Iran sentence example

iran
  • But in the middle of the 1st century B.C. the whole of eastern Iran and western India belonged to the great "Indo-Scythian" empire.
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  • Thus the Kushanas were reduced to eastern Iran, where they had to fight against the Sassanids.
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  • In 316 Antigonus had defeated and killed Eumenes and made himself supreme from the Aegean to Iran, and Cassander had 1 For details see separate articles on the chief generals.
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  • Zoroastrianism was the national religion of Iran, but it was not permanently restricted to the Iranians, being professed by Turanians as well.
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  • (c. 88 B.C.) he was made king by the Sacaraucae, a Mongolian tribe who had invaded Iran in 76 B.C. He was eighty years old and reigned seven years; his successor was his son Phraates III.
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  • The non-Aryan population of Iran itself has been discussed above.
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  • The later tradition and the Shahname of Firdousi makes him (in the modern form Kai Gushtasp) king of Iran.
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  • In the interior of Asia Minor Seleucus maintained himself, and when Ptolemy returned to Egypt he recovered Northern Syria and the nearer provinces of Iran.
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  • Philopator (reigned 187-176), consisted of Syria (now including Cilicia and Palestine), Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Nearer Iran (Media and Persis).
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  • (c. 170-138) had to fight hard with the Greeks of Bactria, especially with Eucratides; at last he was able to conquer a great part of eastern Iran.
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  • In the east of Iran the novel creed first acquired a solid footing, and subsequently reacted with success upon the West.
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  • With the Romans he maintained peace, but he tried to keep down the Ephthalites, who began to conquer eastern Iran.
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  • About the same time similar peoples harassed the northern frontier of Iran, where they were called Saka (Sacae), and in later times Saka and Scyths, whether they were originally the same or not, were regarded as synonymous.
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  • Thus we have in the northern hemisphere the Sahara desert, the deserts of Arabia, Iran, Turan, Takla Makan and Gobi, and the desert regions of the Great Basin in North America; and in the southern hemisphere the Kalahari desert in Africa, the desert of Australia, and the desert of Atacama in South America.
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  • - The colonizing activity of Alexander and his successors found a large field in Iran where, up till his time, hardly any walled towns seem to have existed.
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  • In Eastern Iran the cities which are its chief places to-day then bore Greek names, and looked upon Alexander or some other Hellenic prince as their founder.
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  • The bulk of Greek historical literature having perished, and in the absence of both archaeological data from Iran, we can only speculate on the inner life of these Greek cities under a strange sky.
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  • The state of things which prevails in modern Afghanistan, where trade is in the hands of a class distinct in race and speech (Persian in this case) from the ruling race of fighters is very probably analogous to that which we should have found in Iran under the Parthians.'
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  • It is enough then here to observe that Iran and Babylonia do, as a matter of fact, continually yield the explorer objects of workmanship either Greek or influenced by Greek models, belonging to the age after Alexander, and that we may hence infer at any rate such an influence of Hellenism upon the tastes of the richer classes as would create a demand for these things.
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  • Modern authors have often used the name in a wider sense, as the designation of the whole eastern part of Iran.
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  • As there can be scarcely any doubt that it was in these regions, where the fertile soil of the mountainous country is everywhere surrounded and limited by the Turanian desert, that the prophet Zoroaster preached and gained his first adherents, and that his religion spread from here over the western parts of Iran, the sacred language in which the Avesta, the holy book of Zoroastrianism, is written, has often been called "old Bactrian."
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  • The eastern part of Iran seems to have been the region where the Aryans lived as long as they formed one people, and whence they separated into Indians and Iranians.
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  • The Iranian tradition, preserved in the Avesta and in Firdousi's Shahnama, localizes a part of its heroes and myths in the east of Iran, and has transformed the old gods who fight with the great snake into kings of Iran who fight with the Turanians.
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  • The only historical fact which we can learn from the Iranian tradition is that the contrast and the feud between the peasants of Iran and the nomads of Turan was as great in old times as it is now: it is indeed based upon the natural geographical conditions, and is therefore eternal.
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  • But the whole Assyrian history of Ctesias is nothing but a fantastic fiction; from the Assyrian inscriptions we know that the Assyrians never entered the eastern parts of Iran.
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  • Diodotus and his successors were able to maintain themselves against the attacks of the Seleucids; and when Antiochus III., "the Great," had been defeated by the Romans (190 B.C.), the Bactrian king Euthydemus and his son Demetrius crossed the Hindu Kush and began the conquest of eastern Iran and the Indus valley.
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  • In 159 B.C., according to Chinese sources, they entered Sogdiana, in 139 they conquered Bactria, and during the next generation they had made an end to the Greek rule in eastern Iran.
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  • But when the Sassanian empire was overthrown by the Arabs, the conquerors immediately advanced eastwards, and in a few years Bactria and the whole Iran to the banks of the Jaxartes had submitted to the rule of the caliph and of Islam.
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  • The Oxus figures in Persian romantic history as the limit between Iran and Turan, but the substratum of settled population to the north as well as the south was probably of Iranian lineage.
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  • This idea has its original source in the apocalypses of Iran, for these are based upon the conflict between Ahura-Mazda (Auramazda, Ormazd) and Angro-Mainyush (Ahriman) and its consummation at the end of the world.
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  • Ptolemy marched triumphantly into the heart of the Seleucid realm, as far at any rate as Babylonia, and received the formal submission of the provinces of Iran, while his fleets in the Aegean recovered what his father had lost upon the seaboard, and made fresh conquests as far as Thrace.
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  • In consequence of the defeat which they here sustained, the Persians were forced to abandon the western portion of their empire and limit themselves to Iran proper.
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  • The most important event in the protracted war which led to the conquest of Iran, was the battle of Nehawend in 641; 2 the most obstinate resistance was offered by Persis proper, and especially by the capital, Istakhr (Persepolis).
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  • But the idea of Law was generalized in the figure of Rita (what is " fitted " or " fixed "; or the " course " or " path " which is traversed), whose Zend equivalent asha shows that the conception had been reached before the separation of the Eastern Aryans produced the migrations into India and Iran.'
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  • Ancient Ethnograp/iy.In historical times we find the major portion of Iran occupied by peoples of Indo-European origin, terming themselves Aryans (Arya; Zend, Airya) and their language Aryanso in the inscriptions of Dariusthe same name, which is used by the consanguineous tribes of India who were their nearest relations.
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  • Besides the Iranians, numerous tribes of alien origin were found in Iran.
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  • From the region of the steppes the Aryans must have penetrated into the cultivable land of Eastern Iran: thence one part spread over the district of the Indus, then on again to the Ganges; another moved westward to Zagros and the borders of the Semitic world.
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  • None the less, the Assyrian statements with regard to the Medes demonstrate that the Iranians must have reached the west of Iran before 900 B.C. It is probable that at this period the Persians also were domiciled in their later home, even though we have no direct evidence to adduce.
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  • Trita, generally replaced by Indra, Iran.
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  • These legends have lived and flourished in Iran at every period of its history; and neither the religion of Zoroaster, nor yet Islam, has availed to suppress them.
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  • The old gods and mythical figures reappear as heroes and kings, and their battles are fought no longer in heaven but upon earth, where they are localized for the most part in the east of Iran.
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  • In these traits are engrained the general conditions of history and culture, under which the Iranians lived: on the one hand, the contrast between Iranian and Turanian; on the other, the dominating position of Babylon, which influenced most strongly the civilization and religion of Iran.
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  • We cannot deduce from them a conquest of Iran from Babylon: for the Babylonians never set foot in Iran and even the Assyrians merely conquered the western portior of Media.
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  • The new gods created by Iran are ethical powers; those of India, abstractions of worship (brahman) or of philosophy (atman).
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  • And here wi may take it as certain that the scene of his activity was laid ir the east of Iran, in Bactria and its neighboring regions.
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  • The west of Iran is scarcely ever regarded in the Avesta, while the districts and rivers of the east are often named.
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  • Thus it cannot be doubted that the king Vishtaspa, who received Zoroasters doctrine and protected him, must have ruled in eastern Iran: though strangely enough scholars can still be found to identify him with the homonymous Persian Hystaspes, the father of Darius.
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  • The possibility that Zoroaster himself was not a native of East Iran,but had immigrated thither (from Rhagae?), is of course always to be considered; and this theory has been used to explain the phenomenon that the Gathas, of his own composition, are written in a different dialect from the rest of the Avesta.
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  • On this hypothesis, the former would be his mother-tongue: the latter the speech of eastern Iran.
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  • The motive of this, indeed, is to be found in the sanctity of Earth, which must not be polluted by a corpse; but its origin is evidently to be traced in a barbaric custom of ni~madic or semi-nomadic tribes who leave the dead to lie on the steppe; and we know from Greek sources that this custom was widely diffused among the tribes of eastern Iran.
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  • How the doctrine overspread the whole of Iran, we do not know.
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  • To the east, the Median Empire extended far over Iran, even the Persians owning its sway.
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  • The east of Iran was further subdued, and, after Cyrus met his end (528 B.C.) in a war against the eastern Nomads (Dahae, Massagetae), his son Cambyses conquered Egypt (525 B.C.).
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  • These traits are most clearly marked in Judaism; but, after the Achaemenid period, they are common to all Oriental creeds, though our information as to most is scanty in the extreme, In this competition of religions that of Iran played a most spirited part.
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  • The annexation of Iran by Seleucus Nicator led to a war for the countries on the Indian frontier; his opponent being Sandracottus or Chandragupta Maurya, the founder Seleucus I.
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  • These disturbances severely affected the borders of Iran.
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  • During these wars great changes had taken place in eastern Iran.
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  • From Bactria they tried to advance farther into Iran and India.
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  • The countries west of the Euphrates never owned its dominion, and even of Iran itself not one half was subject to the Arsacids.
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  • Then with the Caspian Gatesthe pass between Elburz and the central desert, through which lay the route from west Iran to east Iranthe upper provinces begin; (8) Choarene and (9)
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  • Simultaneously there arose in the East the powerful Indo-Scythian empire of the Kushana, which doubtless limited still further the Parthian possessions in eastern Iran.
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  • Nevertheless Shapur I., in contrast to his father, assumed the title King of the kings of the Iranians and non-Iranians (/3ainXeis f3a~ltX&op Apiae&,e ical Avaptavh; shah an shah Iran we Aniran), thus emphasizing his claim to world dominion.
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  • It was of fundamental importance that the Sassanian Empire could not make good its claim to world dominion; and, in spite of the title of its kings, it always remained essentially the kingdom of Iranor rather west Iran, together with the districts on the Tigris and Euphrates.
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  • The empire, which in extent did not exceed that of the Arsacids with its vassal states, was protected on the east and west by the great Mlii deserts of central Iran and Mesopotamia.
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  • After that Manichaeism was persecuted and extirpated in Iran.
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  • But little by little it vanished from Iran, with the exception of a few remnants (chiefly in the oasis of Yezd), the faithful finding a refuge in India at Bombay.
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  • 632, with the accession of Yazdegerd III., the last king of their faith and the last lawful sovereign of Iran, on whom rested the god-given Royal Glory of Ormuzd.
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  • The last, according to Watson, becarns settled in Iran and Turan, and seem at first to have given then name to all the tribe.
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  • Every member of his family and every friend was ordered to be massacred by Aga Mahommed; and the successful miscreant thus founded the dynasty of the Kajars at the price of all the best and noblest blood of Iran.
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  • Persian (Iranian) Languages.TJnder the name of Persian is included the whole of that great family of languages occupying a field nearly coincident with the modern Iran, of which true Persian is simply the western division.
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  • From antiquity we have sufficient knowledge of two dialects, the first belonging to eastern Iran, the second to western.
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  • But the home of the Zend language was certainly in eastern Iran; all attempts to seek it farther weste.g.
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  • (A place Taoce is mentioned by Nearchus, by Strabo and by Ptolemy.) They are a fine manly race of people, in many respects superior to their modern compatriots of Iran.
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  • The modern name Iran, in middle-Persian Eran (a form preferred by many German authors) is derived from the ancient Aryana, " the country of the Aryans," i.e.
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  • For the ethnography and history of Iran see PERSIA.
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  • According to the Arda-Viraf--Nama the religion revealed through Zoroaster has subsisted in its purity for 300 years, when Iskander Rumi (Alexander the Great) invaded and devastated Iran, and burned the Avesta which, written on cowhides with golden ink, was preserved in the archives at Persepolis.
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  • Opinions differ greatly as to the precise age of the original texts brought together by subsequent redactors: according to some, they are pre-Achaemenian; according to Darmesteter's former opinion, they were written in Media under the Achaemenian dynasty; according to some, their source must be sought in the east, according to others, in the west of Iran.
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  • The original country of the religion, and the seat of the Avesta language, .ought perhaps to be sought rather in the east of Iran (Seistan and the neighbouring districts).
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  • The geography of the Avesta points both to the east and the west, particularly the north-west of Iran, but with a decided tendency to gravitate towards the east.
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  • The language of the Avesta travelled with the Zoroastrian religion and with the main body of the priesthood, in all probability, that is to say, from east to west; within the limits of Iran it became international.
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  • But as a religious book - the most important document of the Zoroastrian faith, and the sole literary monument of ancient Iran - the Avesta occupies a prominent position in the literature of the world.
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  • It is now used uniformly by scholars to indicate the Eastern branch as a whole, a compound, Indo-Aryan, being employed for that part of the Eastern branch which settled in India to distinguish them from the Iranians (Iran is of the same origin), who remained in Bactria and Persia, while Aryo-Indian is sometimes employed to distinguish the Indian people of this stock from the Dravidian and other stocks which also inhabit parts of the Indian peninsula.
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  • A new seminary of logic and theology sprang up at Nisibis, not far from the old locality; and at Gandisapora (or Nishapur), in the east of Persia, there arose a medical school, whence Greek medicine, and in its company Greek science and philosophy, ere long spread over the lands of Iran.
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  • The ancient Drangiana (Zaraya, Daranka, " lake land ") received the name of " land of the Sacae " after this country was permanently occupied by the " Scythians " or Sacae, who overran Iran in 128 B.C. It was included in the Sassanian empire, and then in the empire of the caliphs.
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  • Ardashir extirpated the whole race of the Arsacids, with the exception of those princes who had found refuge in Armenia, and in many wars, in which, however, as the Persian tradition shows, he occasionally suffered heavy defeats, he succeeded in subjugating the greater part of Iran, Susiana and Babylonia.
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  • On the other hand the genealogy of Ardashir has of course been connected with the Achaemenids, on whose behalf he exacts vengeance from the Parthians, and with the legendary kings of old Iran.
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  • Tehran also demanded security assurances against a nuclear attack on Iran.
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  • The second is Iran's efforts to assemble the capability to build an atomic bomb.
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  • At first, the main network was the existing sh ay kh í network throughout Iran.
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  • Is it US consumers tightening belts or uncertainty over Iran and possible UN resolutions causing markets to get jittery?
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  • During 2001, Russian entities remained a significant source of dual-use biotechnology, chemicals, production technology, and equipment for Iran.
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  • Thu 22 Jul 2004 blah blah Iraq blah blah death Posted by StopsAtGreen under political Halliburton probed over ' illegal ' trade with Iran.
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  • Iran's several nuclear bombs can inflict more damage on America than the World War II.
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  • Iran already opened commodity bourse - only in euro.
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  • Next month, Iran is scheduled to shift its:: petrodollars into a euro-based bourse.
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  • The administrationâs success with Iran ends the diplomatic charade and paves the way for war.
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  • In Iran, the fundamentalist cleric Ayatollah Khomeini set out to restore a regime that had last existed almost 1,300 years ago.
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  • Some say the most convincing explanation of his WMD is, as Tariq Aziz once confided, to prepare for revenge against Iran.
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  • Clinton's policy has been the dual containment of Iraq and Iran.
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  • In November 2003, the board strongly deplored Iran's failures and breaches of its safeguards obligations.
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  • In April 2006, Iran said it shot down a U.S. surveillance drone flying over the country.
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  • Evidence during the current reporting period showed that Chinese firms still provided dual-use CW-related production equipment and technology to Iran.
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  • Chinese firms have in the past supplied dual-use CW-related production equipment and technology to Iran.
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  • Ur-Nammu founded the empire, which stretched into Iran.
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  • British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw is defending Britain's policy of what is called " constructive engagement " with Iran's Islamic government.
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  • Zarbang is a world percussion ensemble representing the finest percussionists from Iran and Afghanistan.
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  • Turkey acts as a buffer against potential Russian expansionism, and as a counterweight to rogue states such as Iraq, Iran and Syria.
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  • According to the London-based International Institute of Strategic Studies, Iran will have enough fissile nuclear material to make a bomb within three years.
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  • Further, Iran views the SCO as a potential guarantor of future security, experts say.
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  • After all, a nuclear-armed Iran would forestall American gunboat diplomacy in the oil-rich Gulf.
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  • When IAEA inspectors visited the site in February 2003, Iran claimed that it planned to produce heavy water for export to other countries.
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  • Iran is a friendly place, where people offer travelers hospitality whenever the chance comes.
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  • All Iran is buzzing about the Mahdi, the 12th imam and the role Iran and Ahmadinejad are playing in his anticipated return.
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  • This was part of a series of measures undertaken by Iraq to punish Kurdish insurgents for allying with Iran during the war.
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  • Left to his own devices he would have exported far greater quantities of lethal materiel to both Iran and Iraq.
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  • Moderate scenario Let us begin with a relatively moderate scenario Let us begin with a relatively moderate scenario: Iran acquires nuclear weapons, but doesn't (immediately) use them.
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  • Iran's antipathy toward the West did not spontaneously generate out of the crazed rhetoric of radical mullahs.
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  • He added that Iran is on schedule to develop a nuclear bomb by 2005.
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  • Iran may be able to produce a nuclear bomb by 2010, the London-based International Institute of Strategic Studies estimated on May 24.
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  • There are literally dozens of perfectly valid reasons why Iran would want nukes.
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  • Imagine for a moment that you are a senior official in Iran's foreign ministry.
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  • President Gerald Ford in the 1970s even offered to sell him equipment which would allow Iran to extract plutonium from reactor fuel.
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  • Once enough plutonium has been produced, Iran could build nuclear weapons in a short time.
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  • Understanding the dynamics of Iran's relations with its neighbors helps explain why Iran feels able to resist Western pressure.
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  • Contrast that to less technologically complex parts of Turkey, Iran, China, or Central or South America hit by similar magnitude quakes.
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  • A liter of regular gasoline in Iran currently costs just 800 rials (9 cents; 5p ).
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  • The country also has a few salt marshes at the limits of the Helmand drainage on the western border with Iran.
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  • North Korea sees that Iran has been more dangerously seductive of late.
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  • This must cause the same amount of right-lateral shear in eastern Iran.
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  • Shia leaders in lebanon and is financed and supplied by iran.
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  • Iran has the strength needed to create its current stalemate with the West.
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  • The package of incentives and penalties, backed by six world powers, seeks to defuse a standoff over Iran's nuclear program.
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  • The benefits of our policy are evident in the current standoff with Iran.
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  • By adopting the hat of the famous Parthian ruler, Ardashir is declaring himself as the rightful successor to the kingdom of Iran.
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  • The last Great Seljuk sultan of Western Iran died in battle in 1194 when the Great Seljuks were defeated by the Mongols.
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  • However, relatively few studies have attempted to unravel the local and regional scale tectonics of Iran.
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  • Russian co-operation could be crucial for keeping Iran's atomic energy industry within the bounds of the non-proliferation treaty.
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  • You will not enrich uranium, he has told Iran.
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  • The President declared: " Iran has discovered reserves and extracted uranium.
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  • Iran claims its centrifuge program is designed to produce low-enriched uranium, to support Iran's civil nuclear power program.
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  • Iran has acknowledged the production of uranium metal, uranyl nitrate, ammonium uranyl carbonate, UO2 pellets and uranium wastes.
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  • Hence Nabataeans became the Arabic name for Aramaeans, whether in Syria or Iran, a fact which has been incorrectly held to prove that the Nabataeans were originally Aramaean immigrants from Babylonia.
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  • In these further provinces of Iran the Macedonian invader had for the first time to encounter a serious national opposition, for in the west the Iranian rule had been merely the supremacy of an alien power over native populations indifferent or hostile.
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  • But Eastern tradition, so tenacious of the old myths of primitive man, has a short memory for actual history, and five centuries later Alexander was only remembered in Iran as the accursed destroyer of the sacred books, whose wisdom he had at the same time pilfered by causing translations to be made into "Roman."
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  • The new Sassanid Empire which he founded enforced the restored religion of Zoroaster (Zarathustra) on the whole of Iran.
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  • Fars is the same word as the Greek Persis, and, originally the name of only a part of the Persian empire (Iran), has become the name which Europeans have applied to the whole (see PERS1s).
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  • With Iran Antioch was connected most directly by the road which crossed the Euphrates at the Zeugma and went through Edessa and Antioch-Nisibis to the Tigris.
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  • Finally, in the person of Vishtaspa, who seems to have been a prince resident in east Iran, he gained the powerful protector and faithful disciple of the new religion whom he desired - though after almost superhuman dangers and difficulties, which the later books depict in lively colours.
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  • The formal elegance and conventional grace, alike of thought and of expression, so characteristic of Persian classical literature, pervade the works of the best Ottoman writers, and they are likewise imbued, though in a less degree, with that spirit of mysticism which runs through so much of the poetry of Iran.
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  • Conversely the Asuras, whose name in Iran is the title of the supreme god (ahura, aura), have in India degenerated to evil spirits.
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  • Thus the tribal distinctions began to recede, and the ground was prepared for that amalgamation of the Iranians into a single, uniform nation, which under the Sassanids was completely perfectedat least for west of Iran.
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  • The success of this policy was, however, only apparent, especially in Iran, the inhabitants of which adopted Islam only in the most superficial manner, and it was from Persia that the blow fell which destroyed the Omayyad caliphate and set up the Abbasids in its place (see CALIPHATE).
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  • Persian writers have given us, besides, an immense variety of universal histories of the world, with many curious and noteworthy data (see, among others, Mirkhonds and Khwandamirs works under MIRKHOND); histories of Mahomet and the first caliphs, partly translated from Arabic originals, which have been lost; detailed accounts of all the Persian dynasties, from the Ghaznevids to the still reigning Kajars, of Jenghiz Khan and the Moguls (in Juwainis and Wa~fs elaborate Tarlkhs), and of TImr and his successors (see an account of the Zafarnama under PETIS DE LA CRoIx); histories of sects and creeds, especially the famous Dohiistdn, or School of Manners (translated by Shea and Troyer, Paris 1843); and many local chronicles of Iran and Turan.
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  • It 's to ratchet up the international pressure on Iran.
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  • A liter of regular gasoline in Iran currently costs just 800 rials (9 cents; 5p).
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  • These rigorous inspections have found nothing to suggest that Iran is attempting to build nuclear weapons.
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  • Iraq and Iran blame each other for their ruinous war and each sees the outcome as a victory.
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  • The Shi'a coalition, closely linked to Iran, won just short of half the seats in the new parliament.
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  • Hezbollah was founded by iran and shia leaders in lebanon and is financed and supplied by iran.
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  • In contrast the UK is asking Iran to ignore her uranium enrichment activities which is awarded to all NPT signatories.
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  • Iran Iran remained the most active state sponsor of terrorism in 2003.
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  • The package of incentives and penalties, backed by six world powers, seeks to defuse a standoff over Iran 's nuclear program.
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  • Imagine the current nuclear standoff with the West caused Iran to shut off their oil supply... The oil price would go BERSERK.
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  • It called for Iran to cooperate more in its investigation and to suspend uranium enrichment.
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  • Russian co-operation could be crucial for keeping Iran 's atomic energy industry within the bounds of the non-proliferation treaty.
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  • The group had also issued an ultimatum letter to world leaders, demanding they void all contracts with Iran by June 16.
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  • The President declared: Iran has discovered reserves and extracted uranium.
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  • Iran will try to create a vassal state, the source says.
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  • Hamadan (also called Hamedan) is thought to be one of the oldest cities in Iran, and today is a major city west of Tehran.
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  • It's a popular fruit in Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey, India, Africa and nearby countries.
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  • Saffron adds a very distinct flavor, and for some dishes, such as Spain's paella or Iran's chelow kabab, it is essential.
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  • Persian Rugs: Persian rugs are hand-woven and are produced in Iran and the region that was known as Persia.
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  • When speaking about oriental area rugs, the term refers to rug designs with influences from a large portion of Asia, from as far east as China, all the way to Pakistan, Turkey, Iran and India, including what was formerly known as Persia.
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  • In Iran, the paisley design is widely used today and blended with gold threads for an elaborate and formal fabric.
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  • Now Iran is threatening production reductions.
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  • One recent project for a traveling installation by Tom Loughlin called Pictures of You: Images From Iran was different.
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  • I had total freedom to design, animate, program and promote artwork that helped show that the people of Iran are human and that the American people aren't all heartless.
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  • Despite the best efforts of Iran's rabblerousing President and our talk radio hosts to convince us all otherwise.
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  • The pursuit had brought Alexander into that region of mountains to the south of the Caspian which connects western Iran with the provinces to the east of the great central desert.
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  • As Zoroaster probably preached his religion in eastern Iran, Vishtaspa must have been a dynast in Bactria or Sogdiana.
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  • Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Iran or Persia, Armenia and the provinces of Asia Minor occupy this high region, with which they are nearly conterminous.
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  • The eastern provinces of Iran went in 240 or thereabouts, when the Greek Diodotus made himself an independent king in Bactria(q.v.) and Sogdiana, and Tiridates, brother of Arsaces, a " Scythian " chieftain, conquered Parthia (so Arrian, but see Parthia).
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  • The Balkan hill-peoples of Illyrian or Thracian stock, the hill-peoples of Asia Minor and Iran, the chivalry of Media and Bactria, the mounted bowmen of the Caspian steppes, the camel-riders of the Arabian desert, could all be turned to account.
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  • In the more recent hymns of the Rig-Veda and in later India, on the other hand, only evil spirits are understood by asuras, while in Iran the corresponding word ahura was, and ever has continued to be, the designation of God the Lord.
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  • Similar movements from the same regions appear also to have penetrated Iran itself; hence the resemblance between the dress and daggers of certain classes of warriors on the sculptures of Persepolis and those shown on the Kul Oba vase.
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  • Similar wars were going on against the mountain tribes of Armenia and Iran, especially against the Cadusians on the Caspian Sea.
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  • Nevertheless his descendants were left in possession of their ancestor's dominions; and till 1170 Kerman, to which belonged also the opposite coast of Oman, enjoyed a well-ordered government, except for a short interruption caused by the deposition of Iran Shah, who had embraced the tenets of the Ismailites, and was put to death (IIoi) in accordance with a fatwa of the ulema.
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  • The west of Iran slipped from the Seleucids in the course of the 2nd century B.C. to be joined to the Parthian kingdom, or fall under petty native dynasties.
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  • But the account of Chosroes' mode of action makes it plain that the Hellenism once planted in Iran had withered away; representatives of Greek learning and skill have all to be imported from across the frontier.
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  • The whole country is designated Ariana (Zend, Airyana) the land Descent of the Aryans the original of the Middle-Persian of the Eran and the modern Iran; the Greek geo- 1rau1ma~ui~, graphers Eratosthenes and Strabo were in error when they limited the name to the eastern districts of Iran.
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  • The Aryans of Iran are divided into numerous tribes; these, again, being subdivided into minor tribes and clans.
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  • Still they were never counted as a portion of Iran or the Iranians.
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  • In 1980, Iran closed the universities.
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  • Political and Administrative Divisions.The empire of Persia, officially known as Mamalik i Mahruseh i Iran, the protected kingdoms of Persia, is divided into a number of provinces, which, when large, and containing important sub-provinces and districts, are called mamlikat, kingdom, when smaller, vilayat and ayalat, and are ruled by governors-general and governors appointed by and directly responsible to the Crown, These provinces are further divided into sub-provinces, vilayats districts, sub-districts and parishes, buluk, na/ziyeh, mahal, and towns, cities, parishes and villages, shehr, kassabeh, mahalleh diii, which are ruled by lieutenant-governors and other functionaries appointed by and responsible to the governors.
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