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iranian

iranian

iranian Sentence Examples

  • This ocean, already diminished in area, retreated after Oligocene times from the Iranian plateau, Turkestan, Asia Minor and the region of the north-west Alps.

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  • If, in the Gnostic systems, these become daemonic or semi-daemonic forces, this points to the fact that a stronger monotheistic religion (the Iranian) had gained the upper hand over the Babylonian, and had degraded its gods to daemons.

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  • So far as we can see, on the other hand, Basilides appears actually to represent a further development of Iranian dualism, which later produced the religious system of Mani.

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  • The former comprised several dynasties of mixed Turki and Iranian race, but was wanting in coherency.

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  • The inhabitants of the Kura valley consist principally of Iranian Tates and Talyshes, of Armenians and Lesghians, with Russians, Jews and Arabs.

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  • The Caucasian races (except the Gregorians), together with the Turks and Tatars, are Mussulmans of the Sunnite sect (2,021,300), and the Iranian races mostly Mussulmans of the Shiite sect (884, too).

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  • It was inhabited by an Iranian tribe, the Parthava of the inscriptions of Darius; the correct Greek form is HapOvaioc. Parthia became a province of the Achaemenian and then of the Macedonian Empire.

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  • When about 255 B.C. Diodotus had made himself king of Bactria and tried to expand his dominions, the chieftain of a tribe of Iranian nomads (Dahan Scyths) east of the Caspian, the Parni or Aparni, who bore the Persian name Arsaces, fled before him into Parthia.

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  • " Parthians," a term transferred by Firdousi to the heroes of the old Iranian legend.

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  • On entering *The fact that the Mitannians venerated Varuna, Indra, and the Asvins is important as showing that Iranian and Indian Aryans had not yet separated as late as 1400 B.C.

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  • Even Iranian kings in the last century B.C. found pleasure in composing, or listening to, Greek tragedies, and Herod the Great kept Greek men of letters beside him and had spasmodic ambitions to make his mark as an orator or author (Nicol.

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  • Iranian troops seem to have been employed on a large scale by the earlier Seleucids.

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  • Already in the later Avesta he has become a half-mythical figure, the last in the series of heroes of east Iranian legend, in the arrangement of which series priestly influence is unmistakably evident.

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  • His doctrine was rooted in the old Iranian - or Aryan - folk-religion, of which we can only form an approximate representation by comparison with the religion of the Veda.

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  • The newly discovered Hittite inscriptions have now thrown a welcome ray of light on the primitive Iranian creed (Ed.

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  • In these inscriptions Mitra, Varuna, Indra and Nasatya are mentioned as deities of the Iranian kings of Mitani at the beginning of the 14th century - all of them names with which we are familiar from the Indian pantheon.

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  • Other powers of light, such as Mitra the god of day (Iranian Mithra), survived unforgotten in popular belief till the later system incorporated them in the angelic body.

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  • Zoroaster's teachings show him to have been a man of a highly speculative turn, faithful, however, with all his originality, to the Iranian national character.

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  • According to later legend (Vd., 2, I), Ormazd at first wished to entrust this task to Yima (Jemshid), the ideal of an Iranian king.

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  • We find in them the same beauties and the same defects that we observe in the production of the Iranian authors.

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  • In the Avesta, after the separation of the Iranian stock from the Hindu and the rise of Zoroastrianism, which elevated Ormazd to the summit of the Persian theological system, his role was more distinct, though less important; between Ormazd, who reigned in eternal brightness, and Ahriman, whose realm was eternal darkness, he occupied an intermediate position as the greatest of the yazatas, beings created by Ormazd to aid in the destruction of evil and the administration of the world.

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  • Owing to Semitic influence every Persian god had in Roman times come to possess a twofold significance - astrological and natural, Semitic and Iranian - the earlier and deeper Iranian significance being imparted by the clergy to the few intelligent elect, the more attractive and :superficial Chaldaean symbolism being presented to the multitude.

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  • Presumably, therefore, the Scyths also spoke an Iranian dialect.

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  • But of the Scythic words preserved by Herodotus some are Iranian, others, especially the names of deities, have found no satisfactory explanation in any Indo-European language.

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  • Nevertheless, the general opinion has been that the Scyths were Iranian.

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  • The settled Scythians would be the remains of this Iranian population, or the different tribes of them may have been connected with their neighbours beyond Scythian dominion - Thracian Getae and Arimaspi, Slavonic Neuri, Finnish Androphagi and such like.

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  • The Cimmerians who preceded the Scythians used Iranian proper names, and probably represented this Iranian element in greater purity.

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  • In this story the names make sense in Iranian, the tribes are not again mentioned except when this passage is copied, the objects are hardly such as would be held sacred by nomads, the form of ordeal is to be paralleled in Iranian legends, and the people say themselves that they are not really Scythae.

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  • It would correspond in time with the movement of the Scyths of which Herodotus speaks, and it may be inferred that immigrants coming from those regions were rather allied to the Tatar family of nations than to the Iranian.

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  • An Iranian origin would not account for the presence of analogous types on the Yenisei.

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  • They were probably of Iranian race: among the Persians Herodotus describes a similar mixture of nomadic and settled tribes.

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  • In the 7th century B.C. these Cimmerians were attacked and partly driven out by a horde of newcomers from upper Asia called Scythae; these imposed their name and their yoke upon all that were left in the Euxine steppes, but probably their coming did not really change the basis of the population, which remained Iranian.

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  • It is probable that the Iranian element was stronger among the Sarmatae, whose power extended as the ruling clan of the Scyths became extinct; but it is quite likely that they in their turn were officered by some new horde from upper Asia.

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  • Iranian hypothesis: K.

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  • CHOSROES, in Middle and Modern Persian Khosrau (" with a good name "), a very common Persian name, borne by a famous king of the Iranian legend (Kai Khosrau); by a Parthian king, commonly called by the Greeks Osroes; and by the following two Sassanid kings.

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  • For the Iranian parallel, see § 8, and on the Hebrew Priestly Writer, Gunkel, Genesis 2, pp. 2 33 ff.

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  • Iranian.

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  • - The Iranian account of creation 10 is specially interesting because its religious spirit is akin to that of Genesis i.

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  • which we cannot, however, here give, and the third may seem to suggest direct influence of the Iranian upon the Jewish cosmogony.

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  • Bukhari [[[Mahommed Ahmed Ibn Seyyid Abdullah|Mahommed ibn]] Isma`il al-Bukhari] (810-872), Arabic author of the most generally accepted collection of traditions (hadith) from Mahomet, was born at Bokhara (Bukhdra), of an Iranian family, in A.H.

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  • Their religion has points of connexion with old Iranian and Assyrian beliefs and traces of Manichaeism and Nestorianism.

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  • Is he a pale form of the Babylonian chaos-dragon, or of the serpent of Iranian mythology who sprang from heaven to earth to blight the" good creation "?

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  • 132), and the Iranian priests (athravans, later Magi) claimed, like the Brahmans, to be the highest order of society; but a variety of conditions were lacking to give them the full place of their Indian brethren.

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  • The dominant race is the Uzbegs, who are fanatical Moslem Sunnites, scorn work, despise their Iranian subjects, and maintain their old division into tribes or clans.

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  • The great bulk of the population in the country is composed of Iranian Tajiks, who differ but very little from Sarts.

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  • It is an Oriental (Iranian) dualism which here finds expression, though in one point, it is true, the mark of Greek influence is quite clear.

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  • Even the characteristic dualism of Gnosticism has already proved to be in part of Iranian origin; and now it becomes clear how from that mingling of late Greek and Persian dualism the idea could arise that these seven halfdaemonic powers are the creators or rulers of this material world, which is separated infinitely from the light-world of the good God.

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  • They may have been Turanians akin to that tribe, or they may have been Iranians akin to the Iranian element in Transoxiana and the districts south of the Pamirs.

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  • The cumbrous mythology and cosmogony of Mithraism at last weakened its hold upon men's minds, and it disappeared during the 4th century before a victorious Catholicism, yet not until another faith, equally Iranian in its mythology mad cosmological beliefs, had taken its place.

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  • The Medians too were subject to him as far as the Elburz and the central Iranian desert.

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  • The population numbered 828,511 in 1897, of whom the major part were Tatars; other races were Russians, the Iranian tribes of the Tates (89,519) and Talysh (34994), Armenians (52,233) and the Caucasian mountaineers known as Kurins.

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  • - In India (including the valleys of the Kabul and its northern tributaries, then inhabited by an Indian, not, as now, by an Iranian, population) Alexander planted a number of Greek towns.

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  • As an expression of the Iranian mind we have the Avesta and the Pehlevi theological literature.

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  • Still less foundation exists for the belief, once widely spread, that Bactria was the cradle of the Indo-European race; it was based on the supposition that the nations of Europe had immigrated from Asia, and that the Aryan languages (Indian and Iranian) stood nearest to the original language of the Indo-Europeans.

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  • The Iranian tradition, preserved in the Avesta and in Firdousi's Shahnama, localizes a part of its heroes and myths in the east of Iran, and has transformed the old gods who fight with the great snake into kings of Iran who fight with the Turanians.

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  • But this historical aspect of the myth is of late origin: it is nothing but a reflex of the great Iranian empire founded by the Achaemenids and restored by the Sassanids.

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  • The only historical fact which we can learn from the Iranian tradition is that the contrast and the feud between the peasants of Iran and the nomads of Turan was as great in old times as it is now: it is indeed based upon the natural geographical conditions, and is therefore eternal.

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  • The Oxus figures in Persian romantic history as the limit between Iran and Turan, but the substratum of settled population to the north as well as the south was probably of Iranian lineage.

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  • This Iranian dualism is proved to have penetrated into the late Jewish eschatology from the beginning of the ist century before Christ, and did so probably still earlier.

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  • This conception of the strife of God with the devil was further interwoven, before its introduction into the Antichrist myth, with another idea of different origin, namely, the myth derived from the Babylonian religion, of the battle of the supreme God (Marduk) with the dragon of chaos (Tiamat), originally a myth of the origin of things which, later perhaps, was changed into an eschatological one, again under Iranian influence?

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  • ii., gained the upper hand, having usually become associated with the description of the universal conflagration of the world which had also originated in the Iranian eschatology.

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  • Peoples (apparently Iranian) of Hittite connexion from the powerful state of Mitanni (Northern Syria and Mesopotamia) had already left their mark as far south as Jerusalem, as may be inferred from the personal names, 4 and to the intercourse with (apparently) Aegean culture revealed by excavation, the letters add references to mercenaries and bands from Meluhlia (viz.

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  • Of the Indo-European family, the Iranian branch inhabits Persia, Afghanistan and Baluchistan; while the Indo-Aryan branch is spoken by the great mass of the people of northern India.

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  • Azhi Dahaka (Zohak), the mythical king of the Iranian epics, who has nothing whatever to do with the historical king of the Medes.

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  • Taylor contends that the alphabet is Iranian in origin, but the circum.

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  • The conclusion is confirmed by the coins, the only records with Iranian script which go back so far; but the special form of Aramaic from which the Iranian alphabet is derived must at present be left undecided.

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  • The later developments of the Iranian alphabet are the Pahlavi and the Zend, in which the MSS.

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  • From this we may infer that they spoke a language cognate with the Scythic. The greater part of the barbarian names occurring in the inscriptions of Olbia, Tanais and Panticapaeum are supposed to be Sarmatian, and as they have been well explained from the Iranian language now spoken by the Ossetes of the Caucasus, these are supposed to be the representatives of the Sarmatae and can be shown to have a direct connexion with the Alani, one of their tribes.

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  • It has what Moulton called an "Iranian background."

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  • Along a different line of thought the Iranian teachers, beholding the world divided between hostile powers, demanded, as the fundamental postulate of religion, the victory of the good.

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  • PhysicoJ Geography.Modern Persia occupies the western and larger half of the great Iranian plateau which, rising to a height of from 4000 to 8000 ft.

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  • Custom, however, has extended the name to the whole Iranian plateau; and it is in this sense that the term Persia is here employed.

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  • In Baluchistan, even yet, we find side by side with the eponymous Iranian inhabitants, who il T~b only penetrated thither a few centuries ago, the ~ es ethnologically and philologically distinct race of the Brahui, who are probably connected with the Dravidians of India.

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  • For here we continually discover traces of Iranian nationality.

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  • The names and words of the Scythians (Scoloti) in South Russia, which Herodotus has preserved, are for the most part perfectly transparent Iranian formations, identified by Zeuss and MUllenhoff; among them are many proper names in Arfis(Apto--) and aspa (horsecuriror; Zend, aspa).

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  • These tribes are distinguished by the Iranian peasants as Daha (Gr.

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  • In the cuneiform letters from Tell el-Amarna in Egypt (1400 B.C.), we find among the princelings of Syria and Palestine names like Artamanya, Arzawiya, Shuwardata, a name terminating in -warzana, &c.; while the kings of Mitanni on the Euphrates are Artatama, Shutarna, Artashumara, and Dushratt anames too numerous and too genuinely Iranian to allow of the hypothesis of coincidence.

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  • Later still, in the Assyrian inscriptions we occasionally meet with Iranian names borne by North-Syrian princese.g.

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  • Their subjects, on the contrary, speak absolutely different tongues: for the attempts to explain the languages of the Cossaeans, Mitannians, and Arzapians as Indo-European (Iranian) have ended in failure (cf.

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  • He gives a list of their names, twenty-three of which are preserved either wholly or in part, and almost all are unmistakably Iranian; as is also the case with those preserved by Esar-haddon (Assarhaddon) and elsewhere.

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  • The Medes, then, were an Iranian nation, already occupying in the 9th century B.C. their later home in the centre of the Median highland.

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  • With other Iranian tribes the Assyrians never came in contact: for the oft-repeated assertion, that the Parsua, so prominent in their annals, were the Persians or the Parthians, is quite untenable.

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  • If this reasoning is correct, the Iranian immigration must be assigned to the first half of the second pre-Christian millennium.

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  • We have already touched on the nomadic peoples (DAa, Dahans) of Iranian nationality, who occupied the steppes of Tunkestan as far as the Sanmatians and Scytliians of South Russia.

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  • The dividing line between Iranian and Indian is drawn by the Hindu Kush and the Soliman mountains of the Indus district.

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  • Civilization and Religion of the Iranians.In the period when the ancestors of Indian and Iranian alike still formed a single nationthat of the Aryansthey developed A

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  • Zoroastrianismat The Iranian.

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  • In these traits are engrained the general conditions of history and culture, under which the Iranians lived: on the one hand, the contrast between Iranian and Turanian; on the other, the dominating position of Babylon, which influenced most strongly the civilization and religion of Iran.

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  • Closely connected as are the Mythology and Religion of Indian and Iranian, no less clearly marked is the fundamental difference of intellectual and moral standpoint, Diff~ne~ which has led the two nations into opposite paths between the of history and culture.

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  • The tendency to religious Iranian and thought and to a speculative philosophy, compre- R

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  • For the Iranian, on the contrary, practical life, the real world, and with them the moral commandment, fill the foreground.

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  • These fundamental features of Iranian sentiment encounter us not only in the doctrine of Zoroaster and the confessions of Darius, but also in that magnificent product of the Persia of Islamthe Sufi mysticism.

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  • We possess no other evidence for these events; the only document we possess for the history of Iranian religion is the sacred writing, containing the doctrines of the prophet whc gave that religion a new form.

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  • It was, however, only natural that its adherents should be won, first and chiefly, among the countrymen of the prophet, and its further success in gaining over all the Iranian tribes gave it a national stamp. So the Susan translation of Darius Behistun inscrrption TThese ideas are strongly exposed in a polemic against the Christians contained in an official edict of the Persian creed to the Armenians by Mihr Narseh, the vizier of Yazdegerd IT.

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  • Thus the creed became a powerful factor in the development of an united Iranian nationality, That a.

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  • 4); and Arsaces, a chief of the Parni or Aparnian Iranian nomad tribe (therefore often called Dahan Scythians), inhabiting the steppe east of the Caspianmade himself master of the district of Parthia (q.v.) in 248 B.C. He and his brother Tiridates were the founders of the Parthian kingdom, which, however, was confined within very modest limits during the following decades.

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  • In other districts, also, rebellions occurred; and in the east, Euthydemus and his successors (Demetrius, Eucratidas, &c.) began the conquest of the Indus region and the Iranian borderland (Arachosia, Aria).

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  • Among the kings then following, only known to us from their coins, there appears a dynasty with Iranian and sometimes peculiarly Parthian names which seems to have reigned in the Punjab and Arachosia.

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  • Iranian divinities, however, predominate on his currency: Mithras (Mihro or Hel-ios); the Moon Mah (also Selene); Athro, the Fire; Orthragno (Verethragna); Pliarro =Farna (hvarna), the majesty of kingship; Teiro =Tir (Tistrya the archer); Nana (Nanaia); and others.

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  • How vital was the nomadic element rn the Parthian Empire is obvious from the fact that, in civil wars, the deposed kings conThe Iranian sistently took refuge among the Dahae or Scythians ~ and were restored by them.

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  • Even the kings, after the first two or three, wear their hair and beard long, in the Iranian fashion, whereas their predecessors are beardless.

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  • Further, the royal apotheosis, so common among them and recurring under the Sassanids, is probably not so much of Greek origin as a development of Iranian views.

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  • This gradual Iranianization of the Parthian Empire is shown by the fact that the subsequent Iranian traditions, and Firdousi in particular, apply the name of the Parthian magnates (Pahiavan) to the glorious heroes of the legendary epoch.

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  • A little later, the Alans, a great Iranian tribe in the south of Russiathe ancestors of the present-day Ossetsbroke for the first time through the Caucasian passes, and ravaged Media and Armeniaan incursion which they often repeated in the following centuries.

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  • This would show how the national Iranian element in the Parthian Empire was continually gathering strength.

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  • The Sassanian Empire, in fact, is once more a national Persian or Iranian Empire.

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  • The Sassanid ruler is the representative of the Kingly Majesty, derived from Ormuzd, which appears in the Avesla as the angel Kavaem Hvareno, the royal glory, and, according to legend, once beamed in the Iranian kings, unattainable to all but those of royal blood.

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  • As has already been indicated, it was in their religious attitudes that the essential difference lay between the Sassanid Empire and the older Iranian states.

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  • But, meanwhile, in its Iranian home and especially in Persis, the religion of Zoroaster lived a quiet life, undisturbed by the proceedings of the outside world.

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  • Subscription to the restored orthodox doctrine was to the Iranian a matter of course.

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  • In Armenia, also, Ardashir and Shapur, during the period of their occupation, sought to introduce the orthodox religion, destroyed the heathen imageseven those of the Iranian gods which were here considered heathenand turned the shrines into fire-altars (Gelzer, Ber.

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  • But there also developed a rather extensive Pahlavi literature, not limited to religious subjects, but containing works in belles letires, modernizations of the old Iranian sagas and native traditions, e.g.

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  • of Diodotus in 250 B.C., had undergone enlirely Sassanid different vicissitudes from the rest of Iran, was ~ o~ once more united to an Iranian Empire, and the Sassanid dominions, for the first time, passed the frontiers of the Arsacids.

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  • Persian (Iranian) Languages.TJnder the name of Persian is included the whole of that great family of languages occupying a field nearly coincident with the modern Iran, of which true Persian is simply the western division.

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  • It is therefore common and more correct to speak of the Iranian family.

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  • The province of the Iranian language is bounded on the west by the Semitic, on the north and north-east by the Ural-altaic or Turanian, and on the south-east by the kindred language of India.

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  • The Iranian languages form one of the great branches of the Indo-European stem, first recognized as such by Sir William Jones and Friedrich Schlegel.

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  • The common characteristics of all Iranian languages, whicF distinguish them especially from Sanskrit, are as follows:

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  • Our knowledge of the Iranian languages in older periods is too fragmentary to allow of our giving a complete account of this family and of its special historical development.

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  • Not only amongst Iranian languages, but amongst all the languages of the Indo-European group, Zend takes one of the very highest places in importance for the comparative philologist.

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  • A logical system of comparative exegesis, Ze led by constant reference to Sanskrit, its nearest ally, and to the her Iranian dialects, is the best means of recovering the lost of rise of the Zend texts.

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  • The other ancient tongues and dialects of s family are known only by name; we read of peculiar idioms Sogdiana, Zabulistan, Herat, &c. It is doubtful whether the guages of the Scythians, the Lycians and the Lydians, of which dly anything remains, were Iranian or not.

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  • But, nevertheless, New Persian has remained a language of genuine Iranian stock.

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  • Amongst modern languages and dialects other than Persian which must be also assigned to the Iranian family may be Modern mentioned: Dialects.

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  • Ossetic, true Iranian, in spite of its resemblance in sound to the Georgian.f 4.

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  • Some scholarl attribute it to the Iranian family; others prefer to regard it as a separate and independent member of the Indo-European group. Many words that at first sight seem to prove its Iranian origin arc only adopted from the Persian.8 (K.

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  • The death of Hgrun al-Rashid in the beginning of the 9th century, which marks the commencement of the decline of the caliphate, was at the same time the starting-point of movements for national independence and a national literature in the Iranian dominion, and the common cradle of the two was in the province of Khorkskn, between the Oxus and the Jaxartes.

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  • Full of enthusiasm for the glorious past of the old Iranian kingdom, he charged his court poet DalIil~i (Daqiqi), IMkIkI who openly professed in his ghazals the Zoroastrian creed, to turn the Khodinama, or Book of Kings, into Persian verse.

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  • When these old Iranian sources were almost exhausted, the difficulty was met in various ingenious ways.

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  • Perhaps prior in date to Firdousis Yusuf was his patron Unsuris romance, Wami~ u Adhra, a popular Iranian legend of great antiquity, which had been first written in verse under the Tahirid dynasty.

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  • the dynasty of Iranian origin which ruled at Samosata, described by Strabo (l.c.) as a fortified city in a very fertile if not extensive district, allied itself with the Seleucids, and bore the dynastic name of Antiochus.

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  • The ever-restless Baluchi language belongs to the Iranian branch of the Aryan subfamily of the Indo-European family.

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  • He collected a number of words and phrases in use among them which show clearly that their language, though not unaffected by Iranian influence, was still essentially a form of Gothic.

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  • The Pisaca languages are Aryan by origin, but are neither Iranian nor Indo - Aryan.

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  • The Hindus believe he has appeared (I) as a fish, (2) as a tortoise, (3) as a hog, (4) as a monster, half man half lion, to destroy the giant Iranian, (5) as a dwarf, (6) as Rama, (7) again as Rama for the purpose of killing the thousand-armed giant Cartasuciriargunan, (8) as Krishna, (9) as Buddha.

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  • The most important of all, the 19th Yasht, gives a consecutive account of the Iranian heroic saga in great broad lines, together with a prophetic presentment of the end of this world.

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  • Ancient Balkh or Bactriana was a province of the Achaemenian empire, and probably was occupied in great measure by a race of Iranian blood.

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  • The kings soon became dependants of the Parthians; their names are mostly Arabic (Bekr, Abgar, Ma`nu), but among them occur some Iranian (Parthian) names, as Pacorus and Phratamaspates.

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  • Of the stages in the occupation of the Iranian table-land by the Aryan people nothing is known, the people themselves having apparently no tradition of a time when they did not hold these territories (Spiegel, Arische Periode, p. 319).

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  • The distinctions between Sanskrit and Iranian are also clear.

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  • eka-; Zend aeva-; Old Persian aiva-, where the Iranian group has the same stem as that seen in the Greek ot(F)o-s, "alone."

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  • Dr Grierson has shown in his monograph on "The Pisaca Languages of North-Western India" (Royal Asiatic Society, 1906) that there is good reason for regarding various dialects of the north-western frontier (Kafiristan, Chitral, Gilgit, Dardistan) as a separate group descended from Aryan but independent of either Sanskrit or Iranian.

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  • When settled they are mostly designated Sarts - a name which has reference more to manner of life than to anthropological classification, although a much stronger admixture of Iranian blood is evident in the Sarts, who also speak Persian at Khojent and Samarkand.

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  • Geographically, Armenia is a continuation westward of the great Iranian plateau.

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  • Through its long valleys run the roads that connect the Iranian plateau with the fertile lands and protected harbours of Asia Minor, and for its possession nations have contended from the remotest past.

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  • The names of the other kingsAbgar, Ma`nu, Bekr, &c. - are for the most part Arabic, as the people (in whose inscriptions the same mixture of names occurs) are called by classical authors; but the rulers, among whom an occasional Iranian name betrays the influence of the dominant Parthians, 13 would hardly maintain their distinctness from the Aramaic populace.

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  • Or about how, in 1988, the USS Vincennes shot down an Iranian civilian airliner, killing 290 people.

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  • In this spirit, we invited the Iranian ambassador to be one of a number of guest speakers at our 2005 conference.

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  • atropine injectors used by panicky Iranian troops as an antidote against Iraqi nerve gas attacks.

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  • Military dictatorship and pronouncements of Iranian ayatollahs are not supported by Islamic values.

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  • The proposed Iranian bourse would establish a fourth oil marker, denominated by the euro.

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  • The proposed Iranian bourse would establish a fourth oil marker, denominated by the euro.

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  • So let me explain why an Iranian oil bourse will not work for the foreseeable future.

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  • Middle East Online 4th Oct 2006 THE latest Iranian brinkmanship on its nuclear hopes is ingenious.

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  • In the meantime, America's European allies are not excited about the Iranian military buildup.

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  • Control of Iranian oil is a powerful position to hold on the global chessboard.

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  • The Iranian people want greater liberty and the chance to vote for candidates not chosen by the ruling clerics.

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  • He appears only concerned to follow the instructions he receives from Tehran, namely to persecute Iranian refugees in Iraq.

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  • How long will the Iranian regime formally democratic but in practice, largely theocratic endure?

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  • The militants later claimed they had received their orders from Iranian diplomats stationed in Turkey.

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  • Take the latest episode, an obvious rip-off of the 1980 siege of the Iranian embassy.

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  • In the first year of the war, the Iraqi Army attacked Iranian cities such as Khorramshahr with armored forces without dismounted infantry.

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  • He sank onto a couch, then looked up to see the battle crazed glare of an Iranian soldier wielding a heavy mace.

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  • Only a few blogs (and almost no mainstream media) have realized the truth about Iranian madman Ahmadinejad's letter to President Bush.

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  • Study on estimation of age at natural menopause among Iranian women.

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  • On 27 May, the USA sends Stinger antiaircraft missiles to Saudi Arabia in case of Iranian attack.

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  • One apologist tells us that Cumont was wrong about ancient Iranian Mithraism being continuous with Roman Mithraism.

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  • They're all women who have broken the mold for Iranian women - even from the outside.

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  • As Iraq crushed Communists at home and fought Iranian mullahs abroad, few apprehensions about its weapons were expressed.

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  • This is a dangerous game, not least for the Iranian mullahs.

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  • Iraq has acknowledged using mustard gas against Iranian troops but has consistently denied using chemical weapons against civilians.

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  • mustard gas against Iranian troops but has consistently denied using chemical weapons against civilians.

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  • So there's no no support from anybody for Iranian enrichment activities because they have concerns about Iranian noncompliance with NPT and IAEA obligations.

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  • We believe the Iranian people should enjoy the benefits of a truly peaceful program to use nuclear reactors to generate electric power.

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  • Formerly 3,000 Iranian pilgrims were allowed to visit the holy shrines in Iraq, he added.

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  • protests outside the Iranian embassy in London.

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  • A dose of opium sells for 5,000 Iranian rials (60 US cents ).

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  • And he had no riposte to the Iranian missiles raining down on Baghdad.

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  • Formerly 3,000 Iranian pilgrims were allowed to visit the holy shrines in Iraq, he added.

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  • This, and the death sentance from the Iranian theocracy was not condemned by any prominent moslem spokespersons.

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  • Robbed of threats from America the Iranian theocracy would struggle to maintain enough popular support to survive.

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  • On the syntactic level, Heston (1976) studies the comparative typology of Middle Iranian languages, viz.

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  • While you are reading this, the Iranian reactor produces enriched bomb-grade uranium.

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  • Saddam underestimated the Iranian resistance, typified by young zealots pouring across mine fields to attack Iraqi troops who had occupied their land.

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  • This ocean, already diminished in area, retreated after Oligocene times from the Iranian plateau, Turkestan, Asia Minor and the region of the north-west Alps.

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  • In these further provinces of Iran the Macedonian invader had for the first time to encounter a serious national opposition, for in the west the Iranian rule had been merely the supremacy of an alien power over native populations indifferent or hostile.

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  • The people of the interior are mostly of the old Iranian stock, and there are also a few nomads of the Turkish Baharlu tribe which came to Persia in the lath century when the province was subdued by a Turkish chief.

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  • Of the 131,361 inhabitants in 1897 the Talyshes (35,000) form the aboriginal element, belonging to the Iranian family, and speaking an independently developed language closely related to Persian.

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  • Fars, q.v.), the south-western part of Iran (Persia), named from the inhabitants, the Iranian people of the Parsa (Fars); their name was pronounced by the Ionians Persair with change from a to e, and this form has become dominant in Greek and in the modern European languages.

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  • If we assume, as we must needs do, that the opinions which Basilides promulgates as the teaching of the "barbari" (Acta Archelai c. 55) were in fact his own, the fragments prove him to have been a decided dualist, and his teaching an interesting further development of oriental (Iranian) dualism.

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  • This speculation is clearly a development of that which the Iranian cosmology has to tell about the battles between Ahura-Mazda and Angro-Mainyu (Ormuzd and Ahriman).

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  • The Iranian optimism has been replaced here by a strong pessimism.

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  • This is practically the transference of Iranian dualism to the more Greek antithesis of soul and body, spirit and matter (cf.

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  • If, in the Gnostic systems, these become daemonic or semi-daemonic forces, this points to the fact that a stronger monotheistic religion (the Iranian) had gained the upper hand over the Babylonian, and had degraded its gods to daemons.

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  • So far as we can see, on the other hand, Basilides appears actually to represent a further development of Iranian dualism, which later produced the religious system of Mani.

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  • 6,514,000 The interior or inland basins, including the lacustrine regions south of the Arctic watershed, the Gobi depression, Tibetan plateau, the Iranian (or Perso-Afghan) uplands, the Syro-Arabian inland basin, and that of Asia Minor, amount to 3,141,500 sq.

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  • The former comprised several dynasties of mixed Turki and Iranian race, but was wanting in coherency.

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  • The inhabitants of the Kura valley consist principally of Iranian Tates and Talyshes, of Armenians and Lesghians, with Russians, Jews and Arabs.

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  • The Caucasian races (except the Gregorians), together with the Turks and Tatars, are Mussulmans of the Sunnite sect (2,021,300), and the Iranian races mostly Mussulmans of the Shiite sect (884, too).

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  • It was inhabited by an Iranian tribe, the Parthava of the inscriptions of Darius; the correct Greek form is HapOvaioc. Parthia became a province of the Achaemenian and then of the Macedonian Empire.

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  • When about 255 B.C. Diodotus had made himself king of Bactria and tried to expand his dominions, the chieftain of a tribe of Iranian nomads (Dahan Scyths) east of the Caspian, the Parni or Aparni, who bore the Persian name Arsaces, fled before him into Parthia.

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  • They adopted the Iranian religion of Zoroaster (in the royal town Asaak an eternal fire was maintained), and " their language was a mixture of Scythian and Median " (i.e., Iranian).

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  • " Parthians," a term transferred by Firdousi to the heroes of the old Iranian legend.

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  • The reverse shows the seated archer, or occasionally an elephant; the head of the king is beardless and wears a helmet and a diadem; only from the third or fourth king they begin to wear a beard after the Iranian fashion.

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  • On entering *The fact that the Mitannians venerated Varuna, Indra, and the Asvins is important as showing that Iranian and Indian Aryans had not yet separated as late as 1400 B.C.

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  • Even Iranian kings in the last century B.C. found pleasure in composing, or listening to, Greek tragedies, and Herod the Great kept Greek men of letters beside him and had spasmodic ambitions to make his mark as an orator or author (Nicol.

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  • Iranian troops seem to have been employed on a large scale by the earlier Seleucids.

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  • The name (Zwpo urrpns) is the corrupt Greek form of the old Iranian Zarathustra (new Persian, Zardusht).

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  • Already in the later Avesta he has become a half-mythical figure, the last in the series of heroes of east Iranian legend, in the arrangement of which series priestly influence is unmistakably evident.

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  • His doctrine was rooted in the old Iranian - or Aryan - folk-religion, of which we can only form an approximate representation by comparison with the religion of the Veda.

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  • The newly discovered Hittite inscriptions have now thrown a welcome ray of light on the primitive Iranian creed (Ed.

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  • In these inscriptions Mitra, Varuna, Indra and Nasatya are mentioned as deities of the Iranian kings of Mitani at the beginning of the 14th century - all of them names with which we are familiar from the Indian pantheon.

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  • Other powers of light, such as Mitra the god of day (Iranian Mithra), survived unforgotten in popular belief till the later system incorporated them in the angelic body.

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  • Zoroaster's teachings show him to have been a man of a highly speculative turn, faithful, however, with all his originality, to the Iranian national character.

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  • According to later legend (Vd., 2, I), Ormazd at first wished to entrust this task to Yima (Jemshid), the ideal of an Iranian king.

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  • We find in them the same beauties and the same defects that we observe in the production of the Iranian authors.

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  • But the Ottomans did not stop here: in their romantic poems they chose as subjects the favourite themes of their Persian masters, such as Leyli and Mejnun, Khusrev and Shiriri, Yusuf and Zuleykha, and so on; they constantly allude to Persian heroes whose stories occur in the Shah-Nama and other storehouses of Iranian legendary lore; and they wrote their poems in Persian metres and in Persian forms. The mesnevi, the kasida and the ghazel - all of them, so far at least as the Ottomans are concerned, Persian - were the favourite'verse-forms of the old poets.

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  • In the Avesta, after the separation of the Iranian stock from the Hindu and the rise of Zoroastrianism, which elevated Ormazd to the summit of the Persian theological system, his role was more distinct, though less important; between Ormazd, who reigned in eternal brightness, and Ahriman, whose realm was eternal darkness, he occupied an intermediate position as the greatest of the yazatas, beings created by Ormazd to aid in the destruction of evil and the administration of the world.

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  • Owing to Semitic influence every Persian god had in Roman times come to possess a twofold significance - astrological and natural, Semitic and Iranian - the earlier and deeper Iranian significance being imparted by the clergy to the few intelligent elect, the more attractive and :superficial Chaldaean symbolism being presented to the multitude.

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  • We know that in the 2nd century A.D., when the steppes were dominated by the Sarmatae, the majority of the barbarian names in the inscriptions of Olbia, Tanais, and Panticapaeum were Iranian, and can infer that the Sarmatae spoke an Iranian language.

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  • Presumably, therefore, the Scyths also spoke an Iranian dialect.

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  • But of the Scythic words preserved by Herodotus some are Iranian, others, especially the names of deities, have found no satisfactory explanation in any Indo-European language.

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  • Nevertheless, the general opinion has been that the Scyths were Iranian.

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  • The settled Scythians would be the remains of this Iranian population, or the different tribes of them may have been connected with their neighbours beyond Scythian dominion - Thracian Getae and Arimaspi, Slavonic Neuri, Finnish Androphagi and such like.

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  • The Cimmerians who preceded the Scythians used Iranian proper names, and probably represented this Iranian element in greater purity.

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  • In this story the names make sense in Iranian, the tribes are not again mentioned except when this passage is copied, the objects are hardly such as would be held sacred by nomads, the form of ordeal is to be paralleled in Iranian legends, and the people say themselves that they are not really Scythae.

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  • It would correspond in time with the movement of the Scyths of which Herodotus speaks, and it may be inferred that immigrants coming from those regions were rather allied to the Tatar family of nations than to the Iranian.

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  • An Iranian origin would not account for the presence of analogous types on the Yenisei.

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  • They were probably of Iranian race: among the Persians Herodotus describes a similar mixture of nomadic and settled tribes.

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  • In the 7th century B.C. these Cimmerians were attacked and partly driven out by a horde of newcomers from upper Asia called Scythae; these imposed their name and their yoke upon all that were left in the Euxine steppes, but probably their coming did not really change the basis of the population, which remained Iranian.

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  • It is probable that the Iranian element was stronger among the Sarmatae, whose power extended as the ruling clan of the Scyths became extinct; but it is quite likely that they in their turn were officered by some new horde from upper Asia.

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  • Iranian hypothesis: K.

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  • CHOSROES, in Middle and Modern Persian Khosrau (" with a good name "), a very common Persian name, borne by a famous king of the Iranian legend (Kai Khosrau); by a Parthian king, commonly called by the Greeks Osroes; and by the following two Sassanid kings.

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  • For the Iranian parallel, see § 8, and on the Hebrew Priestly Writer, Gunkel, Genesis 2, pp. 2 33 ff.

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  • - The Iranian account of creation 10 is specially interesting because its religious spirit is akin to that of Genesis i.

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  • which we cannot, however, here give, and the third may seem to suggest direct influence of the Iranian upon the Jewish cosmogony.

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  • Lagarde (1887), which ascribes it to Iranian influence (see § 8), has no very solid ground, whereas the theory which explains it as largely Babylonian is in a high degree plausible, we must now consider the relations between the Israelitish and Babylonian cosmogonies.

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  • Bukhari [[[Mahommed Ahmed Ibn Seyyid Abdullah|Mahommed ibn]] Isma`il al-Bukhari] (810-872), Arabic author of the most generally accepted collection of traditions (hadith) from Mahomet, was born at Bokhara (Bukhdra), of an Iranian family, in A.H.

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  • Their religion has points of connexion with old Iranian and Assyrian beliefs and traces of Manichaeism and Nestorianism.

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  • Is he a pale form of the Babylonian chaos-dragon, or of the serpent of Iranian mythology who sprang from heaven to earth to blight the" good creation "?

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  • 132), and the Iranian priests (athravans, later Magi) claimed, like the Brahmans, to be the highest order of society; but a variety of conditions were lacking to give them the full place of their Indian brethren.

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  • The dominant race is the Uzbegs, who are fanatical Moslem Sunnites, scorn work, despise their Iranian subjects, and maintain their old division into tribes or clans.

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  • The great bulk of the population in the country is composed of Iranian Tajiks, who differ but very little from Sarts.

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  • It is an Oriental (Iranian) dualism which here finds expression, though in one point, it is true, the mark of Greek influence is quite clear.

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  • Even the characteristic dualism of Gnosticism has already proved to be in part of Iranian origin; and now it becomes clear how from that mingling of late Greek and Persian dualism the idea could arise that these seven halfdaemonic powers are the creators or rulers of this material world, which is separated infinitely from the light-world of the good God.

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  • Definite confirmation of this conjecture is afforded us by later sources of the Iranian religion, in which we likewise meet with the characteristic fundamental doctrine of Gnosticism.

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  • They may have been Turanians akin to that tribe, or they may have been Iranians akin to the Iranian element in Transoxiana and the districts south of the Pamirs.

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  • Towards the close of the 3rd century two great religions stood opposed to one another in western Europe, one wholly Iranian, namely Mithraism, the other of Jewish origin, but not without Iranian elements, part and parcel probably of, the Judaism which gave it birth, namely Christianity.

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  • The cumbrous mythology and cosmogony of Mithraism at last weakened its hold upon men's minds, and it disappeared during the 4th century before a victorious Catholicism, yet not until another faith, equally Iranian in its mythology mad cosmological beliefs, had taken its place.

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  • The Medians too were subject to him as far as the Elburz and the central Iranian desert.

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  • When after the assassination of Smerdis all the Iranian tribes, the Babylonians and the Armenians rebelled against Darius and the Persian rule, "a man of the name of Fravartish (i.e.

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  • The population numbered 828,511 in 1897, of whom the major part were Tatars; other races were Russians, the Iranian tribes of the Tates (89,519) and Talysh (34994), Armenians (52,233) and the Caucasian mountaineers known as Kurins.

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  • - In India (including the valleys of the Kabul and its northern tributaries, then inhabited by an Indian, not, as now, by an Iranian, population) Alexander planted a number of Greek towns.

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  • xxii., 1902, p. 268 f.), and his result is mainly negative, that palpable evidences of an active Hellenism have not been found; he inclines to think that the Greek kingdoms mainly took on the native Iranian colour.

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  • In these outlying provinces the national Iranian sentiment seems to have been most intense, and it is interesting to see that under Alexander Hellenism appeared as " belligerent civilization," in the attempt to suppress practices like the exposure of the dying to the dogs (an exaggeration of Zoroastrianism) and, possibly also, abhorrent forms of marriage (Strabo xi.

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  • As an expression of the Iranian mind we have the Avesta and the Pehlevi theological literature.

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  • Bactria was the home of one of the Iranian tribes (see Persia: Ancient History).

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  • Still less foundation exists for the belief, once widely spread, that Bactria was the cradle of the Indo-European race; it was based on the supposition that the nations of Europe had immigrated from Asia, and that the Aryan languages (Indian and Iranian) stood nearest to the original language of the Indo-Europeans.

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  • The Iranian tradition, preserved in the Avesta and in Firdousi's Shahnama, localizes a part of its heroes and myths in the east of Iran, and has transformed the old gods who fight with the great snake into kings of Iran who fight with the Turanians.

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  • But this historical aspect of the myth is of late origin: it is nothing but a reflex of the great Iranian empire founded by the Achaemenids and restored by the Sassanids.

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  • The only historical fact which we can learn from the Iranian tradition is that the contrast and the feud between the peasants of Iran and the nomads of Turan was as great in old times as it is now: it is indeed based upon the natural geographical conditions, and is therefore eternal.

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  • The Oxus figures in Persian romantic history as the limit between Iran and Turan, but the substratum of settled population to the north as well as the south was probably of Iranian lineage.

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  • This Iranian dualism is proved to have penetrated into the late Jewish eschatology from the beginning of the ist century before Christ, and did so probably still earlier.

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  • This conception of the strife of God with the devil was further interwoven, before its introduction into the Antichrist myth, with another idea of different origin, namely, the myth derived from the Babylonian religion, of the battle of the supreme God (Marduk) with the dragon of chaos (Tiamat), originally a myth of the origin of things which, later perhaps, was changed into an eschatological one, again under Iranian influence?

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  • ii., gained the upper hand, having usually become associated with the description of the universal conflagration of the world which had also originated in the Iranian eschatology.

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  • Peoples (apparently Iranian) of Hittite connexion from the powerful state of Mitanni (Northern Syria and Mesopotamia) had already left their mark as far south as Jerusalem, as may be inferred from the personal names, 4 and to the intercourse with (apparently) Aegean culture revealed by excavation, the letters add references to mercenaries and bands from Meluhlia (viz.

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  • Of the Indo-European family, the Iranian branch inhabits Persia, Afghanistan and Baluchistan; while the Indo-Aryan branch is spoken by the great mass of the people of northern India.

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  • Azhi Dahaka (Zohak), the mythical king of the Iranian epics, who has nothing whatever to do with the historical king of the Medes.

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  • Taylor contends that the alphabet is Iranian in origin, but the circum.

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  • The conclusion is confirmed by the coins, the only records with Iranian script which go back so far; but the special form of Aramaic from which the Iranian alphabet is derived must at present be left undecided.

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  • The later developments of the Iranian alphabet are the Pahlavi and the Zend, in which the MSS.

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  • From this we may infer that they spoke a language cognate with the Scythic. The greater part of the barbarian names occurring in the inscriptions of Olbia, Tanais and Panticapaeum are supposed to be Sarmatian, and as they have been well explained from the Iranian language now spoken by the Ossetes of the Caucasus, these are supposed to be the representatives of the Sarmatae and can be shown to have a direct connexion with the Alani, one of their tribes.

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  • It has what Moulton called an "Iranian background."

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  • Rendel Harris, "The Double Text of Tobit," American Journal of Theology (July 18 99), pp. 54 1 -554; Moulton, "The Iranian Background of Tobit," Expository Times (March 1900), pp. 257-260; B.

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  • Along a different line of thought the Iranian teachers, beholding the world divided between hostile powers, demanded, as the fundamental postulate of religion, the victory of the good.

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  • PhysicoJ Geography.Modern Persia occupies the western and larger half of the great Iranian plateau which, rising to a height of from 4000 to 8000 ft.

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  • Custom, however, has extended the name to the whole Iranian plateau; and it is in this sense that the term Persia is here employed.

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  • In Baluchistan, even yet, we find side by side with the eponymous Iranian inhabitants, who il T~b only penetrated thither a few centuries ago, the ~ es ethnologically and philologically distinct race of the Brahui, who are probably connected with the Dravidians of India.

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  • For here we continually discover traces of Iranian nationality.

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  • The names and words of the Scythians (Scoloti) in South Russia, which Herodotus has preserved, are for the most part perfectly transparent Iranian formations, identified by Zeuss and MUllenhoff; among them are many proper names in Arfis(Apto--) and aspa (horsecuriror; Zend, aspa).

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  • These tribes are distinguished by the Iranian peasants as Daha (Gr.

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  • We know only that the Aryans of India already occupied the Punjab in the Vedic era, C. I600 B-C. J-e,iod On the other hand, about the same period a number of the of names, undoubtedly Iranian, made their appear- 1~an1an ance in Western Asia, (cf.

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  • In the cuneiform letters from Tell el-Amarna in Egypt (1400 B.C.), we find among the princelings of Syria and Palestine names like Artamanya, Arzawiya, Shuwardata, a name terminating in -warzana, &c.; while the kings of Mitanni on the Euphrates are Artatama, Shutarna, Artashumara, and Dushratt anames too numerous and too genuinely Iranian to allow of the hypothesis of coincidence.

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  • Later still, in the Assyrian inscriptions we occasionally meet with Iranian names borne by North-Syrian princese.g.

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  • Their subjects, on the contrary, speak absolutely different tongues: for the attempts to explain the languages of the Cossaeans, Mitannians, and Arzapians as Indo-European (Iranian) have ended in failure (cf.

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  • He gives a list of their names, twenty-three of which are preserved either wholly or in part, and almost all are unmistakably Iranian; as is also the case with those preserved by Esar-haddon (Assarhaddon) and elsewhere.

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  • The Medes, then, were an Iranian nation, already occupying in the 9th century B.C. their later home in the centre of the Median highland.

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  • With other Iranian tribes the Assyrians never came in contact: for the oft-repeated assertion, that the Parsua, so prominent in their annals, were the Persians or the Parthians, is quite untenable.

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  • If this reasoning is correct, the Iranian immigration must be assigned to the first half of the second pre-Christian millennium.

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  • We have already touched on the nomadic peoples (DAa, Dahans) of Iranian nationality, who occupied the steppes of Tunkestan as far as the Sanmatians and Scytliians of South Russia.

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  • The dividing line between Iranian and Indian is drawn by the Hindu Kush and the Soliman mountains of the Indus district.

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  • Civilization and Religion of the Iranians.In the period when the ancestors of Indian and Iranian alike still formed a single nationthat of the Aryansthey developed A

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  • Zoroastrianismat The Iranian.

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  • In other words, the war of the gods has degenerated to the war between Iranian civilization and the Turanians.

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  • In these traits are engrained the general conditions of history and culture, under which the Iranians lived: on the one hand, the contrast between Iranian and Turanian; on the other, the dominating position of Babylon, which influenced most strongly the civilization and religion of Iran.

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  • Closely connected as are the Mythology and Religion of Indian and Iranian, no less clearly marked is the fundamental difference of intellectual and moral standpoint, Diff~ne~ which has led the two nations into opposite paths between the of history and culture.

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  • The tendency to religious Iranian and thought and to a speculative philosophy, compre- R

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  • For the Iranian, on the contrary, practical life, the real world, and with them the moral commandment, fill the foreground.

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  • These fundamental features of Iranian sentiment encounter us not only in the doctrine of Zoroaster and the confessions of Darius, but also in that magnificent product of the Persia of Islamthe Sufi mysticism.

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  • We possess no other evidence for these events; the only document we possess for the history of Iranian religion is the sacred writing, containing the doctrines of the prophet whc gave that religion a new form.

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  • It was, however, only natural that its adherents should be won, first and chiefly, among the countrymen of the prophet, and its further success in gaining over all the Iranian tribes gave it a national stamp. So the Susan translation of Darius Behistun inscrrption TThese ideas are strongly exposed in a polemic against the Christians contained in an official edict of the Persian creed to the Armenians by Mihr Narseh, the vizier of Yazdegerd IT.

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  • Thus the creed became a powerful factor in the development of an united Iranian nationality, That a.

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  • In the desert (as among the Arabian and Turanian nomads), in wild and sequestered mountains (as in Zagros in north Media, and Mysia, Pisidia, Paphlagonia and Bithynia in Asia Minor), and also in many Iranian tribes, the old tribal constitution, with the chieftain as its head, was left intact even under the imperial suzerainty.

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  • 4); and Arsaces, a chief of the Parni or Aparnian Iranian nomad tribe (therefore often called Dahan Scythians), inhabiting the steppe east of the Caspianmade himself master of the district of Parthia (q.v.) in 248 B.C. He and his brother Tiridates were the founders of the Parthian kingdom, which, however, was confined within very modest limits during the following decades.

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  • In other districts, also, rebellions occurred; and in the east, Euthydemus and his successors (Demetrius, Eucratidas, &c.) began the conquest of the Indus region and the Iranian borderland (Arachosia, Aria).

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  • Among the kings then following, only known to us from their coins, there appears a dynasty with Iranian and sometimes peculiarly Parthian names which seems to have reigned in the Punjab and Arachosia.

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  • Iranian divinities, however, predominate on his currency: Mithras (Mihro or Hel-ios); the Moon Mah (also Selene); Athro, the Fire; Orthragno (Verethragna); Pliarro =Farna (hvarna), the majesty of kingship; Teiro =Tir (Tistrya the archer); Nana (Nanaia); and others.

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  • How vital was the nomadic element rn the Parthian Empire is obvious from the fact that, in civil wars, the deposed kings conThe Iranian sistently took refuge among the Dahae or Scythians ~ and were restored by them.

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  • Even the kings, after the first two or three, wear their hair and beard long, in the Iranian fashion, whereas their predecessors are beardless.

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  • Further, the royal apotheosis, so common among them and recurring under the Sassanids, is probably not so much of Greek origin as a development of Iranian views.

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  • This gradual Iranianization of the Parthian Empire is shown by the fact that the subsequent Iranian traditions, and Firdousi in particular, apply the name of the Parthian magnates (Pahiavan) to the glorious heroes of the legendary epoch.

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  • A little later, the Alans, a great Iranian tribe in the south of Russiathe ancestors of the present-day Ossetsbroke for the first time through the Caucasian passes, and ravaged Media and Armeniaan incursion which they often repeated in the following centuries.

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  • This would show how the national Iranian element in the Parthian Empire was continually gathering strength.

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  • The Sassanian Empire, in fact, is once more a national Persian or Iranian Empire.

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  • The Sassanid ruler is the representative of the Kingly Majesty, derived from Ormuzd, which appears in the Avesla as the angel Kavaem Hvareno, the royal glory, and, according to legend, once beamed in the Iranian kings, unattainable to all but those of royal blood.

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  • As has already been indicated, it was in their religious attitudes that the essential difference lay between the Sassanid Empire and the older Iranian states.

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  • But, meanwhile, in its Iranian home and especially in Persis, the religion of Zoroaster lived a quiet life, undisturbed by the proceedings of the outside world.

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  • Subscription to the restored orthodox doctrine was to the Iranian a matter of course.

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  • In Armenia, also, Ardashir and Shapur, during the period of their occupation, sought to introduce the orthodox religion, destroyed the heathen imageseven those of the Iranian gods which were here considered heathenand turned the shrines into fire-altars (Gelzer, Ber.

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  • There the seat of its pontiff was at Samarkand; thence it penetrated into Central Atia, where, buried in the desert sands which entomb the cities of eastern Turkestan, numerous fragments of the works of Mani and his disciples, in the Persian language (Pahlavi) and Syrian script, and in an East Iranian dialect, called Sogdian, which was used by the Manichaeans of Central Asia, have been discovered (K.

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  • But there also developed a rather extensive Pahlavi literature, not limited to religious subjects, but containing works in belles letires, modernizations of the old Iranian sagas and native traditions, e.g.

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  • of Diodotus in 250 B.C., had undergone enlirely Sassanid different vicissitudes from the rest of Iran, was ~ o~ once more united to an Iranian Empire, and the Sassanid dominions, for the first time, passed the frontiers of the Arsacids.

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  • Persian (Iranian) Languages.TJnder the name of Persian is included the whole of that great family of languages occupying a field nearly coincident with the modern Iran, of which true Persian is simply the western division.

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  • It is therefore common and more correct to speak of the Iranian family.

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  • The province of the Iranian language is bounded on the west by the Semitic, on the north and north-east by the Ural-altaic or Turanian, and on the south-east by the kindred language of India.

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  • The Iranian languages form one of the great branches of the Indo-European stem, first recognized as such by Sir William Jones and Friedrich Schlegel.

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  • The Indo-European or Indo-Germanic languages are divided by Brugmann into (1) Aryan, with sub-branches (a) Indian, (b) Iranian; (2) Armenian; (3) Greek; (4) Albanian; (~) Italic; (6) Celtic; (7) Germanic, with sub-branches (a) Gothic, (b) Scandinavian, (c) West Germanic; and (8) Balto-Slavonic. (See INDO-EUROPEAN.) The Aryan family (called by Professor Sievers the Asiatic base-language) is subdivided into (1) Iranian (Eranian, or Erano-Aryan) languages, (2) Pisacha, or non-Sanskritic Indo-Aryan languages, (3) Indo-Aryan, or Sanskritic Indo-Aryan languages (for the last two see INDO-ARYAN) Iranian being also grouped into Persian and non-Persian.

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  • The common characteristics of all Iranian languages, whicF distinguish them especially from Sanskrit, are as follows:

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  • Our knowledge of the Iranian languages in older periods is too fragmentary to allow of our giving a complete account of this family and of its special historical development.

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  • Not only amongst Iranian languages, but amongst all the languages of the Indo-European group, Zend takes one of the very highest places in importance for the comparative philologist.

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  • A logical system of comparative exegesis, Ze led by constant reference to Sanskrit, its nearest ally, and to the her Iranian dialects, is the best means of recovering the lost of rise of the Zend texts.

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  • The other ancient tongues and dialects of s family are known only by name; we read of peculiar idioms Sogdiana, Zabulistan, Herat, &c. It is doubtful whether the guages of the Scythians, the Lycians and the Lydians, of which dly anything remains, were Iranian or not.

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  • But, nevertheless, New Persian has remained a language of genuine Iranian stock.

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  • Amongst modern languages and dialects other than Persian which must be also assigned to the Iranian family may be Modern mentioned: Dialects.

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  • Ossetic, true Iranian, in spite of its resemblance in sound to the Georgian.f 4.

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  • Pushlu (less accurately Afghan), which has certainly been increasingly influenced by the neighboring Indian languages in inflexion, syntax and vocabulary, but is still at bottom a pure Iranian language, not merely intermediate between Iranian.

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  • Some scholarl attribute it to the Iranian family; others prefer to regard it as a separate and independent member of the Indo-European group. Many words that at first sight seem to prove its Iranian origin arc only adopted from the Persian.8 (K.

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  • The death of Hgrun al-Rashid in the beginning of the 9th century, which marks the commencement of the decline of the caliphate, was at the same time the starting-point of movements for national independence and a national literature in the Iranian dominion, and the common cradle of the two was in the province of Khorkskn, between the Oxus and the Jaxartes.

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  • Full of enthusiasm for the glorious past of the old Iranian kingdom, he charged his court poet DalIil~i (Daqiqi), IMkIkI who openly professed in his ghazals the Zoroastrian creed, to turn the Khodinama, or Book of Kings, into Persian verse.

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  • When these old Iranian sources were almost exhausted, the difficulty was met in various ingenious ways.

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  • Perhaps prior in date to Firdousis Yusuf was his patron Unsuris romance, Wami~ u Adhra, a popular Iranian legend of great antiquity, which had been first written in verse under the Tahirid dynasty.

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  • the dynasty of Iranian origin which ruled at Samosata, described by Strabo (l.c.) as a fortified city in a very fertile if not extensive district, allied itself with the Seleucids, and bore the dynastic name of Antiochus.

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  • The ever-restless Baluchi language belongs to the Iranian branch of the Aryan subfamily of the Indo-European family.

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  • He collected a number of words and phrases in use among them which show clearly that their language, though not unaffected by Iranian influence, was still essentially a form of Gothic.

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  • The Pisaca languages are Aryan by origin, but are neither Iranian nor Indo - Aryan.

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  • The Hindus believe he has appeared (I) as a fish, (2) as a tortoise, (3) as a hog, (4) as a monster, half man half lion, to destroy the giant Iranian, (5) as a dwarf, (6) as Rama, (7) again as Rama for the purpose of killing the thousand-armed giant Cartasuciriargunan, (8) as Krishna, (9) as Buddha.

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  • The most important of all, the 19th Yasht, gives a consecutive account of the Iranian heroic saga in great broad lines, together with a prophetic presentment of the end of this world.

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  • Ancient Balkh or Bactriana was a province of the Achaemenian empire, and probably was occupied in great measure by a race of Iranian blood.

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  • The kings soon became dependants of the Parthians; their names are mostly Arabic (Bekr, Abgar, Ma`nu), but among them occur some Iranian (Parthian) names, as Pacorus and Phratamaspates.

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  • Of the stages in the occupation of the Iranian table-land by the Aryan people nothing is known, the people themselves having apparently no tradition of a time when they did not hold these territories (Spiegel, Arische Periode, p. 319).

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  • The distinctions between Sanskrit and Iranian are also clear.

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  • (1) The Aryan voiced aspirates gh, dh, bh, which survive in Sanskrit, are confused in Iranian with original g, d, b, and further changes take place in the language of the later parts of the Avesta; (2) the Aryan breathed aspirates kh, Hz, ph, except in combination with certain consonants, become spirants in Iranian; (3) Aryan s becomes h initially before vowels in Iranian and also in certain cases medially, Iranian in these respects resembling Greek (cf.

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  • eka-; Zend aeva-; Old Persian aiva-, where the Iranian group has the same stem as that seen in the Greek ot(F)o-s, "alone."

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  • Dr Grierson has shown in his monograph on "The Pisaca Languages of North-Western India" (Royal Asiatic Society, 1906) that there is good reason for regarding various dialects of the north-western frontier (Kafiristan, Chitral, Gilgit, Dardistan) as a separate group descended from Aryan but independent of either Sanskrit or Iranian.

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  • When settled they are mostly designated Sarts - a name which has reference more to manner of life than to anthropological classification, although a much stronger admixture of Iranian blood is evident in the Sarts, who also speak Persian at Khojent and Samarkand.

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  • Geographically, Armenia is a continuation westward of the great Iranian plateau.

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  • Through its long valleys run the roads that connect the Iranian plateau with the fertile lands and protected harbours of Asia Minor, and for its possession nations have contended from the remotest past.

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  • The names of the other kingsAbgar, Ma`nu, Bekr, &c. - are for the most part Arabic, as the people (in whose inscriptions the same mixture of names occurs) are called by classical authors; but the rulers, among whom an occasional Iranian name betrays the influence of the dominant Parthians, 13 would hardly maintain their distinctness from the Aramaic populace.

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  • A dose of opium sells for 5,000 Iranian rials (60 US cents).

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  • And he had no riposte to the Iranian missiles raining down on Baghdad.

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  • This, and the death sentance from the Iranian theocracy was not condemned by any prominent moslem spokespersons.

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  • How can we turn our backs when the Iranian regime attempts to subvert the newborn democracies in Iraq and Afghanistan?

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  • Robbed of threats from America the Iranian theocracy would struggle to maintain enough popular support to survive.

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  • On the syntactic level, Heston (1976) studies the comparative typology of Middle Iranian languages, viz.

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  • One of those traditions is hejab, or modest Islamic dress, the ubiquitous symbol of Iranian women.

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  • While you are reading this, the Iranian reactor produces enriched bomb-grade uranium.

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  • Saddam underestimated the Iranian resistance, typified by young zealots pouring across mine fields to attack Iraqi troops who had occupied their land.

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  • This is why Caviar connoisseurs prefer Russian and Iranian brands, as both of these nations border the sea.

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  • Add it to anything you want to give a golden color as well as Indian, Iranian, and Thai foods.

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  • This type of rice cooker is used to create specially-prepared rice for certain Persian or Iranian dishes that feature rice with a slightly crisped bottom.

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  • This speculation is clearly a development of that which the Iranian cosmology has to tell about the battles between Ahura-Mazda and Angro-Mainyu (Ormuzd and Ahriman).

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  • Towards the close of the 3rd century two great religions stood opposed to one another in western Europe, one wholly Iranian, namely Mithraism, the other of Jewish origin, but not without Iranian elements, part and parcel probably of, the Judaism which gave it birth, namely Christianity.

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  • We saw the results of this in the 2009 Iranian protests, when these devices captured and relayed powerful, real-time images of events.

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  • Thence he at last ascended upon the Iranian plateau.

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  • The people of the interior are mostly of the old Iranian stock, and there are also a few nomads of the Turkish Baharlu tribe which came to Persia in the lath century when the province was subdued by a Turkish chief.

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  • Of the 131,361 inhabitants in 1897 the Talyshes (35,000) form the aboriginal element, belonging to the Iranian family, and speaking an independently developed language closely related to Persian.

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  • Thence he at last ascended upon the Iranian plateau.

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  • If we assume, as we must needs do, that the opinions which Basilides promulgates as the teaching of the "barbari" (Acta Archelai c. 55) were in fact his own, the fragments prove him to have been a decided dualist, and his teaching an interesting further development of oriental (Iranian) dualism.

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