How to use Irak in a sentence
A little south of Samarra the stony plateau of Mesopotamia ends, and the alluvial plain of Irak, ancient Babylonia, begins.
It was from a remote period, antedating certainly 3000 B.C., the highway of empire and of commerce between east and west, more specifically between Babylonia or Irak and Syria, and numerous empires, peoples and civilizations have left their records on its shores.
His "Book of Kings" was completed in the year 260 of the Hegira, and was freely circulated in Khorasan and Irak.
Firdousi, to avoid further troubles, departed for Ahwaz, a province of the Persian Irak, and dedicated his Yusuf and Zuleikha to the governor of that district.
This is one of four similar Jewish shrines in Irak; the others being the tomb of Ezra on the Shatt el-Arab near Korna, the tomb of Ezekiel in the village of Kefil near Kufa, and the well of Daniel near Hillah.Advertisement
Those utilized were the Kaoshan (the "Hindu Kush" pass par excellence), 14,340 ft.; the Chahardar (13,900 ft.), which is a link in one of the amir of Afghanistan's high roads to Turkestan; and the Shibar (9800 ft.), which is merely a diversion into the upper Ghorband of that group of passes between Bamian and the Kabul plains which are represented by the Irak, Hajigak, Unai, &c. About this point it is geographically correct to place the southern extremity of the Hindu Kush, for here commences the Koh-i-Baba system into which the Hindu Kush is merged.
Tha`alibi, a writer of the 11th century, says that Askar-Mokram had no equal for the quality and quantity of its sugar, " notwithstanding the great production of `Irak, Jorjan and India."
To this end he expelled the Christians from Nejran and gave them lands in Syria and Irak, where they were allowed to live in peace on payment of tribute.
In 985 they were completely defeated in Irak, and soon after lost control of the pilgrimages.
Jarir of another branch of the Bani Tamim lived in Irak and courted the favour of Hajjaj, its governor.Advertisement
With regard to the history of Irak in particular he was deemed to have the best information, and for this subject he is Tabari's chief source, just as Madaini, a younger contemporary of Wagidi, is followed by preference in all that relates to Khorasan.
In Irak the two towns of Basra and Kufa produced two rival schools of philologists.
He was a scholar of the traditionalist Bukhari, and in his search for traditions travelled through Khorasan, Irak and Hejaz.
The city possesses five gates, two on the northern face, the Kutab-chak near the north-east angle of the wall, and the Malik at the re-entering angle of the Ark-i-nao; and three others in the centres of the remaining faces, the Irak gate on the west, the Kandahar gate on the south and the Kushk gate on the east face.
The Irak of Persia was overcome by Khalid in a single campaign, and there was also a successful expedition into Syria.Advertisement
Thus for example the scholia on Jarir furnished him with a remarkable notice of the prevalence of Buddhist doctrine and asceticism in `Irak under the Omayyads.
Since then it has formed an integral part of the Turkish administration of Irak.
Sometimes it is under the governor-general of the Isfahan province, at others it forms part of the province of Irak, and at times, as in 1906, is under a governor appointed from Teheran.
After this victory the three princes Toghrul Beg, Chakir Beg and Ibrahim Niyal separated in different directions and conquered the Mahommedan provinces east of the Tigris; the last named, after conquering Hamadan and the province of Jebel (Irak i Ajami), penetrated as early as 1048, with fresh Ghuzz troops, into Armenia and reached Manzikert, Erzerutn and Trebizond.
After the death of Mahommed, Sinjar became the real head of the family, though Irak acknowledged Mahmud, the son of Mahommed.Advertisement
Thus there originated a separate dynasty of Irak with its capital at Hamadan (Ecbatana); but Sinjar during his long reign often interfered in the affairs of the new dynasty, and every occupant of the throne had to acknowledge his supremacy.
This chief inherited his possessions; Toghrul was the last representative of the Seljuks of Irak.
Kilij Arslan took possession of Mosul in 1107, and declared himself independent of the Seljuks of Irak; but in the same year he was drowned in the Khaboras through the treachery of his own amirs, and the dynasty seemed again destined to decay, as his sons were in the power of his enemies.
The son of a slave of the third Seljuk sultan, Zangi, governor of `Irak, made himself gradually (Mosul, Sinjar, Jezira, Harran) master of Mesopotamia (1128), capturing Edessa in 1144.
This transfer of the seat of government represented a step in the development of Turkish control over the central regions of Irak.Advertisement
From Bamian it passes over the central mountain chain to Kabul either by the well-known passes of Irak (marking the water-divide of the Koh-i-Baba) and of Unai (marking the summit of the Sanglakh, a branch of the Hindu Kush), or else, turning eastwards, it crosses into the Ghorband valley by the Shibar, a pass which is considerably lower than the Irak and is very seldom snowbound.
Meanwhile the war was also carried on against the Persians in Irak, unsuccessfully at first, until the tide turned at the battle of Kadisiya (Kadessia, Qadisiya) (end of 637).
In 639 the armies of Syria and Irak were face to face in Mesopotamia.
Every position of influence and emolument was assigned to them; they themselves boastingly called the important province of Irak the garden of Koreish.
The movement was most energetic in Irak and in Egypt.Advertisement
In the following year (656) the leaders of the rebels came once more from Egypt and Irak to Medina with a more numerous following; and the caliph again tried the plan of making promises which he did not intend to keep. But the rebels caught him in a flagrant breach of his word, 4 and now demanded his abdication, besieging him in his own house, where he was defended by a few faithful subjects.
But soon these two, along with Ayesha, the mother of the faithful, who had an old grudge against Ali, succeeded in making their escape to Irak, where at Basra they raised the standard of rebellion.
The population of Irak was already mixed up with Persian elements; it fluctuated greatly, and was largely composed of fresh immigrants.
In the great revolt of the Arabic tribes after the death of Mahomet, and in the invasion of Irak and Syria by the Moslems, the principal generals belonged to them.
The largest and strongest group of these were the Persians, who, before the conquest of Irak by the Moslems, were the ruling class of that country, so that Persian was the dominant language.Advertisement
When, ten weeks before the murder, some hundreds of men came to Medina from Egypt and Irak, pretending that they were on their pilgrimage to Mecca, but wanted to bring before the caliph their complaints against his vicegerents, nobody could have the slightest suspicion that the life of the caliph was in danger; indeed it was only during 1 Ma'ad is in the genealogical system the father of the Moelar and the Rab`ia tribes.
Immediately after the submission of Irak, he had denounced the existing treaty, and as early as 662 had sent his troops against the Alans and the Greeks.
The Arabic historians are still absorbed by the events in Irak and Khorasan.
For this purpose Irak had to furnish the largest contingent.
Ziyad governed Irak with the greatest vigour, but as long as discontent did not issue in action, he let men alone.Advertisement
On the news of Yazid's accession, the numerous partisans of the family of Ali in Kufa sent addresses to Hosain, inviting him to take refuge with them, and promising to have him proclaimed caliph in Irak.
He was soon acknowledged throughout Arabia, in Egypt and in Irak.
Ziyad set out with the purpose of subduing Mesopotamia and marching thence against Irak.
Abdalmalik could now give his whole attention to the projected expedition against Irak.
The people of Irak had never been accustomed to discipline, and no improvement had taken place during the troubles of the last years.Advertisement
This victory opened the gates of Kufa to Abdalmalik, and all Irak received him with acclamation.
But the storms in Irak and Mesopotamia had not yet altogether subsided.
When Abdalmalik, after a stay of forty days, returned from Irak to Syria, he left two Omayyad princes as his vicegerents in Kuf a and Basra.
Abdalmalik in alarm made Hajjaj governor of Irak with the most extensive powers.
Mohallab, reinforced by the army of Irak, at last succeeded, after a struggle of eighteen months, in subjugating the Kharijites and their caliph Qatara b.Advertisement
In the east the realm of Islam had been very much extended under the reign of Moawiya, when Ziyad was governor of Irak and Khorasan.
The soldiers of Irak, who did not love the governor, and disliked the prospect of a long and difficult war far from home, eagerly accepted the proposition of returning to Irak, and even proclaimed the dethronement of Abdalmalik, in favour of Ibn Ash`ath.
As soon as the expedition to Irak against Mus`ab had terminated, the holy war against the Greeks was renewed.
But the reputation of Omar attracted to the two holy cities a great number of the inhabitants of Irak, who had been deeply involved in the rebellion of Ibn Ash`ath.
These two prefects compelled the refugees to return to Irak, where many of them were severely treated and even put to death by Hajjaj.
Mohallab, the enemy of Majjaj, was made governor of Irak.
Abbas the names of the chiefs of the Shia in Irak and Khorasan, and disclosed his way of corresponding with them.
If one of these adopted Islam, Omar permitted him to leave his place, which had been strictly forbidden by I.Iajjaj in Irak and the eastern provinces, because by it many hands were withdrawn from the tilling of the ground, and those who remained were unable to pay the allotted amount.
Mohallab had returned to Irak, after the conquest of Jorjan, when Suleiman was still alive.
Maslama was rewarded with the governorship of Irak and Khorasan, but was soon replaced by Omar b.
Abi Moslim, who had been at the head of the financial department in Irak under IIajjaj, and had been made governor of Africa by Yazid II., issued orders that the villagers who, having adopted Islam, were freed from tribute according to the promise of Omar II., and had left their villages for the towns, should return to their domiciles and pay the same tribute as before their conversion.
His first care was to put an end to the tyrannical rule of the Qaisites (Modarites) in Irak and Khorasan by dismissing Omar b.
The successor of Khalid in Irak had not long been in office when Zaid b.
Hisham then separated Khorasan from Irak and chose as governor of the former Nasr b.
Omar, the governor of Irak, being a Qaisite, was not only confirmed in his office, but received with it the supreme command of Khorasan.
The governorship of Irak was confided to a Kalbite, Mansur b.
Merwan, who wanted to march against Irak, was obliged to return to Syria, where he put an end to the troubles.
Hobaira, were already on the march towards Irak.
Ibn Omar was rewarded with the government of eastern Irak, Khuzistan and Fars.
Hobaira directed his troops towards Irak.
In the month of Dhu`l-ga`da 131 (June 749) Nehawend (Nehavend) surrendered, and thereby the way to Irak lay open to Qahtaba.
In Bathaniya and the IIauran, in the north of Syria, in Mesopotamia and Irak Khorasan insurrections had to be put down with fire and sword.
In 754 Abu Moslim came to Irak to visit Abu`l-Abbas and to ask his permission to make the pilgrimage to Mecca.
As he could not or would not tell, he together with all his brothers and some other relatives were seized and transported to Irak, where Abdallah and his brother Ali were beheaded and the others imprisoned.
But, after his arrival at Masabadhan, a place in Jabal (Media, the later Persian Irak), he died suddenly, at the age of only forty-three.
Abu`l-Saraya's success continued, and several cities of Irak - Basra, Wasit and Madain - fell into his hands.
The troops of the Alids were everywhere driven back, and the whole of Irak fell again into the hands of the Abbasids.
In the time of the civil war the marshlands in Irak between Basra and Wasit had been occupied by a large population of Indians, called yat, or, according to the Arabic pronunciation, Zoti, who infested the roads and levied a heavy tribute from the ships ascending and descending the Tigris.
The power of Ya`qub then increased to such an extent that he was not content with the caliph's offer to recognize him as supreme in the provinces he had conquered, and military governor of Bagdad, but marched against Irak.
The vizier Ibn Moqla tried to maintain his authority at least in Irak and Mesopotamia, but without success.
In Mesopotamia and Irak several petty states arose on the ruins of the dominions of the Hamdanids and of the Abbasids.
He was real ruler not only of the district of Bagdad, but also of the rest of Irak, which he subdued by force.
His allies were the Arabic tribe of the Montafiq, who thenceforth were powerful in southern Irak.
Nasir was very ambitious; he had added Khuzistan to his dominions, and desired to become also master of Media (Jabal, or Persian Irak, as it was called in the time of the Seljuks).
In 1867 an outbreak of plague was reported in Mesopotamia (Irak), among the marshes of Hindieh bordering on the lower Euphrates.
But numerous cases of nonfatal mild bubonic disease (mild plague or pestis minor) occurred both before and after the epidemic, and according to Tholozan similar cases had been observed nearly every year from 1856 to 1865.8 The next severe epidemic of plague in Irak began in December 1873.
In 1877 plague also occurred at Shuster in south-west Persia, probably conveyed by pilgrims returning from Irak, and caused great mortality.
The fourth is a comparatively small area on the western frontier containing the basin of Lake Urmia, shut off from the rest of the inland drainage, and the fifth area takes in a part of Baluchistan, most of Kermgn, a part of Fars, all Yezd, Isfahan, Kashan, Kum, Irak, Khamseh, Kazvin, Teheran, Samnan, Damghan, Shahrud, Khorasan and the central desert regions.
The Kali and its smaller sizes, called Kaiicheh (in Europe, rugs), are chiefly made in Ferahan, Sultanabad (Irak), Khorasan, Kurdistan, Karadagh, Yezd, Kerman, and among the nomad tribes of southern Persia.
On his death Azerbaijan and Irak fell to his brother, Sultan Ahmad, while another brother Bayezid ruled for a few months in part of Kurdistan.
After him Abu Said, grandson of Miran Shah, and once governor of Fars, became a candidate for empire, and allied himself with the Uzbeg Tatars, seized Bokhara, entered Khorasan, and waged war upon the Turkoman tribe aforesaid, which, since the invasion of Azerbaijan, had, under Jahan Shah, overrun Irak, Fars and Kermgn, and pillaged Herat.
The south-westerly mound, the Birs proper, is probably the most conspicuous and striking ruin in all Irak.
It rises in the recesses of the Koh-i-Baba to the west of Kabul, its infant stream parting the Unai pass from the Irak, the two chief passes on the well-known road from Kabul to Bamian.
Its technical name is the black corner, the others being named the Yemen (southwest), Syrian (north-west), and Irak (north-east) corners, from the lands to which they approximately point.
Thus the space of ten spans between the black stone and the door, which is on the east side, between the black and Irak corners, and a man's height from the ground, is called the Multazam, and here prayer should be offered after the tawaf with outstretched arms and breast pressed against the house.
Modern writers describe the place as windowless, but Ibn Jubair mentions five windows of rich stained glass from Irak.
A chest in the corner to the left of one entering contained Korans, and at the Irak corner a space was cut off enclosing the stair that leads to the roof.
At such settlements the river is lined with gardens and plantations of palms. The greater part of the region, however, even along the river shores, is inhabited only by roaming Bedouin or halfsavage Madan Arabs (see Irak).
Its northern or land boundary is more difficult to define; most authorities, however, agree in taking it from El Arish on the Mediterranean, along the southern border of Palestine, between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Akaba, then bending northwards along the Syrian border nearly to Tadmur, thence eastwards to the edge of the Euphrates valley near Anah, and thence south-east to the mouth of the Shat el Arab at the head of the Persian Gulf, - the boundary so defined includes the northern desert, which belongs geographically to Arabia rather than to Syria; while on the same grounds lower Mesopotamia and Irak, although occupied by an Arab population, are excluded.
The struggle of Ibn Ash`ath was primarily a contest for hegemony between Irak and Syria.
They considered it further as an injustice that the Syrian soldiers received higher pay than those of Irak.
With the dynasty of the Omayyads the hegemony passes finally from Syria to Irak.