Ireland contributed the largest proportion of the foreign-born (29.5%), although since 1875 the proportion of Irish in the total population has considerably fallen.
After the Irish the leading foreign elements are Canadian English (18.7%), Canadian French (r 5.8%) and English (9.7%), these four constituting threefourths of the foreign population.
There were also an Irish and a Scots college and houses of English Benedictines and Franciscans.
In many parts the Benedictine Rule met the much stricter Irish Rule of Columbanus, introduced by the Irish missionaries on the continent, and after brief periods, first of conflict and then of fusion, it gradually absorbed and supplanted it; thus during the 8th century it became, out of Ireland and other purely Celtic lands, the only rule and form of monastic life throughout western Europe, - so completely that Charlemagne once asked if there ever had been any other monastic rule.
In 795 (February 1-August 1) Irish hermits had visited Iceland; on their return they reported the marvel of the perpetual day at midsummer in "Thule," where there was then "no darkness to hinder one from doing what one would."
Relics of this, and perhaps of other Irish religious settlements, were found by the permanent Scandinavian colonists of Iceland in the 9th century.
Of the old Egyptian freshwater canal Dicuil learnt from one "brother Fidelis," probably another Irish monk, who, on his way to Jerusalem, sailed along the "Nile" into the Red Sea-passing on his way the "Barns of Joseph" or Pyramids of Giza, which are well described.
Dicuil's knowledge of the islands north and west of Britain is evidently intimate; his references to Irish exploration and colonization, and to (more recent) Scandinavian devastation of the same, as far as the Faeroes, are noteworthy, like his notice of the elephant sent by Harun al-Rashid (in 801) to Charles the Great, the most curious item in a political and diplomatic intercourse of high importance.
Though certainly Irish by birth, it has been conjectured (from his references to Sedulius and the caliph's elephant) that he was in later life in an Irish monastery in the Frankish empire.
He was the only bishop who voted for the disestablishment of the Irish Church, though a scheme of concurrent endowment would have been much more agreeable to him.
Dungarvan was incorporated in the 15th century, was represented by two members in the Irish parliament until the Union, and returned a member to the Imperial parliament until 1885.
There is also a column for the entry of persons speaking the Irish language only or able to speak both that and English.
P. Stanley had been named, but rejected by the Irish Church, and, according to Bishop Wilberforce's correspondence, Trench's appointment was favoured neither by the prime minister nor the lord-lieutenant.
Trench could do nothing to prevent the disestablishment of the Irish Church, though he resisted with dignity.
Of the foreign-born, 18,385 were English-Canadians, 16,686 Germans, 12,737 Swedes, 10,481 natives of England, 9891 Norwegians and 7262 Irish.
He was zealous for Irish repeal, once held a place in the "Directory of the Friends of Ireland," and contributed liberally to its support.
Irish statute law, like that of England and Scotland, contains numerous provisions for arbitration under special enactments.
Of the total foreign-born population of 88,508, 19,788 were Norwegians, 17,873 Germans, 12,365 Russians, 59 06 English Canadians, 5038 Danes, 3862 English and 3298 Irish.
He was arrested on the spot, and when his lodgings were searched a quantity of powder and shot was found, with the rules of a secret society, called" Young England,"whose members were pledged to meet," carrying swords and pistols and wearing crape masks."These discoveries raised the surmise that Oxford was the tool of a widespread Chartist conspiracy - or, as the Irish pretended, of a conspiracy of Orangemen to set the duke of Cumberland on the throne; and while these delusions were fresh, they threw well-disposed persons into a paroxysm of loyalty.
In 1869 an Irish lad, O'Connor, was sentenced to eighteen months' imprisonment and a whipping for presenting a pistol at the queen, with a petition, in St James's Park; but this time it was the queen herself who privately remitted the corporal punishment, and she even pushed clemency to the length of sending her aggressor to Australia at her own expense.
There is no doubt that the absence of a royal residence in Ireland was felt as a slur upon the Irish people in certain circles.
The queen must say that she cannot view without alarm possible consequences of another year of agitation on the Irish Church, and she would ask the archbishop seriously to consider, in case the concessions to which the government may agree should not go so far as he may himself wish, whether the postponement of the settlement for another year may not be likely to result in worse rather than in better terms for the Church.
Entirely on her own initiative, and moved by admiration for the fine achievements of "her brave Irish" during the war, the queen announced her intention of paying a long visit to Dublin; and there, accordingly, she went for the month of April 1900, staying in the Viceregal Lodge, receiving many of the leaders of Irish society, inspecting some 50,000 school children from all parts of Ireland, and taking many a drive amid the charming scenery of the neighbourhood of Dublin.
She went even further than this attempt to conciliate Irish feeling, and to show her recognition of the gallantry of the Irish soldiers she issued an order for them to wear the shamrock on St Patrick's Day, and for a new regiment of Irish Guards to be constituted.
During his early years the Irish Church was reformed by Gildas and Finian of Clonard, and numerous monasteries were founded which made Ireland renowned as a centre of learning.
Several Irish poems are ascribed to Columba, but they are manifestly compositions of a later age.
In April of that year Gladstone proposed his resolutions with reference to the Irish Church on which the bill for its disestablishment was subsequently based.
At the election of November 1868 Palmer was again returned for Richmond, and Gladstone offered him the office of lord chancellor or the office of a lord justice with a peerage; both offers were declined by Palmer, and he assumed a position of independent opposition to the measure relative to the Irish Church.
In 1870 he gave a qualified support to Gladstone's first Irish Land Act, and in the same year he supported Forster's Education Act.
So too, in his English in Ireland (1872-1874), which was written to show the futility of attempts to conciliate the Irish, he aggravates all that can be said against the Irish, touches too lightly on English atrocities,and writes unjustly of the influence of Roman Catholicism.
His earlier study of Irish history afforded him suggestions for a historical novel entitled The Two Chiefs of Dunboy (1889).
Of the total population, 143,306 were of foreign parentage on both sides, 56,404 German, 30,261 Irish, 13,068 Italian, 8951 English and 8J31 Russian.
He was deeply interested in politics, was a follower of Mr Gladstone, and approved the Home Rule Bill of 1886, but objected to the later proposal to retain the Irish members at Westminster.
The so-called Island Magee is a peninsula separating Larne Lough from the Irish Channel.
Unlike most Irish counties, Antrim owes its principal features to rocks of Mesozoic and Cainozoic age.
In 1747-1748 he was again with the duke of Cumberland in the Low Countries, and in 1749 was transferred to the cavalry, receiving the colonelcy of the 7th (3rd) Irish Horse (Carabineers).
With this office he combined those of first secretary to his father, the lord-lieutenant of Ireland, and Irish secretary of war, and a seat in each of the two Houses of Commons at Westminster and Dublin, winning at the same time the repute of being "the gayest man in Ireland except his father."
In 1755 he was promoted major-general, took an English command, and vacated his Irish offices.
Cornwall is at this time in subjection to the king of Ireland, Gormond, and every third year must pay tribute; the Irish champion, Morolt, brother to the queen, arrives to claim his toll of thirty youths and as many maidens.
The name of Iseult's father, Gormond, is distinctly Scandinavian; she, herself, is always noted for her golden hair, and it is quite a misrendering of the tradition to speak of her as a dark-haired Irish princess.
Here Churchyard enriched himself at the expense, it is to be feared, of the unhappy Irish; but in 1552 he was in England again, trying vainly to secure a fortune by marriage with a rich widow.
He was Irish representative peer from 1845, president of the British Association in 1843, president of the Royal Society from 1849 to 1854, and chancellor of the university of Dublin from 1862.
Though a zealous supporter of repeal, he endeavoured to supplant O'Connell as the leader of the party, an attempt which aroused against him the popular antipathy of the Irish.
Pop. (1890), 53,230; (igoo), 79, 8 5 o, of whom 23,758 were foreign-born (including 8076 Irish, 2700 Germans, 2260 Russians, 1952 Italians, 1714 Swedes, 1634 English and 1309 English Canadians); (1910 census) 98,915.
Of the total population in 1900, 43,872 were of foreign parentage (both parents foreign-born), and of these 18,410 were of Irish parentage.
Pop. (1880) 18,472; (1890) 27,412; (1900) 37,175, of whom 8530 were foreign-born (including 2403 French Canadians, 1651 English Canadians and 2144 Irish), and 15,077 were of foreign parentage (both parents foreign-born); (1910 census) 44,115.
While Latin was declining in Gaul, even Greek was not unknown in Ireland, and the Irish passion for travel led to the spread of Greek learning in the west of Europe.
The Irish monk Columban, shortly before his death in 615, founded in the neighbourhood of Pavia the monastery of Bobbio, to be the repository of many Latin MSS.
Irish brigades served on both sides and shot each other to pieces as at Fredericksburg.
Meagher, the leader of the "Irish brigade" at Fredericksburg, was the young orator of the "United Irishmen."
Of Jerome's revision we possess at least 8000 MSS., of which the earliest may be divided (in the gospels at all events) into groups connected with various countries; the most important are the Northumbrian, Irish, Anglo-Irish and Spanish, but the first named might also be called the Italian, as it represents the text of good MSS.
The Unionists gained a hundred seats over their previous numbers, but the constitutional issue undoubtedly helped the government to win a victory, depending indeed solely on the votes of the Labour members and Irish Nationalists, which a year before had seemed improbable.
There was no majority in the Commons for the budget as such, since the Irish Nationalists only supported it as an engine for destroying the veto of the Lords and thus preparing the way for Irish Home Rule.
This, too, is certain; the fight for precedence at Arthur's board may be paralleled by accounts of precisely similar quarrels in early Irish literature, e.g.
In Ireland the Hibernian Bible Society (originally known as the Dublin Bible Society) was founded in 1806, and with it were federated kindred Irish associations formed at Cork, Belfast, Derry, &c. The Hibernian Bible Society, whose centenary was celebrated in 1906, had then issued a total of 5,713,837 copies.
The numbers of the Society are not accurately known, but are estimated at about 20,000, in all parts of the world; and of these the English, Irish and American Jesuits are under 3000.
The take of 1898 consisted chiefly of cod, haddock, lobsters, mackerel, alewives, pollock and hake, but was valued at only $48,987, which was a decrease of 67% from that of 1889; in 1905 the total take was valued at $51,944, of which $32,575 was the value of lobsters and $8166 was the value of fresh cod-the only other items valued at more than $loon were soft clams ($2770), Irish moss ($2400), alewives, fresh and salted ($1220), and haddock ($1048).
Two Skraeling children were captured here and the expedition divided, Thorfinn making Greenland and Ericsfiord in safety with his own vessel, while the other was lost in the Irish Sea, only half the crew escaping to Ireland in the ship's boat.
British commerce therefore suffered severely, even as far off as the Irish coasts, where it was found necessary to supply convoy to the Belfast linen trade.
It lies at the head of a bay of the Irish Sea, to which it gives name, about midway on the eastern coast of the island, 334 m.
Dublin lies on the great central limestone district which stretches across the island from the Irish Sea to the Atlantic Ocean, and occupies both banks of the river Liffey.
There is a notable collection of early Irish manuscripts, including the magnificently ornamented Book of Kells, containing the gospels.
The pecuniary advantages attaching to scholarship (20 Irish, free commons, and rooms at half the charge made to other students) last for four years.
Between Trinity College and St Stephen's Green, a large group of buildings includes the Royal Dublin Society, founded in 1683 to develop agriculture and the useful arts, with a library and gallery of statuary; the Science and Arts Museum, and the National Library, the former with a noteworthy collection of Irish antiquities; the Museum of Natural History, with a splendid collection of Irish fauna; and the National Gallery of Ireland, founded in 1853.
Educational foundations include the Royal College of Physicians, of Surgeons and of Science; the Royal Irish Academy, with an unequalled collection of national antiquities, including manuscripts and a library; and the Royal Hibernian Academy of painting, sculpture and architecture.
Northward lies Clondalkin, with its round tower, marking the site of the important early see of Cluain Dolcain; Glasnevin, with famous botanical gardens; Finglas, with a ruined church of early foundation, and an Irish cross; and Clontarf, a favoured resort on the bay, with its modern castle and many residences of the wealthy classes in the vicinity.
It is also the seat of the Irish courts of law and equity.
Besides the usual duties of local government, and the connexion with the port and docks boards already explained, there should be noticed the connexion of the corporation with such bodies as those controlling the city technical schools, the Royal Irish Academy of Music, and the gallery of modern art.
The Dublin metropolitan police is a force peculiar to the city, the remainder of Ireland being protected civilly by the Royal Irish Constabulary.
Before the Irish Parliament Houses were erected the parliament met in the school building.
The Irish, however, won the battle, but the Danes reoccupied the city.
Constant struggles with the Irish resulted in intermissions of the Danish supremacy from 1052 to 1072, at various intervals between 1075 and r r 18 and from 1124 to 1136.
A fresh charter was granted in 1207 by King John to the inhabitants of Dublin, who had not yet made their peace with the neighbourhood, but, like the settlers in other towns, were at constant feud with the native Irish; so that two years after the date of this charter, whilst the citizens of Dublin were celebrating Easter at Cullenswood, they were set upon by the Irish of the neighbouring mountains, and 500 of them killed.
On each succeeding anniversary of that day, with the prevalent desire of perpetuating a feud, the citizens marched out to Cullenswood with banners displayed - "a terror to the native Irish."
In 1216 Magna Carta, a copy of which is to be found in the Red Book of the Exchequer, was granted to the Irish by Henry III.
The inroad of Bruce had been countenanced by the native Irish ecclesiastics, whose sentiments were recorded in a statement addressed to Pope John XXII.
At the outbreak of civil war in 1641, a conspiracy of the Irish septs, under the direction of Roger Moore, to seize Dublin Castle, was disclosed by one Owen Connolly on the eve of the day on which the attempt was to have been made, and the city was thus preserved for the king's party; but the Irish outside began an indiscriminate extermination of the Protestant population.
In 1646 Dublin was besieged, but without success, by the Irish army of 16,000 foot and 1600 horse, under the guidance of the Pope's nuncio Rinuccini and others, banded together "to restore and establish in Ireland the exercise of the Roman Catholic religion."
The city had been put in an efficient state of defence by the marquess of Ormonde, then lord-lieutenant; but in the following year, to prevent it falling into the hands of the Irish, he surrendered it on conditions to Colonel Jones, commander of the Parliamentary forces.
Irish goats often yield a quantity of milk, but the quality is poor.
Since the Irish Church Act 1869 the Church of Ireland has been practically in the same position as the Church of England in colonies which have representative government.
They are the chief factor in surviving Irish superstition.
The Jan are now a subterranean commonwealth, now they reside in ruinous places, like the fairies in the Irish raths.
After Mr Gladstone's brief Home Rule Ministry in 1886 he entered Lord Salisbury's next Cabinet again as Irish secretary, making way for Lord Randolph Churchill as leader of the House; but troubles with his eyesight compelled him to resign in 1887, and meanwhile Mr Goschen replaced Lord Randolph as chancellor of the exchequer.
The entry of the Irish began on a great scale after 1840, and in 1850 they formed nearly half of all the foreign-born.
Germans, Irish, British, Canadians, Scandinavians, Slays and Italians were the leading elements in 1900.
So also the immigration of French Canadians and of Irish explains the fact that in every state of one-time Puritan New England the Roman Catholics were a majority over Protestants and all other churches.
The statement that he was created earl of Ulster, and that he was thus "the first Englishman dignified with an Irish title of honour," is equally devoid of foundation.
The Irish Church did not know them; and in Spain the council of Toledo (400) makes no mention either of the office or of the order.
English, Irish and Scots and their descendants form the bulk of the population of Ontario, French-Canadians of Quebec, Scots of Nova Scotia, the Irish of a large proportion of New Brunswick.
Maildulphus, a Scottish or Irish monk, who came into England about 635, built a hermitage near the site of the modern Malmesbury (Maildulphi-urbs, Maldelmesburh, Malmesbiri) and gathered disciples round him, thus forming the nucleus of the later abbey of which Aldhelm his pupil became the first abbot.
The tower resembles similar constructions found beside Irish churches of the 7th and 8th centuries and has walls 3 ft.
William Hamilton Maxwell (1792-1850), the Irish novelist, wrote, in addition to several novels, a Life of the Duke of Wellington (1839-1841 and again 1883), and a History of the Irish Rebellion in 1798 (1845 and 1891).
Ruins are also seen of a Franciscan foundation attributed to the 13th century; it was a celebrated seat of learning and an extant memorial of the work of its monks is the Book of Ballymote (c. 1391) in the possession of the Royal Irish Academy, a miscellaneous collection in prose and verse of historical, genealogical and romantic writings.
In 1648, when Sir William Batten went over to Holland with a portion of his squadron, Ayscue's influence kept a large part of the fleet loyal to the Parliament, and in reward for this service he was appointed the following year admiral of the Irish Seas.
Numerous parallels exist between the Arthurian and early Irish heroic cycles, notably the Fenian or Ossianic. This Fenian cycle is very closely connected with the Tuatha de Danaan, the Celtic deities of vegetation and increase; recent research has shown that two notable features of the Arthurian story, the Round Table and the Grail, can be most reasonably accounted for as survivals of this Nature worship, and were probably parts of the legend from the first.
Of the foreign-born in 1900 6400 were English-Canadians, 5542 were Irish, 1321 were English, 610 were French-Canadians, 590 were Italians, 576 were Scotch and 556 were Swedish.
During the Roman occupation of Britain, Irish pirates seem to have been an intermittent nuisance, and Irish emigrants may have settled occasionally in Wales; the best attested emigration is that of the Scots into Caledonia.
In the civil wars of 1641 the place was besieged by O'Neal and the Northern Irish forces; but it was gallantly defended by Sir Henry Tichbourne, and after a long blockade was relieved by the Marquess of Ormond.
Before 1885 it returned one member, and before the Union in 1800 it returned four members to the Irish parliament.
Its proximity to Dublin, the seat of government and of the Irish parliament, in which the primates were such prominent figures, induced them to prefer it to Ardmacha inter Hibernicos.
The handsome Roman Catholic cathedral for the diocese of Raphoe occupies a commanding site, and cost a large sum, as it contains carving from Rome, glass from Munich and a pulpit of Irish and Carrara marble.
Before reaching full age he was returned to the Irish parliament by the family borough of Trim.
In 1806 he was elected M.P. for Rye, in order to defend his brother, the governorgeneral, in the House, and in the following year he was Irish secretary for a few months.
After the battle of Corunna, Wellesley, who had in the meantime resumed his duties as Irish secretary, returned to the Peninsula as chief in command.
In early life the archbishop was very intimate with Gilbert Burnet, then bishop of Salisbury, and in later life he was a prominent figure in Irish politics.
It was brought into prosperity by Richard Boyle, first earl of Cork, and was granted a charter in 1613; but was partly demolished on the occasion of a fight between the English and Irish in 1641.
It returned two members to the Irish parliament until the union.
When Wentworth was made lord deputy of Ireland, Radcliffe, in January 1633, preceded him to that country, and having been made a member of the Irish privy council he was trusted by the deputy in the fullest possible way, his advice being of the greatest service.
Of the foreignborn population 36,720 were German, the other large elements in their order of importance being Polish, Canadian, Irish, the British (other than Irish).
In 1825 a public company was formed and incorporated under the name of the British, Irish and Colonial Silk Company, with a capital of 1,000,000, principally with the view of introducing sericulture into Ireland, but it was a complete failure, and the rearing of the silkworm cannot be said ever to have become a branch of British industry.
The decrease of population and the number of emigrants are slightly below the average of the Irish counties.
In the Irish parliament two members were returned for the county, and two for the borough of Castlebar, but at the union Castlebar was disfranchised.
The provisions of these enactments have been applied with necessary modifications to municipal and other local government elections in Ireland by orders of the Irish Local Government Board made under powers conferred by the Local Government (Ireland) Act 1898.
Naas returned two members to the Irish parliament from 1559 until the union in 1800.
After about 350, barbarian assaults, not only of Saxons but also of Irish (Scoti) and Picts, became commoner .and more terrible.
Most probably it was introduced by the Irish missionaries who evangelized the north of England, though Welsh influence is scarcely impossible.
The debates on the Crimes Bill and the Irish Land Bill quickly undeceived them, and the steady and even remorseless vigour with which the government of Ireland was conducted speedily convinced the House of Commons and the country that Mr. Balfour was in his right place as chief secretary.
Mr Balfour's work in this office covered one of the most turbulent and most exciting periods in modern parliamentary history and Irish administration.
The disclosures before the Parnell Commission, the O'Shea divorce proceedings, the downfall of Mr Parnell and the disruption of the Irish party, assisted him in his task; but the fact remains that by persistent courage and undeviating thoroughness he reduced crime in Ireland to a vanishing point.
The two chief items of the ministerial parliamentary programme were the extension of the new Education Act to London and Mr Wyndham's Irish Land Purchase Act, by which the British exchequer should advance the capital for enabling the tenants in Ireland to buy out the landlords.
Though the Scottish Churches Bill, the Unemployed Bill and the Aliens Bill were passed, a complete fiasco occurred over the redistribution proposals, which pleased nobody and had to be withdrawn owing to a blunder as to procedure; and though on the 17th of July a meeting of the party at the foreign office resulted in verbal assurances of loyalty, only two days later the government was caught in a minority of four on the estimates for the Irish Land Commission.
They won back over a hundred seats, returning 273 strong, but were still in a minority, the Liberals numbering 275, Labour members 40, and Irish Nationalists 82.
He then became vice-rector, and afterwards rector, of the Irish National College in Rome; and during the Mazzini revolution of 1848 he was rector of the Urban College, saving the property under the protection of the American flag.
When the Irish university was started, with Newman, appointed by Cullen, at its head, the scheme was wrecked by the personal opposition to the archbishop of Dublin.
He was made cardinal in 1866, being the first Irish cardinal.
The Britons and Irish, whose remoteness made them free from restriction, developed still more decided individuality.
As the result of the missions sent to England by him and his successors there arose a church which, in spite of certain Irish elements, was and remained Roman in origin, and, above all, spirit and tendency.
In Rome he founded the splendid College of the Jesuits; and he patronized the Collegium Germanicum of St Ignatius; while, at the same time, he found means for the endowment of English and Irish colleges.
Though this factor was perhaps not prominent in the case of Holland (1853) or Scotland (1878) it was Irish immigration which made it feasible in England (1850).
The famines of the 'forties, with their subsequent political and economic difficulties, transferred to America millions of the Irish, whose genius for organization in politics has not fallen short of their zeal for religion.
It used to be sold largely in the Irish trade as well as in the English home trade, but it has been supplanted a good deal by softer finishes.
Carlow to a minor post (1839) in the Irish ordnance survey, thence (1842) to the English survey, attending mechanics' institute lectures at Preston in Lancashire.